Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Astringents: Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Huntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)

Energy-based de novo protein folding by conformational space annealing and an off-lattice united-residue force field: application to the 10-55 fragment of staphylococcal protein A and to apo calbindin D9K. (1/704)

The conformational space annealing (CSA) method for global optimization has been applied to the 10-55 fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A (protein A) and to a 75-residue protein, apo calbindin D9K (PDB ID code), by using the UNRES off-lattice united-residue force field. Although the potential was not calibrated with these two proteins, the native-like structures were found among the low-energy conformations, without the use of threading or secondary-structure predictions. This is because the CSA method can find many distinct families of low-energy conformations. Starting from random conformations, the CSA method found that there are two families of low-energy conformations for each of the two proteins, the native-like fold and its mirror image. The CSA method converged to the same low-energy folds in all cases studied, as opposed to other optimization methods. It appears that the CSA method with the UNRES force field, which is based on the thermodynamic hypothesis, can be used in prediction of protein structures in real time.  (+info)

Expression of calcium binding protein D-9k messenger RNA in the mouse uterine endometrium during implantation. (2/704)

To investigate the molecular mechanisms of implantation, we constructed a cDNA library of mouse uteri enriched with pregnancy-induced genes by subtractive hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One of the isolated clones was the cDNA for the calcium binding protein D-9k (Cabp9k), which is considered to regulate intracytoplasmic concentration and transport of free calcium ions. Northern blot and in-situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that the Cabp9k mRNA was expressed in the endometrial epithelia, both luminal and glandular, in the uterus at the time of implantation. On pregnancy day 5 it was detected in the luminal, but not in the glandular, epithelia. In the oophorectomized adult mice, progesterone enhanced Cabp9k mRNA expression in the uterus, whereas oestrogen did not. Consistent with this, a nucleotide change was identified in the first intron of mouse Cabp9k gene corresponding to the oestrogen responsive element in the rat Cabp9k gene. Transfer of embryos into the uterine cavity of pseudopregnant mice reduced the expression of Cabp9k mRNA in the glandular epithelium, suggesting that Cabp9k mRNA expression is also regulated by embryonal signal(s). These findings demonstrated that Cabp9k mRNA is expressed in the endometrial epithelia during the implantation period under the control of progesterone and the presence of embryo, and suggest that CaBP9k plays a role in implantation by regulating the local calcium concentrations.  (+info)

Distribution of cholinergic contacts on Renshaw cells in the rat spinal cord: a light microscopic study. (3/704)

1. Cholinergic terminals in the rat spinal cord were revealed by immunohistochemical detection of the vesicular acetycholine transporter (VAChT). In order to determine the relationships of these terminals to Renshaw cells, we used dual immunolabelling with antibodies against gephyrin or calbindin D28k to provide immunohistochemical identification of Renshaw cells in lamina VII of the ventral horn. 2. A total of 50 Renshaw cells were analysed quantitatively using a computer-aided reconstruction system to provide accurate localization of contact sites and determination of somatic and dendritic surface area. Dendrites could be traced for up to 413 microm from the soma in calbindin D28k-identified Renshaw cells and up to 184 microm in gephyrin-identified cells. 3. A total of 3330 cholinergic terminals were observed on 50 Renshaw cells, with a range of 21-138 terminal appositions per cell (mean 66.6 +/- 25.56 contacts per cell). The vast majority (83.5 %) of the terminals were apposed to dendrites rather than the soma. The overall density of cholinergic contacts increased from a little above 1 per 100 microm2 on the soma and initial 25 microm of proximal dendrites to 4-5 per 100 microm2 on the surface of dendritic segments located 50-250 microm from the soma. Single presynaptic fibres frequently formed multiple contacts with the soma and/or dendrites of individual Renshaw cells. 4. VAChT-immunoreactive terminals apposed to Renshaw cells varied in size from 0.6 to 6.9 microm in diameter (mean 2.26 +/- 0.94; n = 986) and were on average smaller than the cholinergic C-terminals apposed to motoneurones, but larger than VAChT-immunoreactive terminals contacting other ventral horn interneurones. 5. The high density and relatively large size of many cholinergic terminals on Renshaw cells presumably correlates with the strong synaptic connection between motoneurones and Renshaw cells. The fact that the majority of contacts are distributed over the dendrites makes the motoneurone axon collateral input susceptible to inhibition by the prominent glycinergic inhibitory synapses located on the soma and proximal dendrites. The relative positions and structural features of the excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory glycinergic synapses may explain why Renshaw cells, although capable of firing at very high frequency following motor axon stimulation, appear to fire at relatively low rates during locomotor activity.  (+info)

Molecular identification of the apical Ca2+ channel in 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-responsive epithelia. (4/704)

In mammals, the extracellular calcium concentration is maintained within a narrow range despite large variations in daily dietary input and body demand. The small intestine and kidney constitute the influx pathways into the extracellular Ca2+ pool and, therefore, play a primary role in Ca2+ homeostasis. We identified an apical Ca2+ influx channel, which is expressed in proximal small intestine, the distal part of the nephron and placenta. This novel epithelial Ca2+ channel (ECaC) of 730 amino acids contains six putative membrane-spanning domains with an additional hydrophobic stretch predicted to be the pore region. ECaC resembles the recently cloned capsaicin receptor and the transient receptor potential-related ion channels with respect to its predicted topology but shares less than 30% sequence homology with these channels. In kidney, ECaC is abundantly present in the apical membrane of Ca2+ transporting cells and colocalizes with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent calbindin-D28K. ECaC expression in Xenopus oocytes confers Ca2+ influx with properties identical to those observed in distal renal cells. Thus, ECaC has the expected properties for being the gatekeeper of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent active transepithelial Ca2+ transport.  (+info)

Immunohistological studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6-deficient mice show no abnormality of retinal cell organization and ganglion cell maturation. (5/704)

Immature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) initially show a multistratified dendritic pattern, and, during the postnatal period, these dendrites gradually monostratify into ON and OFF sublaminae. The selective agonist of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP-4), hyperpolarizes ON bipolar cells and reduces glutamate release. On the basis of L-AP-4-evoked inhibitory effects on ON-OFF segregation of developing RGCs, it has been hypothesized that glutamate-mediated synaptic activity is crucial for formation of the ON-OFF network. Gene-targeted ablation of mGluR6 specifically expressed in ON bipolar cells blocks normal ON responses but has been predicted to enhance glutamate release from ON bipolar cells. The mGluR6 knock-out mouse therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate whether glutamate release and ON responses are important factors in the development of ON-OFF segregation. The combination of several different morphological analyses indicates that ON bipolar cells, as well as several distinct amacrine cells, in mGluR6 knock-out mice are normally distributed and correctly extend their terminals to defined retinal laminae. Importantly, both alpha and delta RGCs in adult mGluR6 knock-out mice are found monostratified into cell type-specific layers. Furthermore, no difference between wild-type and mGluR6 knock-out mice is observed in the maturation and dendritic stratification of developing RGCs. Hence, despite a deficit in normal ON responses, mGluR6 deficiency causes no abnormality in the retinal cellular organization nor in the stratifications of both ON bipolar cells and developing and mature RGCs. Based on these findings, we discuss several possible mechanisms that may underlie ON-OFF segregation of RGCs.  (+info)

Expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in hypothyroid rat brain indicates an important role of thyroid hormone in the development of specific primary sensory systems. (6/704)

Thyroid hormone is an important epigenetic factor in brain development, acting by modulating rates of gene expression. The active form of thyroid hormone, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is produced in part by the thyroid gland but also after 5'-deiodination of thyroxine (T4) in target tissues. In brain, approximately 80% of T3 is formed locally from T4 through the activity of the 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2), an enzyme that is expressed mostly by glial cells, tanycytes in the third ventricle, and astrocytes throughout the brain. D2 activity is an important point of control of thyroid hormone action because it increases in situations of low T4, thus preserving brain T3 concentrations. In this work, we have studied the expression of D2 by quantitative in situ hybridization in hypothyroid animals during postnatal development. Our hypothesis was that those regions that are most dependent on thyroid hormone should present selective increases of D2 as a protection against hypothyroidism. D2 mRNA concentration was increased severalfold over normal levels in relay nuclei and cortical targets of the primary somatosensory and auditory pathways. The results suggest that these pathways are specifically protected against thyroid failure and that T3 has a role in the development of these structures. At the cellular level, expression was observed mainly in glial cells, although some interneurons of the cerebral cortex were also labeled. Therefore, the T3 target cells, mostly neurons, are dependent on local astrocytes for T3 supply.  (+info)

Specification of somatosensory area identity in cortical explants. (7/704)

The H-2Z1 transgene is restricted to a subset of layer IV neurons in the postnatal mouse cortex and delineates exactly the somatosensory area. Expression of the H-2Z1 transgene was used as an areal marker to determine when the parietal cortex becomes committed to a somatosensory identity. We have shown previously that grafts dissected from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) H-2Z1 cortex and transplanted into the cortex of nontransgenic newborns express H-2Z1 according to their site of origin. Expression was not modified on heterotopic transplantation (). In the present study, whole cortical explants were isolated at E12.5 from noncortical tissues. The explants developed a regionalized expression of H-2Z1, indicating that regionalization takes place and is maintained in vitro. We used this property and confronted embryonic H-2Z1 cortex with presumptive embryonic sources of regionalizing signals in an in vitro grafting procedure. A great majority of E11.5-E13.5 grafts maintained their presumptive expression of H-2Z1 when grafted heterotopically on nontransgenic E13.5-E15.5 explants. However, a significantly lower proportion of E11.5 parietal grafts expressed H-2Z1 in occipital compared with parietal cortex, indicating that somatosensory identity may be partially plastic at E11.5. Earlier stages could not be tested because the E10.5 grafts failed to develop in vitro. The data suggest that commitment to the expression of a somatosensory area-specific marker coincides with the onset of neurogenesis and occurs well before the birth of the non-GABAergic neurons that express H-2Z1 in vivo.  (+info)

Expression of the striatal DARPP-32/ARPP-21 phenotype in GABAergic neurons requires neurotrophins in vivo and in vitro. (8/704)

The medium spiny neuron (MSN) is the major output neuron of the caudate nucleus and uses GABA as its primary neurotransmitter. A majority of MSNs coexpress DARPP-32 and ARPP-21, two dopamine and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoproteins, and most of the matrix neurons express calbindin. DARPP-32 is the most commonly used MSN marker, but previous attempts to express this gene in vitro have failed. In this study we found that DARPP-32 is expressed in <12% of E13- or E17-derived striatal neurons when they are grown in defined media at high or low density in serum, dopamine, or Neurobasal/N2 (Life Technologies), and ARPP-21 is expressed in <1%. The percentage increases to 25% for DARPP-32 and 10% for ARPP-21 when the same cells are grown in Neurobasal/B27 (Life Technologies) for 7 d. After growth in Neurobasal/B27 plus brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for 7 d, E13-derived MSNs are 53.7% DARPP-32-positive and 29. 0% ARPP-21-positive; E17-derived MSNs are 66.8% DARPP-32-positive and 51.5% ARPP-21-positive. The percentage of calbindin-positive neurons also is increased under these conditions. Finally, ARPP-21 expression is reduced in mice with a targeted deletion of the BDNF gene. We conclude that BDNF is required for the maturation of a large subset of patch and matrix MSNs in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we introduce a culture system in which highly differentiated MSNs may be generated, maintained, and studied.  (+info)

Inhibitory GABAergic interneurons are important for shaping patterns of activity in neocortical networks. We examined the distributions of inhibitory interneuron subtypes in layer II/III of areas V1 and V2 in 18 genera of anthropoid primates including New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and hominoids (apes and humans). Interneuron subtypes were identified by immunohistochemical staining for calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin and densities were quantified using the optical disector method. In both V1 and V2, calbindin-immunoreactive neuron density decreased disproportionately with decreasing total neuronal density. Thus, V1 and V2 of hominoids were occupied by a smaller percentage of calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons compared to monkeys who have greater overall neuronal densities. At the transition from V1 to V2 across all individuals, we found a tendency for increased percentages of calbindin-immunoreactive multipolar cells and calretinin-immunoreactive interneurons. In addition, ...
DAB staining of tissue with this antibody showed high specificity and very low background at a concentration of 1:2000. For fluorescence staining of tissue. the optimal concentration was 1:1000.. This was also tested on neurons in culture where a clear difference between Calbindin-positive and -negative was seen at a concentration of 1:1000.. This was not tested for IP or WB.. ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Calbindin D-28K Antibody - Pre-diluted. Validated: IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
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Looking for online definition of Epithelial calcium channel 2 in the Medical Dictionary? Epithelial calcium channel 2 explanation free. What is Epithelial calcium channel 2? Meaning of Epithelial calcium channel 2 medical term. What does Epithelial calcium channel 2 mean?
In dieser Arbeit werden Struktur-Funktionsbeziehungen in der medialen entorhinalen Hirnrinde untersucht. Schicht 2 Neurone im medialen entorhinalen Cortex unterteilen sich in calbindin-positive Pyramidenzellen und calbindin-negative Sternzellen. Calbindin-positive Pyramidenzellen bündeln ihre apikalen Dendriten zusammen und formen Zellhaufen, die in einem hexagolen arrangiert sind. Das Gitter von calbindin-positiven Pyramidenzellhaufen ist an Schicht 1 Axonen und dem Parasubiculum ausgerichtet und wird durch cholinerge Eingänge innerviert. Calbindin-positive Pyramidenzellen zeigen stark theta-modulierte Aktivität. Sternzellen sind vertreut in der Schicht 2 angeordnet und zeigen nur schwach theta-modulierte Aktivität, ein Befund, der gegen eine Rolle von zell-intrinsischen Oszillationen in der Entstehung von Theta-Modulation spricht. In der Arbeit wurden Methoden entwickelt, um durch die juxtazelluläre Färbung und Identifikation von Zellen, die räumlichen Feuermuster von Schicht 2 Sternzellen
1BOC: The solution structures of mutant calbindin D9ks, as determined by NMR, show that the calcium-binding site can adopt different folds.
1IG5: Structural basis for the negative allostery between Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-binding in the intracellular Ca(2+)-receptor calbindin D9k.
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Calbindin je termín označující skupinu transportních proteinů v buňkách tenkého střeva a v ledvinách. Tyto proteiny jsou závislé na funkci vitaminu D a umožňují absorpci vápníku ze střeva a ledvinných tubulů do organizmu ...
the equilibrium constant for a solubility reaction. A general solubility equation could be written as: MX (s) M+ (aq) + X- (aq) where MX represents an ionic solid, M+ the positive ion, and X- the negative ion. Since pure solids have an activity of 1, they are not included in equilibrium constant expressions. Therefore, the K expression for this reaction is: Since the concentration of either ion, [M+] or [Cl-] is the amount of MX that dissolved, (in other words, MXs solubility) and the result of multiplying two numbers is called a "product", this kind of K expression is called a "solubility product", and given the symbol Ksp. Therefore the K expression would normally be written ...
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Recombinant human Calbindin D9K was cloned from bovine cDNA and expressed inE.coli. It bounds to one Ca and one Ln ion. Two calcium ions are bound in the Calbindin D9K version. The protein consists of Calbindin D9K, mutant P47M (residues 5-79, swissprot a
Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this...
The vomeronasal organs (VNOs) of two humans, a male neonate and a female adult, were examined for immunolocalization of calbindin-D28k (calbindin) which has been immunolocalized to VNO receptor cells in other mammals. The present study demonstrates that epithelial cells within the VNOs of both subjects expressed calbindin-like immunoreactivity. These results suggest that human VNO epithelial cells of both genders express calbindin during development and in the adult.
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Calcium binding protein information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Discussion. Study design. In this study, we describe the analysis of 22K gene expression profiles of macular and peripheral RPE cells. There have been a number of other published studies that had a similar research question but employed different methodologies [8,17-21]. However, all of these studies suffered from one or more relative weaknesses in terms of sample selection, RPE cell handling, target selection, as well as microarray- or bioinformatics methods. Our aim was to avoid these limitations as much as possible (Table 5 and Table 6).. While the number of samples we used was limited, our entire strategy was focused on reduction of gene expression differences between individual eyes. In this study, we detected only consistent differences, more or less present in the RPE of each individual eye. We neither detected transient gene expression differences nor potential differences which co-occurred with high interindividual variation. The complexity of our material was greatly reduced by ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Parvalbumin alpha / PVALB, 0.1 ml. Parvalbumin?is a?calcium-binding?albumin?protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa).
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:3:90511034:90514392:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000022107 transcript:OTTMUST00000052482 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:S100a1 description:S100 calcium binding protein A1 ...
S100A12 - S100A12 (untagged)-Human S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100A12) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Recombinant protein of human S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
We have isolated a full-length cDNA clone for a novel 29 kDa protein that is highly expressed in rat enamel cells. The clone… Expand ...
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is known to modulate Ca2+ metabolism in several cell types. Vitamin-D-dependent calcium binding proteins such as calbindin-D28K (28 kDa calcium binding proteins) have been shown to be regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 but the mechanisms controlling calbindin synthesis are still poorly understood in human osteoblast cell culture models. The human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC) described in this paper developed a calcified matrix, expressed osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP) and responded to 1,25(OH)2D3. The expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Calbindin-D28K protein was identified only in cells arising from the sixth subculture, which exhibited a calcified matrix and all of the osteoblastic markers, e.g. OC and OP. It was demonstrated by dot-immunodetection using immunological probes, and by in situ hybridization using labelled cDNA probes. Moreover, vitamin D3 enhanced calbindin-D28K synthesis as well as OC ...
Looking for online definition of S100 calcium binding protein A3 in the Medical Dictionary? S100 calcium binding protein A3 explanation free. What is S100 calcium binding protein A3? Meaning of S100 calcium binding protein A3 medical term. What does S100 calcium binding protein A3 mean?
Animals. Two strains of transgenic mice, each bearing a jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter, were used. The mPer1::d2EGFP transgenic mouse (termed here Per1::GFP; a gift from Dr. D. McMahon, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN) was made with the B6C3F1 hybrid mouse as described previously (Kuhlman et al., 2000). The mice used in the present studies were hemizygous for the d2EGFP transgene, which is a degradable form of GFP.. The calbindin-D28K-bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)::GFP transgenic mouse (termed here CalB::GFP; a gift from Dr. N. Heintz, Rockefeller University, New York, NY) was made by insertion of enhanced GFP (EGFP) (Yang et al., 1997) in the calbindin BAC (Research Genetics/Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) by homologous recombination. The homologous region was upstream of the start codon of the calbindin gene. The first stretch of the sequence included the calbindin-D28K promoter followed by the first linker sequence and then the EGFP construct followed by the second ...
Motor neurons become hyperexcitable during progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This abnormal firing behavior has been explained by changes in their membrane properties, but more recently it has been suggested that changes in premotor circuits may also contribute to this abnormal activity. The specific circuits that may be altered during development of ALS have not been investigated. Here we examined the Renshaw cell recurrent circuit that exerts inhibitory feedback control on motor neuron firing. Using two markers for Renshaw cells (calbindin and cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit alpha2 [Chrna2]), two general markers for motor neurons (NeuN and vesicular acethylcholine transporter [VAChT]), and two markers for fast motor neurons (Chondrolectin and calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha [Calca]), we analyzed the survival and connectivity of these cells during disease progression in the Sod1G93A mouse model. Most calbindin-immunoreactive (IR) Renshaw cells survive to end stage but
The encoded protein is a secreted calcium-binding protein which is found in the cytoplasm. It is related to calbindin D-28K and calretinin. This protein is thought to be involved in potassium chloride-stimulated calcium flux and cell proliferation.[6] This protein plays an important role in the release of the stress hormone Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and which only then enables stress processes in the brain. ...
At least three CaBPs are abundant in various types of nerve cells : calbindin-D28, calretinin, and parvalbumin. The sequence of chick calretinin, from cDNA clones, is 60% homologous to that of chick...
The present investigation has demonstrated that ionizing radiation in the therapeutic dose range stimulates a transient cellular generation of ROS/RNS. Temporally coincident is a radiation-induced reversible depolarization of the mitochondrial ΔΨ and decrease in mitochondrial entrapped calcein fluorescence, both hallmarks of the mitochondrial permeability transition. The amount of ROS/RNS generated is relatively constant over the dose range tested, but the number of cells that respond increases with the dose. The radiation-induced ROS/RNS generation, ΔΨ depolarization, and calcein release are inhibited by CsA but not by the structural analogue, CsH. Overexpression of the Ca2+-binding protein calbindin 28K or treatment of cells with BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, also effectively block radiation-induced ROS/RNS. The increased ROS/RNS generation observed with radiation is common to all of the cell types examined but for one important exception, the mitochondrial DNA-less ρo ...
The idea of Professors Bolis and Gilles to gather together for a 3 days meeting in the splendid environment of Crans-Montana in Switzerland a limited number of people around the subject of calcium an
Cornelissen, WB; de Laet, AB; Kroese, AB; Adriaensen, DW; van Bogaert, PP; Scheuermann, DW; Timmermans, JP (Oct 1999). Species-dependent features of Dogiel type II neurones in the mammalian enteric nervous system. European Journal of Morphology. 37 (4-5): 241-9. doi:10.1076/ejom.37.4.241.4730. PMID 10477469 ...
casSAR Dugability of Q9DB16 | Cab39l | Calcium-binding protein 39-like - Also known as CB39L_MOUSE, Cab39l. Component of a complex that binds and activates STK11/LKB1. In the complex, required to stabilize the interaction between CAB39/MO25 (CAB39/MO25alpha or CAB39L/MO25beta) and STK11/LKB1 (By similarity). Component of a trimeric complex composed of STK11/LKB1, STRAD (STRADA or STRADB) and CAB39/MO25 (CAB39/MO25alpha or CAB39L/MO25beta): the complex tethers STK11/LKB1 in the cytoplasm and stimulates its catalytic activity.
CAB39 antibody (calcium binding protein 39) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CAB39 pAb (GTX110628) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Leyuan Bao, Adam F Odell, Sam L Stephen, Stephen B Wheatcroft, John H Walker, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam].
To date, unequivocal neuroanatomical features have been demonstrated neither for sporadic nor for familial schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the neuroanatomical changes in a transgenic rat model for a subset of sporadic chronic mental illness (CMI), which modestly overexpresses human full-length, non-mutant Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), and for which aberrant dopamine homeostasis consistent with some schizophrenia phenotypes has previously been reported. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed a reduced density of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reduced dopaminergic fibres in the striatum. Parvalbumin-positive interneuron occurrence in the somatosensory cortex was shifted from layers II/III to V/VI, and the number of calbindin-positive interneurons was slightly decreased. Reduced corpus callosum thickness confirmed trend-level observations from in vivo MRI and voxel-wise tensor based morphometry. These neuroanatomical changes help explain functional phenotypes of this ...
Osteopathic Medicine;Vitamin D-Binding Protein;Vitamin D Deficiency;Vitamin D;Hypercalcemia;S100 Calcium Binding Protein G;Bone Diseases;Calbindins;Calcifediol;Calcification, Physiologic;Gene Targeting;Hyperparathyroidism;Parathyroid Hormone;RNA ...
Striatal fast spiking interneurons (FSI) modulate the output of the striatum by synchronizing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSN). Recent studies have broadened our understanding of FSI, showing that they are implicated in severe motor disorders such as Parkinsonism, dystonia and Tourette syndrome. FSI are the only striatal neurons to express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). This selective expression of PV raises questions about the functional role of this Ca2+ buffer in controlling FSI Ca2+ dynamics, and, consequently, the FSI spiking mode and neurotransmission.
Worldwide expansion of mobile phones and electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure has raised question of their possible biological effects on the brain and nervous system. Radiofrequency (RF) radiation might alter intracellular signaling pathways through changes in calcium (Ca(2+)) permeability across cell membranes. Changes in the expression of calcium binding proteins (CaBP) like calbindin D28-k (CB) and calretinin (CR) could indicate impaired Ca(2+)homeostasis due to EMF exposure. CB and CR expression were measured with immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus of mice after EMF exposure at 835 MHz for different exposure times and absorption rates, 1 h/day for 5 days at a specific absorption rate (SAR)=1.6 W/kg, 1 h/day for 5 days at SAR=4.0 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=1.6 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=4.0 W/kg, daily exposure for 1 month at SAR=1.6 W/kg. Body weights did not change significantly. CB immunoreactivity (IR) displayed moderate staining of cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) areas and ...
... , Authors: M Rosario Fernandez-Fernandez, Alan R Fersht. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
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Shortall, S. E., Brown, A. M., Newton-Mann, E., Dawe-Lane, E., Evans, C., Fowler, M., & King, M. V. (2020). Calbindin Deficits May Underlie Dissociable Effects of 5-HT6 and mGlu7 Antagonists on Glutamate and Cognition in a Dual-Hit Neurodevelopmental Model for Schizophrenia. Molecular Neurobiology, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-01938-x © 2020, The Author(s). Despite several compounds entering clinical trials for the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, few have progressed beyond phase III. This is partly attributed to a need for improved preclinical models, to understa... Read More about Calbindin Deficits May Underlie Dissociable Effects of 5-HT6 and mGlu7 Antagonists on Glutamate and Cognition in a Dual-Hit Neurodevelopmental Model for Schizophrenia. ...
Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
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Complete information for S100G gene (Protein Coding), S100 Calcium Binding Protein G, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
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Vitamin D-dependent calcium binding proteins were discovered in the cytosolic fractions of chicken intestine, and later in mammalian intestine and kidney, by workers including Robert Wasserman of Cornell University. They bound calcium in the micromolar range and were greatly reduced in vitamin D-deficient animals. Expression could be induced by treating these animals with vitamin D metabolites such as calcitriol. They were found to exist in two distinct sizes with a molecular weight of approximately 9 kDa and 28 kDa. They were renamed calbindin. Calbindin-D9k (S100G) is found in mammalian intestine and calbindin-D28k is in avian intestine and in mammalian kidney and other tissues. Calcium-binding protein Wasserman, RH; Taylor, AN (1966). "Vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa". Science. 152 (3723): 791-3. doi:10.1126/science.152.3723.791. PMID 17797460. Wasserman, RH; Corradino, RA; Taylor, AN (1969). "Binding proteins from animals with possible transport ...
S100 Calcium Binding Protein B (S100B) is an acidic calcium binding protein and a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular mechanism in biological transport in the kidney. T2 - Calcium transporters (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, calcium binding proteins, Ca channels, Ca-ATPase). AU - Takeuchi, Kazuhisa. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33646155543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33646155543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 16523878. AN - SCOPUS:33646155543. VL - 64 Suppl 2. SP - 150. EP - 152. JO - Astrophysical Journal. JF - Astrophysical Journal. SN - 0004-637X. ER - ...
Reticulocalbin 1 is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the elongation factor (EF) family and is located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In humans, reticulocalbin 1 is encoded by the RCN1 gene. It contains six conserved regions with similarity to a high-affinity calcium-binding motif known as the EF hand. Other functions besides calcium binding have been proposed for reticulocalbin 1 in mouse, but its role is not clear. Expression of reticulocalbin 1 in human endothelial and prostate cancer cell lines demonstrates its localization to the plasma membrane. Reticulocalbin 1 is also known as reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain; RCN, RCAL, proliferation-inducing gene 20 (PIG20), and FLJ370411.. ...
Currently the TRPV family has six members grouped into three subfamilies. TRPV1 and TRPV2 are the vanilloid receptors and vanilloid-like receptors, VR-1 and VRL-1, respectively. TRPV4 is the osm-9-like OTRPC4, and TRPV5 and TRPV6 are the Ca2+-selective channels, ECaC1/CaT2 (Epithelial Calcium Channel/Calcium Transporter) and ECaC2 (also called CaT1).. The vanilloid receptors are the most well understood ion channels in this class (Caterina and Julius, 2001). VR-1 (TRPV1) is activated by the "hot" pepper-derived vanilloid compound capsaicin (Caterina et al., 1997) but is not activated by store depletion. The expressed capsaicin receptor is a relatively Ca2+-selective ion channel with an outwardly rectifying I-V relation and exhibits Ca2+-dependent desensitization. Endogenous cannabinoids receptor ligands, such as anandamide, are potential TRPV1 agonists. The exact mechanism of TRPV1 activation is not completely understood, but it is sensitive to heat (,43°C), but the temperature at which it is ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the calcium-binding protein superfamily that includes calmodulin and troponin C. Originally described as a 27 kDa protein, it is now known to be a 28 kDa protein. It contains four active calcium-binding domains, and has two modified domains that are thought to have lost their calcium binding capability. This protein is thought to buffer entry of calcium upon stimulation of glutamate receptors. Depletion of this protein was noted in patients with Huntington disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015 ...
Results At baseline gene expression of MTOR, MMP-9, cathepsin K, and TNFα measured in the PBMCs was significantly upregulated (p,0.05) in the examined RA patients compared to healthy subjects. Significant downregulation of MTOR gene expression in response to RAP treatment of the PBMCs in three of the examined patients compared to the untreated cells was associated with significant inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and the joint destruction-related MMP-9 and cathepsin K gene expression. The absence of RAP effect on MTOR gene expression in the PBMCs of other examined patients compared to untreated counterparts was accompanied by no change in gene expression of the examined pro-inflammatory mediator and genes associated with bone turnover. ...
Parvalbumin in human brain.: Parvalbumin was isolated from human cerebral cortex and biceps and triceps muscles by HPLC. The immunological properties of the hum
Complete information for S100A2 gene (Protein Coding), S100 Calcium Binding Protein A2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
100 µg purified IgG, lyophilized. Albumin and azide were added for stabilization. For reconstitution add 100 µl H2O to get a 1mg/ml solution in PBS. Then aliquot and store at -20°C until use ...
This week we begin testing the new CALB gray cell, the CA180FI. As I mentioned in the last post, these new cells sport some interesting improvements. The most minor, and most welcome, is they are labeled with a serial number and a tested Ah capacity. The cells are manufactured on a newer, much larger production line ...
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Background: Secretagogin (Scgn), a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein (CaBP) superfamily, has recently been found in subsets of developing and adult neurons. Here, we have analyzed the expression of Scgn in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ganglia (TGs), and in spinal cord of mouse at the mRNA and protein levels, and in comparison to the well-known CaBPs, calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin and calretinin. Rat DRGs, TGs and spinal cord, as well as human DRGs and spinal cord were used to reveal phylogenetic variations. Results: We found Scgn mRNA expressed in mouse and human DRGs and in mouse ventral spinal cord. Our immunohistochemical data showed a complementary distribution of Scgn and the three CaBPs in mouse DRG neurons and spinal cord. Scgn was expressed in similar to 7% of all mouse DRG neuron profiles, mainly small ones and almost exclusively co-localized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This co-localization was also seen in human, but not in rat DRGs. Scgn could ...
GS: Where are you from? EL: Roanoke, Alabama. GS: What degree will you receive and when? EL: I expect to receive a Ph.D. in Psychology with a concentration in Behavioral Neuroscience in Summer 2011.. GS: How long have you been at UAB? EL: I have been at UAB for 7 years, receiving a B.S. in Psychology in 2005 and working on my doctoral degree.. GS: What is your research? EL: My project focuses on the transcriptional regulation of inhibitory interneurons during brain development. During my first two years, I found that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha is required for the expression of the interneuron-specific calcium binding protein parvalbumin in the forebrain. This finding is "sexy," so to speak, for two main reasons. First, parvalbumin-positive interneurons control the activity of large populations of principle neurons throughout cortex and hippocampus and are thought to be the driving force behind gamma oscillations in the brain. Second, PGC-1alpha is highly inducible by ...
GS: Where are you from? EL: Roanoke, Alabama. GS: What degree will you receive and when? EL: I expect to receive a Ph.D. in Psychology with a concentration in Behavioral Neuroscience in Summer 2011.. GS: How long have you been at UAB? EL: I have been at UAB for 7 years, receiving a B.S. in Psychology in 2005 and working on my doctoral degree.. GS: What is your research? EL: My project focuses on the transcriptional regulation of inhibitory interneurons during brain development. During my first two years, I found that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha is required for the expression of the interneuron-specific calcium binding protein parvalbumin in the forebrain. This finding is "sexy," so to speak, for two main reasons. First, parvalbumin-positive interneurons control the activity of large populations of principle neurons throughout cortex and hippocampus and are thought to be the driving force behind gamma oscillations in the brain. Second, PGC-1alpha is highly inducible by ...
Calcium-binding protein that may play a role in the regulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels (PubMed:28398555). May also play a role in cyclic-nucleotide-mediated signaling through the regulation of adenylate and guanylate cyclases (By similarity).
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Monoklonale und polyklonale Calretinin Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Calretinin Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Calcium absorption is regulated by both active (transcellular) and passive (paracellular) pathways. Although each pathway has been studied, correlations between the two pathways have not been well elucidated. In previous investigations, the critical transcellular proteins, calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and -D28k (CaBP-28k), were shown to affect other transcellular pathways by buffering intracellular calcium concentrations. The rate of paracellular calcium transport in the duodenum is generally determined by the expression of tight junction genes. In the present study, the effect of dietary calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on the expression of tight junction genes (occludin, ZO-1 and claudin 2, 10b, 12 and 15) in the duodenum of CaBP-9k- and/or -28k-deficient mice was examined. With a normal diet, the expression of most tight junction genes in the duodenum was significantly increased in CaBP-9k knockout (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) animals. With a calcium- and vitamin D-deficient diet, tight
Renshaw cell properties have been studied extensively for over 50 years, making them a uniquely well-defined class of spinal interneuron. Recent work has revealed novel ways to identify Renshaw cells in situ and this in turn has promoted a range of studies that have determined their ontogeny and organization of synaptic inputs in unprecedented detail. In this review we illustrate how mature Renshaw cell properties and connectivity arise through a combination of activity-dependent and genetically specified mechanisms. These new insights should aid the development of experimental strategies to manipulate Renshaw cells in spinal circuits and clarify their role in modulating motor output.
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Does anyone know of good calcium binding assay Thanks Anne George -- ANNE GEORGE Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. USA ageorge at casbah.acns.nwu.edu ...
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Vitamin D is a secosteroid of nutritional origin but can also be generated in the skin by ultraviolet light. After two hydroxylations 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D avidly binds and activates the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear transcription factor, hereby regulating a large number of genes. The generation of VDR deficient mice has expanded the knowledge on vitamin D from a calcium-regulating hormone to a humoral factor with extensive actions. The effects of the vitamin D system on calcium and bone homeostasis are largely mediated by promoting active intestinal calcium transport via the induction of the epithelial calcium channel TRPV6. Although VDR is redundant in bone, it may regulate the differentiation and function of several bone cells. In skin, VDR expression in keratinocytes is essential in a ligand-independent manner for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. Therefore, VDR but not vitamin D deficiency results in alopecia. Moreover, 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D impairs the proliferation not only of ...
In Alzheimers disease and other degenerative brain diseases, some types of nerve cells are more vulnerable to degeneration than others. Nerve cells known as the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) are especially vulnerable. These cells are known to be important for memory and attention, both of which decline in patients with Alzheimers disease. Calbindin is a protein found inside nerve cells that binds to calcium. It protects nerve cells from abnormal increases in calcium, which can cause degeneration of the cell. Changiz Geula, Ph.D., and colleagues have found that the levels of calbindin decline in BFCN cells during normal aging. They theorize that such declines may leave the cells vulnerable to degeneration caused by abnormally high calcium levels.. Dr. Geula and colleagues plan to study the role of calbinin in Alzheimers disease using two approaches. In the first approach, they will study the levels of calbindin in the BFCN cells that remain in individuals affected by Alzheimers ...
Canine OS cells contain preformed CatK within cytoplasmic vesicles. In OS cells, TGFβ1 induced the secretion of CatK, which degraded bone-derived type I collagen in vitro. CatK concentrations were higher in dogs with OS than healthy dogs (11.3 ± 5.2 pmol/L versus 8.1 ± 5.0 pmol/L, P = .03). In a subset of dogs with OS, pretreatment CatK concentrations gradually decreased after palliative radiation and antiresorptive treatment, from 9.3 ± 3.2 pmol/L to 5.0 ± 3.1 pmol/L, P = .03. ...
In the frog retina most bipolar cells, sparsely distributed amacrine cells and some ganglion cells contain calretinin (CaR). Double-label immunocytochemistry shows that in the Xenopus retina many calretinin positive amacrine cells are also gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (IR), none col …
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Synthesis.. Both reviewers agreed that thorough morphological characterization of localization of calcium binding proteins CaBP1 and CaBP1 together with functional and anatomical characterization of mouse knockouts lacking respective genes are significant results of potential interest to understanding retina organization. There were concerns regarding the accuracy of some claims and both reviewers agreed that lack of the quantitative analysis in the first part of the manuscript (morphology) makes the report less appealing. Particularly, a weakness of the manuscript identified by both reviewers is the uncertainty about where in the retinal circuitry CaBP1 and CaBP2 exert their influence on kinetics which limits the impact of the study. Specifically I would like to direct your attention to the following areas that would be critical for you to address should you choose to resubmit your manuscript.. 1.Quantification of the morphological features examined in this study, which may be important for ...
This gene encodes calbindin D9K, a vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. This cytosolic protein belongs to a family of ... Jeung EB, Krisinger J, Dann JL, Leung PC (Sep 1992). "Molecular cloning of the full-length cDNA encoding the human calbindin- ... 2004). "Control of differentiation-induced calbindin-D9k gene expression in Caco-2 cells by cdx-2 and HNF-1α". Am. J. Physiol. ... "Entrez Gene: S100G S100 calcium binding protein G". Balmain N (1991). "Calbindin-D9k. A vitamin-D-dependent, calcium-binding ...
They were renamed calbindin. Calbindin-D9k (S100G) is found in mammalian intestine and calbindin-D28k is in avian intestine and ...
"Entrez Gene: calbindin 2". Parmentier M, Passage E, Vassart G, Mattei MG (1991). "The human calbindin D28k (CALB1) and ... Calretinin also known as 29 kDa calbindin is a calcium-binding protein involved in calcium signaling. In humans, the calretinin ... Expression was found in different neurons than that of the similar vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, calbindin-28kDa ...
The territory is stained for calbindin. The mediator of the pallido-thalamic connection is the inhibitor GABA. The ...
41: 151-158 François, C., Yelnik, J., Percheron, G.and Tandé, D.(1994) Calbindin-D-28K as a marker of the associative coertical ... The VL is stained for calbindin and acetylcholinesterase. The axons ascend in the nucleus where they branch profusely. The VL ...
It is related to calbindin D-28K and calretinin. This protein is thought to be involved in potassium chloride-stimulated ...
IMPA1 has been shown to interact with Bergmann glial S100B and calbindin. L-690,330 is a competitive inhibitor of IMPase ... Schmidt H, Schwaller B, Eilers J (April 2005). "Calbindin D28k targets myo-inositol monophosphatase in spines and dendrites of ... Berggard T, Szczepankiewicz O, Thulin E, Linse S (2003). "Myo-inositol monophosphatase is an activated target of calbindin D28k ... "Myo-inositol monophosphatase is an activated target of calbindin D28k". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (44): 41954-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Cited over 1500 times Celio MR (1990). "Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin in the rat nervous system". Neuroscience. 35 (2): 375- ...
... this is particularly evident on the components of acetylcholinesterase and calbindin. Types of cells in the striatum include: ...
Vitamin D also increases transcription of genes that code for Calbindin. As the name implies, Calbindin functions as a calcium- ...
Calbindin is expressed by cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells of hippocampus. The reorganization and migration of ... calbindin-stained Purkinje neurons in rat cerebellum after peripheral nerve injury suggests that calbindin may be a marker for ...
A specific, recognizable feature of Purkinje neurons is the expression of calbindin. Calbindin staining of rat brain after ... Whitney ER, Kemper TL, Rosene DL, Bauman ML, Blatt GJ (2008). "Calbindin-D28k is a more reliable marker of human Purkinje cells ...
"Calbindin 1, fibroblast growth factor 20, and alpha-synuclein in sporadic Parkinson's disease". Hum. Genet. 124 (1): 89-94. doi ...
... s express somatostatin and sometimes calbindin, but not parvalbumin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. ...
Calbindin is a protein involved in calcium ion transport within cells, and excess calcium in cells is toxic. The calbindin ... Secondly, dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta contain less calbindin than other dopaminergic neurons. ... "Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons in the Mouse that Contain Calbindin-D28kExhibit Reduced Vulnerability to MPTP-induced ...
Lutz W, Frank EM, Craig TA, Thompson R, Venters RA, Kojetin D, Cavanagh J, Kumar R (2003). "Calbindin D28K interacts with Ran- ...
However, some reports have indicated that Renshaw cells synthesize calcium-binding proteins calbindin-D28k and parvalbumin. ...
Other calcium-binding protein markers are calretinin (most abundant subtype in DLPFC, about 50%) and calbindin. Interneurons ... calbindin D-28k or parvalbumin in monkey prefrontal cortex: distribution and morphology". J. Comp. Neurol. 341 (1): 95-116. doi ... the role of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k, calretinin and parvalbumin, in cerebellar physiology. Studies with ...
The latter group is represented by calbindin D9k and do not undergo calcium dependent conformational changes. EPS15 homology ( ... and Ca2+ buffers such as calreticulin and calbindin D9k. While the majority of the known EF-hand Calcium-binding proteins ( ...
The calbindin proteins were shown as likely elements in the inhibitory circuitry of the claustrum, while the calretinin most ... including calbindin D28K, parvalbumin, and calretinin. After removing the brains and properly preserving them, the group used ...
Choline deficiency alters global histone methylation and epigenetic marking at the Re1 site of the calbindin 1 gene. FASEB J. ...
These cells, which show intense immunoreactivity for calbindin and calretinin, are characterized by their large size and axonal ...
Woo TU, Shrestha K, Lamb D, Minns MM, Benes FM (April 2008). "N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor and Calbindin-Containing Neurons in ... calbindin, targeting the dendrites of pyramidal neurons, and the expression of the mRNA for the GluR5 kainate receptor in GABA ...
... the last being calbindin positive. The ventral tier is considered as A9v. The dorsal tier A9d is linked to an ensemble ...
... or calbindin-immuno-reactive neurons (CIR neurons), are widely distributed and diffusely dispersed in each of the nuclei of the ...
They were renamed calbindin. Calbindin-D9k (S100G) is found in mammalian intestine and calbindin-D28k is in avian intestine and ...
Calbindin-D9k may also stimulate the basolateral calcium-pumping ATPases. Expression of calbindin-D9k, like that of calbindin- ... calbindin-D9k has two EF-hands, and calbindin-D28k has six. Calretinin is a 29kDa protein with 58% homology to calbindin-D28k ... Calbindin-D9k is present in mammalian intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes). Calbindin-D9k can also be found in the kidney ... In the brain, its synthesis is independent of vitamin-D. There is no homology between calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k, apart ...
... Steven Roy Daviss sdaviss at COSY.AB.UMD.EDU Wed Nov 17 09:49:08 EST 1993 *Previous message: ... See Lund and Lewis, JCN, 1993, for description of these in primates.) We found that calbindin-ir neurons were 50-70% increased ... those immunoreactive for CALBINDIN and for CALRETININ. ( ...
Calbindin D-28k occurs in all major pathways of the limbic system with the exception of the fornix. Calbindin D-28k is, however ... Springer, Berlin) is very rich in calbindin D-28k. The distribution of calbindin D-28k-positive neurons is very similar to that ... Calbindin D-28k is primarily associated with long-axon neurons (Golgi type I cells) exemplified by thalamic projection neurons ... Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin in the rat nervous system.. Celio MR1. ...
K. Sooy, J. Kohut, and S. Christakos, "The role of calbindin and 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D. 3. in the kidney," Current Opinion in ... M. Takashi, Y. Zhu, K. Miyake, and K. Kato, "Urinary 28-kD calbindin-D as a new marker for damage to distal renal tubules ... Meso Scale Discovery and Luminex Comparative Analysis of Calbindin D28K. Samer Sourial, Maritha Marcusson-Ståhl, and Karin ... S. Hasegawa, K. Kato, M. Takashi et al., "Increased levels of calbindin-D in serum and urine from patients treated by ...
1IG5: Structural basis for the negative allostery between Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-binding in the intracellular Ca(2+)-receptor calbindin D9k.
... calbindin-D9k explanation free. What is calbindin-D9k? Meaning of calbindin-D9k medical term. What does calbindin-D9k mean? ... Looking for online definition of calbindin-D9k in the Medical Dictionary? ... calbindin-D9k. calbindin-D9k. A calcium-binding protein encoded by S100G, which is found in the intestinal epithelial cells. It ... Calbindin-D9k , definition of calbindin-D9k by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/calbindin- ...
Synaptic reorganization of calbindin-positive neurons in the human hippocampal CA1 region in temporal lobe epilepsy.. Wittner L ... Numerous calbindin-positive interneurons are preserved even in the strongly sclerotic CA1 region. The morphology of individual ... Calbindin-positive interneurons participate in this reorganization: they show plastic changes in response to epilepsy. The ... Even in the non-sclerotic epileptic samples, where pyramidal cells are present and calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons seem ...
Calretinin, CR, Calb2, calbindin 2.. Introduction. Calretinin is an intracellular calcium-binding protein belonging to the ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Calbindin D-28K Antibody - Pre-diluted. Validated: IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100 ... Additional Calbindin D-28K Products. Calbindin D-28K NBP1-35393 * Calbindin D-28K Antibodies ... Home » Calbindin D-28K » Calbindin D-28K Antibodies » Calbindin D-28K Antibody - Pre-diluted ... Blogs on Calbindin D-28K. There are no specific blogs for Calbindin D-28K, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
In the adult rat cerebral cortex the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin D28k are present in essentially non- ... Transient colocalization of parvalbumin and calbindin D28k in the postnatal cerebral cortex: evidence for a phenotypic shift in ... These proteins follow different developmental patterns in the cortex: calbindin D28k-immunoreactive nonpyramidal neurons are ... To determine whether parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons derive from calbindin D38k positive cells we used double- ...
Find and compare multiple sources of anti-Calbindin antibody using the Linscotts Directory search engine. Monoclonal, ... Calbindin (Calbindin D28, D-28K, Spot 35 Protein, Vitamin D-dependent Calcium-binding Protein, Avian-type, Calb1). ... Recognizes mouse Calbindin (CALB). Immunogen. CALB (Glu3~Asn261); MRNKKFELGL EFPNLPYYID GDVKLTQSMA IIRYIADKHN MLGGCPKERA ...
Research proven mouse monoclonal Calbindin D anibody. EXcellent for immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and related ... Calbindin-D, also known as Calbindin 1, is a Vitamin D-dependent cytoplasmic protein in the EF-hand calcium binding protein ... Calbindin-D is widely expressed and regulates calcium homeostasis. Calbindin-D protects neurons from excitotoxic and apoptotic ... Calbindin D staining of paraffin-embedded human cerebellum and frozen rat hypothalamus sections using 25 µg/mL mouse anti-human ...
The solution structures of mutant calbindin D9ks, as determined by NMR, show that the calcium-binding site can adopt different ... CALBINDIN D9K A 76 Bos taurus Mutation: A15D, P20G, P43M Gene Name(s): S100G Gene View CALB3 S100D ... THE SOLUTION STRUCTURES OF MUTANT CALBINDIN D9KS, AS DETERMINED BY NMR, SHOW THAT THE CALCIUM BINDING SITE CAN ADOPT DIFFERENT ...
1-calbindin D9k reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the Apo(Ca2+)II1(Ca2+)I,II2 binding pathway. ... Solution structure of (CD2+)1-calbindin D9K reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the apo (CA2+)II1 ( ...
1-calbindin D9k reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the Apo(Ca2+)II1(Ca2+)I,II2 binding pathway. ... CALBINDIN D9K A 76 Bos taurus Mutation: P43G Details: BOVINE MINOR A FORM, CADMIUM-HALF-SATURATED, CADMIUM ION IS BOUND IN C- ... Solution structure of (CD2+)1-calbindin D9K reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the apo (CA2+)II1 ( ...
All mutants have modifications in the first calcium-binding site of calbindin (the N-terminal site designated the pseudo-EF- ... THE SOLUTION STRUCTURES OF MUTANT CALBINDIN D9KS, AS DETERMINED BY NMR, SHOW THAT THE CALCIUM BINDING SITE CAN ADOPT DIFFERENT ... The solution structures of mutant calbindin D9ks, as determined by NMR, show that the calcium-binding site can adopt different ... The complete 1H NMR assignments have been obtained for five mutant proteins of calbindin D9k and the three-dimensional solution ...
Calbindin. Calbindin je termín označující skupinu transportních proteinů v buňkách tenkého střeva a v ledvinách. Tyto proteiny ...
We report studies of the human calbindin-D9k promoter. Differences between the reported sequences of the human calbindin-D9k ... Factors involved in the duodenal expression of the human calbindin-D9k gene. Natalie F. BARLEY, S. Radhika PRATHALINGAM, Pang ... Calbindin-D9k is expressed in the cytoplasm of intestinal cells, where it is critical for dietary calcium absorption. Two ... The calbindin-D9k gene contains multiple potential binding sites for homeobox transcription factors; one of these, known as IPF ...
Calbindin-D28k is unique in that it functions as both a calcium buffer and a sensor protein. It is found in many tissues, ... Calbindin-D28k is known to bind four calcium ions and upon calcium binding undergoes a conformational ... Calbindin-D28k is a calcium binding protein with six EF hand domains. ... Calbindin-D28k is a calcium binding protein with six EF hand domains. Calbindin-D28k is unique in that it functions as both a ...
Synthesis of calbindin-D28K during mineralization in human bone marrow stromal cells. Corinne FAUCHEUX, Reine BAREILLE, Joëlle ... Calbindin-D28K protein was identified only in cells arising from the sixth subculture, which exhibited a calcified matrix and ... In conclusion, the studies in vitro described in the present paper indicate, for the first time, a possible role of calbindin- ... Moreover, vitamin D3 enhanced calbindin-D28K synthesis as well as OC synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity. Uptake of 45 ...
Overall levels of calbindin were higher in the HP of corticosterone-treated birds, due almost entirely to elevated calbindin ... Calbindin-D28k is constitutively expressed in cells of the nervous system but increases in concentration following a neurotoxic ... Calbindin-D28k Expression Increases in the Dorsolateral Hippocampus Following Corticosterone Treatment in Female Zebra Finches ... We hypothesized that treatment of female zebra finches with a glucocorticoid (corticosterone) would increase calbindin ...
Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex in patients with frontal lobe dementia of non-Alzheimer ... Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex in patients with frontal lobe dementia of non-Alzheimer ... Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex in patients with frontal lobe dementia of non-Alzheimer ...
Calbindin 28K and calretinin are very similar calcium binding proteins which are both present in the central nervous system ( ... Calbindin 28K is also present in the endocrine system. We have examined the cellular distribution of calbindin in the ... Calbindin 28K and calretinin are very similar calcium binding proteins which are both present in the central nervous system ( ... Pochet R, Pipeleers DG and Malaisse WJ (1987). Calbindin D 27 kDa: preferential localization in non-B islet cells of the rat ...
Calbindin D-28k Parvalbumin GABA MeSH Terms expand_less. expand_more. Animals Calbindins Calcium Carrier Proteins Cats ... 5. Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were round, oval, spindle or polygonal in shape and were 15~20 ... 3. Calbindin immunoreactive cells in the substans nigr were more than twice in number compared to the parvalbumin ... Immunocytochemical Studies of Calbindin D-28k and Parvalbumin-Containing GABAergic Neurons in the Midbrain of the Cat. ...
  • Calbindin D-28k is, however, also found in some short-axon cells (Golgi type II), represented by spinal cord interneurons in layer II and interneurons of the cerebral cortex. (nih.gov)
  • The distribution, morphology, synaptic coverage and postsynaptic targets of calbindin-containing interneurons and afferent pathways have been analyzed in the control and epileptic CA1 region of the human hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • Numerous calbindin-positive interneurons are preserved even in the strongly sclerotic CA1 region. (nih.gov)
  • Even in the non-sclerotic epileptic samples, where pyramidal cells are present and calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons seem to be unchanged, some modifications could be observed at the electron microscopic level: they received more inhibitory synaptic input, and the calbindin-positive excitatory afferents - presumably derived from the CA1, the CA2 and/or the dentate gyrus - are sprouted. (nih.gov)
  • In the strongly sclerotic tissue, with the death of pyramidal cells, calbindin-positive terminals (belonging to interneurons and the remaining excitatory afferents) change their targets. (nih.gov)
  • Calbindin-positive interneurons participate in this reorganization: they show plastic changes in response to epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • As a general characterization it can be stated that calbindin antibodies mainly label cells with thin, unmyelinated axons projecting in a diffuse manner. (nih.gov)
  • We have examined the cellular distribution of calbindin in the pancreatic endocrine cells of chick, rat and human and found variable distribution among the different endocrine cell types. (springer.com)
  • The calbindin-D 28k was decreased in the putamen, the dorsal tier of the substantia nigra along the lower border of the red nucleus, and in the cerebellar cortex in multiple system atrophy. (nih.gov)
  • Recientes caracterizaciones en los cambios en la expresión génica dependiente de la edad han mostrado que el envejecimiento del cerebro humano requiere de un conjunto específico de vías biológicas en un continuo a través del curso de toda la vida, y que los mismos genes que están asociados con el envejecimiento normal se implican frecuentemente y de igual forma en la depresión como en otros trastornos cerebrates. (nih.gov)
  • En este artículo se revisan las caracteristicas distintivas del envejecimiento cerebral en términos de cambios en la función génica a lo largo del tiempo, y luego se enfoca en la evidencia que sustenta un acelerado envejecimiento molecular en la depresión. (nih.gov)
  • M. Takashi, Y. Zhu, K. Miyake, and K. Kato, "Urinary 28-kD calbindin-D as a new marker for damage to distal renal tubules caused by cisplatin-based chemotherapy," Urologia Internationalis , vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 174-179, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • Upon binding to Ca2+, this motif may undergo conformational changes that enable Ca2+-regulated functions as seen in Ca2+ effectors such as calmodulin (CaM) and troponin C (TnC) and Ca2+ buffers such as calreticulin and calbindin D9k. (wikipedia.org)