Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
A fetuin subtype that is synthesized by HEPATOCYTES and secreted into the circulation. It plays a major role in preventing CALCIUM precipitation in the BLOOD.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of muscular ARTERIES due to calcification of the TUNICA MEDIA, the concentric layers of helically arranged SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Condition of induced systemic hypersensitivity in which tissues respond to appropriate challenging agents with a sudden local calcification.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Protein-mineral complexes that comprise substrates needed for the normal calcium-carbonate-phosphate homeostasis. Nanobacteria was the prior name for the particles which were originally thought to be microorganisms.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
Diseases of BONES.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
X-ray screening of large groups of persons for diseases of the lung and heart by means of radiography of the chest.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.
A VITAMIN D that can be regarded as a reduction product of vitamin D2.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.

Retinoid signaling is required for chondrocyte maturation and endochondral bone formation during limb skeletogenesis. (1/1311)

Retinoids have long been known to influence skeletogenesis but the specific roles played by these effectors and their nuclear receptors remain unclear. Thus, it is not known whether endogenous retinoids are present in developing skeletal elements, whether expression of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) genes alpha, beta, and gamma changes during chondrocyte maturation, or how interference with retinoid signaling affects skeletogenesis. We found that immature chondrocytes present in stage 27 (Day 5.5) chick embryo humerus exhibited low and diffuse expression of RARalpha and gamma, while RARbeta expression was strong in perichondrium. Emergence of hypertrophic chondrocytes in Day 8-10 embryo limbs was accompanied by a marked and selective up-regulation of RARgamma gene expression. The RARgamma-rich type X collagen-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes lay below metaphyseal prehypertrophic chondrocytes expressing Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and were followed by mineralizing chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification. Bioassays revealed that cartilaginous elements in Day 5.5, 8.5, and 10 chick embryo limbs all contained endogenous retinoids; strikingly, the perichondrial tissues surrounding the cartilages contained very large amounts of retinoids. Implantation of beads filled with retinoid antagonist Ro 41-5253 or AGN 193109 near the humeral anlagens in stage 21 (Day 3.5) or stage 27 chick embryos severely affected humerus development. In comparison to their normal counterparts, antagonist-treated humeri in Day 8.5-10 chick embryos were significantly shorter and abnormally bent; their diaphyseal chondrocytes had remained prehypertrophic Ihh-expressing cells, did not express RARgamma, and were not undergoing endochondral ossification. Interestingly, formation of an intramembranous bony collar around the diaphysis was not affected by antagonist treatment. Using chondrocyte cultures, we found that the antagonists effectively interfered with the ability of all-trans-retinoic acid to induce terminal cell maturation. The results provide clear evidence that retinoid-dependent and RAR-mediated mechanisms are required for completion of the chondrocyte maturation process and endochondral ossification in the developing limb. These mechanisms may be positively influenced by cooperative interactions between the chondrocytes and their retinoid-rich perichondrial tissues.  (+info)

Expression of tissue transglutaminase in the developing chicken limb is associated both with apoptosis and endochondral ossification. (2/1311)

The cross-linking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG) participates in a variety of cellular functions. To assess its contribution to extracellular and intracellular processes during development we cloned the cDNA for chicken heart tissue transglutaminase and localized the sites of transglutaminase expression by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the chicken red blood cell transglutaminase cDNA, the heart cDNA encodes a transglutaminase with an amino-terminal truncation. The truncated enzyme retains full catalytic activity and is GTP-inhibitable. Tissue transglutaminase expression was observed in developmentally transient structures in embryonic chicken limb at day 7.5 of incubation suggesting that its expression is dynamically regulated during limb morphogenesis. The major morphogenetic events of the limb associated with transglutaminase expression were cartilage maturation during skeletal development, interdigital apoptosis, and differentiation of skeletal muscle. Maturation of the cartilage during endochondral ossification was characterized by intra- and extracellular transglutaminase accumulation in the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Only intracellular enzyme could be detected in mesenchymal cells of the prospective joints, in apoptotic cells of the interdigital web, and in skeletal muscle myoblasts. An apparently constitutive expression of tissue transglutaminase was found in vascular endothelial cells corresponding to the adult expression pattern. The dynamic pattern of transglutaminase expression during morphogenesis suggests that tissue remodeling is a major trigger for transglutaminase induction.  (+info)

Assessment of bone mineral density in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional long-term followup study. (3/1311)

OBJECTIVE: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD. METHODS: Sixty-five white patients (mean age 32.2 years) with a history of JCA and 65 age-, sex-, height-, and weight-matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. Densitometry of the left hip and the lumbar spine was performed, and osteocalcin (bone formation marker) and crosslinks (bone resorption marker) were measured. In addition, bone-related clinical parameters were assessed in the JCA group. RESULTS: BMD in the hip and lumbar spine was significantly lower in the JCA group than in the controls. Levels of osteocalcin and crosslinks were significantly increased in the JCA group. According to WHO definitions, significantly more subjects in the JCA group had "osteopenia" and "osteoporosis" than would be expected in a normal population sample. Active disease at the time of the study (1996-1997), baseline erosions evaluated in 1979, Steinbrocker functional class in 1996-1997, polyarticular course of JCA, and history of systemic steroid treatment for more than 1 year were significantly associated with reduced BMD. In linear regression analysis including both the JCA and control groups, presence of JCA proved to be the factor most strongly associated with reduced BMD, explaining approximately 20% of its variation. CONCLUSION: Reduced BMD and evidence of increased bone turnover suggest that JCA patients may be at risk of developing premature osteoporosis and associated fractures later in life. The data are consistent with the concept that BMD in JCA is determined by many factors.  (+info)

Bone histology in patients with nephrotic syndrome and normal renal function. (4/1311)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic bone disease in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) at normal level of renal function remains uncertain. METHODS: To address this issue, we studied 30 patients (20 men and 10 women, mean age 27.3 +/- 11.7 years) with NS who had normal renal function (mean creatinine clearance 103 +/- 4 ml/min). We evaluated their serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), vitamin D metabolites, urinary calcium, and skeletal survey. The extent of bone mineralization was analyzed by histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsy specimens in all patients. The findings on bone histology were correlated with biochemical parameters. RESULTS: The mean duration of NS was 35.5 +/- 26.9 months, with a protein excretion of 7.3 +/- 3.2 g/24 hr and a serum albumin of 2.2 +/- 0.8 g/dl. Total serum calcium was 7.8 +/- 0.8 mg/dl, whereas ionized calcium was 5.7 +/- 0.7 mg/dl, phosphorus 3.2 +/- 1.2 mg/dl, and alkaline phosphatase 149 +/- 48.6 U/liter. Serum iPTH levels were normal in all except two patients. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level was 3.9 +/- 1.2 ng/ml (normal 15 to 30 ng/ml), whereas 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was 24 +/- 4.7 pg/ml (normal 16 to 65). There was an inverse correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D and the magnitude of proteinuria (r = -0.42, P < 0.05). The mean 24-hour urinary calcium excretion was 82 +/- 21 mg/day. The skeletal survey was normal in all patients. Bone histology was normal in 33.3% of the patients, whereas 56.7% had isolated osteomalacia (OSM), and 10% had an increased bone resorption in association with defective mineralization. The severity of OSM measured by mineralization lag time correlated linearly with the duration (r = 0.94, P < 0.0001) and the amount (r = 0.97, P < 0.0001) of proteinuria. All patients with NS for more than three years had histological changes. Patients with OSM had lower 25(OH)D and serum albumin as compared with those with normal histology (P < 0.005). Bone mineralization had no significant correlation with serum iPTH, divalent ions, or vitamin D levels. CONCLUSIONS: OSM is a frequent finding in adult patients with NS, even at a normal level of renal function. Its severity correlates with the amount and duration of proteinuria.  (+info)

Evidence for the promotion of bone mineralization by 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the rat unrelated to the correction of deficiencies in serum calcium and phosphorus. (5/1311)

Concurrent administration of 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1alpha,25-(OH)2-CC] to intact and thyroparathyroidectomized rats treated with ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) prevented or reversed the EHDP-induced inhibition of bone mineralization as measured by changes in epiphyseal plate width and ash content of bone. An analog, 1alpha-droxycholecalciferol, was also effective. Recovery of bone after EHDP treatment was also significantly improved by administration of 1alpha,25-(OH)2-CC as evidenced by enhanced uptake of 45Ca by epiphyseal plates and decreased plate widths. Cholecalciferol (CC), ergocalciferol, dihydrotachysterol2, 5,6-trans-CC, 25-OH-CC, 5,6-Trans-25-OH-CC, and 1alpha24R,25-(OH)3-CC also blocked EHDP-induced epiphyseal plate widening, but required high, pharmacological dose levels. 24R,25- (OH)2-CC was inactive at doses up to 10 microgram/day. Since EHDP-treated rats are not deficient in calcium or phosphate, these data suggest that 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol promoted bone mineralization independently of effects upon the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate.  (+info)

Hard fallow deer antler: a living bone till antler casting? (6/1311)

Deer antlers are the only mammalian bone structures which regenerate completely every year. Once developed, antlers are cleaned of the velvet-like skin. Presently it is believed that due to velvet shedding the blood supply is interrupted in the solidifying antler bone. Histological examinations were made on different parts of fallow deer antlers investigated from the time of velvet shedding till the antler casting. The present study on hard (polished) antlers revealed living bone with regions presenting living osteocytes, active osteoblasts, osteoid seams and even early stages of trabecular microcallus formation, thus indicating to a continuous bone remodeling. A well developed vascular system was found despite the presence of hard antler bone. The pedicle bone exhibits a rich supply of capillaries and vessels connected to the spongy core of the main branch and the compact bone as well. There is evidence that hard fallow deer antlers possess a functioning vascular system that "keeps the antler moist" resulting in a high impact resistance when fights are most frequent. As late as 3 weeks prior to antler casting a large number of living cells were discovered within the antler core. As we have no doubt that parts of the polished fallow deer antler represent a living bone, we have concluded that a sufficient blood supply of the antler core is maintained almost till the time of antler casting by vessels passing through the antler base.  (+info)

Ectopic Msx2 overexpression inhibits and Msx2 antisense stimulates calvarial osteoblast differentiation. (7/1311)

Msx2 is believed to play a role in regulating bone development, particularly in sutures of cranial bone. In this study we investigated the effects of retroviral-mediated overexpression of Msx2 mRNA, in both sense and antisense orientations, on primary cultured chick calvarial osteoblasts. Unregulated overexpression of sense mRNA produced high levels of Msx2 protein throughout the culture period, preventing the expected fall as the cells differentiate. The continued high expression of Msx2 prevented osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, expression of antisense Msx2 RNA decreased proliferation and accelerated differentiation. In other studies, we showed that the Msx2 promoter was widely expressed during the proliferative phase of mouse calvarial osteoblast cultures but was preferentially downregulated in osteoblastic nodules. These results support a model in which Msx2 prevents differentiation and stimulates proliferation of cells at the extreme ends of the osteogenic fronts of the calvariae, facilitating expansion of the skull and closure of the suture.  (+info)

Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the mechanism of calcification of Meckel's cartilage during mandible development in rodents. (8/1311)

It is widely accepted that Meckel's cartilage in mammals is uncalcified hyaline cartilage that is resorbed and is not involved in bone formation of the mandible. We examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of matrix calcification in Meckel's cartilage, using histochemical and immunocytochemical methods, electron microscopy and an electron probe microanalyser. The intramandibular portion of Meckel's cartilage could be divided schematically into anterior and posterior portions with respect to the site of initiation of ossification beneath the mental foramen. Calcification of the matrix occurred in areas in which alkaline phosphatase activity could be detected by light and electron microscopy and by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of type X collagen was restricted to the hypertrophic cells of intramandibular Meckel's cartilage, and staining with alizarin red and von Kossa stain revealed that calcification progressed in both posterior and anterior directions from the primary centre of ossification. After the active cellular resorption of calcified cartilage matrix, new osseous islands were formed by trabecular bone that intruded from the perichondrial bone collar. Evidence of such formation of bone was supported by results of double immunofluorescence staining specific for type I and type II collagens, in addition to results of immunostaining for osteopontin. Calcification of the posterior portion resembled that in the anterior portion of intramandibular Meckel's cartilage, and our findings indicate that the posterior portion also contributes to the bone formation of the mandible by an endochondral-type mechanism of calcification.  (+info)

F. Cundy, J. A. Kanis, G. Heynen, M. Earnshaw, T. L. Clemens, J. L. H. ORiordan, A. L. Merritt, J. E. Compston; Lack of Direct Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin D3 on Mineralization of Bone and Secretion of Parathyroid Hormone. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 1980; 59 (3): 15P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs059015P. Download citation file:. ...
The importance of Wnt pathway signaling in development of bone has been well established. Here we investigated the role of a known Wnt target, ENC1 (ectodermal-neural cortex 1; NRP/B), in osteoblast differentiation. Enc1 expression was detected in mouse osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and osteocytes by in situ hybridization, and osteoblastic expression was verified in differentiating primary cultures and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells, with 57 kDa and 67 kDa ENC1 protein isoforms detected throughout differentiation. Induced knockdown of both ENC1 isoforms reduced alkaline phosphatase staining and virtually abolished MC3T3-E1 mineralization. At culture confluence, Alpl (alkaline phosphatase liver/bone/kidney) expression was markedly reduced compared with control cells, and there was significant and coordinated alteration of other genes involved in cellular phosphate biochemistry. In contrast, with 67 kDa-selective knockdown mineralized nodule formation was enhanced and there was a two-fold increase in Alpl
Principal Investigator:SASAGAWA Ichiro, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
Acidification of slurry through dietary manipulation of urinary pH is a means of mitigating nitrogen emission from pig production, but long-term effects of diet acidification on bone mineralization and mineral balance is less investigated. The objective was therefore to study the long-term effects of feeding benzoic acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the mineral balance and microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Four diets containing the combinations of 0 or 10 g/kg BA and 0 or 20 g/kg CaCl2 were fed to 24 pigs in a factorial design. For the diets without CaCl2, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was added to provide equimolar levels of Ca. The pigs were fed the diets from 36 kg until slaughter at 113 kg BW, and they were housed in balance cages for 12 d from 60 to 66 kg BW. Supplementation of BA and/or CaCl2 had only minor effect on accumulation of digesta organic acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate) throughout the gastrointestinal tract. A reduction (P , 0.01) in ...
Background: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the drugs of choice for asthma. Corticosteroids can have many detrimental effects on bone mineralization and growth, despite of inhaled administration.. Aims and objectives: To evaluate the association between the long-term use of ICS in childhood and bone mineral density (BMD) in teenagers.. Methods: Ninety-one children hospitalized for wheezing at age ,24 months were prospectively followed until 12.2 (median) years of age. Data on ICS use were collected by interviewing the parents, supplemented by data from patient records. Cumulative doses, the duration of ICS use and systemic steroid doses were calculated. At the last check-up, BMD (BMDareal, g/cm2) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 89 children, and apparent volumetric BMDs (aBMDvol, g/cm3) were calculated for the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Weight, height and pubertal stage were recorded.. Results: The regular use of ICS at age ,6 years was associated with a lower ...
rine calcification rates will change in the future the report warns t......,Report,warns,about,carbon,dioxide,threats,to,marine,life,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The ICCBMT conference series, which has been held every three years or so since , is one of the most important scientific gatherings in the field of biological mineralization. The meeting emphasizes a wealth of physicochemical, biological and clinical topics concerning mineralization processes in vertebrate and invertebrate species.
Investigating the effect of increasing concentrations of β-glycerophosphate on 4T1 cell mineralization.Representative images were captured at 100× magnificati
Published in: Premières Journées JCSEE1 - Chimie, soleil, énergie et environnement, Saint-Avold, France, 3-4 févr. 2000, p. 10 ...
Read Comparison on mineralization of 2,4,6-tribromophenol by UV-based advanced oxidation processes: UV/Na2S2O8 and UV/H2O2, Research on Chemical Intermediates on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Infants will be randomly assigned to one of 3 study groups. Group 1 - physical activity once a day. Group 2 - physical activity twice a day and group 3 - control.. The physical activity program is based on the Moyer-Mileur et al protocol (1). Briefly, this protocol involves extension and flexion range-of-motion exercise against passive resistance of both the upper and lower extremities. Both extension and flexion were performed five times at the wrist, elbow, shoulder, ankle, knee, and hip joints (about 10 minutes for each session). Infant in group 1 have the physical activity intervention once a day, 5 days a week. Infant in group 2 will have the same physical activity intervention twice a day, five times a week. Infant in group 3, the control group will have a similar time (10 minutes) of daily interactive periods of holding and stroking without range-of-motion activity.. The physical activity will be done by the same person (the NICU physiotherapist) Growth parameters, and bone strength, will ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in
Objective: To evaluate the effects of osteoformin on mineralisation and quality of the new bone formation during rapid distraction osteogenesis. ...
In the Sahel region in Africa, and in most arid regions, groundwater is the crucial source for water supply since surface water is scarce. This study aimed to understand a complex geochemical mechanism controlling the mineralization process in the Taoudeni Basin. A thousand randomly distributed groundwater samples acquired from different aquifers were used for this research. The results show that the majority of the samples observed are of the Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3− and Na+-HCO3− types depending on the different aquifers. Mg2+ and Ca2+ may react with HCO3− precipitating as calcite and dolomite. The Na+-HCO3− groundwater type is mainly derived from the ion exchange process. This type indicates a paleo-marine depositional environment or that it passes through paleo-marine channels. Calcium of the standard Ca2+-HCO3− groundwater type exchanges with the sodium. Groundwater is characterized by the water-rock interactions that indicate the chemical alteration of the rock-forming
Channel Sampling is carried out on rocks exposed thats usually done on outcrops, trenches, and walls of a typical exploration and mine stage projects. This procedure of sampling is done by cutting much narrow channels on the rocks surface. Channels in some cases can be made by using a chisel and a hammer, or a diamond saw. One of the best techniques in obtaining channel samples from a specific location is done by using a diamond saw. The reasoning why diamond cutting is pronounced for its cutting ability is because better channel samples of significant quality are obtained. Channels are generally cut through the whole entire vein system or ore-body being sampled, and extend to the wall rocks. This largely depends on the thickness of the mineralization being sampled, and can be tens of metres. Length of each individual sample is known to also vary from 10 cm to 100 cm that largely depends on mineralization style. Width of channels can also range from 5-10 cm, and a depth of approximately 3-5 cm. ...
Inhibition of PPAR gamma 2 by BADGE and Vitamin D in Male Mice Increases Osteoblastogenesis and Inhibits Bone Matrix Mineralization Leading to Osteomalacia. Conference Proceedings ...
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Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Oct;55(10):1714-25. Epub 2016 Jan 20. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kev410 PMID: 26790456 [PubMed - in process]. Traditional BTMs have been used for years to help with fracture risk prediction and in particular for treatment monitoring. Clinical use of the new biochemical markers has not been established so far. Their relationship with fracture risk is still under investigation, and their use as treatment monitoring tools needs to be studied. In fact, their role is probably dependent on a new approach based on our understanding of bone physiology. These new markers will be helpful for exploring the physiological and pathological relations between the bone and other organs, and to monitor joint diseases, chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and cardiovascular disease. mechanisms in the bone or other organs.. ...
Phosphatases are essential for the mineralization of the extracellular matrix within the skeleton. Their precise identities and functions however remain unclear. PHOSPHO1 is a phosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatase involved in the generation of inorganic phosphate for bone mineralization. It …
PURPOSE: To test our hypothesis that differences in urinary calcium excretion among blacks and whites may be secondary to ethnic variations in acid (H(+)) metabolism and to prove that increases in titratable acid excretion would be found among indivi
Introduction The difficulty in re-growing and mineralizing new bone after severe fracture can result in loss of ambulation or limb. Here we describe the sequential roles of FGF-2 in inducing gene expression, cell growth and BMP-2 in gene expression and mineralization of bone. Materials and methods The regulation of gene expression was determined using real-time RTPCR (qRTPCR) and cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation or fluorescent analysis of DNA content in MC3T3E1 osteoblast-like cells. Photomicroscopy was used to identify newly mineralized tissue and fluorescence was used to quantify mineralization. Results Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) had the greatest ability to induce proliferation after 24 hours of treatment when compared to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We found that FGF-2 caused the most significant induction of ...
In osteoporosis, the bone displays normal mineralization. In contrast, osteomalacia is characterized by defective mineralization. Histological examination reveals an increase in the amount of unmineralized bone and disorganized trabecular architecture. Of note, mineralization can only be assessed using special techniques not requiring decalcification of tissue specimens prior to staining ...
Alignment, Bone Mineralization, Calcifications, Distribution Of Joints, Erosions, Soft Tissue And Nails [x-ray Features In Arthritis ...
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By: Dr. Robin B. Dilley, author of In A Moments Notice: A Psychologists Journey with Breast Cancer and a licensed psychologist.. I have written before about this ancient symbol, The Labyrinth. However, I want to write again as I believe in the synchronicity of all events in each of our lives and that information that we need arrives just at the time we need it. I just returned from nine days of being immersed in all things Labyrinth. I returned knowing again that the Labyrinth has something important to share, especially with cancer patients.. That is something you and I have in common. We have been touched by cancer in one form or another and we are learning together how to manage the fear as well the changes to our lives that are so necessary to help us manage the disease with adjunctive holistic approaches such as yoga, exercise, clean eating and spiritual and psychological health.. Each of us are somewhere in our journey of treatment, maybe beginning, middle, or management stage. We did ...
Several denialists have sort to deliberately confuse the readership over the important evidence gathered by Death et al. (2009) on slowing coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Given the recent resurgence in this misinformation, I thought it would be a good idea to post Dr Glenn Death, Dr Janice M. Lough and Dr Katharina E. Fabriciuss recent reply to Dr Peter Ridds confused and misleading claims. The maintenance of coral calcification rates is critical for the future of coral reefs and it is, therefore, important to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the rates of coral calcification. Our recent report showed that substantial declines in coral calcification have occurred on the Great Barrier Reef in the last 20 years (Death et al., 2009), and similar reports are now emerging from other parts of the world (Tanzil et al., 2009). Ridd et al. here suggest that (1) ontogenetic effects, and (2) the last data points at the end of the recent cores, largely explain the ~14% ...
Several denialists have sort to deliberately confuse the readership over the important evidence gathered by Death et al. (2009) on slowing coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Given the recent resurgence in this misinformation, I thought it would be a good idea to post Dr Glenn Death, Dr Janice M. Lough and Dr Katharina E. Fabriciuss recent reply to Dr Peter Ridds confused and misleading claims. The maintenance of coral calcification rates is critical for the future of coral reefs and it is, therefore, important to identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in the rates of coral calcification. Our recent report showed that substantial declines in coral calcification have occurred on the Great Barrier Reef in the last 20 years (Death et al., 2009), and similar reports are now emerging from other parts of the world (Tanzil et al., 2009). Ridd et al. here suggest that (1) ontogenetic effects, and (2) the last data points at the end of the recent cores, largely explain the ~14% ...
Bone, tooth enamel, and dentin accumulate Sr 2+ , a natural trace element in the human body. Sr 2+ comes from dietary and environmental sources and is thought to play a key role in osteoporosis treatments. However, the underlying impacts of Sr 2+ on bone mineralization remain unclear and the use of synthetic apatites (which are structurally different from bone mineral) and non-physiological conditions have led to contradictory results. Here, we report on the formation of a new Sr 2+-rich and stable amorphous calcium phosphate phase, Sr(ACP). Relying on a bioinspired pathway, a series of Sr 2+ substituted hydroxya-patite (HA) that combines the major bone mineral features is depicted as model to investigate how this phase forms and Sr 2+ affects bone. In addition, by means of a comprehensive investigation the biominer-alization pathway of Sr 2+ bearing HA is described showing that not more than 10 at% of Sr 2+ , i.e. a physiological limit incorporated in bone, can be incorporated into HA without phase
Purpureocillium lilacinum can promote the biomineralization of jarosite by secreting extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), but the detailed mechanism is not clear. In this study, the biosynthesis process of jarosite induced by P. lilacinum Y3 and hypha cell surface characterization were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that P. lilacinum Y3 could induce the formation of jarosite crystal and enhance mineralization kinetics. The kinetic and isotherm models confirmed that the metal ions transferring from the solution to the mycelium surface was controlled by diffusion process and the active interfacial sites on hypha cell surface played a pivotal role in the biomineralization process. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pictures illustrated that the P. lilacinum Y3 mainly induced the generation of mineral precipitate extracellularly, but not intracellularly. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectrum results further ...
This study will investigated Asfotase Alfa in patients with hypophosphatasia who completed the investigator-initiated clinical study (HPPJEAP-01) protocol for
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephanie Graser, Birgit Mentrup, Doris Schneider, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Franz Jakob, Christine Hofmann].
Epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown both parallel and reciprocal changes in arterial versus skeletal mineralization. Whereas inflammatory lipids and cytokines appear to promote vascular calcification but inhibit bone mineralization,57,123 some osteoanabolic agents, such as PTH and BMP-7, promote mineralization in the skeleton but suppress it in arteries.63,103,124. The clinical association of aortic calcification with osteoporosis, often age independent, suggests a link between vascular and bone metabolism.125-127 Three causality vectors may apply: (1) vascular calcification promoting bone loss, (2) bone loss promoting vascular calcification, or (3) a common etiology. The first possibility is largely unexplored, although bone loss may be promoted by stenoses of bone supply arteries or by systemic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. The second possibility has more supportive evidence. Bone matrix is rich in regulatory factors that are also active in the vasculature, such ...
The small GTP-binding protein Rad (RRAD, Ras associated with diabetes) is the founding member of the RGK (Rad, Rem, Rem2, and Gem/Kir) family that regulates cardiac voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel function. However, its cellular and physiological functions outside of the heart remain to be elucidated. Here we report that Rad GTPase function is required for normal bone homeostasis in mice, as Rad deletion results in significantly lower bone mass and higher bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) levels. Dynamic histomorphometry in vivo and primary calvarial osteoblast assays in vitro demonstrate that bone formation and osteoblast mineralization rates are depressed, while in vitro osteoclast differentiation is increased, in the absence of Rad ...
Author(s): Ros, Gerard H.; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Hoffland, Ellis | Abstract: Strong relationships between Extractable Organic N (EON) and N mineralization suggest that they can be used to assess the N mineralization potential of soils. EON is often used to proxy Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), which is assumed to play an intermediate role in N mineralization. We tested whether EON relates to N mineralization and how this relation is affected by the extraction methodology used. We synthesized results from 171 papers on correlation coefficients between EON and N mineralization using meta-analysis. EON was positively related to N mineralization, and its size explained 14-65% of the variation in N mineralization. Best results were obtained with hot CaCl2 and acid KMnO4 as extractants. EON extracted with alkali solutions explained less of the variation in N mineralization than the other soil tests. There was no direct relationship between the intensity of extraction and the performance of EON as
The representation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) was analyzed during progressive development of the bone cell phenotype in cultures of normal diploid rat calvarial osteoblasts. Three developmental stages were examined: (a) proliferation; (b) monolayer confluency; and (c) mineralization of the bone extracellular matrix. We demonstrate that the presence of cyclins and cdks is not restricted to the proliferation period. Consistent with their role in cell cycle progression, cdc2 and cdk2 decrease postproliferatively. However, cdk4 and cyclins A, B, and D1 persist in confluent cells. Cyclin E is significantly up-regulated during the extracellular matrix mineralization developmental period. Examination of the cytoplasmic levels of these cell cycle regulatory proteins indicates a marked increase in cyclin B in the late differentiation stage. The elevation of nuclear cyclin E and cytoplasmic cyclin B is not observed in osteoblasts maintained under culture conditions that do not support
2 levels may also play a role.[32] Biomineralization evolved multiple times, independently,[35] and most animal lineages first expressed biomineralized components in the Cambrian period.[36] Many of the same processes are used in unrelated lineages, which suggests that biomineralization machinery was assembled from pre-existing off-the-shelf components already used for other purposes in the organism.[37] Although the biomachinery facilitating biomineralization is complex - involving signalling transmitters, inhibitors, and transcription factors - many elements of this toolkit are shared between phyla as diverse as corals, molluscs, and vertebrates.[38] The shared components tend to perform quite fundamental tasks, such as designating that cells will be used to create the minerals, whereas genes controlling more finely tuned aspects that occur later in the biomineralization process - such as the precise alignment and structure of the crystals produced - tend to be uniquely evolved in ...
2 levels may also play a role.[32]. Biomineralization evolved multiple times, independently,[35] and most animal lineages first expressed biomineralized components in the Cambrian period.[36] Many of the same processes are used in unrelated lineages, which suggests that biomineralization machinery was assembled from pre-existing off-the-shelf components already used for other purposes in the organism.[37] Although the biomachinery facilitating biomineralization is complex - involving signalling transmitters, inhibitors, and transcription factors - many elements of this toolkit are shared between phyla as diverse as corals, molluscs, and vertebrates.[38] The shared components tend to perform quite fundamental tasks, such as designating that cells will be used to create the minerals, whereas genes controlling more finely tuned aspects that occur later in the biomineralization process - such as the precise alignment and structure of the crystals produced - tend to be uniquely evolved in ...
The degree of mineralization of bone matrix is an important factor in determining the mechanical competence of bone. The remodeling and modeling activities of bone cells together with the time course of mineralization of newly formed bone matrix generate a characteristic bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). In this study we investigated the biological variance of the BMDD at the micrometer level, applying a quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) method. We used the mean calcium concentration (CaMean), the most frequent calcium concentration (CaPeak), and full width at half maximum (CaWidth) to characterize the BMDD. In none of the BMDD parameters were statistically significant differences found due to ethnicity (15 African-American vs. 27 Caucasian premenopausal women), skeletal site variance (20 ilium, 24 vertebral body, 13 patella, 13 femoral neck, and 13 femoral head), age (25 to 95 years), or gender. Additionally, the interindividual variance of CaMean and CaPeak, ...
We have shown that performance of highly repetitive tasks is associated with increased serum levels of IL-1alpha and increased activated macrophages in musculoskeletal tissues. Our purpose was to examine expression patterns of genes related to bone mineralization and inflammation in flexor forelimb muscles from young adult and aged (16 months) rats performing a repetitive reaching and grasping tas
1 uM dexamethasone, 10 mM B glycerolphosphate and 50 uM ascorbic new post acid for 14 days. The in duction medium was changed every 3 days, and the bone matrix mineralization was evaluated by Alizarin red S staining. The ARS was ex tracted by adding 10% cetylpyridinium chloride in 8 mM Na2HPO4 and 1. 5 mM KH2PO4 and the absorbance was mea sured by SpectraMax 190 ELISA plate reader at 550 nm. Cell proliferation assay To evaluate the cell proliferation, MTT 2,5 diphenyl 2H tetrazoliumbromide assay was performed as described previously. Briefly, cells were seeded at the density of 1. 5 103 cells/well in 96 well plate and cultured without or with various concentrations of OGT2115. Cells were analyzed every two days by adding Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 10 uL of the MTT to each well and the cells were continued to culture for 4 hr.. After the incubation, the supernatant was discarded and 100 uL of dimethyl sulfoxide was added to each well to dissolve the formazan. The number of cells was ...
Introduction: Mutations in the gene ALPL in hypophosphatasia (HPP) reduce the function of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, and the resulting increase in pyrophosphate (PPi) contributes to bone and tooth mineralization defects by inhibiting physiologic calcium-phosphate (P-i) precipitation. Although periodontal phenotypes are well documented, pulp/dentin abnormalities have been suggested in the clinical literature although reports are variable and underlying mechanisms remains unclear. in vitro analyses were used to identify mechanisms involved in HPP-associated pulp/dentin phenotypes. Methods: Primary pulp cells cultured from HPP subjects were established to assay alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and gene expression compared with cells from healthy controls. Exogenous P-i was provided to the correct P-i/PPi ratio in cell culture. Results: HPP cells exhibited significantly reduced ALP activity (by 50%) and mineral nodule formation (by 60%) compared with the controls. ...
Rentea RM, Lam V, Biesterveld B, Fredrich KM, Callison J, Fish BL, Baker JE, Komorowski R, Gourlay DM, Otterson MF. Radiation-induced changes in intestinal and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase: implications for recovery after radiation therapy. Am J Surg. 2016 Oct; 212(4):602-608 ...
Oscarvit (OSC) is an in-house preparation consisting of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, strontium, Vitamin D, and eggshell membrane hydrolysate containing naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and sulfated glycoproteins. OSC has been used both in an open-label human study and in vitro in osteoblasts. Fifteen patients divided into three groups received oral OSC 0.6 g three times daily for 20 days. The main outcome measures were regional skeletal pain over the treatment period. For the in vitro experiments eight primary human osteoblasts cultures were established from trabecular bone, six of them from the femoral head, and two from the tibia. Cells were cultured for five to 20 days in the presence of 20 μg/ml OSC. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect molecular alterations involved in the mineralization process. Calcium concentration was measured by means of a colorimetric assay and cell viability was analyzed using the LDH cytotoxicity assay. To investigate whether the osteoblasts response
Looking for arterial mineralization? Find out information about arterial mineralization. 1. of, relating to, or affecting an artery or arteries 2. denoting or relating to the usually bright red reoxygenated blood returning from the lungs or... Explanation of arterial mineralization
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Bone tissue is an organic-inorganic composite material that provides mechanical support and protection for our bodies. Its impressive...
Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (AP), revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) and intestinal AP (IAP). This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimers disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant
Initially recognized by Rathbun in 1948, hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP is a phosphomonoesterase of 507 residues and is anchored at its carboxyl terminus to the plasma membrane by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan ...
Initially recognized by Rathbun in 1948, hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP is a phosphomonoesterase of 507 residues and is anchored at its carboxyl terminus to the plasma membrane by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan ...
mineral identifiion flow chart_mineral formation and identifi ion process - Grinding chinagrindingmill mineral formation and identifi ion processMineral Identifiion Flow Chart The Science Queen Mineral Identifiion Flow C
Please email Dr. You at [email protected] if youd like to meet the speaker.. Natural process of mineral formation and dissolution at near-surface conditions are subject to various effects ranging from that of aqueous speciation to biological participation. As such complications arise for laboratory investigations of mineralization and weathering when thermodynamicd is considered the only driving force. Two case studies, one is solution chemistry effect on crystallization and the other microbially mediated dissolution, will be discussed in this presentation to highlight the complexity.. For mineralization, the classical approach states that the net growth rate of mono-molecular layers (ie, step velocity) is determined by the difference between fluxes of species attaching to and detaching from kinks along step edges. Such treatment leads to the development of the widely accepted understanding that step velocity depends solely on solution supersaturation. Yet, literature data from numerous cases argued ...
Wonders of the World specializes in collectible minerals and crystals from all over the world with everything from Aquamarine to Zincite. ...
Download biomineralization medical aspects of solubility.pdf. Free Download with High quality files from our biggest resource. Download PDF, MP3, software, video and more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mineralization of nitrogen and sulphur from sheep faeces. AU - Barrow, N.J.. PY - 1961. Y1 - 1961. M3 - Article. VL - 12. SP - 644. EP - 650. JO - Crop & Pasture Science. JF - Crop & Pasture Science. SN - 1836-0947. ER - ...
美國科學家研究西印度石鼈(Acanthopleura granulata(的貝殼成分 結構 和功能3尤其是眼睛的光學系統3得知眼睛與貝殼均由生物礦化(biomineralization(的碳酸鈣(CaCO3(構成3因眼睛所含晶粒較大且以特定方式排列3不僅堅硬3還可監測周圍環境3看清楚超過2公尺距離的20公分魚或鳥等天敵3以硬殼和緊密吸貼岩石方式抵抗》研究團隊根據此結果測試及模擬其視覺解析度 辨識影像 和機械性能3並創建模型3未來將依據西印度石鼈貝殼表面三種構造模型3開發新型仿生智能可視保護硬膜3這是一種感光清晰和具強韌保護功能的新材料3有不怕水 不怕撞 不怕摔特性3可根據晶形結構 晶粒尺寸 排列規則性和方向性變化改變為眼睛或鎧甲功能3除能製造眼鏡 眼罩 手機 或安全帽等需要視野清楚的商業產品外3還可研發防彈頭盔 護盾 防爆盾牌 ...
Physical Properties of Element Solids, their Compounds and Oxides, and mineral phases at extreme conditions of Pressure and Temprature : an Experimental and theoritical ...
Physiologic" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Calcification, Physiologic" was a major or minor ... "Calcification, Physiologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Calcification, Physiologic" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Calcification, Physiologic". ...
... ions to buffer systemic protons if the kidneys and lungs are unable to maintain acid-base balance within narrow physiologic ... Calcification, Physiologic / physiology* * Cell Proliferation * Cells, Cultured * Collagen / metabolism * Extracellular Matrix ... ions to buffer systemic protons if the kidneys and lungs are unable to maintain acid-base balance within narrow physiologic ...
Calcification, Physiologic * Cartilage / cytology* * Cartilage / metabolism * Cartilage / physiology * Cell Shape* * ...
Calcification, Physiologic / physiology*. Calcium Phosphates / chemistry*. Chemical Precipitation. Extracellular Matrix / ... suggest that lipidic membrane constituents such as PS and Sph may have a controlling influence on MV-mediated calcification in ...
Calcification, Physiologic / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Proliferation. Gene ...
Calcification, Physiologic; Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic; Pathology; Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum; Rare Diseases; Sickle ...
Calcification, Physiologic; Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic; Pathology; Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum; Rare Diseases; Sickle ...
Calcification, Physiologic; Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic; Pathology; Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum; Sickle Cell Trait; ... ENPP1-Fc Fusion Protein Prevents Mortality and Vascular Calcifications in Rodent Model of Generalized Calcification of Infancy ... ENPP1-Fc prevents mortality and vascular calcifications in rodent model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy. Nat ... and calcification disorders that include neonatal orphan diseases. We have recently developed a recombinant biologic to correct ...
Many causes of physiologic intracranial calcification exist. Intraparenchymal cerebral calcifications often represent lesions ... Risk of stroke in a cohort of 815 patients with calcification of the aortic valve with or without stenosis. Stroke 1996;27:847- ... Intracranial calcifications seen on routine noncontrast CT of the head may represent calcified cerebral emboli. In contrast to ... A, Axial 2.5-mm image from noncontrast brain CT shows a gyral calcification in the posterior right frontal lobe (arrow). ...
Benign calcifications. In: Harris JH Jr (ed) Atlas of Mammography. Histologie and Mammographie Correlations. Williams & Wilkins ... Bayar S., Ward B.A. (2001) Physiologic Changes and Benign Perimenopausal Breast Disease. In: Rosenthal R.A., Zenilman M.E., ...
CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space ...
CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space ... The relationship between volumetric bone mineral density and coronary calcification in men and women - results from the ...
Vitamin K: Genetics of Vascular Calcification. Jose Ordovas; Fiscal Year: 2005. ..This research should provide the basis for ... respiratory physiologic phenomena*heart rate*blood pressure*cardiovascular system*physical fitness*exercise*autonomic nervous ... cardiovascular physiologic phenomena. Summary. Summary: Observable or measurable characteristics of CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. ...
What is nutritional calcification? Meaning of nutritional calcification medical term. What does nutritional calcification mean? ... Looking for online definition of nutritional calcification in the Medical Dictionary? nutritional calcification explanation ... calcification. The deposition of calcium in tissues; the term mineralisation is often used for physiologic calcification.. ... calcification. (redirected from nutritional calcification). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. calcification. ...
Physiologic and pathologic calcifications and ossifications in the face and neck. Interpretation Corner ... and clinical significance of accidental findings in electron-beam tomographic scans for coronary artery calcification. Eur ... and clinical significance of accidental findings in electron-beam tomographic scans for coronary artery calcification. Eur ...
Calcification, Physiologic*. *Minerals/chemistry*. *Phosphates/chemistry*. Minor. *Animals. *Apatites/chemistry. *Bacteria/ ...
Calcification, Physiologic/physiology. *Cells, Cultured. *Chick Embryo. *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. *Limb Buds/ ...
Normal physiologic, Dystrophic (diseased tissues), Metastatic (not anaplasia, calcification of normal tissue). ... Describe cyst wall calcification.. Calcium deposition w/in the all of an abnormal fluid-filled structure; calcification shows ... Calcification, usually benign; no calcification is malignant until proven otherwise. What are primary malignant neoplasms in ... Mulberry calcification. Who gets leiomyomas and what are they?. Women, common in uterus; benign tumor containing smooth muscle ...
Basal Ganglia: Physiologic Calcifications Alexander M. McKinney. Pages 427-440 * Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging: Concepts, ...
Patients demonstrate pericapillary calcifications in the cortex and basal ganglia at an early age; severe neuronal loss in the ...
Caseous calcification of mitral annulus. Kalayci, A; Karabay, CY; Sismanoglu, M; Kocabay, G; Kullu, S; Uslu, Z; Kırma, C // ... Introduction: Beating heart surgery on normothermic bypass simulates physiologic cardiac status. Objectives: This study ...
Physiologic calcification. Search for additional papers on this topic. Explore Further: Topics Discussed in This Paper. ...
Physiologic Fixation Process. Pressure fixation of valves can compromise the function and durability of the bioprosthesis.1,2,3 ... AOA treatment is Medtronics biochemical approach to mitigating calcification in the wall and leaflets of tissue valves. It is ... No clinical data are available that evaluate the long-term impact of AOA® tissue treatment and the Physiologic Fixation process ... Our third generation of tissue valve technology brings you AOA® tissue treatment, the Physiologic Fixation™ process, and now, ...
1984) Magnesium: natures physiologic calcium blocker. Am Heart J 108:188-193. ... abdominal aortic calcification. AS. Agatston score. CAC. coronary artery calcification. CKD. chronic kidney disease. CT. ... 2008) Media calcification and intima calcification are distinct entities in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3: ... Coronary artery calcification (CAC) (1-3) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) (3-5) are measures of advanced ...
Calcifications are not visible in the pericardium on the frontal view. The azygos vein is moderately distended. View Media ... Restrictive disease (stiff muscle), such as that in dialysis patients with chronic amyloidosis, mimics the physiologic pattern ... Calcifications are not visible in the pericardium on the frontal view. The azygos vein is moderately distended. View Media ... Note the pericardial calcification inferior to the heart in this CT scan. Marked dilatation of the inferior vena cava is ...
Difficulties in analysis arise especially on CT because of physiologic calcification, asymmetry, and the bulbous cornucopiae ... We assessed BochFB for: (a) calcification, (b) lateral extension, (c) enhancement pattern, (d) cornucopiae shape, (e) symmetry ... proximity to tortuous vertebral arteries and morphometry of cornucopiae size and length of BochFB limbs.BochFB calcification ...
Physiologic Pineal Region, Choroid Plexus, and Dural Calcifications in the First Decade of Life. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, first ...
The physiologic mechanisms that link obesity to atherosclerosis are still not very clear and not always explainable by ... Effect of lipid modification on progression of coronary calcification. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005;16(Suppl. 2):S115-S119pmid: ... The calcifications in the vascular system are believed to be part of an organized process akin to the calcium hydroxyapatite ... Insulin resistance independently predicts the progression of coronary artery calcification. Am Heart J 2009;157:939-945pmid: ...
2010). Akt1 in murine chondrocytes controls cartilage calcification during endochondral ossification under physiologic and ... Akt knockout mice show delayed calcification (Chen et al., 2001; Fukai et al., 2010; Peng et al., 2003), whereas calcification ...
2011). MOVAS-1 cell line: a new in vitro model of vascular calcification. Int. J. Mol. Med. 27, 663-668. ... 2006). Physiologic and pathologic functions of the NPP nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family focusing on NPP1 in ... Global deletion of Enpp1 results in decreased PPi levels, leading to ectopic calcification of blood vessels and cartilage. ... 2011). The appearance and modulation of osteocyte marker expression during calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. PLoS ...
  • However, a significant point to keep in mind is that pericardial calcification may not be present in up to 20% of cases of CP and it may be present in the absence of constrictive physiology. (statpearls.com)
  • Coronary artery calcification (CAC) (1-3) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) (3-5) are measures of advanced atherosclerosis that predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality independently of traditional CVD risk factors. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The physiologic mechanisms that link obesity to atherosclerosis are still not very clear and not always explainable by traditional risk factors ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In peripheral arterial disease, vitamin D status was related to the decline of the functional performance, severity, atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers, arterial stiffness, vascular calcifications, and arterial aging. (hindawi.com)
  • Experimental observations indicating that lack of activities of both Klotho and FGF23 may cause decreased life span, premature aging and accelerated atherosclerosis and generalized vascular calcifications have raised the question whether FGF23 could be a new risk factor and predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease in both renal and non-renal patient groups. (springer.com)
  • In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. (ovid.com)
  • Background Animal and cell studies suggest that magnesium may prevent calcification within atherosclerotic plaques underlying cardiovascular disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts. (harvard.edu)
  • dystrophic calcification the deposition of calcium in abnormal tissue, such as scar tissue or atherosclerotic plaques, without abnormalities of blood calcium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vascular calcification is common in physiologic and pathologic conditions such as aging, diabetes, dyslipidemia, genetic diseases, and diseases with disturbances of calcium metabolism ( 12 - 14 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Patients with ESRD have a high circulating calcium (Ca) × phosphate (P) product and develop extensive vascular calcification that may contribute to their high cardiovascular morbidity. (asnjournals.org)
  • Uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia and high calcium phosphate product constitute risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications, cardiac ischemia, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, yet inflammation may be an even more important trigger of vascular calcification than these metabolic derangements. (asnjournals.org)
  • I then move the focus on vascular calcifications and alterations in calcium phosphate metabolism ( i.e. , on a risk factor peculiar to chronic renal failure) to end with emerging risk factors. (asnjournals.org)
  • What seems clear is that nanobacteria are efficient nuclei of mineralization which start the formation of apatite crystalline structures from soluble calcium and phosphorus compounds at physiologic concentrations and conditions, such as in tissue culture medium. (wordpress.com)
  • [1] Normally the pericardium lacks any calcium deposits and calcification may be a sign of underlying inflammation or a more sinister etiology. (statpearls.com)
  • The relationship between volumetric bone mineral density and coronary calcification in men and women - results from the Copenhagen General Population Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Intracranial calcifications may represent calcified cerebral emboli. (ajnr.org)
  • They serve as the initial site of calcification in all skeletal tissues. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo measurements of irreversible and reversible transverse relaxation rates in human basal ganglia at 7 T: making inferences about the microscopic and mesoscopic structure of iron and calcification deposits. (harvard.edu)
  • Bichet D, Lum G, Handelman W, Schrier R (1981) Basal ganglia calcification and symptomatic hypernatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. (springer.com)
  • Introduction: Beating heart surgery on normothermic bypass simulates physiologic cardiac status. (ebscohost.com)
  • In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. (ovid.com)
  • Intimal and medial calcification of the coronary arteries was evaluated. (asnjournals.org)
  • Medial calcification was seen in a small number of CKD4/5 and CKD5D groups. (asnjournals.org)
  • Medial calcification occurred only in CKD patients. (asnjournals.org)
  • Autopsy studies are limited in terms of patient selection, but have a major advantage in terms of being able to distinguish intimal from medial calcification. (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, our primary goal is to determine whether, among autopsy subjects known to have CAD, there exists a direct relationship between level of kidney function and the prevalence of intimal or medial calcification. (asnjournals.org)
  • VSMC in the normal artery wall constitutively express potent inhibitors of calcification, such as matrix Gla protein (MGP), whose absence results in spontaneous medial calcification ( 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Matrix Gla protein (MGP), an inhibitor of mineralization, is expressed by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to inhibit calcification of those soft tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Note the pericardial calcification inferior to the heart in this CT scan. (medscape.com)
  • These results suggest that lipidic membrane constituents such as PS and Sph may have a controlling influence on MV-mediated calcification in vivo by affecting the release of intravesicularly formed mineral crystals into the extracellular matrix space where they can subsequently grow and proliferate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Extracellular matrix mineralization is an essential physiologic process in bone, teeth, and hypertrophic cartilage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Avoidance of thrombosis of the management strategies classic indications or valve replacement mitral valve prolapse mvp or mitral stenosis mitral annular calcification left atrial satwation of iv therapy. (roanokechowan.edu)
  • Our third generation of tissue valve technology brings you AOA ® tissue treatment, the Physiologic Fixation™ process, and now, the Cinch ® Implant System - demonstrating our commitment to innovation. (medtronic.com)
  • AOA treatment is Medtronic's biochemical approach to mitigating calcification in the wall and leaflets of tissue valves. (medtronic.com)
  • 1,2,3 The Physiologic Fixation process, used in Medtronic's third generation tissue valves, was developed to address the problem of structural valve deterioration caused by mechanical stress and is designed to maintain native collagen structure and porcine aortic root and leaflet geometry. (medtronic.com)
  • Calcification was initiated by release from living VSMC of membrane-bound matrix vesicles (MV) and also by apoptotic bodies from dying cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Phase 1 is initiated by cells generating calcifiable matrix vesicles and releasing them into sites of intended calcification. (nih.gov)
  • We observed strong, favorable associations between higher self-reported total (dietary and supplemental) magnesium intake and lower calcification of the coronary arteries," the researchers reported. (purityproducts.com)
  • However, the cellular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification in this context are poorly understood. (asnjournals.org)
  • Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a skeletal abnormality apparent as a plug of non-vascularized, non-mineralized, white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes involved in matrix mineralization and calcification. (frontiersin.org)
  • Calcification of the cartilage can be associated with senescent changes, particularly in older women. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Calcification, Physiologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Among nutritional minerals, it's also one of the most versatile: a broad range of physiologic processes depend on magnesium to function properly. (purityproducts.com)
  • The potent mineralization inhibitor matrix Gla protein was found to be present in MV, and pretreatment of VSMC with warfarin markedly enhanced vesicle calcification. (asnjournals.org)
  • These vesicles contain mineralization inhibitors derived from VSMC and serum, and perturbation of the production or function of these inhibitors would lead to accelerated vascular calcification. (asnjournals.org)
  • VSMC-derived MV have been associated with calcification in vivo , but their composition and function are poorly understood ( 12 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Ventricles enlarged/ hydrocephalus , mass effect with displacement of normal structures, some bleeding, abnormal calcifications in tumors or old subdural hematomas, fractures. (healthtap.com)
  • First, we found that during normal bone development, MGP is expressed in specific time and locations, starting from wide-spread expression in the yet un-ossified diaphysis during embryonic development, to specific expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the chondro-osseous junction and the secondary ossification center just prior to calcification. (frontiersin.org)
  • Following Kajander's lead other authors have reported nanobacteria in association with a variety of pathological calcifications, such as kidney stones (nephrolithiasis), gallstones (cholecystolithiasis), vascular plaques, ovarian and breast cancer and many others. (wordpress.com)
  • Anatomic imaging findings, such as calcifications (see the images below) and thickening of the pericardium , may be present, but the most reliable and most important findings are related to the filling pattern of the heart. (medscape.com)
  • And individual pulmonary mechanics of the most common ae if dosing not adjusted unless adequate oxygenation and ventilation, typical anatomic and physiologic immaturity. (roanokechowan.edu)
  • In the case of unruptured aneurysms, early and late complications are usually more severe in older patients, due to association with systemic morbidities and loss of adequate physiologic homeostasis 2 , 3 . (scielo.br)
  • Polymorphisms in one of these enzymes has recently been discovered to confer stroke protection to pediatric sickle cell patients, and calcification disorders that include neonatal orphan diseases. (yale.edu)
  • Restrictive disease (stiff muscle), such as that in dialysis patients with chronic amyloidosis, mimics the physiologic pattern of constrictive disease (stiff muscle). (medscape.com)
  • In CKD patients, vascular calcification is even more common, developing early and contributing to the markedly increased cardiovascular risk. (asnjournals.org)
  • Several studies have been undertaken to investigate whether calcification occurs in the intima or media of the coronaries and whether the morphologic details of calcified plaques differ between renal and nonrenal patients ( 12 - 14 , 24 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • At baseline, 43.9 percent of patients had severe calcification and 49.5 percent had diabetes. (acc.org)
  • Thus, there is clearly a need for further research in this area, and special interest should be paid to the physiologic consequences of high FGF23/low Klotho state, which is typical for patients with CKD. (springer.com)
  • CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. (ovid.com)
  • Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. (ovid.com)
  • 6 Compared to intraductal carcinomas, these malignancies are more likely to have round or oval shape with circumscribed margins and less likely to have any combination of irregular shape, spiculated margins, segmentally distributed pleomorphic calcifications, and posterior acoustic shadowing. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 4 During expiration, CT images will demonstrate physiologic anterior bowing of the posterior non-cartilaginous aspect of the intrathoracic trachea with little change in contour of the anterolateral tracheal wall (Figure 3). (appliedradiology.com)
  • Calcification is initiated in nodules by release of apoptotic bodies (AB) and matrix vesicle (MV)-like structures from VSMC that act as a nidus for BCP nucleation ( 10 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Intraperitoneal pyrophosphate treatment reduces renal calcifications in Npt2a null mice. (yale.edu)
  • Renal function and traditional risks were linked to initimal calcification. (asnjournals.org)
  • What are the 3 types of abdominal calcifications? (studystack.com)
  • Where is the most common site for calcification of the abdominal aorta to be seen? (studystack.com)
  • What is the second most frequent site for abdominal arterial calcification? (studystack.com)
  • Describe mass-like abdominal calcifications. (studystack.com)
  • Objectives The aim of this study was to examine whether magnesium intake is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Amyloidosis does not cause CP, but it can cause a restrictive cardiomyopathy that can mimic the clinical, imaging, and physiologic alterations of CP. (medscape.com)
  • Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. (ovid.com)
  • To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. (ovid.com)
  • Conclusions In community-dwelling participants free of cardiovascular disease, self-reported magnesium intake was inversely associated with arterial calcification, which may play a contributing role in magnesium's protective associations in stroke and fatal coronary heart disease. (onlinejacc.org)

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