Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein: A fetuin subtype that is synthesized by HEPATOCYTES and secreted into the circulation. It plays a major role in preventing CALCIUM precipitation in the BLOOD.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Dental Pulp CalcificationCalcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Monckeberg Medial Calcific Sclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of muscular ARTERIES due to calcification of the TUNICA MEDIA, the concentric layers of helically arranged SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Hyperphosphatemia: A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calciphylaxis: Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III: A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.TetramisolePolyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Haptophyta: A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)ElastinPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Phosphate Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Mice, Inbred C57BLBone Diseases, Endocrine: Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)PolyaminesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Calcifying Nanoparticles: Protein-mineral complexes that comprise substrates needed for the normal calcium-carbonate-phosphate homeostasis. Nanobacteria was the prior name for the particles which were originally thought to be microorganisms.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.GlucuronidaseCalcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Mediterranean SeaThiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Mass Chest X-Ray: X-ray screening of large groups of persons for diseases of the lung and heart by means of radiography of the chest.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.Dihydrotachysterol: A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.Calcium Pyrophosphate: An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Hypophosphatemia: A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.

Retinoid signaling is required for chondrocyte maturation and endochondral bone formation during limb skeletogenesis. (1/1311)

Retinoids have long been known to influence skeletogenesis but the specific roles played by these effectors and their nuclear receptors remain unclear. Thus, it is not known whether endogenous retinoids are present in developing skeletal elements, whether expression of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) genes alpha, beta, and gamma changes during chondrocyte maturation, or how interference with retinoid signaling affects skeletogenesis. We found that immature chondrocytes present in stage 27 (Day 5.5) chick embryo humerus exhibited low and diffuse expression of RARalpha and gamma, while RARbeta expression was strong in perichondrium. Emergence of hypertrophic chondrocytes in Day 8-10 embryo limbs was accompanied by a marked and selective up-regulation of RARgamma gene expression. The RARgamma-rich type X collagen-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes lay below metaphyseal prehypertrophic chondrocytes expressing Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and were followed by mineralizing chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification. Bioassays revealed that cartilaginous elements in Day 5.5, 8.5, and 10 chick embryo limbs all contained endogenous retinoids; strikingly, the perichondrial tissues surrounding the cartilages contained very large amounts of retinoids. Implantation of beads filled with retinoid antagonist Ro 41-5253 or AGN 193109 near the humeral anlagens in stage 21 (Day 3.5) or stage 27 chick embryos severely affected humerus development. In comparison to their normal counterparts, antagonist-treated humeri in Day 8.5-10 chick embryos were significantly shorter and abnormally bent; their diaphyseal chondrocytes had remained prehypertrophic Ihh-expressing cells, did not express RARgamma, and were not undergoing endochondral ossification. Interestingly, formation of an intramembranous bony collar around the diaphysis was not affected by antagonist treatment. Using chondrocyte cultures, we found that the antagonists effectively interfered with the ability of all-trans-retinoic acid to induce terminal cell maturation. The results provide clear evidence that retinoid-dependent and RAR-mediated mechanisms are required for completion of the chondrocyte maturation process and endochondral ossification in the developing limb. These mechanisms may be positively influenced by cooperative interactions between the chondrocytes and their retinoid-rich perichondrial tissues.  (+info)

Expression of tissue transglutaminase in the developing chicken limb is associated both with apoptosis and endochondral ossification. (2/1311)

The cross-linking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG) participates in a variety of cellular functions. To assess its contribution to extracellular and intracellular processes during development we cloned the cDNA for chicken heart tissue transglutaminase and localized the sites of transglutaminase expression by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the chicken red blood cell transglutaminase cDNA, the heart cDNA encodes a transglutaminase with an amino-terminal truncation. The truncated enzyme retains full catalytic activity and is GTP-inhibitable. Tissue transglutaminase expression was observed in developmentally transient structures in embryonic chicken limb at day 7.5 of incubation suggesting that its expression is dynamically regulated during limb morphogenesis. The major morphogenetic events of the limb associated with transglutaminase expression were cartilage maturation during skeletal development, interdigital apoptosis, and differentiation of skeletal muscle. Maturation of the cartilage during endochondral ossification was characterized by intra- and extracellular transglutaminase accumulation in the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Only intracellular enzyme could be detected in mesenchymal cells of the prospective joints, in apoptotic cells of the interdigital web, and in skeletal muscle myoblasts. An apparently constitutive expression of tissue transglutaminase was found in vascular endothelial cells corresponding to the adult expression pattern. The dynamic pattern of transglutaminase expression during morphogenesis suggests that tissue remodeling is a major trigger for transglutaminase induction.  (+info)

Assessment of bone mineral density in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional long-term followup study. (3/1311)

OBJECTIVE: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD. METHODS: Sixty-five white patients (mean age 32.2 years) with a history of JCA and 65 age-, sex-, height-, and weight-matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. Densitometry of the left hip and the lumbar spine was performed, and osteocalcin (bone formation marker) and crosslinks (bone resorption marker) were measured. In addition, bone-related clinical parameters were assessed in the JCA group. RESULTS: BMD in the hip and lumbar spine was significantly lower in the JCA group than in the controls. Levels of osteocalcin and crosslinks were significantly increased in the JCA group. According to WHO definitions, significantly more subjects in the JCA group had "osteopenia" and "osteoporosis" than would be expected in a normal population sample. Active disease at the time of the study (1996-1997), baseline erosions evaluated in 1979, Steinbrocker functional class in 1996-1997, polyarticular course of JCA, and history of systemic steroid treatment for more than 1 year were significantly associated with reduced BMD. In linear regression analysis including both the JCA and control groups, presence of JCA proved to be the factor most strongly associated with reduced BMD, explaining approximately 20% of its variation. CONCLUSION: Reduced BMD and evidence of increased bone turnover suggest that JCA patients may be at risk of developing premature osteoporosis and associated fractures later in life. The data are consistent with the concept that BMD in JCA is determined by many factors.  (+info)

Bone histology in patients with nephrotic syndrome and normal renal function. (4/1311)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic bone disease in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) at normal level of renal function remains uncertain. METHODS: To address this issue, we studied 30 patients (20 men and 10 women, mean age 27.3 +/- 11.7 years) with NS who had normal renal function (mean creatinine clearance 103 +/- 4 ml/min). We evaluated their serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), vitamin D metabolites, urinary calcium, and skeletal survey. The extent of bone mineralization was analyzed by histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsy specimens in all patients. The findings on bone histology were correlated with biochemical parameters. RESULTS: The mean duration of NS was 35.5 +/- 26.9 months, with a protein excretion of 7.3 +/- 3.2 g/24 hr and a serum albumin of 2.2 +/- 0.8 g/dl. Total serum calcium was 7.8 +/- 0.8 mg/dl, whereas ionized calcium was 5.7 +/- 0.7 mg/dl, phosphorus 3.2 +/- 1.2 mg/dl, and alkaline phosphatase 149 +/- 48.6 U/liter. Serum iPTH levels were normal in all except two patients. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level was 3.9 +/- 1.2 ng/ml (normal 15 to 30 ng/ml), whereas 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was 24 +/- 4.7 pg/ml (normal 16 to 65). There was an inverse correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D and the magnitude of proteinuria (r = -0.42, P < 0.05). The mean 24-hour urinary calcium excretion was 82 +/- 21 mg/day. The skeletal survey was normal in all patients. Bone histology was normal in 33.3% of the patients, whereas 56.7% had isolated osteomalacia (OSM), and 10% had an increased bone resorption in association with defective mineralization. The severity of OSM measured by mineralization lag time correlated linearly with the duration (r = 0.94, P < 0.0001) and the amount (r = 0.97, P < 0.0001) of proteinuria. All patients with NS for more than three years had histological changes. Patients with OSM had lower 25(OH)D and serum albumin as compared with those with normal histology (P < 0.005). Bone mineralization had no significant correlation with serum iPTH, divalent ions, or vitamin D levels. CONCLUSIONS: OSM is a frequent finding in adult patients with NS, even at a normal level of renal function. Its severity correlates with the amount and duration of proteinuria.  (+info)

Evidence for the promotion of bone mineralization by 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the rat unrelated to the correction of deficiencies in serum calcium and phosphorus. (5/1311)

Concurrent administration of 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1alpha,25-(OH)2-CC] to intact and thyroparathyroidectomized rats treated with ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) prevented or reversed the EHDP-induced inhibition of bone mineralization as measured by changes in epiphyseal plate width and ash content of bone. An analog, 1alpha-droxycholecalciferol, was also effective. Recovery of bone after EHDP treatment was also significantly improved by administration of 1alpha,25-(OH)2-CC as evidenced by enhanced uptake of 45Ca by epiphyseal plates and decreased plate widths. Cholecalciferol (CC), ergocalciferol, dihydrotachysterol2, 5,6-trans-CC, 25-OH-CC, 5,6-Trans-25-OH-CC, and 1alpha24R,25-(OH)3-CC also blocked EHDP-induced epiphyseal plate widening, but required high, pharmacological dose levels. 24R,25- (OH)2-CC was inactive at doses up to 10 microgram/day. Since EHDP-treated rats are not deficient in calcium or phosphate, these data suggest that 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol promoted bone mineralization independently of effects upon the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate.  (+info)

Hard fallow deer antler: a living bone till antler casting? (6/1311)

Deer antlers are the only mammalian bone structures which regenerate completely every year. Once developed, antlers are cleaned of the velvet-like skin. Presently it is believed that due to velvet shedding the blood supply is interrupted in the solidifying antler bone. Histological examinations were made on different parts of fallow deer antlers investigated from the time of velvet shedding till the antler casting. The present study on hard (polished) antlers revealed living bone with regions presenting living osteocytes, active osteoblasts, osteoid seams and even early stages of trabecular microcallus formation, thus indicating to a continuous bone remodeling. A well developed vascular system was found despite the presence of hard antler bone. The pedicle bone exhibits a rich supply of capillaries and vessels connected to the spongy core of the main branch and the compact bone as well. There is evidence that hard fallow deer antlers possess a functioning vascular system that "keeps the antler moist" resulting in a high impact resistance when fights are most frequent. As late as 3 weeks prior to antler casting a large number of living cells were discovered within the antler core. As we have no doubt that parts of the polished fallow deer antler represent a living bone, we have concluded that a sufficient blood supply of the antler core is maintained almost till the time of antler casting by vessels passing through the antler base.  (+info)

Ectopic Msx2 overexpression inhibits and Msx2 antisense stimulates calvarial osteoblast differentiation. (7/1311)

Msx2 is believed to play a role in regulating bone development, particularly in sutures of cranial bone. In this study we investigated the effects of retroviral-mediated overexpression of Msx2 mRNA, in both sense and antisense orientations, on primary cultured chick calvarial osteoblasts. Unregulated overexpression of sense mRNA produced high levels of Msx2 protein throughout the culture period, preventing the expected fall as the cells differentiate. The continued high expression of Msx2 prevented osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, expression of antisense Msx2 RNA decreased proliferation and accelerated differentiation. In other studies, we showed that the Msx2 promoter was widely expressed during the proliferative phase of mouse calvarial osteoblast cultures but was preferentially downregulated in osteoblastic nodules. These results support a model in which Msx2 prevents differentiation and stimulates proliferation of cells at the extreme ends of the osteogenic fronts of the calvariae, facilitating expansion of the skull and closure of the suture.  (+info)

Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the mechanism of calcification of Meckel's cartilage during mandible development in rodents. (8/1311)

It is widely accepted that Meckel's cartilage in mammals is uncalcified hyaline cartilage that is resorbed and is not involved in bone formation of the mandible. We examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of matrix calcification in Meckel's cartilage, using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods, electron microscopy and an electron probe microanalyser. The intramandibular portion of Meckel's cartilage could be divided schematically into anterior and posterior portions with respect to the site of initiation of ossification beneath the mental foramen. Calcification of the matrix occurred in areas in which alkaline phosphatase activity could be detected by light and electron microscopy and by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of type X collagen was restricted to the hypertrophic cells of intramandibular Meckel's cartilage, and staining with alizarin red and von Kossa stain revealed that calcification progressed in both posterior and anterior directions from the primary centre of ossification. After the active cellular resorption of calcified cartilage matrix, new osseous islands were formed by trabecular bone that intruded from the perichondrial bone collar. Evidence of such formation of bone was supported by results of double immunofluorescence staining specific for type I and type II collagens, in addition to results of immunostaining for osteopontin. Calcification of the posterior portion resembled that in the anterior portion of intramandibular Meckel's cartilage, and our findings indicate that the posterior portion also contributes to the bone formation of the mandible by an endochondral-type mechanism of calcification.  (+info)

F. Cundy, J. A. Kanis, G. Heynen, M. Earnshaw, T. L. Clemens, J. L. H. ORiordan, A. L. Merritt, J. E. Compston; Lack of Direct Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin D3 on Mineralization of Bone and Secretion of Parathyroid Hormone. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 1980; 59 (3): 15P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs059015P. Download citation file:. ...
The importance of Wnt pathway signaling in development of bone has been well established. Here we investigated the role of a known Wnt target, ENC1 (ectodermal-neural cortex 1; NRP/B), in osteoblast differentiation. Enc1 expression was detected in mouse osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and osteocytes by in situ hybridization, and osteoblastic expression was verified in differentiating primary cultures and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells, with 57 kDa and 67 kDa ENC1 protein isoforms detected throughout differentiation. Induced knockdown of both ENC1 isoforms reduced alkaline phosphatase staining and virtually abolished MC3T3-E1 mineralization. At culture confluence, Alpl (alkaline phosphatase liver/bone/kidney) expression was markedly reduced compared with control cells, and there was significant and coordinated alteration of other genes involved in cellular phosphate biochemistry. In contrast, with 67 kDa-selective knockdown mineralized nodule formation was enhanced and there was a two-fold increase in Alpl
Principal Investigator:SASAGAWA Ichiro, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
Acidification of slurry through dietary manipulation of urinary pH is a means of mitigating nitrogen emission from pig production, but long-term effects of diet acidification on bone mineralization and mineral balance is less investigated. The objective was therefore to study the long-term effects of feeding benzoic acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the mineral balance and microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Four diets containing the combinations of 0 or 10 g/kg BA and 0 or 20 g/kg CaCl2 were fed to 24 pigs in a factorial design. For the diets without CaCl2, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was added to provide equimolar levels of Ca. The pigs were fed the diets from 36 kg until slaughter at 113 kg BW, and they were housed in balance cages for 12 d from 60 to 66 kg BW. Supplementation of BA and/or CaCl2 had only minor effect on accumulation of digesta organic acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate) throughout the gastrointestinal tract. A reduction (P , 0.01) in ...
Background: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the drugs of choice for asthma. Corticosteroids can have many detrimental effects on bone mineralization and growth, despite of inhaled administration.. Aims and objectives: To evaluate the association between the long-term use of ICS in childhood and bone mineral density (BMD) in teenagers.. Methods: Ninety-one children hospitalized for wheezing at age ,24 months were prospectively followed until 12.2 (median) years of age. Data on ICS use were collected by interviewing the parents, supplemented by data from patient records. Cumulative doses, the duration of ICS use and systemic steroid doses were calculated. At the last check-up, BMD (BMDareal, g/cm2) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 89 children, and apparent volumetric BMDs (aBMDvol, g/cm3) were calculated for the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Weight, height and pubertal stage were recorded.. Results: The regular use of ICS at age ,6 years was associated with a lower ...
Investigating the effect of increasing concentrations of β-glycerophosphate on 4T1 cell mineralization.Representative images were captured at 100× magnificati
Published in: Premières Journées JCSEE1 - Chimie, soleil, énergie et environnement, Saint-Avold, France, 3-4 févr. 2000, p. 10 ...
Read "Comparison on mineralization of 2,4,6-tribromophenol by UV-based advanced oxidation processes: UV/Na2S2O8 and UV/H2O2, Research on Chemical Intermediates" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Infants will be randomly assigned to one of 3 study groups. Group 1 - physical activity once a day. Group 2 - physical activity twice a day and group 3 - control.. The physical activity program is based on the Moyer-Mileur et al protocol (1). Briefly, this protocol involves extension and flexion range-of-motion exercise against passive resistance of both the upper and lower extremities. Both extension and flexion were performed five times at the wrist, elbow, shoulder, ankle, knee, and hip joints (about 10 minutes for each session). Infant in group 1 have the physical activity intervention once a day, 5 days a week. Infant in group 2 will have the same physical activity intervention twice a day, five times a week. Infant in group 3, the control group will have a similar time (10 minutes) of daily interactive periods of holding and stroking without range-of-motion activity.. The physical activity will be done by the same person (the NICU physiotherapist) Growth parameters, and bone strength, will ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in
Objective: To evaluate the effects of osteoformin on mineralisation and quality of the new bone formation during rapid distraction osteogenesis. ...
In the Sahel region in Africa, and in most arid regions, groundwater is the crucial source for water supply since surface water is scarce. This study aimed to understand a complex geochemical mechanism controlling the mineralization process in the Taoudeni Basin. A thousand randomly distributed groundwater samples acquired from different aquifers were used for this research. The results show that the majority of the samples observed are of the Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3− and Na+-HCO3− types depending on the different aquifers. Mg2+ and Ca2+ may react with HCO3− precipitating as calcite and dolomite. The Na+-HCO3− groundwater type is mainly derived from the ion exchange process. This type indicates a paleo-marine depositional environment or that it passes through paleo-marine channels. Calcium of the standard Ca2+-HCO3− groundwater type exchanges with the sodium. Groundwater is characterized by the water-rock interactions that indicate the chemical alteration of the rock-forming
Inhibition of PPAR gamma 2 by BADGE and Vitamin D in Male Mice Increases Osteoblastogenesis and Inhibits Bone Matrix Mineralization Leading to Osteomalacia. Conference Proceedings ...
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Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Oct;55(10):1714-25. Epub 2016 Jan 20. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kev410 PMID: 26790456 [PubMed - in process]. Traditional BTMs have been used for years to help with fracture risk prediction and in particular for treatment monitoring. Clinical use of the new biochemical markers has not been established so far. Their relationship with fracture risk is still under investigation, and their use as treatment monitoring tools needs to be studied. In fact, their role is probably dependent on a new approach based on our understanding of bone physiology. These new markers will be helpful for exploring the physiological and pathological relations between the bone and other organs, and to monitor joint diseases, chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and cardiovascular disease. mechanisms in the bone or other organs.. ...
PURPOSE: To test our hypothesis that differences in urinary calcium excretion among blacks and whites may be secondary to ethnic variations in acid (H(+)) metabolism and to prove that increases in titratable acid excretion would be found among indivi
Introduction The difficulty in re-growing and mineralizing new bone after severe fracture can result in loss of ambulation or limb. Here we describe the sequential roles of FGF-2 in inducing gene expression, cell growth and BMP-2 in gene expression and mineralization of bone. Materials and methods The regulation of gene expression was determined using real-time RTPCR (qRTPCR) and cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation or fluorescent analysis of DNA content in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. Photomicroscopy was used to identify newly mineralized tissue and fluorescence was used to quantify mineralization. Results Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) had the greatest ability to induce proliferation after 24 hours of treatment when compared to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We found that FGF-2 caused the most significant induction of ...
In osteoporosis, the bone displays normal mineralization. In contrast, osteomalacia is characterized by defective mineralization. Histological examination reveals an increase in the amount of unmineralized bone and disorganized trabecular architecture. Of note, mineralization can only be assessed using special techniques not requiring decalcification of tissue specimens prior to staining ...
Alignment, Bone Mineralization, Calcifications, Distribution Of Joints, Erosions, Soft Tissue And Nails [x-ray Features In Arthritis ...
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Several denialists have sort to deliberately confuse the readership over the important evidence gathered by Death et al. (2009) on slowing coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Given the recent resurgence in this misinformation, I thought it would be a good idea to post Dr Glenn Death, Dr Janice M. Lough and Dr Katharina E. Fabriciuss recent reply to Dr Peter Ridds confused and misleading claims. The maintenance of coral calcification rates is critical for the future of coral reefs and it is, therefore, important to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the rates of coral calcification. Our recent report showed that substantial declines in coral calcification have occurred on the Great Barrier Reef in the last 20 years (Death et al., 2009), and similar reports are now emerging from other parts of the world (Tanzil et al., 2009). Ridd et al. here suggest that (1) ontogenetic effects, and (2) the last data points at the end of the recent cores, largely explain the ~14% ...
Several denialists have sort to deliberately confuse the readership over the important evidence gathered by Death et al. (2009) on slowing coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Given the recent resurgence in this misinformation, I thought it would be a good idea to post Dr Glenn Death, Dr Janice M. Lough and Dr Katharina E. Fabriciuss recent reply to Dr Peter Ridds confused and misleading claims. The maintenance of coral calcification rates is critical for the future of coral reefs and it is, therefore, important to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the rates of coral calcification. Our recent report showed that substantial declines in coral calcification have occurred on the Great Barrier Reef in the last 20 years (Death et al., 2009), and similar reports are now emerging from other parts of the world (Tanzil et al., 2009). Ridd et al. here suggest that (1) ontogenetic effects, and (2) the last data points at the end of the recent cores, largely explain the ~14% ...
Bone, tooth enamel, and dentin accumulate Sr 2+ , a natural trace element in the human body. Sr 2+ comes from dietary and environmental sources and is thought to play a key role in osteoporosis treatments. However, the underlying impacts of Sr 2+ on bone mineralization remain unclear and the use of synthetic apatites (which are structurally different from bone mineral) and non-physiological conditions have led to contradictory results. Here, we report on the formation of a new Sr 2+-rich and stable amorphous calcium phosphate phase, Sr(ACP). Relying on a bioinspired pathway, a series of Sr 2+ substituted hydroxya-patite (HA) that combines the major bone mineral features is depicted as model to investigate how this phase forms and Sr 2+ affects bone. In addition, by means of a comprehensive investigation the biominer-alization pathway of Sr 2+ bearing HA is described showing that not more than 10 at% of Sr 2+ , i.e. a physiological limit incorporated in bone, can be incorporated into HA without phase
This study will investigated Asfotase Alfa in patients with hypophosphatasia who completed the investigator-initiated clinical study (HPPJEAP-01) protocol for
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephanie Graser, Birgit Mentrup, Doris Schneider, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Franz Jakob, Christine Hofmann].
Epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown both parallel and reciprocal changes in arterial versus skeletal mineralization. Whereas inflammatory lipids and cytokines appear to promote vascular calcification but inhibit bone mineralization,57,123 some osteoanabolic agents, such as PTH and BMP-7, promote mineralization in the skeleton but suppress it in arteries.63,103,124. The clinical association of aortic calcification with osteoporosis, often age independent, suggests a link between vascular and bone metabolism.125-127 Three causality vectors may apply: (1) vascular calcification promoting bone loss, (2) bone loss promoting vascular calcification, or (3) a common etiology. The first possibility is largely unexplored, although bone loss may be promoted by stenoses of bone supply arteries or by systemic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. The second possibility has more supportive evidence. Bone matrix is rich in regulatory factors that are also active in the vasculature, such ...
The small GTP-binding protein Rad (RRAD, Ras associated with diabetes) is the founding member of the RGK (Rad, Rem, Rem2, and Gem/Kir) family that regulates cardiac voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel function. However, its cellular and physiological functions outside of the heart remain to be elucidated. Here we report that Rad GTPase function is required for normal bone homeostasis in mice, as Rad deletion results in significantly lower bone mass and higher bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) levels. Dynamic histomorphometry in vivo and primary calvarial osteoblast assays in vitro demonstrate that bone formation and osteoblast mineralization rates are depressed, while in vitro osteoclast differentiation is increased, in the absence of Rad ...
Author(s): Ros, Gerard H.; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Hoffland, Ellis | Abstract: Strong relationships between Extractable Organic N (EON) and N mineralization suggest that they can be used to assess the N mineralization potential of soils. EON is often used to proxy Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), which is assumed to play an intermediate role in N mineralization. We tested whether EON relates to N mineralization and how this relation is affected by the extraction methodology used. We synthesized results from 171 papers on correlation coefficients between EON and N mineralization using meta-analysis. EON was positively related to N mineralization, and its size explained 14-65% of the variation in N mineralization. Best results were obtained with hot CaCl2 and acid KMnO4 as extractants. EON extracted with alkali solutions explained less of the variation in N mineralization than the other soil tests. There was no direct relationship between the intensity of extraction and the performance of EON as
The representation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) was analyzed during progressive development of the bone cell phenotype in cultures of normal diploid rat calvarial osteoblasts. Three developmental stages were examined: (a) proliferation; (b) monolayer confluency; and (c) mineralization of the bone extracellular matrix. We demonstrate that the presence of cyclins and cdks is not restricted to the proliferation period. Consistent with their role in cell cycle progression, cdc2 and cdk2 decrease postproliferatively. However, cdk4 and cyclins A, B, and D1 persist in confluent cells. Cyclin E is significantly up-regulated during the extracellular matrix mineralization developmental period. Examination of the cytoplasmic levels of these cell cycle regulatory proteins indicates a marked increase in cyclin B in the late differentiation stage. The elevation of nuclear cyclin E and cytoplasmic cyclin B is not observed in osteoblasts maintained under culture conditions that do not support
2 levels may also play a role.[32]. Biomineralization evolved multiple times, independently,[35] and most animal lineages first expressed biomineralized components in the Cambrian period.[36] Many of the same processes are used in unrelated lineages, which suggests that biomineralization machinery was assembled from pre-existing "off-the-shelf" components already used for other purposes in the organism.[37] Although the biomachinery facilitating biomineralization is complex - involving signalling transmitters, inhibitors, and transcription factors - many elements of this toolkit are shared between phyla as diverse as corals, molluscs, and vertebrates.[38] The shared components tend to perform quite fundamental tasks, such as designating that cells will be used to create the minerals, whereas genes controlling more finely tuned aspects that occur later in the biomineralization process - such as the precise alignment and structure of the crystals produced - tend to be uniquely evolved in ...
2 levels may also play a role.[32] Biomineralization evolved multiple times, independently,[35] and most animal lineages first expressed biomineralized components in the Cambrian period.[36] Many of the same processes are used in unrelated lineages, which suggests that biomineralization machinery was assembled from pre-existing "off-the-shelf" components already used for other purposes in the organism.[37] Although the biomachinery facilitating biomineralization is complex - involving signalling transmitters, inhibitors, and transcription factors - many elements of this toolkit are shared between phyla as diverse as corals, molluscs, and vertebrates.[38] The shared components tend to perform quite fundamental tasks, such as designating that cells will be used to create the minerals, whereas genes controlling more finely tuned aspects that occur later in the biomineralization process - such as the precise alignment and structure of the crystals produced - tend to be uniquely evolved in ...
The degree of mineralization of bone matrix is an important factor in determining the mechanical competence of bone. The remodeling and modeling activities of bone cells together with the time course of mineralization of newly formed bone matrix generate a characteristic bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). In this study we investigated the biological variance of the BMDD at the micrometer level, applying a quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) method. We used the mean calcium concentration (CaMean), the most frequent calcium concentration (CaPeak), and full width at half maximum (CaWidth) to characterize the BMDD. In none of the BMDD parameters were statistically significant differences found due to ethnicity (15 African-American vs. 27 Caucasian premenopausal women), skeletal site variance (20 ilium, 24 vertebral body, 13 patella, 13 femoral neck, and 13 femoral head), age (25 to 95 years), or gender. Additionally, the interindividual variance of CaMean and CaPeak, ...
We have shown that performance of highly repetitive tasks is associated with increased serum levels of IL-1alpha and increased activated macrophages in musculoskeletal tissues. Our purpose was to examine expression patterns of genes related to bone mineralization and inflammation in flexor forelimb muscles from young adult and aged (16 months) rats performing a repetitive reaching and grasping tas
1 uM dexamethasone, 10 mM B glycerolphosphate and 50 uM ascorbic new post acid for 14 days. The in duction medium was changed every 3 days, and the bone matrix mineralization was evaluated by Alizarin red S staining. The ARS was ex tracted by adding 10% cetylpyridinium chloride in 8 mM Na2HPO4 and 1. 5 mM KH2PO4 and the absorbance was mea sured by SpectraMax 190 ELISA plate reader at 550 nm. Cell proliferation assay To evaluate the cell proliferation, MTT 2,5 diphenyl 2H tetrazoliumbromide assay was performed as described previously. Briefly, cells were seeded at the density of 1. 5 103 cells/well in 96 well plate and cultured without or with various concentrations of OGT2115. Cells were analyzed every two days by adding Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 10 uL of the MTT to each well and the cells were continued to culture for 4 hr.. After the incubation, the supernatant was discarded and 100 uL of dimethyl sulfoxide was added to each well to dissolve the formazan. The number of cells was ...
Looking for arterial mineralization? Find out information about arterial mineralization. 1. of, relating to, or affecting an artery or arteries 2. denoting or relating to the usually bright red reoxygenated blood returning from the lungs or... Explanation of arterial mineralization
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Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (AP), revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) and intestinal AP (IAP). This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimers disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant
Initially recognized by Rathbun in 1948, hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP is a phosphomonoesterase of 507 residues and is anchored at its carboxyl terminus to the plasma membrane by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan ...
Initially recognized by Rathbun in 1948, hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP is a phosphomonoesterase of 507 residues and is anchored at its carboxyl terminus to the plasma membrane by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan ...
... _mineral formation and identifi ion process - Grinding chinagrindingmill mineral formation and identifi ion processMineral Identifiion Flow Chart The Science Queen Mineral Identifiion Flow C
Please email Dr. You at [email protected] if youd like to meet the speaker.. Natural process of mineral formation and dissolution at near-surface conditions are subject to various effects ranging from that of aqueous speciation to biological participation. As such complications arise for laboratory investigations of mineralization and weathering when thermodynamicd is considered the only driving force. Two case studies, one is solution chemistry effect on crystallization and the other microbially mediated dissolution, will be discussed in this presentation to highlight the complexity.. For mineralization, the classical approach states that the net growth rate of mono-molecular layers (ie, step velocity) is determined by the difference between fluxes of species attaching to and detaching from kinks along step edges. Such treatment leads to the development of the widely accepted understanding that step velocity depends solely on solution supersaturation. Yet, literature data from numerous cases argued ...
Wonders of the World specializes in collectible minerals and crystals from all over the world with everything from Aquamarine to Zincite. ...
Download biomineralization medical aspects of solubility.pdf. Free Download with High quality files from our biggest resource. Download PDF, MP3, software, video and more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mineralization of nitrogen and sulphur from sheep faeces. AU - Barrow, N.J.. PY - 1961. Y1 - 1961. M3 - Article. VL - 12. SP - 644. EP - 650. JO - Crop & Pasture Science. JF - Crop & Pasture Science. SN - 1836-0947. ER - ...
美國科學家研究西印度石鼈(Acanthopleura granulata(的貝殼成分 結構 和功能3尤其是眼睛的光學系統3得知眼睛與貝殼均由生物礦化(biomineralization(的碳酸鈣(CaCO3(構成3因眼睛所含晶粒較大且以特定方式排列3不僅堅硬3還可監測周圍環境3看清楚超過2公尺距離的20公分魚或鳥等天敵3以硬殼和緊密吸貼岩石方式抵抗》研究團隊根據此結果測試及模擬其視覺解析度 辨識影像 和機械性能3並創建模型3未來將依據西印度石鼈貝殼表面三種構造模型3開發新型仿生智能可視保護硬膜3這是一種感光清晰和具強韌保護功能的新材料3有不怕水 不怕撞 不怕摔特性3可根據晶形結構 晶粒尺寸 排列規則性和方向性變化改變為眼睛或鎧甲功能3除能製造眼鏡 眼罩 手機 或安全帽等需要視野清楚的商業產品外3還可研發防彈頭盔 護盾 防爆盾牌 ...
Physical Properties of Element Solids, their Compounds and Oxides, and mineral phases at extreme conditions of Pressure and Temprature : an Experimental and theoritical ...
Understanding how rising seawater pCO2 and temperatures impact coral aragonite accretion is essential for predicting the future of reef ecosystems. Here we report 2 long term (10-11 month) studies assessing the effects of temperature (25 and 28°C) and both high and low seawater pCO2 (180-750 μatm) on the calcification, photosynthesis and respiration of individual massive Porites spp. genotypes. Calcification rates were highly variable between genotypes but high seawater pCO2 reduced calcification significantly in 4 of 7 genotypes cultured at 25°C but in only 1 of 4 genotypes cultured at 28°C. Increasing seawater temperature enhanced calcification in almost all corals but the magnitude of this effect was seawater pCO2 dependent. The 3°C temperature increase enhanced calcification rate on average by 3% at 180 μatm, by 35% at 260 μatm and by ,300% at 750 μatm. The rate increase at high seawater pCO2 exceeds that observed in inorganic aragonites. Responses of gross/net photosynthesis and ...
The geminal bisphosphonates are a new class of drugs characterised by a P-C-P bond. Consequently, they are analogues of pyrophosphate, but are resistant to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. The bisphosphonates bind strongly to hydroxyapatite crystals and inhibit their formation and dissolution. This physicochemical effect leads in vivo to the prevention of soft tissue calcification and, in some instances, inhibition of normal calcification. The main effect is to inhibit bone resorption, but in contrast to the effect on mineralisation, the mechanism involved is cellular. These various effects vary greatly according to the structure of the individual bisphosphonate. The half-life of circulating bisphosphonates is very brief, in the order of minutes to hours. 20% to 50% of a given dose is taken up by the skeleton, the rest being excreted in the urine. The half-life in bone is far longer and depends upon the turnover rate of the skeleton itself. Bisphosphonates are very well tolerated; the ...
Bone has emerged as an important endocrine regulator that can mediate the interplay between bone remodelling and energy metabolism. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (NPP1) is a factor that regulates bone mineralisation and is elevated in individuals with insulin resistance, a condition associated with type 2 and obesity-related diabetes. Thus, this factor might play a role in the development of metabolic disease. Vicky MacRae and colleagues sought to investigate this by using Enpp−/− mice, which lack NPP1 and exhibit impaired bone metabolism. These mice showed a pronounced resistance to obesity and to the development of insulin resistance in response to chronic high-fat feeding. Moreover, Enpp1−/− mice exhibited increased levels of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin, which increases β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion, thereby linking bone remodelling to metabolic homeostasis. These results support the involvement of NPP1 in the development of obesity and type ...
Looking for online definition of subendocardial mineralization in the Medical Dictionary? subendocardial mineralization explanation free. What is subendocardial mineralization? Meaning of subendocardial mineralization medical term. What does subendocardial mineralization mean?
Biomineralization is the study of the manner in which organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, produce and use mineralized hard tissues. Biomineralization research integrates concepts and methods from many other fields, including mineralogy, crystallography, cell biology, ion transport in biology and structural biology. The insights obtained from biomineralization research often have direct ramifications for fields as diverse as materials science, archaeology, chemical and biological oceanography, dentistry, paleontology and orthopaedics. This diversity and "cross-culture" nature of the field of biomineralization opens up fascinating research opportunities.. My research in the field of biomineralization is in close collaboration with Prof Lia Addadi. Our general approach is to exploit the diversity of natural biomineralization processes in order to address specific questions related to mechanisms of mineral formation. These observations are then often further tested and elaborated upon using in ...
3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 10737975. Khandwala HM, Mumm S, Whyte MP (2007). "Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity and pathologic fracture: case report and brief review of hypophosphatasia diagnosed in adulthood". Endocrine Practice. 12 (6): 676-81. doi:10.4158/ep.12.6.676. PMID 17229666. Nye KE, Riley GA, Pinching AJ (1992). "The defect seen in the phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis pathway in HIV-infected lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells is due to inhibition of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 89 (1): 89-93. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1992.tb06883.x. PMC 1554388 . PMID 1321014. Henthorn PS, Raducha M, Fedde KN, et al. (1992). "Different missense mutations at the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene locus in autosomal recessively inherited forms of mild and severe hypophosphatasia". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (20): 9924-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.20.9924. PMC 50246 . PMID 1409720. Nishihara Y, Hayashi Y, Adachi T, et al. ...
Gold mineralization at the Pani prospect in north Sulawesi, Indonesia, is related to a Miocene or younger rhyodacitic volcanic center. The center, which is 3.5 km in diameter, consists of porphyritic lavas, intrusions, breccias, and pyroclastics. It overlies and partly intrudes horn-blende and hornblende-biotite granodiorite and Eocene (?) basaltic volcanics.Mineralization is spatially related to the Baganite dome, which is centered on Gunung Baganite. Low-grade (0.8 ppm) disseminated gold mineralization, associated with pyrite and minor base metals, is hosted by the dome. Silver mineralization (acanthite) occurs in minor quartz-hematite veins in overlying silicified pyroclastics. The most important gold mineralization occurs on the flank of the dome at the Pani ridge, less than 1 km from Gunung Baganite. It is associated with minor base metal sulfides, quartz, and adularia encrustations, found in vuggy fractures and centimeter-wide breccia zones, in weakly silicified rhyodacites, and in ...
Mineral deposits. Mineral deposits - are mineral formations in the Earths crust chemical composition and physical properties that allow to use them effectively in the spher
in BONE (2007), 40(5), 1308-1319. The inhomogeneous mineral content and its topographical distribution on a microscopic scale are major determinants of the mechanical quality of trabecular bone. The kinetics of bone tissue deposition and ... [more ▼]. The inhomogeneous mineral content and its topographical distribution on a microscopic scale are major determinants of the mechanical quality of trabecular bone. The kinetics of bone tissue deposition and resorption together with the kinetics of the mineralization process determine the distribution of mineral in the tissue. The heterogeneity of the mineral content is described by the well-established bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD), which is experimentally accessible, e.g., using quantitative electron backscattering imaging (qBEI). In the present work, we demonstrate that the shape of the BMDD histogram of trabecular bone reflects directly the mineralization kinetics. Based on the experimental BMDD data of trabecular bone from ...
Hypophosphatasia is a rare inherited metabolic disease of decreased tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and defective bone mineralization. Both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant variants of the disease exist. The disease comes in one of five forms, perinatal, infantile, childhood, adult, and odontohypophosphatasia. Perinatal hypophosphatasia is invariably lethal while infantile hypophosphatasia has a roughly 50% mortality rate with symptoms appearing within the first 6th months after birth. The other forms are generally non-lethal. Common symptoms include bone malformations and higher chance of bone fracture. Both the adult form and odontohypophosphatasial form are marked by premature teeth loss. There is no known cure for hypophosphatasia. However, there have been some claims that choline may have positive health benefits for those with the disease that take it as a dietary supplement. ...
hole zones: within collagen type I; initial site of mineral deposition; osteocalcin (Gla protein): noncollagen organic material, binds calcium during mineralization osteonectin: serves bridging function between collagen and mineral component sialoproteins: rich in sialic acid; concentrated from plasma hydroxyapatite: mineral component of bone; calcium and phosphate; conjugated to small proportion magnesium carbonate, sodium and potassium ions; affinity for heavy metal and radioactive environmental pollutants; note: 20% or more of mineral component remains amorphous pyrophosphate: inhibitor calcium deposition; crucial for controlling bone mineralization matrix vesicles: membrane bound vesicles derived from osteoblast plasma membrane; contain alkaline phosphatase and other phosphatases; neutralize effect of pyrophosphate. ...
Bio-inspired mineralization is the leading edge and hotspot of the research in the fields including chemistry, biology and materials science at present. More a
Endocrine disorders have grown to be increasingly more diagnosed in individuals and pets frequently. microscope, cell morphology, matrix mineralization and mitochondrial dynamics had been evaluated. Furthermore, we looked into the appearance of osteogenic\related genes with RT\PCR. We also looked into the function of autophagy during differentiation and silenced PARKIN appearance with siRNA. Attained benefits indicated that AZA/RES improved early osteogenesis of ASC produced from EMS animals significantly. Elevated matrix mineralization, RUNX\2, collagen type We and amounts were noted osteopontin. Furthermore, we proved that AZA/RES exerts its beneficial results by modulating autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics through RUNX\2 and PARKIN activity. diagnostic aspect.3, 4 Adipose tissue in both species is recognized as an active endocrine organ, responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones controlling nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), insulin sensitivity and inflammatory ...
Explore the pros and cons of the debate Resolved: The USFG should increase construction of mineral accretion coral reefs in the US
121 sentence examples: 1. A lot of mineralization is needed to create a sedative effect, calm the nerves and promote sound sleep. 2. The mechanism of collagen mineralization was studied by ultraviolet photometry method. 3. Its mineralization can be d
Journal: American Journal of Health Research Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-14 Published: January 10, 2018PDF Source: Trivedi EffectAuthors: Bonnie Patrice Hegarty-Diaz, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu C
Alkaline phosphatase activity on osteoblast - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: HelloI have cultured human fetal osteoblast (hFOB 1.19) and I need to check for the alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for that cells.I use the plant extract as for the treatment for differentiation and proliferation of the osteoblast.I never did ALP test before. Does everybody can help regarding the protocol for ALP assay?I will use ALP kit from RANDOX.Thank you for help.
The MTT cell viability assay data showed more than 81% cells were viable, which indicated that the test samples were safe and nontoxic in all the tested concentrations. ALP level was significantly elevated by 200% and 135.29% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 1µg/mL while, it was also increased by 390% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item at 0.1µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Further, ALP was significantly increased by 106.34%, 138.47%, and 212.68% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 10µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Collagen was significantly increased by 288.68% and 106.96% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item and BT-DMEM + B T-Test item groups, respectively at 10µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Further, the collagen level was significantly increased by 435.78%, 139.72%, and 70.63% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + ...
Are prostate calcifications a serious problem - Are prostate calcifications a serious problem? No. Prostate calcifications are very common and generally do not pose a problem. These are usually calcifications from prostate secretions within the prostate and do not indicate any specific problem.
Automated image analysis and image processing techniques make possible the simulation of sandstone diagenesis and prediction of pore system modification. Diagenetic processes in real rocks are simulated using a combination of element X-ray maps and backscattered electron images.. Processes can also be simulated for computer-generated sand packs by image analysis and image processing. Compaction is simulated by moving grain centers closer together; overgrowth-type cementation is simulated by dilation of free grain surfaces; mineral dissolution is simulated by selective removal of specific minerals identified by the combination of element X-ray maps and backscattered electron images. The original and modified images can be processed and analyzed to reveal all the parameters needed to predict permeability using a Kozeny-Carman type equation.. The computer modeling and image analysis approach can also be used to determine the specific effects of various diagenetic processes on porosity. The results ...
October 21,2009- RT Minerals Corp. announces surface gold mineralization and program update
from the Golden Property adjoining Lakeshore Gold Corp-Timmins West Mining
land holdings, Timmins, Ontario.
Raman spectroscopy has long been applied in geoscience, for example for the identification and characterization of minerals, or in the observation of mineral phase transitions in high and ultra-high pressure/temperature experiments. In most cases because measurements have been carried out in a micro-Raman set up very little detail on the spatial distribution and association components or mineral phases, or chemical variation could be observed. In this application note from WITec, by means of Con
While ossification refers to the process of bone formation, calcification usually indicates that calcium has accumulated unnaturally in various tissues of the body. This Buzzle post includes an ossification vs. calcification comparison in detail.
VANCOUVER, Aug. 26, 2014- NexGen Drills Record Total Composite Off-Scale of 53.85 m, within Total Composite Mineralization of 186.90 m at the Arrow Zone.
Bellinck, C. ; Mayaudon, J.. [Influence of a Few Composts On the Mineralization of C-14 Phenmedipham in a Fresh Meadow Soil and the Immobilization of the C-14 Residues]. In: Revue dEcologie et de Biologie du Sol, Vol. 20, no. 3, p. 291-297 (1983 ...
Breast calcifications are calcium deposits within breast tissue. They appear as white spots or flecks on a mammogram and are usually so small that you cant feel them.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which occurs primarily in the form of the minerals calcite and NETZSCH Alpha® - The next Generation of Agitator Bead Mills.. Get Price ...
Quantification of ALP activity in plasma from A/J and 129P3/J mice treated with 0, 10 or 50 ppm F in the drinking water for 8 weeks.Results are shown as mean ±
Im a microbiologist with good big experience in electron and fluorescence microscopy. 6 years of experience in environmental microbiology and biomineralization. All field of science amuses me, and I will be glad to join any multidisciplinary project.
SBI-425 是一种有效的,选择性和口服生物可利用的 TNAP 抑制剂。长期施用 SBI-425 可有效地达到并抑制脉管系统中的 TNAP,改善心血管参数和存活,并且其剂量不会引起骨的可检测变化。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
ENPP7兔多克隆抗体(ab121827)可与人样本反应并经IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The skeletal plates and teeth of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus contain a heterogeneous assemblage of macromolecules that are not part of the connective tissue, but are presumably intimately associated with the mineral phase. Upon dissolution of the Mg-calcite mineral phase, some of these molecules are insoluble. The insoluble fractions of the teeth and skeletal plates are quite different, the former being predominantly protein and the latter, primarily some unknown nonproteinaceous material. The soluble constituents are similar in both tissues. These hydrophilic macromolecules have been partially separated and characterized. In both hard parts, two distinct classes of macromolecules are present, as indicated by the amino acid compositions of their protein constituents. These two classes of macromolecules are also present in the shells of a foraminifer and in various mollusks, both of which are formed by the "organic matrix-mediated" biomineralization process. The locations of these ...
Human Skeletal System Structure - human body skeletal structure, human skeletal system structure, human skeletal system structure and function, internal structure of the human skeletal system, structure and function of human skeletal system, structure of a human skeletal system, structure of human skeletal system, structure of the human skeletal system
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, also known as Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, is expressed in osteoblasts during bone formation and is thought to play a role in skeletal mineralization. Takaras Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody was raised against a conjugate of the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) immunogen and the peptide (20-49) [PEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTN], which is highly conserved between human and rat bone specific alkaline phosphatase.. ...
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase, also known as Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, is expressed in osteoblasts during bone formation and is thought to play a role in skeletal mineralization. Takaras Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (Rat) Polyclonal Antibody was raised against a conjugate of the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) immunogen and the peptide (20-49) [PEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTN], which is highly conserved between human and rat bone specific alkaline phosphatase.. ...
Background: Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Fibrous cap microcalcifications can promote atherosclerotic plaque failure, and large calcifications can stabilize the plaque. Therefore, calcification morphology can determine cardiovascular morbidity, but temporal patterns of calcific mineral deposition and growth remain unknown.. Results: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice on an atherogenic diet develop plaque calcification. Longitudinal studies were performed using two different fluorescent calcium tracers injected intravenously into Apoe-/- mice: calcein injection following 18 weeks of atherogenic diet (n=7) and alizarin red S injection into the same mice 1 (n=4) or 3 (n=3) weeks later. Imaging green (calcein) and red (alizarin red S) fluorescence provided snapshots of aortic calcification at 18, 19, and 21 weeks. Observations within histological sections revealed green microcalcifications at 18 weeks embedded within alizarin red stained larger ...
It is well established that vascular calcification is a common complication in diabetes and recent studies suggest that glycation may play a pathogenic role in this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of glycation in the induction of calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the potential inhibitory effects of the anti-diabetic agent, Momordica Charantia. Vascular SMCs were incubated with native or glycated LDL in the presence of osteogenic media and mineral deposition was determined using alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. We found that SMCs incubated in osteogenic media exhibited mineralisation after 7 days. This calcification was significantly increased following treatment with glycated-LDL, but not by native LDL. Furthermore, we found that ALP activity was significantly elevated at day 4 in glycated-LDL treated cells, compared to those incubated in native LDL. The vascular SMCs were exposed to increasing concentrations of ...
EBSD is a method for determining the crystallographic orientation of mineral or metal grains relative to one another in a polished thin section. The technique can be used to determine preferred orientations among minerals produced by crystallization and deformation processes.. The method is based on backscattered electrons being channelled by crystalline lattice planes when the angle of an incident electron beam is near 30 degrees (sample tilt 70 degrees). The resulting emission presents an image with a pattern that is characteristic of the minerals crystallography, and which can be captured by a digital camera. The variety of angles within the image, together with the locations where the bands meet (poles) are indicative of the crystals symmetry and orientation. The band widths are a measure of the crystal d-spacing - however the EBSD technique is not as sensitive to d-spacing measurement as is traditional x-ray diffraction. For mineral identification, EBSD can only be used together with ...
Coral collection: Coral plugs were collected in December 2012 from massive Porites colonies at a naturally low-Ωar reef site (7.324 N, 134.493 E; mean Ωar = 2.3; n = 78) and a naturally high-Ωar reef site (7.268 N, 134.522 E; mean Ωar = 3.7; n = 75). At each reef site, small skeletal cores (diameter = 3.5 cm) were removed from massive colonies (one core per colony) at 2-3m depth using underwater pneumatic drills, and cores were cut with a lapidary table saw to approximately 1 cm below the tissue layer. The plugs were affixed to nylon square base screws with marine epoxy, secured to egg crate racks, and returned to their original reefs to allow the corals to recover from the coring procedure. All corals survived two months of recovery on the reef and on all corals living tissue had fully overgrown the sides of the plugs so that no underlying skeleton was exposed. Corals were recovered in February 2013.. CO2 manipulation experiment: Corals from two reefs were cultured at three CO2 levels for ...
Normophosphataemic familial tumoral calcinosis, charac-terized by ectopic mineralization of skin, is caused by mutations in the SAMD9 gene located in human chromosome 7q21, next to a paralogous gene, SAMD9-like (SAMD9L). The mouse does not have a SAMD9 orthologue, Samd9, because it has been deleted during evolution owing to genomic rearrangements. It has been suggested that the mouse Samd9l gene serves as a functional paralogue of human SAMD9. In this study, we examined Samd9l knockout mice with respect to ectopic mineralization. We also crossed these mice with Abcc6(tm1JfK) mice, a model system to study pseudoxanthoma elasticum, to see whether the absence of the Samd9l gene modifies the mineralization process. Necropsy analysis of Samd9l(tm1Homy) mice revealed no evidence of ectopic mineralization, and deletion of the Samd9l gene in mice failed to modify the mineralization process on the Abcc6(tm1JfK) background. Collectively, the results suggest that mouse Samd9l is not a functional paralogue of human
Abstract: It is generally accepted that when multi-component materials are examined with a scanning electron microscope, the contrast differences observed using compositional backscattered electron imaging are due to variations in their average atomic numbers. With increasing atomic number, there is an approximate monotonic increase in backscatter coefficient, which is observed as an increase in the brightness of specimens. However, what seems to be less generally appreciated is that light emitted from cathodoluminescent compounds, especially organic compounds, will also contribute to the brightness in backscattered electron images, and this may result in anomalous compositional contrast. Backscattered electron detectors used with scanning electron microscopes are either a scintillator or a solid state semiconductor and, in addition to detecting high energy backscattered electrons, these detectors also happen to be very sensitive to light. Anomalous contrast had been observed with several ...
Ectopic calcification as very well as fatty and fibrotic tissues accumulation occurs in skeletal muscle during the disease development of Duchenne buff dystrophy (DMD), a degenerative muscle disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. the nmMSCs become turned on during the disease development in dKO rodents, exhibiting elevated growth and difference possibilities (adipogenesis, osteogenesis and fibrogenesis). We discovered that after co-culturing the dKO-nmMSCs with dKO-MPCs also, the myogenic difference potential of the dKO-MPCs was decreased. This impact was discovered to end up being possibly mediated by the release of secreted frizzled-related proteins 1 by the dKO-nmMSCs. We posit that the speedy incidence of fibrosis as a result, ectopic calcification and fats deposition, in dKO rodents, is certainly not really just attributable to the speedy exhaustion of the MPC pool, but is certainly also the effect of nmMSC account activation. Outcomes from this research recommend that methods ...
In this work, we found that bone mineral formation proceeded very rapidly in mice by 1 day of age, where the degree of mineralization, the tissue mineral density, and the mineral crystallinity reached 36%, 51%, and 87% of the adult values, respectively. However, even though significant mineralization had occurred, the elastic modulus of 1-day-old bone was only 14% of its adult value, indicating that the intrinsic stiffening of the bone lags considerably behind the initial mineral formation.. Introduction: To meet the mechanical challenges during early development, the skeleton requires the rapid accretion of bone quality and bone quantity. Here, we describe early bone development in the mouse skeleton and test the hypothesis that specific compositional properties determine the stiffness of the tissue.. Materials and Methods: Tibias of female BALB mice were harvested at eight time-points (n = 4 each) distributed between 1 and 40 days of age and subjected to morphometric (μCT), chemical (Fourier ...
article{8520928, abstract = {The depolymerization of soil organic matter, such as proteins and (oligo-)peptides, into monomers (e.g. amino acids) is currently considered to be the rate-limiting step for nitrogen (N) availability in terrestrial ecosystems. The mineralization of free amino acids (FAAs), liberated by the depolymerization of peptides, is an important fraction of the total mineralization of organic N. Hence, the accurate assessment of peptide depolymerization and FAA mineralization rates is important in order to gain a better process-based understanding of the soil N cycle. In this paper, we present an extended numerical 15N tracing model Ntrace, which incorporates the FAA pool and related N processes in order to provide a more robust and simultaneous quantification of depolymerization and gross mineralization rates of FAAs and soil organic N. We discuss analytical and numerical approaches for two forest soils, suggest improvements of the experimental work for future studies, and ...
Bones are composed of collagen fibers in which calcium phosphate is deposited in the form of nanocrystals.. Previously it was thought that collagen was only a template for the deposition of calcium phosphate and that bone formation was controlled by specialized biomolecules.. Now, a team of researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and the University of Illinois was successfully able to mimic the growth of calcium phosphate inside the collagen in the laboratory, just as it happens in the human body.. The researchers found that collagen fibers control the mineral formation process and thereby direct bone formation. On the other hand, the biomolecules was found to have a different role in the mineralization process: they keep the calcium phosphate in solution until mineral growth starts.. ...
The relationship of proliferation to the developmental sequence associated with bone cell differentiation was examined in primary osteoblast cultures derived from fetal rat and embryonic chick calvaria. A reciprocal and functional relationship exists between the decline in proliferative activity which occurs during the initial stages of the developmental sequence and the induction of genes encoding osteoblast phenotype proteins associated with matrix maturation and mineralization. This relationship is supported by 1) a temporal sequence of events in which there is an enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and osteopontin (OP) genes immediately following the proliferative period and expression of osteocalcin with the onset of mineralization, and 2) increases in AP and OP when DNA synthesis is inhibited. By determining cellular mRNA levels and rates of mRNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, we found that the down-regulation of cell growth-related genes is modified at both the levels of transcription
Magnesium serves hundreds of functions within the body and is an important part of bone health, heart health, a healthy nervous system, cellular energy, hormone regulation and the relaxation and activation of muscle tissue. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis.. Magnesium is present in all cells of the body. It is a mineral that is critical for energy production and metabolism, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and bone mineralization. It helps to regulate calcium transport and absorption. By stimulating the secretion of calcitonin, it aids the influx of calcium into bone and promotes optimal bone mineralization. Magnesium has been called natures calcium channel blocker - it blocks calcium from entering muscle and heart ...
Alendronate Sodium Hainan is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Alendronate Sodium Hainan is available on the Drugs.com website.
The Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic (1.9-1.8 Ga) Bergslagen lithotectonic unit in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, is one of the major base and precious metal sulphide deposits in Sweden. Felsic volcanic rocks and limestone hosting the deposit, as well as their hydrothermally altered equivalents and the mineralization, were affected by heterogeneous ductile strain and metamorphism under low-pressure, lower amphibolite-facies conditions during the Svecokarelian orogeny (2.0-1.8 Ga). These processes reworked the mineral assemblages of the original hydrothermal system and the mineralization, and also reshaped the structural geometry of the deposit.. A three-dimensional modelling approach has been used in order to evaluate geometric relationships between lithologies at the deposit. The polyphase character (D1 and D2) of the strong ductile deformation at Falun is apparent. The main rock-forming minerals in the altered silicate-rich ...
c-Src and IL-6 inhibit osteoblast differentiation and integrate IGFBP5 signalling.: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and c-Src impair osteoblast maturation in vitro and in
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers have for the first time carried out a multi-scale analysis to shed light on how bones material flaws lead to brittle bone disease.
A method for making an implantable bone material. The method includes providing a bone composition consisting essentially of demineralized human bone, and irradiating the composition at a temperature less than about 0 C.
The Skeletal System. Your Bones. Functions of the Skeletal System. Protection & Support Your heart and lungs are protected by ribs, your spinal cord is protected by vertebrae, and your brain is protected by the skull. Storage Slideshow 2668055 by jenaya
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek Alendronate Sodium w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
... a major inhibitor of physiologic and pathologic calcification, bone mineralization and bone resorption. The ANK protein has 12 ...
... calcification, physiologic MeSH G11.427.792.560.100.478 --- maxillofacial development MeSH G11.427.792.560.100.729 --- ... physiologic MeSH G11.697.716.260.378.500 --- nystagmus, optokinetic MeSH G11.697.716.260.453 --- pursuit, smooth MeSH G11.697. ...
... calcification, physiologic MeSH G07.574.500.325.377.625.100.478 --- maxillofacial development MeSH G07.574.500.325.377.625. ...
Meyer, John L. (1984-05-15). "Can biological calcification occur in the presence of pyrophosphate?". Archives of Biochemistry ... Terkeltaub, Robert (2006-06-01). "Physiologic and pathologic functions of the NPP nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase ... Overactivity of the enzyme is associated with chondrocalcinosis, while deficiency correlates to pathological calcification. ... is thought to serve as both a phosphate source for calcium phosphate deposition and as an inhibitory modulator of calcification ...
It is caused by the different physiologic changes at birth and is used to identify enamel formation before and after birth. In ... The first permanent molar is just beginning calcification at or near birth. Cate, A.R. Ten. Oral Histology: development, ...
They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption ... they have different patterns of tissue-specific expression and thus may play different physiologic roles. In melanocytic cells ...
They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption ... in tissue distribution suggest that the two mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases evolved to assume different physiologic roles. ...
Meema HE, Oreopoulos DG, Rapoport A (1987). "Serum magnesium level and arterial calcification in end-stage renal disease". ... Magnesium acts as a physiologic calcium blocker, which results in electrical conduction abnormalities within the heart. ... Massy ZA, Drüeke TB (2012). "Magnesium and outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease: focus on vascular calcification, ... 2012). "Relationship between magnesium and clinical biomarkers on inhibition of vascular calcification". Am J Nephrol. 35: 31- ...
Most healthy kidneys contain enough physiologic reserve to compensate for this NSAID-induced decrease in blood flow. However, ... One trial demonstrated that the appearance of papillary calcifications on CT imaging was 92% sensitive and 100% specific for ...
IK channels have shown a strong connection to calcification in vasculature, as inhibition of the channel causes a decrease in ... This feature of the channel allows them to participate in many different physiologic functions. The physiological effects of BK ... vascular calcification. Over-expression of these channels has quite a different effect on the body. Studies have shown that ...
2006). „Serum proteome profiles identifies parathyroid hormone physiologic response". Proteomics. 6 (12): 3482-93. PMID ... Drüeke TB, Massy ZA (2003). „Advanced oxidation protein products, parathyroid hormone and vascular calcification in uremia". ...
... is a normal physiologic process that occurs in female dogs. It is seen 45-60 days after a normal estrous (heat ... and before fetal calcification (days 35-40 of gestation). The sow remains in anoestrus for prolonged periods, often as long as ...
Stenosis is typically the result of valvular calcification, but may be the result of a congenitally malformed bicuspid aortic ... abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the ... Mitral stenosis is caused largely by rheumatic heart disease, though is rarely the result of calcification. In some cases ... Often patients do not require intervention until later in adulthood as a consequence of calcification that occurs with aging. ...
2006). "Serum proteome profiles identifies parathyroid hormone physiologic response". Proteomics 6 (12): 3482-93. PMID 16705755 ... Drüeke TB, Massy ZA (2003). "Advanced oxidation protein products, parathyroid hormone and vascular calcification in uremia". ...
In addition, the calcification deposits between the outer portion of the atheroma and the muscular wall, as they progress, lead ... Both anatomic and physiologic methods allow early detection before symptoms show up, disease staging and tracking of disease ... Calcification forms among vascular smooth muscle cells of the surrounding muscular layer, specifically in the muscle cells ... On the other hand, physiologic methods are often less expensive and safer. But they do not quantify the current state of the ...
This condition is believed to occur secondary to the decreased normal physiologic magnesium inhibition of the ROMK channels in ... basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death. Other symptoms that ...
Key problem A congenital aortic valve stenosis can be treated by aortic valve repair if there is no relevant calcification. In ... An aortic ring: from physiologic reconstruction of the root to a standardized approach for aortic valve repair. J Thorac ... An aortic valve repair will realistically be possible in the absence of relevant calcification or shrinking (retraction) of the ... Indication for aortic valve repair: Absence of relevant calcification and Congenital and severe aortic stenosis with symptoms ...
One study concludes, "Since beer seemed to be protective against kidney stones, the physiologic effects of other substances ... November 2004). "Alcohol consumption and coronary calcification in a general population". Arch. Intern. Med. 164 (21): 2355-60 ...
Walford, R. L; Mock, D; Verdery, R; MacCallum, T (2002). "Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: Alterations in physiologic, ... "Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef". Global Biogeochemical ...
The glucocorticoid dose is typically started at the low end of physiologic replacement (6-12 mg/m²) but is adjusted throughout ... 7-Dehydrocholesterol path: Hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten skeletal dysplasia. *CHILD syndrome ...
... metastatic calcification, develop cysts, and agglomerate into palpable lumps. Although the cause of metastatic calcification is ... which usually is the physiologic limit allowed by the metabolism of the woman's body. For breast reconstruction, and for the ... Nonetheless, detecting breast cancer is primary, and calcification incidence is secondary; thus, the patient is counselled to ... calcifications, and the eventual formation of liponecrotic cysts. The operating room (OR) time required to harvest, refine, and ...
Most experts on this topic state that the pain of DH is in reality a normal, physiologic response of the nerves in a healthy, ... These physiologic repair mechanisms are likely to occur with or without any form of treatment, but they take time. ...
Others: Dystrophic calcification, pigmentary changes, painful scars, incisional hernia. Other complications can include ... refers to the physiologic adaptation of an organ after injury in an effort to re-establish continuity without regards to exact ...
2006). "Serum proteome profiles identifies parathyroid hormone physiologic response". Proteomics 6 (12): 3482-93. PMID 16705755 ... Drüeke TB, Massy ZA (2003). "Advanced oxidation protein products, parathyroid hormone and vascular calcification in uremia". ...
Calcification, Physiologic * Calcium Carbonate / metabolism* * Carbon / metabolism * Carbon Dioxide / metabolism* * Hydrogen- ... Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite ... Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification Nat Commun. 2014 Dec 22;5:5741. doi: 10.1038/ ... Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show ...
Calcification, Physiologic / physiology*. Calcium Phosphates / chemistry*. Chemical Precipitation. Extracellular Matrix / ... suggest that lipidic membrane constituents such as PS and Sph may have a controlling influence on MV-mediated calcification in ...
Calcification, Physiologic / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Proliferation. Gene ...
Calcification, Physiologic / physiology*. Calcium / urine*. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Fractures, Stress / ...
Calcification, Physiologic / drug effects * Diphosphates / metabolism * Diphosphonates* / chemistry * Diphosphonates* / ... in the control of soft tissue and skeletal mineralisation that led to the need to find inhibitors of calcification that would ...
Calcification, Physiologic; Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic; Pathology; Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum; Rare Diseases; Sickle ...
Calcification, Physiologic; Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic; Pathology; Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum; Rare Diseases; Sickle ...
Calcification, Physiologic; Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic; Pathology; Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum; Sickle Cell Trait; ... ENPP1-Fc Fusion Protein Prevents Mortality and Vascular Calcifications in Rodent Model of Generalized Calcification of Infancy ... ENPP1-Fc prevents mortality and vascular calcifications in rodent model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy. Nat ... and calcification disorders that include neonatal orphan diseases. We have recently developed a recombinant biologic to correct ...
Meyer, John L. (1984-05-15). "Can biological calcification occur in the presence of pyrophosphate?". Archives of Biochemistry ... Terkeltaub, Robert (2006-06-01). "Physiologic and pathologic functions of the NPP nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase ... Overactivity of the enzyme is associated with chondrocalcinosis, while deficiency correlates to pathological calcification. ... is thought to serve as both a phosphate source for calcium phosphate deposition and as an inhibitory modulator of calcification ...
Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification on coccolithophore calcification has received much recent attention and requires ... The presence of this H+ efflux pathway suggests that there is no obligate use of H+ derived from calcification for ... Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification on coccolithophore calcification has received much recent attention and requires ... requiring large transcellular ionic fluxes to support calcification. In particular, intracellular calcite precipitation using ...
Many causes of physiologic intracranial calcification exist. Intraparenchymal cerebral calcifications often represent lesions ... Risk of stroke in a cohort of 815 patients with calcification of the aortic valve with or without stenosis. Stroke 1996;27:847- ... Intracranial calcifications seen on routine noncontrast CT of the head may represent calcified cerebral emboli. In contrast to ... A, Axial 2.5-mm image from noncontrast brain CT shows a gyral calcification in the posterior right frontal lobe (arrow). ...
Benign calcifications. In: Harris JH Jr (ed) Atlas of Mammography. Histologie and Mammographie Correlations. Williams & Wilkins ... Bayar S., Ward B.A. (2001) Physiologic Changes and Benign Perimenopausal Breast Disease. In: Rosenthal R.A., Zenilman M.E., ...
CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space ...
CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space ... The relationship between volumetric bone mineral density and coronary calcification in men and women - results from the ...
CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space ... and vascular calcification are still unestablished. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of cinacalcet on all ...
Calcification, Physiologic / physiology* * Cartilage / cytology * Cartilage / physiology * Humans * Neovascularization, ...
Vitamin K: Genetics of Vascular Calcification. Jose Ordovas; Fiscal Year: 2005. ..This research should provide the basis for ... respiratory physiologic phenomena*heart rate*blood pressure*cardiovascular system*physical fitness*exercise*autonomic nervous ... cardiovascular physiologic phenomena. Summary. Summary: Observable or measurable characteristics of CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. ...
What is nutritional calcification? Meaning of nutritional calcification medical term. What does nutritional calcification mean? ... Looking for online definition of nutritional calcification in the Medical Dictionary? nutritional calcification explanation ... calcification. The deposition of calcium in tissues; the term mineralisation is often used for physiologic calcification.. ... calcification. (redirected from nutritional calcification). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. calcification. ...
Calcification, Physiologic*. *Minerals/chemistry*. *Phosphates/chemistry*. Minor. *Animals. *Apatites/chemistry. *Bacteria/ ...
Physiologic and pathologic calcifications and ossifications in the face and neck. Interpretation Corner ... and clinical significance of accidental findings in electron-beam tomographic scans for coronary artery calcification. Eur ... and clinical significance of accidental findings in electron-beam tomographic scans for coronary artery calcification. Eur ...
Calcification, Physiologic/physiology. *Cells, Cultured. *Chick Embryo. *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. *Limb Buds/ ...
Normal physiologic, Dystrophic (diseased tissues), Metastatic (not anaplasia, calcification of normal tissue). ... Describe cyst wall calcification.. Calcium deposition w/in the all of an abnormal fluid-filled structure; calcification shows ... Calcification, usually benign; no calcification is malignant until proven otherwise. What are primary malignant neoplasms in ... Mulberry calcification. Who gets leiomyomas and what are they?. Women, common in uterus; benign tumor containing smooth muscle ...
Basal Ganglia: Physiologic Calcifications Alexander M. McKinney. Pages 427-440 * Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Concepts, ...
Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects*. *Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use*. *Neurofibromatosis 1/drug therapy* ...
Patients demonstrate pericapillary calcifications in the cortex and basal ganglia at an early age; severe neuronal loss in the ...

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