Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Astringents: Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.Secretagogins: Secretagogins are EF HAND MOTIF-containing calcium-binding proteins that are involved in early neuronal migration and neurogenesis. They are also present in many adult organs and in brain and endocrine neoplasms.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.EF Hand Motifs: Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.Spinothalamic Tracts: A bundle of NERVE FIBERS connecting each posterior horn of the spinal cord to the opposite side of the THALAMUS, carrying information about pain, temperature, and touch. It is one of two major routes by which afferent spinal NERVE FIBERS carrying sensations of somaesthesis are transmitted to the THALAMUS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCalcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Retinal Horizontal Cells: NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Nystagmus, Congenital: Nystagmus present at birth or caused by lesions sustained in utero or at the time of birth. It is usually pendular, and is associated with ALBINISM and conditions characterized by early loss of central vision. Inheritance patterns may be X-linked, autosomal dominant, or recessive. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p275)Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Airports: Terminal facilities used for aircraft takeoff and landing and including facilities for handling passengers. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Martial Arts: Activities in which participants learn self-defense mainly through the use of hand-to-hand combat. Judo involves throwing an opponent to the ground while karate (which includes kung fu and tae kwon do) involves kicking and punching an opponent.History of NursingKinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Chlorpropamide: A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Hermissenda: A genus of marine sea slugs in the family Glaucidae, superorder GASTROPODA, found on the Pacific coast of North America. They are used in behavioral and neurological laboratory studies.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cycloleucine: An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Ependymoglial Cells: The macroglial cells of EPENDYMA. They are characterized by bipolar cell body shape and processes that contact BASAL LAMINA around blood vessels and/or the PIA MATER and the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Rehabilitation: Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Neurophysiology: The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Fibril-Associated Collagens: A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Neuroendocrine Cells: Specialized NEURONS that produce hormones, such as NEUROPEPTIDES or BIOGENIC AMINES. They generally are in the NERVOUS SYSTEM, such as HYPOTHALAMUS, but can be found in other organs or systems. These neurons contain dense neurosecretory granules and PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES allowing the rapidly release of NEUROHORMONES into the blood circulation upon stimulation.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Classical Lissencephalies and Subcortical Band Heterotopias: Disorders comprising a spectrum of brain malformations representing the paradigm of a diffuse neuronal migration disorder. They result in cognitive impairment; SEIZURES; and HYPOTONIA or spasticity. Mutations of two genes, LIS1, the gene for the non-catalytic subunit of PLATELET-ACTIVATING FACTOR ACETYLHYDROLASE IB; and DCX or XLIS, the gene for doublecortin, have been identified as the most common causes of disorders in this spectrum. Additional variants of classical (Type I) lissencephaly have been linked to RELN, the gene for reelin, and ARX, the gene for aristaless related homeobox protein. (From Leventer, R.J., et al, Mol Med Today. 2000 Jul;6(7):277-84 and Barkovich, A.J., et al, Neurology. 2005 Dec 27;65(12):1873-87.)Lissencephaly: A "smooth brain" malformation of the CEREBRAL CORTEX resulting from abnormal location of developing neurons during corticogenesis. It is characterized by an absence of normal convoluted indentations on the surface of the brain (agyria), or fewer and shallower indentations (pachygryia). There is a reduced number of cortical layers, typically 4 instead of 6, resulting in a thickened cortex, and reduced cerebral white matter that is a reversal of the normal ratio of cerebral white matter to cortex.Cobblestone Lissencephaly: The smooth pebbled appearance of the CEREBRAL CORTEX with a thickened cortex and reduced and abnormal white matter, which results from migration of heterotopic neurons beyond the marginal zone into the leptomeninges through gaps in the external BASEMENT MEMBRANE. There is also enlarged ventricles, underdeveloped BRAINSTEM and cerebellum, and absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. These abnormalities occur as a syndrome without other birth defects (cobblestone complex) or in other syndromes associated with congenital MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, often involving the eye, such as the Walker-Warburg Syndrome, Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, and muscle-eye-brain disease.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia: A disorder resulting from a defect in the pattern of neuronal migration in which ectopic collections of neurons lie along the lateral ventricles of the brain or just beneath, contiguously or in isolated patches.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.

Distribution of cholinergic contacts on Renshaw cells in the rat spinal cord: a light microscopic study. (1/134)

1. Cholinergic terminals in the rat spinal cord were revealed by immunohistochemical detection of the vesicular acetycholine transporter (VAChT). In order to determine the relationships of these terminals to Renshaw cells, we used dual immunolabelling with antibodies against gephyrin or calbindin D28k to provide immunohistochemical identification of Renshaw cells in lamina VII of the ventral horn. 2. A total of 50 Renshaw cells were analysed quantitatively using a computer-aided reconstruction system to provide accurate localization of contact sites and determination of somatic and dendritic surface area. Dendrites could be traced for up to 413 microm from the soma in calbindin D28k-identified Renshaw cells and up to 184 microm in gephyrin-identified cells. 3. A total of 3330 cholinergic terminals were observed on 50 Renshaw cells, with a range of 21-138 terminal appositions per cell (mean 66.6 +/- 25.56 contacts per cell). The vast majority (83.5 %) of the terminals were apposed to dendrites rather than the soma. The overall density of cholinergic contacts increased from a little above 1 per 100 microm2 on the soma and initial 25 microm of proximal dendrites to 4-5 per 100 microm2 on the surface of dendritic segments located 50-250 microm from the soma. Single presynaptic fibres frequently formed multiple contacts with the soma and/or dendrites of individual Renshaw cells. 4. VAChT-immunoreactive terminals apposed to Renshaw cells varied in size from 0.6 to 6.9 microm in diameter (mean 2.26 +/- 0.94; n = 986) and were on average smaller than the cholinergic C-terminals apposed to motoneurones, but larger than VAChT-immunoreactive terminals contacting other ventral horn interneurones. 5. The high density and relatively large size of many cholinergic terminals on Renshaw cells presumably correlates with the strong synaptic connection between motoneurones and Renshaw cells. The fact that the majority of contacts are distributed over the dendrites makes the motoneurone axon collateral input susceptible to inhibition by the prominent glycinergic inhibitory synapses located on the soma and proximal dendrites. The relative positions and structural features of the excitatory cholinergic and inhibitory glycinergic synapses may explain why Renshaw cells, although capable of firing at very high frequency following motor axon stimulation, appear to fire at relatively low rates during locomotor activity.  (+info)

Alteration in the expression level of calbindin D28k in the periodontal ligament of the rat molar during experimental tooth movement. (2/134)

The present immunohistochemical study was designed to investigate changes in the distribution and expression level of calbindin D28k in the periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement in the rat molar to clarify the physiological role of this protein in the ligament. In normal animals, calbindin D28k-like immunoreactivity appeared sparsely in spindle-shaped cells in the alveolar half of the periodontal ligament. Electron microscopic observations showed that these immunoreactive cells were characterized by well-developed rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and phagosomes--which often contained collagen fibers--suggesting that these cells could be categorized as periodontal fibroblasts. Twelve hours following the onset of the experimental tooth movement, cells positive for calbindin D28k increased in number in the periodontal ligament, especially in the alveolar half of the pressured side. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the calbindin D28k-immunopositive cells had morphological features similar to those of fibroblasts in the normal ligament, and that these cells occasionally made contact with immunonegative macrophage-like cells. Immunopositive cells gradually decreased in number, and the distribution of the cells and intensity of the immunoreactivity returned to normal levels by 14 days following the induction of the experimental tooth movement. The present results suggest that calbindin D28k plays an important role in the homeostasis and cyto-protection of fibroblasts in the periodontal ligament at the initial phase of experimental tooth movement.  (+info)

NMR investigation and secondary structure of domains I and II of rat brain calbindin D28k (1-93). (3/134)

Calbindin D28k, a member of the troponin C superfamily of calcium-binding proteins, contains six putative EF hand domains but binds only four calcium-atoms: one at a binding site of very high affinity and three calcium-atoms at binding sites of lower affinity. The high-affinity site could be located within domain I while domains III, IV, and V bind calcium less tightly. The recombinant protein construct calb I-II (residues 1-93) comprising the first two EF hands affords a unique opportunity to study a pair of EF hands with one site binding calcium tightly and the second site empty. A series of heteronuclear 2D, 3D and 4D high-resolution NMR experiments were applied to calb I-II, and led to the complete assignment of the 1H, 13C and 15N resonances. The secondary structure of the protein was deduced from the size of the 3JHN-Halpha coupling constants, the chemical shift indices of 1Etaalpha, 13Calpha, 13C' and 13Cbeta nuclei and from an analysis of backbone NOEs observed in 3D and 4D NOESY spectra. Four major alpha-helices are identified: Ala13-Phe23, Gly33-Ala50, Leu54-Asp63, Val76-Leu90, while residues Ala2-Leu6 form a fifth, flexible helical segment. Two short beta-strands (Tyr30-Glu32, Lys72-Gly74) are found preceding helices B and D and are arranged in an anti-parallel interaction. Based on these data a structural model of calb I-II was constructed that shows that the construct adopts a tertiary structure related to other well-described calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand family. Surprisingly, the protein forms a homodimer in solution, as was shown by its NMR characterization, size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultra-centrifugation studies.  (+info)

Exacerbation of damage and altered NF-kappaB activation in mice lacking tumor necrosis factor receptors after traumatic brain injury. (4/134)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is widely expressed in both neurons and glia and has been shown to be upregulated after traumatic brain injury (TBI). TNFalpha receptor activation results in activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), which may serve an antiapoptotic role via the induction of target genes manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and/or calbindin. In the present study, we used a controlled cortical impact model of TBI with pertinent lines of transgenic mice to combine both morphological characterization and molecular analysis to elucidate the role of TNFalpha after TBI. Measurements of both the lesion volume and the blood-brain barrier breach indicated exacerbations in mice rendered genetically deficient in both the p55 and p75 TNFalpha receptors (TNFR-KO) compared with wild-type animals. Additionally, animals genetically altered to overexpress MnSOD showed a significant decrease in lesion volume compared with that of control littermates, whereas no alterations were observed in mice lacking the calcium-binding protein calbindin D28k. Analysis of NF-kappaB activation and relative levels of MnSOD revealed delayed responses in the injured cortex of TNFR-KO animals compared with wild-type animals, implying that endogenous TNFalpha may be neuroprotective after TBI.  (+info)

Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on calbindin expression along the rat distal tubule. (5/134)

Calbindin D28k has been reported to be involved in the transcellular calcium transport along the rat distal tubule. It has also been shown that chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) induces significant hypercalciuria. The present study investigated whether CMA affects the mRNA and the protein expression of calbindin D28k along isolated distal tubule (DT) of rats. The animals were made acidotic by adding 0.28 mol/L NH4Cl to the drinking water for 7 d. This maneuver was associated with an increase in plasma ionized calcium. Inulin clearance experiments demonstrated that metabolic acidosis did not affect GFR, but it significantly increased both total and fractional urinary calcium excretion. To define the role of calbindin D28k, total RNA was extracted from DT, identified, and microdissected from collagenase-treated kidneys. cDNA was synthesized from RNA using reverse transcriptase and oligo(dT)(12-18) primers. Calbindin D28k mRNA abundance was semiquantified by a competitive reverse transcription-PCR, using an internal standard of cDNA that differed from the wild-type calbindin D28k by a deletion of 86 bp. The reverse transcription-PCR was performed starting from the same amount of total RNA. For each set of experiments, control and acidotic rats were studied in parallel. The identity of the DT was further verified by the presence of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (rTSC1) mRNA. Calbindin D28k mRNA abundance was 0.89 +/- 0.21 amol/ng total RNA in DT of CMA rats (n = 5) compared with 0.30 +/- 0.12 amol/ng total RNA of control rats (n = 5) (P < 0.05). Using specific rabbit polyclonal anti-calbindin D28k antibody, Western blotting was performed starting from thin slices of outer cortex. Densitometric analysis revealed that in acidotic rats (n = 7) there was a 17 +/- 5% (P < 0.05) increase in calbindin D28k protein abundance compared with controls (n = 7). These results indicate that in the rat, ammonium chloride loading induces an increase in filtered ionized calcium load that is associated with a significant upregulation of calbindin D28k both at the mRNA and protein level. These last effects will help to reduce the concomitant hypercalciuria, thus mitigating the consequence of CMA on calcium metabolism.  (+info)

Calbindin D28k-like immunoreactivity during the formation of the enamel-free area in the rat molar teeth. (6/134)

Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of calbindin D28k in the ameloblasts derived from the inner enamel epithelium. The occlusal surfaces of the rodent molars partly lack the enamel covering, which is referred to as enamel-free area (EFA). In the present study, we compared the immunohistochemical localization of calbindin D28k-like immunoreactivity (CB-LI) in the cells at the EFA (EFA cells) and ameloblasts of the rat molar teeth at the light microscopic level. CB-LI was strong in the ameloblasts of the presecretory through the protective stages, while it was faint at the late secretory to transitional stages. However, some mature ameloblasts lacked the immunoreactivity. On the other hand, the majority of EFA cells showed distinct polarization and elongation that were absent in few cells at the early stage of EFA formation. At all stages, the EFA cells adjacent to the ameloblasts showed CB-LI, however, some cells adjacent to the mature ameloblasts lacked the reaction. Intensive CB-LI was demonstrated in EFA cells at the reduced enamel epithelium. These immunohistochemical findings suggest EFA cells have cytochemical properties similar to those of ameloblasts.  (+info)

Calbindin-D28k is expressed in osteoblastic cells and suppresses their apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activity. (7/134)

The rate of osteoblast apoptosis is a critical determinant of the rate of bone formation. Because the calcium-binding protein calbindin-D(28k) has anti-apoptotic properties in neuronal cells and lymphocytes, we searched for the presence of this protein in osteoblastic cells and investigated whether it can modify their response to proapoptotic signals. Calbindin-D(28K) was expressed at low levels in several osteoblastic cell lines and at high levels in primary cultures of murine osteoblastic cells. Transient transfection of rat calbindin-D(28k) cDNA blocked tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, as determined by cell viability and nuclear morphology of cells cotransfected with the green fluorescent protein targeted to the nucleus, whereas transfection of the empty vector had no effect. Calbindin-D(28k) levels in several stably transfected MC3T3-E1 lines were directly related to protection from TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. Purified rat calbindin-D(28k) markedly reduced the activity of caspase-3, a critical molecule for the degradation phase of apoptosis, in a cell-free assay. In addition, cell extracts from MC3T3-E1 cells expressing high levels of calbindin-D(28k) decreased caspase-3 activity, compared with extracts from vector-transfected cells. This effect was apparently unrelated to the calcium binding properties of calbindin, as chelation of calcium by EGTA or addition of other calcium-binding proteins such as calbindin-D(9k), S100, calmodulin, and osteocalcin, did not affect caspase-3 activity. Last, calbindin-D(28k) interacts with the active form of caspase-3 as demonstrated by a GST pull-down assay. These results demonstrate that calbindin-D(28k) is a biosynthetic product of osteoblasts with a role in the regulation of apoptosis. They also reveal that the antiapoptotic properties of calbindin-D(28k) may result not only from calcium buffering but also from the ability of the protein to interact with and to inhibit caspase-3 activity, a property that is independent of its calcium binding capability.  (+info)

Calbindin D28k-immunoreactive afferent nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa. (8/134)

The distribution of the calbindin D28k in the laryngeal sensory structures was studied by immunohistochemistry, immunoelectronmicroscopy, and double immunofluorescence with calretinin-immunoreactivity. Moreover, origin of the nerve endings were observed using retrograde tracer, fast blue. Immunoreactivity for calbindin D28k was found in the various types of nerve endings in the larynx, namely, laminar nerve endings, nerve endings associated with the taste buds, intraepithelial nerve endings, and endocrine cells. The laminar endings with calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity were observed in the subepithelial connective tissue. In some endings, terminals were expanded. The laminar endings were also observed in the perichondrium of the epiglottic cartilage. In the epiglottic and arytenoid epithelia, thick nerve fibers with calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity ascending to taste buds and intragemmal nerve fibers were also observed. Within the epithelial layer, intraepithelial free nerve endings with calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity were observed. Furthermore, diffuse endocrine cells were observed within the laryngeal epithelium. By immunoelectron microscopy, immunoreaction products in the endings mentioned above were localized in the cytoplasm of the axon terminals and nerve fibers which contained with numerous mitochondria. Out of the 100 laminar endings, 18 endings were immunopositive for both calbindin D28k and calretinin, 33 were positive for calbindin D28k but negative for calretinin, and 49 were positive for only calretinin in the double immunofluorescence microscopy. The nerve fibers associated with the taste buds and the free nerve endings, which immunostained for calbindin D28k, were not stained with antibody against calretinin. After injection of the fast blue in the laryngeal mucosa, fast blue-labeled cells were mainly observed in the nodose ganglia. Of the total number of labeled cell in the nodose and dorsal root ganglia at the level C1 to Th2, 65.1% occurred in nodose ganglia (572/879, n = 6). In the nodose ganglia, 79.7% of labeled cells (456/572) were immunoreacted for calbindin D28k. The distribution of calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity may be differnt from that of calretinin. It is suggested that calbindin D28k have regulatory role on intracellular calcium concentration in the laryngeal sensory corpuscles.  (+info)

*2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase 1

"Calbindin 1, fibroblast growth factor 20, and alpha-synuclein in sporadic Parkinson's disease". Hum. Genet. 124 (1): 89-94. doi ... 28 Suppl 1: S67-72. doi:10.1007/s10875-007-9160-5. PMID 18193341. Kardon T, Senesi S, Marcolongo P, Legeza B, Bánhegyi G, Mandl ... 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DECR1 gene. This gene encodes an accessory enzyme ... 434 (1): 195-200. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2004.10.018. PMID 15629123. Rosenzweig SD (2008). "Inflammatory manifestations in chronic ...

*Nutriepigenomics

Choline deficiency alters global histone methylation and epigenetic marking at the Re1 site of the calbindin 1 gene. FASEB J. ... 2010 Nov 29:1-9 PMID 21110912 Jensen CB, Storgaard H, Dela F, Holst JJ, Madsbad S, Vaag AA. Early differential defects of ... 690(1): 71-80 doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2010.02.006 PMID 20188748 Zeisel S. What Choline Metabolism Can Tell Us About the Underlying ... 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1721-8 doi:10.1001/jama.290.13.1721 PMID 14519706 Davis CD, Ross SA. Dietary components impact histone ...

*Calbindin

... -D9k may also stimulate the basolateral calcium-pumping ATPases. Expression of calbindin-D9k, like that of calbindin- ... calbindin-D9k has two EF-hands, and calbindin-D28k has six. Calretinin is a 29kDa protein with 58% homology to calbindin-D28k ... Calbindin-D9k is present in mammalian intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes). Calbindin-D9k can also be found in the kidney ... In the brain, its synthesis is independent of vitamin-D. There is no homology between calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k, apart ...

*S100G

This gene encodes calbindin D9K, a vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. This cytosolic protein belongs to a family of ... Jeung EB, Krisinger J, Dann JL, Leung PC (Sep 1992). "Molecular cloning of the full-length cDNA encoding the human calbindin- ... 2004). "Control of differentiation-induced calbindin-D9k gene expression in Caco-2 cells by cdx-2 and HNF-1α". Am. J. Physiol. ... "Entrez Gene: S100G S100 calcium binding protein G". Balmain N (1991). "Calbindin-D9k. A vitamin-D-dependent, calcium-binding ...

*HSD2 neurons

... and calbindin. A small number of HSD2 neurons (less than 2%) may express the neuropeptide galanin. Their lack of expression of ... 42 (1): 1-23. doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2011.05.003. PMC 3148274 . PMID 21605659. Dong, HW; Petrovich, GD; Watts, AG; Swanson, LW ... 1115 (1): 54-64. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.07.091. PMID 16935272. Geerling, JC; Kawata, M; Loewy, AD (Jan 20, 2006). " ... Geerling, JC; Loewy, AD (Aug 1, 2006). "Aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract: bidirectional ...

*Parvalbumin

Other calcium-binding protein markers are calretinin (most abundant subtype in DLPFC, about 50%) and calbindin. Interneurons ... calbindin D-28k or parvalbumin in monkey prefrontal cortex: distribution and morphology". J. Comp. Neurol. 341 (1): 95-116. doi ... the role of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k, calretinin and parvalbumin, in cerebellar physiology. Studies with ... 1 (4): 241-58. doi:10.1080/147342202320883551. PMID 12879963. Klausberger T, Marton LF, O'Neill J, Huck JH, Dalezios Y, ...

*Cerebellum

A specific, recognizable feature of Purkinje neurons is the expression of calbindin. Calbindin staining of rat brain after ... Whitney ER, Kemper TL, Rosene DL, Bauman ML, Blatt GJ (2008). "Calbindin-D28k is a more reliable marker of human Purkinje cells ... ISBN 1-84169-044-9. Doya K (2000). "Complementary roles of basal ganglia and cerebellum in learning and motor control". Curr. ... 10 (1-2): 25-61. doi:10.1016/0025-5564(71)90051-4. Purves, Dale Purves (2007). Neuroscience (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman ...

*Calretinin

"Entrez Gene: calbindin 2". Parmentier M, Passage E, Vassart G, Mattei MG (1991). "The human calbindin D28k (CALB1) and ... Calretinin also known as 29 kDa calbindin is a calcium-binding protein involved in calcium signaling. In humans, the calretinin ... Expression was found in different neurons than that of the similar vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, calbindin-28kDa ... 88 (1): 76-86. doi:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2009.09.021. PMID 19854615. Mai KT, Teo I, Al Moghrabi H, Marginean EC, Veinot JP (Aug ...

*Substantia nigra

Calbindin is a protein involved in calcium ion transport within cells, and excess calcium in cells is toxic. The calbindin ... Secondly, dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta contain less calbindin than other dopaminergic neurons. ... "Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons in the Mouse that Contain Calbindin-D28kExhibit Reduced Vulnerability to MPTP-induced ... 313 (1): 51-67. doi:10.1007/BF00505805. PMID 7207636. Pioli, E.Y.; Meissner, W.; Sohr, R.; Gross, C.E.; Bezard, E.; Bioulac, B. ...

*Parathyroid hormone

... by the intestine via calbindin. PTH was one of the first hormones to be shown to use the G-protein, adenylyl cyclase second ... 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, et ... ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Guyton A (1976). ''Medical Physiology''. p.1062; New York, Saunders and Co. Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano ... 1 (2): 149-52. doi:10.1038/ng0592-149. PMID 1302009. Handt O, Reis A, Schmidtke J (Nov 1992). "Ectopic transcription of the ...

*EF hand

The latter group is represented by calbindin D9k and do not undergo calcium dependent conformational changes. EPS15 homology ( ... and Ca2+ buffers such as calreticulin and calbindin D9k. While the majority of the known EF-hand Calcium-binding proteins ( ... 135 (1): 110-22. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.08.006. PMID 18854159. Nelson MR, Thulin E, Fagan PA, Forsén S, Chazin WJ (February ... 3 (1): 7-11. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00130-7. PMID 7743133. Stathopulos PB, Zheng L, Li GY, Plevin MJ, Ikura M (October 2008 ...

*Inositol monophosphatase 1

IMPA1 has been shown to interact with Bergmann glial S100B and calbindin. L-690,330 is a competitive inhibitor of IMPase ... Schmidt H, Schwaller B, Eilers J (April 2005). "Calbindin D28k targets myo-inositol monophosphatase in spines and dendrites of ... Berggard T, Szczepankiewicz O, Thulin E, Linse S (2003). "Myo-inositol monophosphatase is an activated target of calbindin D28k ... "Myo-inositol monophosphatase is an activated target of calbindin D28k". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (44): 41954-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...

*Vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein

They were renamed calbindin. Calbindin-D9k (S100G) is found in mammalian intestine and calbindin-D28k is in avian intestine and ... 54 (1): 114-37. doi:10.1085/jgp.54.1.114. PMC 2225897 . PMID 19873640. Vitamin D-Dependent Calcium-Binding Protein at the US ...

*Canadian health claims

Vitamin D also increases transcription of genes that code for Calbindin. As the name implies, Calbindin functions as a calcium- ... The Section 5(1) of the Food and Drugs Act requires that all health claims be truthful and not misleading or deceptive. The ... 1)Increases re-absorption of Ca++ from the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract(GI) 2)Releases calcium from bones into the blood ...

*Primate basal ganglia system

41: 151-158 François, C., Yelnik, J., Percheron, G.and Tandé, D.(1994) Calbindin-D-28K as a marker of the associative coertical ... The VL is stained for calbindin and acetylcholinesterase. The axons ascend in the nucleus where they branch profusely. The VL ... ISBN 1-4160-3445-5. Arrechi-Bouchhiouia et al.1996 Arrechi-Bouchhiouia et al.1997 Albin, R.L., Young, A.B., Penney. J.B. (1989 ... 1: 121-125 Brauer, K, Haüsser, M., Härtig, W. and Arendt, T. (2000) The shell-core dichotomy of nucleus accumbens in the rhesus ...

*Glutamate receptor

Woo TU, Shrestha K, Lamb D, Minns MM, Benes FM (April 2008). "N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor and Calbindin-Containing Neurons in ... calbindin, targeting the dendrites of pyramidal neurons, and the expression of the mRNA for the GluR5 kainate receptor in GABA ... 270 (1): 41-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.1.41. PMID 7814402. Goto H, Watanabe K, Araragi N, Kageyama R, Tanaka K, Kuroki Y, Toyoda A ... 5 (1). doi:10.1038/scibx.2012.3. Chez, MG; Burton, Q; Dowling, T; Chang, M; Khanna, P; Kramer, C (May 2007). "Memantine as ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... calbindin -calcitonin - calcitonin gene-related peptide - calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor - calcitonin receptor - ... IGF type 1 receptor - IGF type 2 receptor - IgG - IgM - immediate-early protein - immune cell - immune system - immunoglobulin ... alpha-1 adrenergic receptor - alpha-2 adrenergic receptor - alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha- ... endothelin-1 - energy decomposition cycles - energy level - enhancer - enkephalin - Enthalpy - entomology - Entropy - env gene ...

*Martinotti cell

... s express somatostatin and sometimes calbindin, but not parvalbumin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. ... 561 (Pt 1): 65-90. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073353. PMC 1665344 . PMID 15331670. Sugino K, Hempel CM, Miller MN, et al. ( ... 9 (1): 99-107. doi:10.1038/nn1618. PMID 16369481. Hilscher, Markus M.; Leão, Richardson N.; Edwards, Steven J.; Leão, Katarina ...

*Isothalamus

The territory is stained for calbindin. The mediator of the pallido-thalamic connection is the inhibitor GABA. The ... The stratae 1 and 2, the most ventral, are magnocellular. The other are mediocellular. From the retina, the axons of the optic ... The thalamocortical axons of the VPC send their axons to the primary somatosensory area (areas 3b and 1) where there is also a ... Retinal axons from the controlateral retina end in stratae 1,4 and 6. Those from the ipsilateral retina end in 2,3 and 5. The ...

*TRPV6

... calbindin and the calcium-pumping ATPase, PMCA1. The TRPV6 calcium transporter also found in the human placenta, pancreas and ... 35 (Pt 1): 115-9. doi:10.1042/BST0350115. PMID 17233615. TRPV Cation Channels at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Taparia S, Fleet JC, Peng JB, Wang XD, Wood RJ (June 2006). "1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D--mediated ... 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. TRPV ENSG00000165125 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000276971, ENSG00000165125 - Ensembl, May ...

*RANBP9

Lutz W, Frank EM, Craig TA, Thompson R, Venters RA, Kojetin D, Cavanagh J, Kumar R (2003). "Calbindin D28K interacts with Ran- ... 297 (1): 148-53. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02020-X. PMID 12220523. Rao MA, Cheng H, Quayle AN, Nishitani H, Nelson CC, Rennie ... J. 367 (Pt 1): 87-95. doi:10.1042/BJ20011851. PMC 1222860 . PMID 12084015. Wang D, Li Z, Messing EM, Wu G (2002). "Activation ... 297 (1): 148-53. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02020-X. PMID 12220523. Umeda M, Nishitani H, Nishimoto T (Jan 2003). "A novel ...

*Claustrum

The calbindin proteins were shown as likely elements in the inhibitory circuitry of the claustrum, while the calretinin most ... including calbindin D28K, parvalbumin, and calretinin. After removing the brains and properly preserving them, the group used ... The first, which is deemed Type 1, is large and covered with dendritic spines. These cells receive input as well as project ...

*Neuronal lineage marker

Calbindin is expressed by cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells of hippocampus. The reorganization and migration of ... calbindin-stained Purkinje neurons in rat cerebellum after peripheral nerve injury suggests that calbindin may be a marker for ... 112 (1): 14-18. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(90)90314-Y. PMID 2166930. Wuenschell, C. W.; Fisher, R. S.; Kaufman, D. L.; Tobin (1986 ... doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-005-8. Tanapat, Patima. "Neuronal Cell Markers". Materials and Methods. 3. doi:10.13070/mm.en.3.196. " ...

*Paraben

Vo T. T. B., Jeung E. B. (2009) An Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity of Parabens Using Uterine Calbindin-D9k Gene in an ... 68: 1-11. Mao Q., Ji F., Wang W., Wang Q., Hu Z., Yuan S. (2016) Chlorination of parabens: reaction kinetics and transformation ... 227 (1-2): 62-72. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2006.07.018. PMID 16938376. Okamoto Y, Hayashi T, Matsunami S, Ueda K, Kojima N (2008). " ... In an in vivo study, the effect of butylparaben was determined to be about 1/100,000th that of estradiol, and was only observed ...

*Cajal-Retzius cell

... such as calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin. CR cells express several genes important in corticogenesis, such as reelin (RELN ... 17 (1): 23-31. PMID 8987733. Ogawa M, Miyata T, Nakajima K, et al. (May 1995). "The reeler gene-associated antigen on Cajal- ... 20 (1): 101-5. doi:10.1016/0168-0102(94)90027-2. PMID 7984336. Hevner RF, Neogi T, Englund C, Daza RA, Fink A (March 2003). " ... 141 (1-2): 39-53. doi:10.1016/S0165-3806(02)00641-7. PMID 12644247. Ina A, Sugiyama M, Konno J, et al. (August 2007). "Cajal- ...

*Striatum

... this is particularly evident on the components of acetylcholinesterase and calbindin. Types of cells in the striatum include: ... Table 1 McDonald, M-L; MacMullen, C; Liu, D J; Leal, S M; Davis, R L (October 2012). "Genetic association of cyclic AMP ... 43 (1): 133-43. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.06.012. PMID 15233923. Bergson, C; Mrzljak, L; Smiley, J. F.; Pappy, M; Levenson, R; ... 27 (1): 29-43. doi:10.15274/NRJ-2014-10004. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) "Striatum definition and meaning , Collins ...
1BOC: The solution structures of mutant calbindin D9ks, as determined by NMR, show that the calcium-binding site can adopt different folds.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ Calbindin, monoclonal antibody, mouse, 100 ul... \ MO20016-100 for more molecular products just contact us
Calbindin je termín označující skupinu transportních proteinů v buňkách tenkého střeva a v ledvinách. Tyto proteiny jsou závislé na funkci vitaminu D a umožňují absorpci vápníku ze střeva a ledvinných tubulů do organizmu ...
1IG5: Structural basis for the negative allostery between Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-binding in the intracellular Ca(2+)-receptor calbindin D9k.
Fast delivery of PPM1K knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
In Alzheimers disease and other degenerative brain diseases, some types of nerve cells are more vulnerable to degeneration than others. Nerve cells known as the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) are especially vulnerable. These cells are known to be important for memory and attention, both of which decline in patients with Alzheimers disease. Calbindin is a protein found inside nerve cells that binds to calcium. It protects nerve cells from abnormal increases in calcium, which can cause degeneration of the cell. Changiz Geula, Ph.D., and colleagues have found that the levels of calbindin decline in BFCN cells during normal aging. They theorize that such declines may leave the cells vulnerable to degeneration caused by abnormally high calcium levels.. Dr. Geula and colleagues plan to study the role of calbinin in Alzheimers disease using two approaches. In the first approach, they will study the levels of calbindin in the BFCN cells that remain in individuals affected by Alzheimers ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the calcium-binding protein superfamily that includes calmodulin and troponin C. Originally described as a 27 kDa protein, it is now known to be a 28 kDa protein. It contains four active calcium-binding domains, and has two modified domains that are thought to have lost their calcium binding capability. This protein is thought to buffer entry of calcium upon stimulation of glutamate receptors. Depletion of this protein was noted in patients with Huntington disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015 ...
the equilibrium constant for a solubility reaction. A general solubility equation could be written as: MX (s) M+ (aq) + X- (aq) where MX represents an ionic solid, M+ the positive ion, and X- the negative ion. Since pure solids have an activity of 1, they are not included in equilibrium constant expressions. Therefore, the K expression for this reaction is: Since the concentration of either ion, [M+] or [Cl-] is the amount of MX that dissolved, (in other words, MXs solubility) and the result of multiplying two numbers is called a "product", this kind of K expression is called a "solubility product", and given the symbol Ksp. Therefore the K expression would normally be written ...
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DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Recombinant human Calbindin D9K was cloned from bovine cDNA and expressed inE.coli. It bounds to one Ca and one Ln ion. Two calcium ions are bound in the Calbindin D9K version. The protein consists of Calbindin D9K, mutant P47M (residues 5-79, swissprot a
Although Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), a cytosolic calcium binding protein which has calcium binding sites, is expressed in various tissues, i.e., intestine, uterus, and placenta, potential roles of this...
The vomeronasal organs (VNOs) of two humans, a male neonate and a female adult, were examined for immunolocalization of calbindin-D28k (calbindin) which has been immunolocalized to VNO receptor cells in other mammals. The present study demonstrates that epithelial cells within the VNOs of both subjects expressed calbindin-like immunoreactivity. These results suggest that human VNO epithelial cells of both genders express calbindin during development and in the adult.
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is known to modulate Ca2+ metabolism in several cell types. Vitamin-D-dependent calcium binding proteins such as calbindin-D28K (28 kDa calcium binding proteins) have been shown to be regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 but the mechanisms controlling calbindin synthesis are still poorly understood in human osteoblast cell culture models. The human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC) described in this paper developed a calcified matrix, expressed osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP) and responded to 1,25(OH)2D3. The expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Calbindin-D28K protein was identified only in cells arising from the sixth subculture, which exhibited a calcified matrix and all of the osteoblastic markers, e.g. OC and OP. It was demonstrated by dot-immunodetection using immunological probes, and by in situ hybridization using labelled cDNA probes. Moreover, vitamin D3 enhanced calbindin-D28K synthesis as well as OC ...
Attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsive behaviors and has significant societal impact. ADHD is recognized as a heterogeneous disease, and genetic and/or environmental factors underlying pathogenesis remain largely unknown. There is an obvious need to increase knowledge on molecular signaling and brain pathways underlying disease development, and genetic mouse models are key to this goal. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, DAndrea et al (2015) combine state‐of‐the‐art genetic and behavioral approaches in the mouse to demonstrate an essential role for PI3Kγ and cAMP homeostasis in ADHD‐related behaviors, through signaling mechanisms operating at the level of the locus coeruleus, the main source of noradrenaline in the brain. Furthermore, the study posits PI3Kγ knockout mice as a novel tool of high interest for modeling ADHD endophenotypes.. See also: I DAndrea et al (July 2015) ...
Worldwide expansion of mobile phones and electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure has raised question of their possible biological effects on the brain and nervous system. Radiofrequency (RF) radiation might alter intracellular signaling pathways through changes in calcium (Ca(2+)) permeability across cell membranes. Changes in the expression of calcium binding proteins (CaBP) like calbindin D28-k (CB) and calretinin (CR) could indicate impaired Ca(2+)homeostasis due to EMF exposure. CB and CR expression were measured with immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus of mice after EMF exposure at 835 MHz for different exposure times and absorption rates, 1 h/day for 5 days at a specific absorption rate (SAR)=1.6 W/kg, 1 h/day for 5 days at SAR=4.0 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=1.6 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=4.0 W/kg, daily exposure for 1 month at SAR=1.6 W/kg. Body weights did not change significantly. CB immunoreactivity (IR) displayed moderate staining of cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) areas and ...
At least three CaBPs are abundant in various types of nerve cells : calbindin-D28, calretinin, and parvalbumin. The sequence of chick calretinin, from cDNA clones, is 60% homologous to that of chick...
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Vitamin D-dependent calcium binding proteins were discovered in the cytosolic fractions of chicken intestine, and later in mammalian intestine and kidney, by workers including Robert Wasserman of Cornell University. They bound calcium in the micromolar range and were greatly reduced in vitamin D-deficient animals. Expression could be induced by treating these animals with vitamin D metabolites such as calcitriol. They were found to exist in two distinct sizes with a molecular weight of approximately 9 kDa and 28 kDa. They were renamed calbindin. Calbindin-D9k (S100G) is found in mammalian intestine and calbindin-D28k is in avian intestine and in mammalian kidney and other tissues. Calcium-binding protein Wasserman, RH; Taylor, AN (1966). "Vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa". Science. 152 (3723): 791-3. doi:10.1126/science.152.3723.791. PMID 17797460. Wasserman, RH; Corradino, RA; Taylor, AN (1969). "Binding proteins from animals with possible transport ...
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Calcium binding protein information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
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pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:3:90511034:90514392:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000022107 transcript:OTTMUST00000052482 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:S100a1 description:S100 calcium binding protein A1 ...
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Cell-cell interactions play crucial roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, a loss of which often leads to varying diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that uncontrolled PI3K activity within oocytes irreversibly transforms granulosa cells (GC), causing GC tumors (GCT) through perturbed local cell-communication. Previously, we reported reproductive phenotypes of transgenic mice, in which expression of constitutively active mutant PI3K was induced in primordial oocytes by Gdf9-iCre. The transgenic mice (Cre+) demonstrated severe ovarian phenotypes, including the overgrowth of excess ovarian follicles and anovulation. Surprisingly, the Cre+ mice became cachectic by postnatal day 80 due to bilateral GCT. Although GCT cells proliferated independently of oocytes, local interactions with mutant PI3K-positive oocytes during early folliculogenesis were essential for the GC transformation. Growing GCT cells expressed high levels of inhibin βA and nuclear SMAD3, and the proliferation rate ...
The present investigation has demonstrated that ionizing radiation in the therapeutic dose range stimulates a transient cellular generation of ROS/RNS. Temporally coincident is a radiation-induced reversible depolarization of the mitochondrial ΔΨ and decrease in mitochondrial entrapped calcein fluorescence, both hallmarks of the mitochondrial permeability transition. The amount of ROS/RNS generated is relatively constant over the dose range tested, but the number of cells that respond increases with the dose. The radiation-induced ROS/RNS generation, ΔΨ depolarization, and calcein release are inhibited by CsA but not by the structural analogue, CsH. Overexpression of the Ca2+-binding protein calbindin 28K or treatment of cells with BAPTA/AM, an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, also effectively block radiation-induced ROS/RNS. The increased ROS/RNS generation observed with radiation is common to all of the cell types examined but for one important exception, the mitochondrial DNA-less ρo ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Any medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care. Our staff consists of biologists and biochemists that are not trained to give medical advice. ...
Looking for online definition of S100 calcium binding protein A3 in the Medical Dictionary? S100 calcium binding protein A3 explanation free. What is S100 calcium binding protein A3? Meaning of S100 calcium binding protein A3 medical term. What does S100 calcium binding protein A3 mean?
Animals. Two strains of transgenic mice, each bearing a jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter, were used. The mPer1::d2EGFP transgenic mouse (termed here Per1::GFP; a gift from Dr. D. McMahon, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN) was made with the B6C3F1 hybrid mouse as described previously (Kuhlman et al., 2000). The mice used in the present studies were hemizygous for the d2EGFP transgene, which is a degradable form of GFP.. The calbindin-D28K-bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)::GFP transgenic mouse (termed here CalB::GFP; a gift from Dr. N. Heintz, Rockefeller University, New York, NY) was made by insertion of enhanced GFP (EGFP) (Yang et al., 1997) in the calbindin BAC (Research Genetics/Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) by homologous recombination. The homologous region was upstream of the start codon of the calbindin gene. The first stretch of the sequence included the calbindin-D28K promoter followed by the first linker sequence and then the EGFP construct followed by the second ...
Neocortical neurones can be classified according to several independent criteria: morphological, physiological, and molecular expression (neuropeptides (NPs) and/or calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs)). While it has been suggested that particular NPs and CaBPs characterize certain anatomical subtypes of neurones, there is also considerable overlap in their expression, and little is known about simultaneous expression of multiple NPs and CaBPs in morphologically characterized neocortical neurones. Here we determined the gene expression profiles of calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in 268 morphologically identified neurones located in layers 2-6 in the juvenile rat somatosensory neocortex. We used patch-clamp electrodes to label neurones with biocytin and harvest the cytoplasm to perform single-cell RT-multiplex PCR. Quality threshold clustering, an unsupervised algorithm that clustered
Greece has been on a charm campaign here in the United States, and considering its deep economic woes, you can imagine why. In the five years since we last conducted a broad tasting of Greek white wines, they have stepped from a curious and ambitious side note to something truly exciting. The usual smattering of nonnative grapes has appeared, too; Sauvignon Blanc has become a power player, more welcome than Chardonnay, perhaps, but something of a lost point amid Greeces indigenous grape bounty. Modern Moschofilero may be a mid-grade response to Albarino, but it is hard not to see the truth of terroir in the Assyrtiko grape, with its vines curled in basket-like coils to capture moisture and survive on the arid isle of Santorini. 2011 Gaia Estate Thalassitis Santorini Assyrtiko ($26, 13%): With wineries in both Nemea and Santorini, Gaia offers a perfect snapshot of modern Greek wine, and its Thalassitis is its calling card, the height of winemaking applied to Santorinis terroir. More delicate and
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... , Authors: M Rosario Fernandez-Fernandez, Alan R Fersht. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The idea of Professors Bolis and Gilles to gather together for a 3 days meeting in the splendid environment of Crans-Montana in Switzerland a limited number of people around the subject of calcium an
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Parvalbumin alpha / PVALB, 0.1 ml. Parvalbumin?is a?calcium-binding?albumin?protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa).
Recombinant protein of human S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The breeding season for chimney swifts is from May to July. Nests are placed in the dark in chimneys and occasionally in hollow trees. The basket-like, half-cup nest consists of sticks and is secured to the wall of a chimney by secreted mucilage (saliva). It is usually at least 15.5 m off the ground, but this can vary greatly (Palmer and Fowler, 1975; Whittemore, 1981; Chantler and Driessens, 2000).. Three to seven white, somewhat glossy eggs are laid per clutch (Palmer and Fowler, 1975; Whittemore, 1981; Chantler and Driessens, 2000). Each egg is approximately 2.0 by 1.3 cm. Both parents incubate the eggs (Palmer and Fowler, 1975), and the incubation period is from 19 to 21 days (Chantler and Driessens, 2000). Females will cover the eggs or young at night. Nestlings may leave the nest 14 to 19 days after hatching, but the first flight typically occurs 30 days after hatching (Chantler and Driessens, 2000). Chimney swifts can have more than one brood per season, and will re-nest if the first nest ...
Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
CAB39 antibody (calcium binding protein 39) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CAB39 pAb (GTX110628) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
S100A12 - S100A12 (untagged)-Human S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100A12) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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1. Taheri-Shalmani S, Shahsavar S, Gianforcaro A, Solomon JA, Hamadeh MJ. Vitamin D3 megadose decreases endoplasmic reticulum stress while paradoxically increasing apoptosis, suggesting toxicity, in the female transgenic G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ontario Exercise Physiology Conference 2013:31 (abst.).. 2. Shahsavar S, Taheri-Shalmani S, Solomon JA, Gianforcaro A, Hamadeh MJ. Dietary vitamin D3 restriction at 0.025x the adequate intake increases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the skeletal muscle of the male transgenic G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), whereas it decreases calbindin d28k and increases both ER stress and apoptosis in the female transgenic G93A mouse model of ALS. Ontario Exercise Physiology Conference 2013:30 (abst.).. 3. Gianforcaro A, Solomon JA, Parkhomenko E, Porras D, Qamaruzzaman A, Thampinathan B, Provad P, Hamadeh MJ. Cholecalciferol supplementation at 50 fold the adequate intake slows paw grip endurance deterioration ...
Canine OS cells contain preformed CatK within cytoplasmic vesicles. In OS cells, TGFβ1 induced the secretion of CatK, which degraded bone-derived type I collagen in vitro. CatK concentrations were higher in dogs with OS than healthy dogs (11.3 ± 5.2 pmol/L versus 8.1 ± 5.0 pmol/L, P = .03). In a subset of dogs with OS, pretreatment CatK concentrations gradually decreased after palliative radiation and antiresorptive treatment, from 9.3 ± 3.2 pmol/L to 5.0 ± 3.1 pmol/L, P = .03. ...
Plastid stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids in higher plants and allow the exchange of protein molecules between plastids. These structures are highly dynamic; stromules change both their shape and position in the cytoplasm very rapidly. Previous studies with microfilament inhibitors indicated that stromule shape and movement are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. To learn more about the nature of the interactions of stromules and the cytoskeleton, we imaged fluorescently-labeled microfilaments and plastids. We have used Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing green fluorescent protein fused to the human actin-binding protein talin to observe microfilaments and their relationship to stromules in vivo. Microfilaments were observed in close contact with stromules and plastid bodies of hypocotyl epidermis. Time-lapse confocal microscopy revealed that microfilament rearrangements were associated with changes in plastid and stromule morphology and position. We also
There were two sets of experiments. The first set placed bi-directional tracers into different regions of the striatum (see Fig.1 a). These cases were analyzed first for the distribution of labeled cells in the frontal cortex. On the basis of the cortical labeling pattern, each injection site was classified as follows. (1) "Motor" striatum were injection sites that labeled cells primarily in frontal cortical areas 4 and 6 with few labeled cells in areas 9 and 46, and scattered cells, or none, in orbitofrontal regions or in areas 32, 25, 24, a or b; (2) "limbic" striatum were injection sites that labeled cells primarily in areas 32, 25, 24, a and b, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, areas 10, 14, and 13, with few labeled cells in areas 9 and 46 and none in areas 4 and 6. We defined the shell as the ventral striatal region that was calbindin (CaBP) negative and the rest of the ventromedial striatum as the "core" (Meredith et al., 1996). (3) Association areas comprised injection sites that labeled ...
Looking for online definition of S100 calcium-binding protein A13 in the Medical Dictionary? S100 calcium-binding protein A13 explanation free. What is S100 calcium-binding protein A13? Meaning of S100 calcium-binding protein A13 medical term. What does S100 calcium-binding protein A13 mean?
S100 Calcium Binding Protein B (S100B) is an acidic calcium binding protein and a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and
The effect of astaxanthin (3,3-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin ...
casSAR Dugability of Q9DB16 | Cab39l | Calcium-binding protein 39-like - Also known as CB39L_MOUSE, Cab39l. Component of a complex that binds and activates STK11/LKB1. In the complex, required to stabilize the interaction between CAB39/MO25 (CAB39/MO25alpha or CAB39L/MO25beta) and STK11/LKB1 (By similarity). Component of a trimeric complex composed of STK11/LKB1, STRAD (STRADA or STRADB) and CAB39/MO25 (CAB39/MO25alpha or CAB39L/MO25beta): the complex tethers STK11/LKB1 in the cytoplasm and stimulates its catalytic activity.
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Fuchs EC, Zivkovic AR, Cunningham MO, Middleton S, Le Beau FEN, Bannerman DM, Rozov A, Whittington MA, Traub RD, Rawlins JNP, Monyer ...
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The novel FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-N676K point mutation within the FLT3 kinase domain-1 was recently identified in 6 % of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with inv(16). Because FLT3-N676K was encountered almost exclusively in inv(16) AML, we investigated the transforming potential of FLT3-N676K, the cooperation between FLT3-N676K and core binding factor ß-smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (CBFß-SMMHC) (encoded by the inv(16) chimeric gene CBFB-MYH11) in inducing acute leukemia, and tested the sensitivity of FLT3-N676K-positive leukemic cells to FLT3 inhibitors. Retroviral expression of FLT3-N676K in myeloid 32D cells induced AML in syngeneic C3H/HeJ mice (n = 11/13, median latency 58 days), with a transforming activity similar to FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) (n = 8/8), FLT3-TKD D835Y (n = 8/9), and FLT3-ITD-N676K (n = 9/9) mutations. Three out of 14 (21.4 %) C57BL/6J mice transplanted with FLT3-N676K-transduced primary hematopoietic progenitor cells developed ...
We show here that Rif is a novel regulator of actin stress fiber formation in epithelial cells. Some cytoskeletal structures, such as filopodia, can be triggered by several Rho family members (Aspenstrom et al., 2004); however, previously only the RhoA-like proteins have been shown to control stress fiber formation. Actomyosin contractility has a number of important roles in epithelial biology. Contraction at the apical surface is important during organogenesis and in the closing of epithelial sheets during development and in wound healing (Martin and Parkhurst, 2004). Contraction at the basal surface is important for remodelling of the extracellular matrix during development and for the secretory function of exocrine glands in the adult organism (Pellegrin and Mellor, 2007). Epithelial cells can differentiate to form myoepithelial cells - specialized contractile cells that have prominent stress fibers at the basal surface (Gudjonsson et al., 2005). These cells form a basket-like network around ...
TRPV6 is a membrane calcium channel which is particularly involved in the first step in calcium absorption in the intestine. When first discovered it was named CAT1, or ECaC2. The name TRPV6 was confirmed in 2005. TRPV6 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of membrane proteins. Unlike most TRP channels, TRPV6 is selective for Ca2+ ions, a property shared with its close homologue, TRPV5, which is mainly expressed in the kidney and plays a role in renal Ca2+ reabsorption. TRPV6 expression has been described in the intestine in several species, including humans. The protein is located in the apical brush-border membrane of the intestinal enterocyte where it regulates calcium entry into the cell. It is most abundant in the proximal small intestine (duodenum and jejunum), along with the other calcium transport proteins, calbindin and the calcium-pumping ATPase, PMCA1. The TRPV6 calcium transporter also found in the human placenta, pancreas and prostate gland and in some ...
Parvalbumin in human brain.: Parvalbumin was isolated from human cerebral cortex and biceps and triceps muscles by HPLC. The immunological properties of the hum
Complete information for S100G gene (Protein Coding), S100 Calcium Binding Protein G, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for S100A2 gene (Protein Coding), S100 Calcium Binding Protein A2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
100 µg purified IgG, lyophilized. Albumin and azide were added for stabilization. For reconstitution add 100 µl H2O to get a 1mg/ml solution in PBS. Then aliquot and store at -20°C until use ...

Sequence Similarity 









- 1CDN: Solution structure of (CD2+)1-calbindin D9K reveals details of the stepwise structural...Sequence Similarity - 1CDN: Solution structure of (CD2+)1-calbindin D9K reveals details of the stepwise structural...

1-calbindin D9k reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the Apo(Ca2+)II1(Ca2+)I,II2 binding pathway. ... Entity #1 , Chains: A CALBINDIN D9K protein, length: 76 (BLAST) Sequence Similarity Cutoff. Rank. Chains in Cluster. Cluster ID ... Solution structure of (CD2+)1-calbindin D9K reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the apo (CA2+)II1 ( ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=1CDN

RCSB PDB 









- 1CDN: Solution structure of (CD2+)1-calbindin D9K reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along...RCSB PDB - 1CDN: Solution structure of (CD2+)1-calbindin D9K reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along...

1-calbindin D9k reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the Apo(Ca2+)II1(Ca2+)I,II2 binding pathway. ... CALBINDIN D9K A 76 Bos taurus Mutation: P43G Details: BOVINE MINOR A FORM, CADMIUM-HALF-SATURATED, CADMIUM ION IS BOUND IN C- ... Solution structure of (CD2+)1-calbindin D9K reveals details of the stepwise structural changes along the apo (CA2+)II1 ( ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1CDN

Anti-Calbindin 1 (CALB1) Monoclonal Antibody(Clone: CALB1/3333)| 36-3393Anti-Calbindin 1 (CALB1) Monoclonal Antibody(Clone: CALB1/3333)| 36-3393

The family of EF-hand type Ca2+-binding proteins includes Calbindin D28K, Calbindin D9K, S-100 and , Calgranulin A (also ... Calbindin D28K, also known as calbindin, CALB1, D-28K or vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, is a 261-amino acid ... Calbindin; Calbindin D28; D 28K; D-28K; D28K; OTTHUMP00000166027; OTTHUMP00000225441; RTVL H protein; Vitamin D dependent ... Anti-Calbindin 1 (CALB1) Monoclonal Antibody(Clone: CALB1/3333). Product code: 36-3393. *specify in mg or ml ...
more infohttps://www.abeomics.com/anti-calbindin-1-calb1-monoclonal-antibody-clone-calb1-3333

Calbindin-D28k Antibody 14479-1-AP  | ProteintechCalbindin-D28k Antibody 14479-1-AP | Proteintech

Calbindin-D28k Antibody 14479-1-AP has been identified with IF, IHC, IP, WB, ELISA. 14479-1-AP detected 28 kDa band in mouse ... Calbindin-D28k Antibody 3 Publications. Rabbit Polyclonal, Catalog number: 14479-1-AP Featured Product KD/KO validated ... IHC result of Calbindin antibody (14479-1-AP, 1:5000 in 1% BSA 0.3%Tx-100 Tris buffer incubated at 4℃ overnight) with freshly ... IHC result of Calbindin antibody (14479-1-AP, 1:5000 in 1% BSA 0.3%Tx-100 Tris buffer incubated at 4℃ overnight) with freshly ...
more infohttps://www.ptglab.com/Products/CALB1-Antibody-14479-1-AP.htm

Calbindin | Medicína, nemoci, studium na 1. LF UKCalbindin | Medicína, nemoci, studium na 1. LF UK

Calbindin. Calbindin je termín označující skupinu transportních proteinů v buňkách tenkého střeva a v ledvinách. Tyto proteiny ...
more infohttp://www.stefajir.cz/?q=calbindin

The expression of calbindin 1 and 2 proteins in human tissues and common tumours outside the central nervous system - Oxford...The expression of calbindin 1 and 2 proteins in human tissues and common tumours outside the central nervous system - Oxford...

The expression of calbindin 1 and 2 proteins in human tissues and common tumours outside the central nervous system ... The expression of calbindin 1 and 2 proteins in human tissues and common tumours outside the central nervous system ...
more infohttps://www.octru.ox.ac.uk/publications/120886

Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders.  - PubMed -...Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders. - PubMed -...

2013 Mar;15(1):53-65. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review ... calbindin 1; SOD2, superoxide dismutase 2; BCL-2, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; DRD1, Dopamine receptor D1; SYN2, synapsin II; GFAP, ... Sibille E1.. Author information. 1. Department of Psychiatry, Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA ... Figure 1.. Continuous and progressive gene expression changes in human prefrontal cortex. Age-dependent changes for a core set ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23576889

EF-hand domain containing Gene Family | HUGO Gene Nomenclature CommitteeEF-hand domain containing Gene Family | HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee

calbindin 2. CAL2. 16q22.2. CALML3 calmodulin like 3. CLP. 10p15.1. CALML4 calmodulin like 4. MGC4809, NY-BR-20. 15q23. ... visinin like 1. VILIP, HPCAL3, HUVISL1, HLP3, VILIP-1. 2p24.2. ZZEF1 zinc finger ZZ-type and EF-hand domain containing 1. ... phospholipase C gamma 1. PLC1. PLC148, PLC-II, PLCgamma1, NCKAP3. 20q12. PLCH1 phospholipase C eta 1. PLCL3. KIAA1069, ... N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 1. EFCBP1. 8q21.3. NECAB2 N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 2. EFCBP2. ...
more infohttps://www.genenames.org/cgi-bin/genefamilies/set/863

anti-CALB1 antibody | Rabbit Calbindin Polyclonal Antibody-P05937.2anti-CALB1 antibody | Rabbit Calbindin Polyclonal Antibody-P05937.2

Rabbit Calbindin Polyclonal Antibody-P05937.2 (MBS176994) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: ... calbindin; D-28K; calbindin D28; RTVL-H protein; calbindin 1, (28kD); vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, avian-type ... Figure 2. IHC analysis of Calbindin using anti-Calbindin antibody (MBS176994).. Calbindin was detected in paraffin-embedded ... Figure 3. IHC analysis of Calbindin using anti-Calbindin antibody (MBS176994).. Calbindin was detected in paraffin-embedded ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/polyclonal-human-mouse-rat-antibody/calbindin/176994

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Calbindin 1, 28kDa. NM_004929. Gene Info. CALCA. Calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha. NM_001033953. NM_001033952. NM_001741. ... Cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial). NM_004360. Gene Info. CDH13. Cadherin 13, H-cadherin (heart). NM_001220488. NM_ ... Chloride channel accessory 1. NM_001285. Gene Info. CLCF1. Cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1. NM_013246. NM_001166212. Gene ... Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1. NM_000689. Gene Info. ALDH1A2. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A2. NM_ ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0070887

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Calbindin 1, 28kDa. NM_004929. Gene Info. CAV1. Caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa. NM_001172895. NM_001753. NM_001172896. NM_ ... Alpha-2-glycoprotein 1, zinc-binding. NM_001185. Gene Info. BAD. BCL2-associated agonist of cell death. NM_004322. NM_032989. ... Chromosome 1 open reading frame 145. NR_073154. Gene Info. C8G. Complement component 8, gamma polypeptide. NM_000606. Gene Info ... Fermitin family member 1. NM_017671. Gene Info. FERMT2. Fermitin family member 2. NM_001134999. NM_006832. NM_001135000. Gene ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0008289

2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase 1 - Wikipedia2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase 1 - Wikipedia

"Calbindin 1, fibroblast growth factor 20, and alpha-synuclein in sporadic Parkinsons disease". Hum. Genet. 124 (1): 89-94. doi ... 28 Suppl 1: S67-72. doi:10.1007/s10875-007-9160-5. PMID 18193341. Kardon T, Senesi S, Marcolongo P, Legeza B, Bánhegyi G, Mandl ... 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DECR1 gene. This gene encodes an accessory enzyme ... 434 (1): 195-200. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2004.10.018. PMID 15629123. Rosenzweig SD (2008). "Inflammatory manifestations in chronic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2,4-dienoyl-CoA_reductase_1

calb1 Summary [species: Xenopus laevis and  Xenopus tropicalis] - Xenbase Gene Catalog
	calb1 Summary [species: Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis] - Xenbase Gene Catalog

Gene Name: calbindin 1 Synonyms: calbindin , calb , calb1-b , calb1-a Add Xenopus synonyms , Nomenclature history Gene Function ... NM_001090639,Xenopus laevis calbindin 1 L homeolog (calb1.L), mRNA ... NM_001094348,Xenopus laevis calbindin 1 S homeolog (calb1.S), mRNA ... Xl2.459.1.S1_at Xl2.48975.1.S1_at Symbol legend[+] - Blast this sequence. - View this sequence. - Literature Or Expression ...
more infohttp://www.xenbase.org/gene/showgene.do?method=display&geneId=951982

Overexpression of Human SOD1 Leads to Discrete Defects in the Cerebellar Architecture in the MouseOverexpression of Human SOD1 Leads to Discrete Defects in the Cerebellar Architecture in the Mouse

Calbindin 1. HSP. Heat shock protein. NZ. Nodular zone. PBS. Phosphate buffer saline. Cβ4: PLCβ4. Phospholipase. PZ. Posterior ... Calbindin 1 (Calb1) was down-regulated in a patterned manner in wt SOD1 Tg mice. In the mouse cerebellum, Calb1 was expressed ... Calbindin 1 (Calb1) and three well-known zone and stripe markers, zebrin II, HSP25, and PLCβ4 have been used to explore ... Calbindin 1 (Calb1) is specific marker for Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. (A,B) Transverse cryostat sections through the ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5372795/

CALB1 - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-RadCALB1 - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Rad

Calbindin 1, 28kDa Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: Intron-spanning Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: ... Calbindin 1, 28kDa Assay Type: Probe Assay Design: Intron-spanning Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: qMccCIP0029419 ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/gene/calb1-rhesus-monkey

CALB1 Rat | ProSpecCALB1 Rat | ProSpec

Calbindins are Ca-binding proteins belonging to the troponin C superfamily. CALB28K/Calbindin1/CALB1 (D28K/Spot35 protein or ... Calbindin, Vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein, avian-type, Calbindin D28, D-28K, Spot 35 protein, Calb1, CaBP28K, ... Calbindins are Ca-binding proteins belonging to the troponin C superfamily. CALB28K/Calbindin1/CALB1 (D28K/Spot35 protein or ... Calbindin D-28K is found predominantly in subpopulations of central and peripheral nervous system neurons, and in certain ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/CALB1_Rat

Renal Oncocytoma disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsRenal Oncocytoma disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

calbindin 1, 28kDa. Kidney -. 7.86. 0.000. 17. RNF128 ring finger protein 128, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. Kidney -. 7.83. ... The MalaCards human disease database index: 1-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... 1. stem cell differentiation. GO:0048863 8.96. EPCAM KIT 2. cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus. GO:0071375 8.62. ... renal cell carcinoma, papillary, 1 29.8. CDH16 KIT KRT7 MME 3. chromophobe renal cell carcinoma 29.4. CDH16 CLDN8 EPCAM FLCN ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/renal_oncocytoma

Cone and rod photoreceptors degenerate following ATP tr | Open-iCone and rod photoreceptors degenerate following ATP tr | Open-i

Calbindin 1/metabolism. *Cell Death/drug effects. *Cell Movement/drug effects/genetics ... of the photoreceptors within 1 week.These extreme changes were also observed in the 2-year-old P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat ... of the photoreceptors within 1 week.These extreme changes were also observed in the 2-year-old P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat ... has recently been found to induce acute photoreceptor death.ATP caused significant loss of visual function within 1 day and ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4265795_cne0522-2928-f4&req=4

Spontaneous Ocular Nystagmus disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsSpontaneous Ocular Nystagmus disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

The MalaCards human disease database index: 1-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... 1. response to calcium ion. GO:0051592 9.74. CALM1 CALM2 CALM3 2. positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase ... 1. Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score , 2) GR00366-A-101. 9.5. CALB1 CALM2 POMC ... 1. Safety and Feasibility of Using Epicall for Monitoring Pre-seizure Biomarkers. Unknown status. NCT01436695 ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/spontaneous_ocular_nystagmus

Frontiers | Roles of FGF20 in dopaminergic neurons and Parkinsons disease | Frontiers in Molecular NeuroscienceFrontiers | Roles of FGF20 in dopaminergic neurons and Parkinson's disease | Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience

2008). Calbindin 1, fibroblast growth factor 20, and alpha-synuclein in sporadic Parkinsons disease. Hum. Genet. 124, 89-94. ... Calbindin-negative dopaminergic neurons are preferentially lost in Parkinsons disease. Fgf20 almost completely rescued rat ... and promoted dopamine release in calbindin-negative dopaminergic neurons by activating Fgfr1 followed by its downstream cascade ... FIGURE 1. Figure 1. Evolutionary relationships within the human FGF gene family by phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2013.00015/full

Nutriepigenomics - WikipediaNutriepigenomics - Wikipedia

Choline deficiency alters global histone methylation and epigenetic marking at the Re1 site of the calbindin 1 gene. FASEB J. ... 2010 Nov 29:1-9 PMID 21110912 Jensen CB, Storgaard H, Dela F, Holst JJ, Madsbad S, Vaag AA. Early differential defects of ... 690(1): 71-80 doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2010.02.006 PMID 20188748 Zeisel S. What Choline Metabolism Can Tell Us About the Underlying ... 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1721-8 doi:10.1001/jama.290.13.1721 PMID 14519706 Davis CD, Ross SA. Dietary components impact histone ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutriepigenomics

Find Grants
             - Mayo ClinicFind Grants - Mayo Clinic

Kumar, R., Sih, C., Domingues, M. R., Semenkovich, C. F., Andrea Caumo, [. V., Arends, J. A. N., Wooley, K. L., Kini, A., Sherry, A. D., Takakis, I., Merabet, E., Aguilar-Salinas, C., Chen, D. A. N., Holman, R., Makara, G. M., Heijligenbert, R., Vicini, P., Roberts, E. S., Lakschmi, V. M., Mohanakumar, T., Roy, B., Zabrocki, J., Biolo, G., Kisselev, B., Davis, A., Demarini, D. M., Reepmeyer, [. V., Hale, C. C., Mohamed-Ali, V., Guillame, D., Racette, S., Powell, T., Rice, C. M., Takakis, I., Davis, A., Chen, D. A. N., Zachwieja, J. J., Holman, R., Vicini, P., Kwon, G., Roberts, E. S., Byun, J., Kini, A., Bashkin, J. K., Hasten, D. L., Zabrocki, J., Kisselev, B., Kirwan, J. P., Ido, Y., Hale, C. C., Mohamed-Ali, V., Guillame, D., Powell, T., Wooley, K. L., Welch, M. J., Yarasheski, K. E., Lakshmi, V., Ostlund, R. E., Binnder, E., Harran, P. G., Jenkins, C., Zinna, E., Coppack, S., Chi, X., Powers, S., Narita, M., Cozzolino, M., Pramanik, B., Zhu, M. E. I., Anderson, V., Du, J. O. Y., Rhoades, E., ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/projects/?showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&originalSearch=&improvedLayoutOrganisationUuid=&format=&lastName=K&nofollow=true&ordering=startDate&descending=false

Gene expression changes following extinction testing in a heroin behavioral incubation model | BMC Neuroscience | Full TextGene expression changes following extinction testing in a heroin behavioral incubation model | BMC Neuroscience | Full Text

Extinction sessions were conducted on groups after either 1 d or 14 d of drug-free enforced abstinence to demonstrate ... and calbindin 1 (calb1) both displayed increased expression levels, by 32% and 21%, respectively, relative to saline controls. ... 2008, 56 (Suppl 1): 18-31.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Thorsell A, Slawecki CJ, Ehlers CL: Effects of neuropeptide Y ... 2009, 56 (Supplement 1): 177-185. 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.04.022.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2202-10-95

Plus itPlus it

... calbindin, or GFAP were then determined. Because BrdU-labeled cells in the hilus rarely express TOAD-64, calbindin, or GFAP ( ... Arrowheads indicate calbindin-labeled cells not labeled with BrdU. F, Ki67-labeled cells (arrowheads) in the subgranular zone ... E, BrdU-labeled cell (arrow) that is colabeled with calbindin, a marker of mature neurons, in the dentate gyrus of an adult ... Additionally, the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells that were immunoreactive for either TOAD-64, GFAP, or calbindin (Fig.2C-E) ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/14/5792
  • The family of EF-hand type Ca2+-binding proteins includes Calbindin D28K, Calbindin D9K, S-100 and , Calgranulin A (also designated MRP8), Calgranulin B (also designated MRP14), Calgranulin C and the Parvalbumin family members, including Parvalbumin and Parvalbumin (also designated oncomodulin). (abeomics.com)
  • Also, Calbindin D28K has been implicated to play a role in apoptosis and microtubule function. (abeomics.com)
  • The human superoxide dismutase 1 ( SOD1 ) gene is responsible for neutralizing supercharged oxygen radicals within the cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The human superoxide dismutase 1 ( SOD1 ) gene is located on chromosome 21 and functions to produce the enzyme Cu/Zn SOD1, which neutralizes superoxide (oxygen) radicals within cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Renal Oncocytoma, also known as oncocytoma, renal , is related to oncocytoma and renal cell carcinoma, papillary, 1 . (malacards.org)
  • FGF20 is a member of the FGF9/16/20 subfamily, which is a paracrine Fgf (Figure 1 ) ( Itoh and Ornitz, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Argininosuccinate Synthase 1-Deficiency Enhances the Cell Sensitivity to Arginine through Decreased DEPTOR Expression in Endometrial Cancer. (abcam.com)
  • Detection:14479-1-AP 1:1000) with mouse brain tissue lysate 4000ug. (ptglab.com)
  • Extinction sessions were conducted on groups after either 1 d or 14 d of drug-free enforced abstinence to demonstrate behavioral incubation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Frizzled3 ( Fzd3 ), a seven-transmembrane receptor with key functions in Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, 1 has critical roles in neural morphogenesis, such as steering various axonal tracts by interacting with other PCP members. (arvojournals.org)
  • Four major interneuron subtypes could be distinguished based on the mGluR-mediated inward current induced by the application of 100 μ m trans-(1 S ,3 R )-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) under voltage-clamp conditions and the action potential firing pattern under current-clamp conditions. (jneurosci.org)