A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.

Ca-releasing action of beta, gamma-methylene adenosine triphosphate on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum. (1/3667)

beta,gamma-Methylene adenosine triphosphate (AMPOPCP) has two effects on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (FSR), i.e., inhibition of the rate of Ca uptake and the induction of Ca release from FSR filled with Ca. The Ca release brought about by AMPOPCP has many features in common with the mechanism of Ca-induced Ca release: i) it is inhibited by 10 mM procaine; ii) the amount of Ca release increases with increase in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the medium facilitates the release of Ca. However, no facilitation of Ca release upon decrease of Mg concentration in the medium is observable. AMPOPCP and caffeine potentiate each other remarkably in their Ca-releasing action, irrespective of the kind of substrate. From the mode of action of AMPOPCP on the rate of Ca uptake, the amount of phosphorylated intermediate (EP), and the effect on Sr release, it is suggested that the state of the FSR-ATP complex is crucial for Ca-induced Ca release.  (+info)

Drug-protein binding and blood-brain barrier permeability. (2/3667)

The permeability surface area (PS) product, an index of permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was measured by using the in situ perfusion method. In the cerebral circulation, the fraction of drug that permeates into the brain through the BBB is not only the unbound fraction but also the fraction dissociated from the protein in the perfusate. The sum of these two fractions, the apparent exchangeable fraction, was estimated by fitting the parameters of the BBB permeability under the condition of varying BSA concentrations in the perfusate. The unbound fraction of drugs in a buffer containing 0.5 mM BSA was measured by using the ultrafiltration method in vitro, and the apparent exchangeable fraction was measured in vivo by using the intracarotid artery injection method. The apparent exchange fraction was 100% for S-8510, 96.5% for diazepam, 90.9% for caffeine, 38.3% for S-312-d, 33.1% for propranolol, and 6.68% for (+)-S-145 Na, and each of these was higher than the corresponding unbound fraction in vitro in all drugs. The apparent exchangeable fractions, for example, were 8 times higher for diazepam and 38 times for S-312-d than the unbound fractions in vitro. The apparent exchangeable fraction of drugs was also estimated from the parameters obtained with the perfusion method. Because drugs can be infused for an arbitrary length of time in the perfusion method, substances with low permeability can be measured. The apparent exchangeable fractions obtained with this method were almost the same as those obtained with the intracarotid artery injection method.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (3/3667)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

Caffeine can override the S-M checkpoint in fission yeast. (4/3667)

The replication checkpoint (or 'S-M checkpoint') control prevents progression into mitosis when DNA replication is incomplete. Caffeine has been known for some time to have the capacity to override the S-M checkpoint in animal cells. We show here that caffeine also disrupts the S-M checkpoint in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. By contrast, no comparable effects of caffeine on the S. pombe DNA damage checkpoint were seen. S. pombe cells arrested in early S phase and then exposed to caffeine lost viability rapidly as they attempted to enter mitosis, which was accompanied by tyrosine dephosphorylation of Cdc2. Despite this, the caffeine-induced loss of viability was not blocked in a temperature-sensitive cdc2 mutant incubated at the restrictive temperature, although catastrophic mitosis was prevented under these conditions. This suggests that, in addition to S-M checkpoint control, a caffeine-sensitive function may be important for maintenance of cell viability during S phase arrest. The lethality of a combination of caffeine with the DNA replication inhibitor hydroxyurea was suppressed by overexpression of Cds1 or Chk1, protein kinases previously implicated in S-M checkpoint control and recovery from S phase arrest. In addition, the same combination of drugs was specifically tolerated in cells overexpressing either of two novel S. pombe genes isolated in a cDNA library screen. These findings should allow further molecular investigation of the regulation of S phase arrest, and may provide a useful system with which to identify novel drugs that specifically abrogate the checkpoint control.  (+info)

Mutation screening of the RYR1 gene and identification of two novel mutations in Italian malignant hyperthermia families. (5/3667)

Point mutations in the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are associated with malignant hyperthermia, an autosomal dominant disorder triggered in susceptible people (MHS) by volatile anaesthetics and depolarising skeletal muscle relaxants. To date, 17 missense point mutations have been identified in the human RYR1 gene by screening of the cDNA obtained from muscle biopsies. Here we report single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) screening for nine of the most frequent RYR1 mutations using genomic DNA isolated from MHS patients. In addition, the Argl63Cys mutation was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion. We analysed 57 unrelated patients and detected seven of the known RYR1 point mutations. Furthermore, we found a new mutation, Arg2454His, segregating with the MHS phenotype in a large pedigree and a novel amino acid substitution at position 2436 in another patient, indicating a 15.8% frequency of these mutations in Italian patients. A new polymorphic site in intron 16 that causes the substitution of a G at position -7 with a C residue was identified.  (+info)

Infrared dichroism of the DNA-caffeine complex. A new method for determination of the ligand orientation. (6/3667)

Infrared linear dichroism (LD) measurements on films of the DNA-caffeine complex in terms of the relative humidity (r.h.) show two main effects. Firstly, there is an insertion of caffeine molecules into the DNA double helix (B form), as evidenced by a very strong parallel LD behaviour of the 745 cm-1 band due to the C-H out-of-plane deformation vibration of caffeine. Furthermore, a high r.h. values a modified B form occurs in the complex similar to the B form recently reported by BRAHMS and coworkers for DNA-polypeptide complexes. The reversible B-A transition of the DNA in dependence of the r.h. is not affected in general in the presence of caffeine.  (+info)

The sarcoplasmic reticulum and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger both contribute to the Ca2+ transient of failing human ventricular myocytes. (7/3667)

Our objective was to determine the respective roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the small, slowly decaying Ca2+ transients of failing human ventricular myocytes. Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from explanted hearts of patients with severe heart failure (n=18). Cytosolic Ca2+, contraction, and action potentials were measured by using indo-1, edge detection, and patch pipettes, respectively. Selective inhibitors of SR Ca2+ transport (thapsigargin) and reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity (No. 7943, Kanebo Ltd) were used to define the respective contribution of these processes to the Ca2+ transient. Ca2+ transients and contractions induced by action potentials (AP transients) at 0.5 Hz exhibited phasic and tonic components. The duration of the tonic component was determined by the action potential duration. Ca2+ transients induced by caffeine (Caf transients) exhibited only a phasic component with a rapid rate of decay that was dependent on extracellular Na+. The SR Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin abolished the phasic component of the AP Ca2+ transient and of the Caf transient but had no significant effect on the tonic component of the AP transient. The Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor No. 7943 eliminated the tonic component of the AP transient and reduced the magnitude of the phasic component. In failing human myocytes, Ca2+ transients and contractions exhibit an SR-related, phasic component and a slow, reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange-related tonic component. These findings suggest that Ca2+ influx via reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange during the action potential may contribute to the slow decay of the Ca2+ transient in failing human myocytes.  (+info)

Effects of impaired Ca2+ homeostasis on contraction in postinfarction myocytes. (8/3667)

The significance of altered Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways on contractile abnormalities of myocytes isolated from rat hearts 3 wk after myocardial infarction (MI) was investigated by varying extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o, 0.6-5.0 mM) and pacing frequency (0.1-5.0 Hz). Myocytes isolated from 3-wk MI hearts were significantly longer than those from sham-treated (Sham) hearts (125 +/- 1 vs. 114 +/- 1 micrometer, P < 0.0001). At high [Ca2+]o and low pacing frequency, conditions that preferentially favored Ca2+ influx over efflux, Sham myocytes shortened to a greater extent than 3-wk MI myocytes. Conversely, under conditions that favored Ca2+ efflux (low [Ca2+]o and high pacing frequency), MI myocytes shortened more than Sham myocytes. At intermediate [Ca2+]o and pacing frequencies, differences in steady-state contraction amplitudes between Sham and MI myocytes were no longer significant. Collectively, the interpretation of these data was that Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways were subnormal in MI myocytes and that they contributed to abnormal cellular contractile behavior. Because Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity, but not whole cell Ca2+ current, was depressed in 3-wk MI rat myocytes, our results on steady-state contraction are consistent with, but not proof of, the hypothesis that depressed Na+/Ca2+ exchange accounted for abnormal contractility in MI myocytes. The effects of depressed Na+/Ca2+ exchange on MI myocyte mechanical activity were further evaluated in relaxation from caffeine-induced contractures. Because Ca2+ uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum was inhibited by caffeine and with the assumption that intracellular Na+ and membrane potential were similar between Sham and MI myocytes, myocyte relaxation from caffeine-induced contracture can be taken as an estimate of Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange. In MI myocytes, in which Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity was depressed, the half time of relaxation (1.54 +/- 0.14 s) was significantly (P < 0.02) prolonged compared with that measured in Sham myocytes (1.10 +/- 0.10 s).  (+info)

Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that occurs naturally in the leaves, seeds, or fruits of some plants. It can also be produced artificially and added to various products, such as food, drinks, and medications. Caffeine has a number of effects on the body, including increasing alertness, improving mood, and boosting energy levels.

In small doses, caffeine is generally considered safe for most people. However, consuming large amounts of caffeine can lead to negative side effects, such as restlessness, insomnia, rapid heart rate, and increased blood pressure. It is also possible to become dependent on caffeine, and withdrawal symptoms can occur if consumption is suddenly stopped.

Caffeine is found in a variety of products, including coffee, tea, chocolate, energy drinks, and some medications. The amount of caffeine in these products can vary widely, so it is important to pay attention to serving sizes and labels to avoid consuming too much.

Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are a class of drugs that increase alertness, attention, energy, and/or mood by directly acting on the brain. They can be prescribed to treat medical conditions such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression that has not responded to other treatments.

Examples of CNS stimulants include amphetamine (Adderall), methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), and modafinil (Provigil). These medications work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain.

In addition to their therapeutic uses, CNS stimulants are also sometimes misused for non-medical reasons, such as to enhance cognitive performance or to get high. However, it's important to note that misusing these drugs can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, and mental health issues.

Theobromine is defined as a bitter, crystalline alkaloid of the cacao plant, and is found in chocolate, especially cocoa. It is a stimulant that primarily affects the heart and cardiovascular system, and to a lesser extent the central nervous system. Theobromine is also found in the kola nut and tea leaves.

In a medical context, theobromine may be used as a vasodilator and diuretic. It can help to relax muscles, widen blood vessels, and increase urine production. However, it is important to note that theobromine is toxic to some animals, including dogs and cats, and can cause serious medical problems or even death if ingested in large quantities.

Coffee is defined in medical terms as a beverage prepared from the roasted seeds of the Coffea plant. It contains caffeine, a stimulant that can help increase alertness, improve mood, and boost mental and physical performance. Coffee also contains antioxidants and other bioactive compounds that may have health benefits. However, excessive consumption of coffee can lead to side effects such as insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, and rapid heart rate. It's important to consume coffee in moderation and be aware of its potential interactions with medications and medical conditions.

Ryanodine is not a medical condition or term, but it is a chemical compound that interacts with ryanodine receptors (RyRs), which are calcium release channels found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells. Ryanodine receptors play a crucial role in excitation-contraction coupling, which is the process by which electrical signals trigger muscle contractions.

Ryanodine itself is a plant alkaloid that was initially isolated from the South American shrub Ryania speciosa. It can bind to and inhibit ryanodine receptors, altering calcium signaling in muscle cells. This ability of ryanodine to modulate calcium release has made it a valuable tool in researching excitation-contraction coupling and related processes.

In some cases, the term "ryanodine" may be used in a medical context to refer to the effects of ryanodine or ryanodine receptor modulation on muscle function, particularly in relation to diseases associated with calcium handling abnormalities. However, it is not a medical condition per se.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 is a specific isoform of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, which is involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics, including drugs and toxins, in the body. This enzyme is primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, or liver cells, and plays a significant role in the oxidative metabolism of certain medications, such as caffeine, theophylline, and some antidepressants.

CYP1A2 is induced by various factors, including smoking, charcoal-grilled foods, and certain medications, which can increase its enzymatic activity and potentially affect the metabolism and clearance of drugs that are substrates for this enzyme. Genetic polymorphisms in the CYP1A2 gene can also lead to differences in enzyme activity among individuals, resulting in variable drug responses and potential adverse effects.

In summary, Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 is a liver enzyme involved in the metabolism of various drugs and toxins, with genetic and environmental factors influencing its activity and impacting individual responses to medications.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Procaine is a local anesthetic drug that is used to reduce the feeling of pain in a specific area of the body. It works by blocking the nerves from transmitting painful sensations to the brain. Procaine is often used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or when a patient needs to have a wound cleaned or stitched up. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help determine the source of pain.

Procaine is administered via injection directly into the area that requires anesthesia. The effects of procaine are relatively short-lived, typically lasting between 30 minutes and two hours, depending on the dose and the individual's metabolism. Procaine may also cause a brief period of heightened sensory perception or euphoria following injection, known as "procaine rush."

It is important to note that procaine should only be administered by trained medical professionals, as improper use can lead to serious complications such as allergic reactions, respiratory depression, and even death.

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE inhibitors) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of phosphodiesterase enzymes, which are responsible for breaking down cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), two crucial intracellular signaling molecules.

By inhibiting these enzymes, PDE inhibitors increase the concentration of cAMP and cGMP in the cells, leading to a variety of effects depending on the specific type of PDE enzyme that is inhibited. These drugs have been used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as erectile dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and heart failure.

Examples of PDE inhibitors include sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), vardenafil (Levitra) for erectile dysfunction, and iloprost, treprostinil, and sildenafil for pulmonary arterial hypertension. It's important to note that different PDE inhibitors have varying levels of selectivity for specific PDE isoforms, which can result in different therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a specialized type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum found in muscle cells, particularly in striated muscles such as skeletal and cardiac muscles. It is a complex network of tubules that surrounds the myofibrils, the contractile elements of the muscle fiber.

The primary function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum is to store calcium ions (Ca2+) and regulate their release during muscle contraction and uptake during muscle relaxation. The SR contains a high concentration of calcium-binding proteins, such as calsequestrin, which help to maintain this storage.

The release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is triggered by an action potential that travels along the muscle fiber's sarcolemma and into the muscle fiber's interior (the sarcoplasm). This action potential causes the voltage-gated calcium channels in the SR membrane, known as ryanodine receptors, to open, releasing Ca2+ ions into the sarcoplasm.

The increased concentration of Ca2+ ions in the sarcoplasm triggers muscle contraction by binding to troponin, a protein associated with actin filaments, causing a conformational change that exposes the active sites on actin for myosin heads to bind and generate force.

After muscle contraction, the calcium ions must be actively transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca2+ ATPase pumps, also known as sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (SERCAs). This process helps to lower the concentration of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasm and allows the muscle fiber to relax.

Overall, the sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a crucial role in excitation-contraction coupling, the process by which action potentials trigger muscle contraction.

The Ryanodine Receptor (RyR) is a calcium release channel located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), a type of endoplasmic reticulum found in muscle cells. It plays a crucial role in excitation-contraction coupling, which is the process by which electrical signals are converted into mechanical responses in muscle fibers.

In more detail, when an action potential reaches the muscle fiber's surface membrane, it triggers the opening of voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (Dihydropyridine Receptors or DHPRs) in the sarcolemma (the cell membrane of muscle fibers). This influx of calcium ions into the cytoplasm causes a conformational change in the RyR, leading to its own opening and the release of stored calcium from the SR into the cytoplasm. The increased cytoplasmic calcium concentration then initiates muscle contraction through interaction with contractile proteins like actin and myosin.

There are three isoforms of RyR: RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3. RyR1 is primarily found in skeletal muscle, while RyR2 is predominantly expressed in cardiac muscle. Both RyR1 and RyR2 are large homotetrameric proteins with a molecular weight of approximately 2.2 million Daltons. They contain multiple domains including an ion channel pore, regulatory domains, and a foot structure that interacts with DHPRs. RyR3 is more widely distributed, being found in various tissues such as the brain, smooth muscle, and some types of neurons.

Dysfunction of these channels has been implicated in several diseases including malignant hyperthermia, central core disease, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and certain forms of heart failure.

Adenosine A2A receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the endogenous purine nucleoside, adenosine. It is a subtype of the A2 receptor along with the A2B receptor and is widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the brain, heart, and immune system.

The A2A receptor plays an essential role in various physiological processes, including modulation of neurotransmission, cardiovascular function, and immune response. In the brain, activation of A2A receptors can have both excitatory and inhibitory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and context.

In the heart, A2A receptor activation has a negative chronotropic effect, reducing heart rate, and a negative inotropic effect, decreasing contractility. In the immune system, A2A receptors are involved in regulating inflammation and immune cell function.

Pharmacologically, A2A receptor agonists have been investigated for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions, including Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer. Conversely, A2A receptor antagonists have also been studied as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, and addiction.

A beverage is a drink intended for human consumption. The term is often used to refer to any drink that is not alcoholic or, in other words, non-alcoholic beverages. This includes drinks such as water, juice, tea, coffee, and soda. However, it can also include alcoholic drinks like beer, wine, and spirits.

In a medical context, beverages are often discussed in relation to their impact on health. For example, sugary drinks like soda and energy drinks have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and other health problems. On the other hand, drinks like water and unsweetened tea can help to keep people hydrated and may have other health benefits.

It's important for individuals to be mindful of their beverage choices and to choose options that are healthy and support their overall well-being. This may involve limiting sugary drinks, choosing water or unsweetened tea instead of soda, and avoiding excessive caffeine intake.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that block the action of adenosine at A2 receptors. Adenosine is a naturally occurring molecule in the body that acts as a neurotransmitter and has various physiological effects, including vasodilation and inhibition of heart rate.

Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists work by binding to A2 receptors and preventing adenosine from activating them. This results in the opposite effect of adenosine, leading to vasoconstriction and increased heart rate. These drugs are used for a variety of medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and heart failure.

Examples of Adenosine A2 receptor antagonists include theophylline, caffeine, and some newer drugs such asistradefylline and tozadenant. These drugs have different pharmacological properties and are used for specific medical conditions. It is important to note that adenosine A2 receptor antagonists can have side effects, including restlessness, insomnia, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Adenosine A1 receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine. When activated, it inhibits the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the cell by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity. This results in various physiological effects, such as decreased heart rate and reduced force of heart contractions, increased potassium conductance, and decreased calcium currents. The Adenosine A1 receptor is widely distributed throughout the body, including the brain, heart, kidneys, and other organs. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including cardiovascular function, neuroprotection, and inflammation.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Ephedrine is a medication that stimulates the nervous system and is used to treat low blood pressure, asthma, and nasal congestion. It works by narrowing the blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which can help to increase blood pressure and open up the airways in the lungs. Ephedrine may also be used as a bronchodilator to treat COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Ephedrine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and solutions for injection. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking ephedrine, as it can have side effects such as rapid heart rate, anxiety, headache, and dizziness. Ephedrine should not be used by people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or narrow-angle glaucoma, and it should not be taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding without consulting a healthcare provider.

In addition to its medical uses, ephedrine has been used as a performance-enhancing drug and is banned by many sports organizations. It can also be found in some over-the-counter cold and allergy medications, although these products are required to carry warnings about the potential for misuse and addiction.

"Paullinia" is a botanical name, referring to a genus of plants in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae). It includes several species that are native to the Americas, particularly in Central and South America. Some of these plants have traditional medicinal uses, and some of their chemical constituents have been studied for potential pharmacological effects. However, "Paullinia" itself is not a medical term or diagnosis.

One of the most well-known species in this genus is Paullinia cupana, commonly known as guarana. Guarana seeds contain high levels of caffeine and have been used in traditional medicine as a stimulant and to treat various conditions such as fever, headache, and gastrointestinal issues. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants as medicines may come with risks and should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that can occur in susceptible individuals as a reaction to certain anesthetic drugs or other triggers. The condition is characterized by a rapid and uncontrolled increase in body temperature (hyperthermia), muscle rigidity, and metabolic rate due to abnormal skeletal muscle calcium regulation.

MH can develop quickly during or after surgery, usually within the first hour of exposure to triggering anesthetics such as succinylcholine or volatile inhalational agents (e.g., halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane). The increased metabolic rate and muscle activity lead to excessive production of heat, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and potassium, which can cause severe complications such as heart rhythm abnormalities, kidney failure, or multi-organ dysfunction if not promptly recognized and treated.

The primary treatment for MH involves discontinuing triggering anesthetics, providing supportive care (e.g., oxygen, fluid replacement), and administering medications to reduce body temperature, muscle rigidity, and metabolic rate. Dantrolene sodium is the specific antidote for MH, which works by inhibiting calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle cells, thereby reducing muscle contractility and metabolism.

Individuals with a family history of MH or who have experienced an episode should undergo genetic testing and counseling to determine their susceptibility and take appropriate precautions when receiving anesthesia.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Drinking behavior refers to the patterns and habits related to alcohol consumption. This can include the frequency, quantity, and context in which an individual chooses to drink alcohol. Drinking behaviors can vary widely among individuals and can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural norms, personal beliefs, mental health status, and genetic predisposition.

Problematic drinking behaviors can include heavy drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder (AUD), which is characterized by a pattern of alcohol use that involves problems controlling intake, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect, or having withdrawal symptoms when rapidly decreasing or stopping alcohol.

It's important to note that drinking behaviors can have significant impacts on an individual's health and well-being, as well as their relationships, work, and other aspects of their life. If you are concerned about your own drinking behavior or that of someone else, it is recommended to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Purinergic P1 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that block the activity of purinergic P1 receptors, which are a type of G-protein coupled receptor found in many tissues throughout the body. These receptors are activated by extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine and ATP, and play important roles in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including cardiovascular function, neurotransmission, and immune response.

Purinergic P1 receptor antagonists work by binding to these receptors and preventing them from being activated by nucleotides. This can have various therapeutic effects, depending on the specific receptor subtype that is targeted. For example, A1 receptor antagonists have been shown to improve cardiac function in heart failure, while A2A receptor antagonists have potential as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agents.

However, it's important to note that the use of purinergic P1 receptor antagonists is still an area of active research, and more studies are needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Adenosine A1 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that block the action of adenosine at A1 receptors. Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside that acts as a neurotransmitter and modulator of various physiological processes, including cardiovascular function, neuronal excitability, and immune response.

Adenosine exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, including A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors. The activation of A1 receptors leads to a variety of physiological responses, such as vasodilation, negative chronotropy (slowing of heart rate), and negative inotropy (reduced contractility) of the heart, as well as inhibition of neurotransmitter release in the brain.

Adenosine A1 receptor antagonists work by binding to and blocking the action of adenosine at A1 receptors, thereby preventing or reducing its effects on these physiological processes. These drugs have been investigated for their potential therapeutic uses in various conditions, such as heart failure, cardiac arrest, and neurological disorders.

Examples of adenosine A1 receptor antagonists include:

* Dipyridamole: a vasodilator used to treat peripheral arterial disease and to prevent blood clots.
* Caffeine: a natural stimulant found in coffee, tea, and chocolate, which acts as a weak A1 receptor antagonist.
* Rolofylline: an experimental drug that has been investigated for its potential use in treating acute ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury.
* KW-3902: another experimental drug that has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in heart failure, cardiac arrest, and neurodegenerative disorders.

It's important to note that adenosine A1 receptor antagonists may have side effects and potential risks, and their use should be monitored and managed by healthcare professionals.

Adenosine A2 receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor that binds the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine. They are divided into two subtypes, A2a and A2b, which have different distributions in the body and couple to different G proteins.

A2a receptors are found in high levels in the brain, particularly in the striatum, and play a role in regulating the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate. They also have anti-inflammatory effects and are being studied as potential targets for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.

A2b receptors, on the other hand, are found in a variety of tissues including the lung, blood vessels, and immune cells. They play a role in regulating inflammation and vasodilation, and have been implicated in the development of conditions such as asthma and pulmonary fibrosis.

Both A2a and A2b receptors are activated by adenosine, which is released in response to cellular stress or injury. Activation of these receptors can lead to a variety of downstream effects, depending on the tissue and context in which they are expressed.

Tetracaine is a local anesthetic commonly used for surface anesthesia of the eye, ear, and mucous membranes. It functions by blocking the nerve impulses in the area where it's applied, thereby numbing the area and relieving pain. It's available in various forms such as solutions, ointments, and sprays. Please note that all medical procedures and treatments should be conducted under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

... of the caffeine. The caffeine-laden CO2 is then sprayed with high-pressure water to remove the caffeine. The caffeine can then ... "caffeine-use disorder". Caffeine use disorder refers to dependence on caffeine characterized by failure to control caffeine ... Tolerance varies for daily, regular caffeine users and high caffeine users. High doses of caffeine (750 to 1200 mg/day spread ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caffeine GMD MS Spectrum Caffeine: ChemSub Online Caffeine at The Periodic Table of ...
... is the condition of having a substance dependence on caffeine, a commonplace central nervous system ... Caffeine dependence can cause a person to suffer different physiological effects if caffeine consumption is not maintained. ... Caffeine dependence forms due to caffeine antagonizing the adenosine A2A receptor, effectively blocking adenosine from the ... Mild physical dependence can result from long-term caffeine use. In the human body, caffeine blocks adenosine receptors A1 and ...
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... may refer to: Caffeine Dream, a 2006 album by Qwel "Caffeine Dream", a song by Scream from Fumble This ... disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Caffeine Dream. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
"Caffeine; Caffeine and Sodium Benzoate Injection; Caffeine Citrate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ... Doses of caffeine citrate, due to the added weight of the citrate moiety, are understandably higher than with caffeine base, i. ... Testing blood caffeine levels is occasionally recommended. Although it is often referred to as a citric acid salt of caffeine, ... "Caffeine citrate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Caffeine Citrate (CUI C0054436)". NCI ...
Caffeine has raised $146 million to date from investors in 3 rounds led by 21st Century Fox, Andreessen Horowitz, and Greylock ... Both Caffeine and Twitch partnered with celebrities to host pre-game celebrations for Super Bowl 2020. Caffeines celebrities ... Caffeine is a social broadcasting platform (live streaming) that delivers live, interactive content at the intersection of ... Caffeine secured a $100 million investment in September 2018 from 21st Century Fox with chairman Lachlan Murdoch joining ...
A caffeine patch is a type of a transdermal patch designed to deliver caffeine to the body through the skin. The concept is ... Caffeine has also been shown to reduce swelling around the eyes although this use is usually via a gel formula of caffeine. ... Caffeine can cross the blood-brain barrier, which means it can enter the brain and affect the nervous system directly. Caffeine ... Together these actions contribute to the stimulating effects of caffeine felt after consuming it. Caffeine blocks an enzyme ...
... , when in the presence of a tetrazolium dye, has been shown to be suitable for detecting caffeine in ... Caffeine dehydrogenase, commonly referred to in scientific literature as caffeine oxidase (EC, is an enzyme with the ... Caffeine dehydrogenase has been noted as being more stable as well. Caffeine dehydrogenase is responsible for catalyzing the ... Specifically, bacteria containing caffeine dehydrogenase have been seen as helpful in treating caffeine in agro-industrial ...
"Caffeine (2006) Reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved August 3, 2021. Caffeine at IMDb Caffeine at Rotten Tomatoes ... Caffeine is a 2006 American comedy film starring Marsha Thomason, Mena Suvari, Breckin Meyer, Katherine Heigl, Mike Vogel, and ... As the craziness builds to hilarious conclusions, CAFFEINE interweaves these characters' hapless attempts to repair their ...
... reeds Caffeine at Okka Disk Drouot, Alain. Caffeine - Caffeine: Review at AllMusic. Retrieved November 9, 2014. Cook, Richard; ... Caffeine review. DownBeat September 95: page 46. Print. Reich, Howard. Caffeine review at Chicago Tribune (Articles with short ... Caffeine is the eponymous debut album by the free improvisation trio consisting of Jim Baker on piano, Steve Hunt on percussion ... "Caffeine provides high-energy blow-outs followed by explorations of space and color. Baker's first recorded outing is appetite- ...
... is a methyltransferase enzyme involved in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway. It is expressed in tea species, ... "Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine ... caffeine + H+ S-adenosyl-L-methionine + paraxanthine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + caffeine ... Kato M, Mizuno K, Crozier A, Fujimura T, Ashihara H (August 2000). "Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves" (PDF). Nature. 406 ...
Chronic caffeine-induced psychosis has been reported in a 47-year-old man with high caffeine intake. The psychosis resolved ... Caffeine-induced psychosis is a relatively rare phenomenon that can occur in otherwise healthy people. Overuse of caffeine may ... This can happen with ingestion of high doses of caffeine, or when caffeine is chronically abused, but the actual evidence is ... Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder Caffeine-induced sleep disorder Hedges, Dawson; Woon, Fu; Hoopes, Scott (March 2009). " ...
... caffeine intoxication, caffeine-induced anxiety disorder, caffeine-induced sleep disorder, and caffeine-related disorder not ... Low caffeine coffees are typically created by assaying caffeine levels of different bean lots and selecting the best flavor ... but is substantially lower in caffeine than average coffee. Samples of coffee vary widely in caffeine levels due to many ... Asian producers grade individual lots by caffeine level and follow through to roasting in order to standardize caffeine content ...
"Caffeine-Free Pepsi" and "Caffeine-Free Diet Pepsi." When it was first introduced, Caffeine-Free Pepsi's label background was ... Caffeine-Free Pepsi is a version of the cola Pepsi that omits the caffeine that is customarily part of a cola. It was ... In 2009, the caffeine-free version reverted to a gold background. Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola labels also have a gold background. ... Caffeine-Free Pepsi is currently available in cans, 16 oz. plastic bottles and 2 liters, though availability varies from store ...
In Caffeine, the player takes the role of a young boy aboard a caffeine mining ship that has an extreme addiction to caffeine. ... Caffeine is set in a universe where the Earth has run out of its caffeine supplies, so big companies invest in mining ships ... Caffeine was negatively received by the majority of the public and almost all of the critics. While it has not been canceled, ... Caffeine is an episodic First-person adventure video game created by Dylan Browne and developed by Incandescent Imaging. The ...
Caffeine, International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS) This is the pKa for protonated caffeine, given ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on caffeine. This box: view edit Except where noted otherwise, data relate to ... ISBN 978-0-12-260833-9. Peters, Josef M. (1967). "Factors Affecting Caffeine Toxicity: A Review of the Literature". The Journal ... Caffeine, Chemical data pages cleanup, All stub articles, Chemistry stubs). ...
... is the second studio album by Canadian country music artist Kira Isabella. It was released on October 14 ... Saxberg, Lynn (October 10, 2014). "Caffeine and Big Dreams fuel Kira Isabella's new CD". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved October 16, ... Russell-Metcalf, Shenieka (October 15, 2014). "Reviewed: Kira Isabella's "Caffeine & Big Dreams"". Top Country. Retrieved ...
Caffeine acts in multiple ways within the brain and the rest of the body. However, due to the concentration of caffeine ... Consumption of caffeine has long been linked to anxiety. The effects of caffeine and the symptoms of anxiety both increase ... In caffeine-induced anxiety disorder, such symptoms would be due to the consumption of caffeine. The DSM-5 makes the ... Treatments for caffeine-induced anxiety disorder tend to focus on abstinence from or a reduction of caffeine intake and ...
... is a psychiatric disorder that results from overconsumption of the stimulant caffeine. Caffeine ... Though caffeine can be shown to decrease the quality of sleep, there is no evidence that caffeine affects all people the same ... Caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist. This means that caffeine mainly works by occupying adenosine receptors in the ... Once it is in the body, caffeine will persist for several hours, and takes about six hours for one half of the caffeine ...
... is a worldwide known and tested idea. Many athletes use caffeine as a legal performance enhancer, as the ... Those who use caffeine regularly, most often drinking at least one coffee a day, can become dependent and addicted. If caffeine ... Caffeine has been proven to be effective in enhancing performance. Caffeine is a stimulant drug. Once consumed, it is absorbed ... As caffeine targets the brain, there are many cognitive effects from using it. Caffeine can reduce tiredness and reaction time ...
... was introduced in 1983 as a caffeine-free variant of Coca-Cola. It was introduced to compete against ... In 2013, Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola Zero was introduced in the United States. Since 2020, Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola has been ... The diet variant, Caffeine-Free Diet Coke, was the first variant of Diet Coke and was introduced in 1984, one year after the ... In April 1985, Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola was switched to the unpopular New Coke formula and did not switch back to the classic ...
Positive effects of caffeine on long-term memory have been shown in a study analyzing habitual caffeine intake of coffee or tea ... Caffeine users are subject to state dependent memory effects when under the effects of caffeine. For example, a study tasked ... Caffeine was consumed by the rats before and after the training sessions. There was no effect of caffeine consumption before ... Caffeine administered at high doses correlated to a decrease in delay from 180 seconds to 105 seconds. Lower doses of caffeine ...
Bruce Piefke of Caffeine and Octane, which took over ownership of the raceplex at the start of the year, said he's excited for ... Caffeine and Octane has resumed weekly events at the Lanier Raceway, including Friday Night Drift with Federico Sceriffo, a ... Caffeine and Octane's Lanier Raceway (formerly Lanier Raceplex and Lanier National Speedway) is a 0.375-mile paved oval ... On 1 January 2022 it was reported that the track had been sold to Caffeine and Octane. C&O's Lanier Raceway is located across ...
... , also referred to as trimethyluric acid and 8-oxy-caffeine, is a purine alkaloid that is produced in ... "Pharmacology". Caffeine. 16 September 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2014. {{cite encyclopedia}}: ,work= ignored (help) MSDS entry v ... The enzymes that metabolize caffeine into 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid in humans include CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 ... some plants and occurs as a minor metabolite of caffeine in humans. ...
"Caffeine". WebMD. Retrieved 16 November 2021. "Spilling the Beans: How Much Caffeine is Too Much?". United States Food and Drug ... Two rectangular legends were also included on the discouragement of the consumption of foods containing caffeine or sweeteners ...
She recommends a detox diet in which the "top 12 toxic terrors to avoid" are: smoking; caffeine; alcohol; chocolate and sweet ... caffeine, white flour, and additives. Goldacre writes that he finds it offensive that the British media is "filled with people ...
... of dry unsweetened cocoa powder has 12.1 mg of caffeine and a 25-g single serving of dark chocolate has 22.4 mg of caffeine. ... 200 ml) serving of coffee may contain 80-175 mg, studies have shown psychoactive effects in caffeine doses as low as 9 mg, and ... Smit, H. J.; Rogers, P. J. (October 2010). "Effects of low doses of caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in low ... "Caffeine". New South Wales Government. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2015. Miller, ...
Caffeine. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8493-2647-9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and ...
"It's Launch Day! Well of the podcast anyway , Caffeine , The daily for New Zealand's Startups". www.caffeinedaily.co. Retrieved ...
Charted songs: "Caffeine (Piano version), Anything, Slow". Gaon Chart. December 8-14, 2013. "Too Much Love Kills Me". Gaon ... "Caffeine". Gaon Chart. December 2-8, 2012. "Glass Heart". Gaon Chart. April 21-27, 2013. "8dayz". Gaon Chart. May 11-17, 2014 ... Cumulative sales for "Caffeine": "Gaon Download Chart - November, 2012". Retrieved 2017-05-03. "Gaon Download Chart - December ...
... and public health implications of mixing alcohol with caffeine or energy drinks. ... The CDC Caffeine and Alcohol fact sheet discusses the dangers, prevalence, ... When alcohol is mixed with caffeine, the caffeine can mask the depressant effects of alcohol, making drinkers feel more alert ... Caffeine has no effect on the metabolism of alcohol by the liver and thus does not reduce breath or blood alcohol ...
... of the caffeine. The caffeine-laden CO2 is then sprayed with high-pressure water to remove the caffeine. The caffeine can then ... "caffeine-use disorder". Caffeine use disorder refers to dependence on caffeine characterized by failure to control caffeine ... Tolerance varies for daily, regular caffeine users and high caffeine users. High doses of caffeine (750 to 1200 mg/day spread ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caffeine GMD MS Spectrum Caffeine: ChemSub Online Caffeine at The Periodic Table of ...
But is it safe? Learn more about caffeine. ... What is caffeine?. Caffeine is a bitter substance that occurs ... Caffeine and Migraine (American Migraine Foundation) * Caffeine: How Does It Affect Blood Pressure? (Mayo Foundation for ... Most people consume caffeine from drinks. The amount of caffeine in different drinks can vary a lot, but it is generally:. *An ... What are caffeines effects on the body?. Caffeine has many effects on your bodys metabolism. It:. *Stimulates your central ...
Shop Caffeine Mugs from CafePress. Browse tons of unique designs or create your own custom coffee mug with text and images. Our ... Our ceramic Caffeine Mugs are microwave safe, top shelf dishwasher safe, and have easy to hold grip handles. While we dont ... Whether you want to express your funny side with humorous Caffeine Mugs, share your love of a favorite movie or tv show with a ... If by some chance we dont have the trending topic, occasion, or event you are after available on our Caffeine Mugs, we even ...
Caffeine.. Bawls, coffee, jolt, some teas, jolt gum, mountain dew, diet coke, amp, red bull, etc. ThinkGeek.com sells a lot of ... Snorting caffeine produces an immediate energy rush and more intense buzz than drinking Very true. But remember, kids... If ... Man, if it wasn't for me snorting caffeine instead of having the usual cup of coffee, I'd probably have gotten fired ... Don't do drugs, kids said the teacher as she sipped on her extra-large coffee, consuming 200 mg of caffeine in the ...
... they do so unaware that some of the youngest Americans are also getting a treatment of caffeine -- not to stay awake, but to ... seeking the jolting effect of caffeine. As these adults consume their coffee, ... Regular Caffeine Consumption Affects Brain Structure. Feb. 16, 2021 Coffee, cola or an energy drink: caffeine is the worlds ... The caffeine group consisted of 11 neonates receiving an oral caffeine citrate treatment for apnea caused by unknown reasons. ...
What is caffeine, exactly? Whether you get it from coffee, tea or soda, caffeine has important health effects. Learn what ... Caffeines effects may be much milder than those of illicit drugs, but kicking a caffeine habit can be difficult for someone ... What is Caffeine?. ". " Youre not imagining it: Coffee gives your brain and metabolism a boost. iStockphoto/Thinkstock ... Caffeine is unlike many other drugs in that it is abundant in what we eat and drink. Read on to learn more about what foods ...
Update: Sorry for the duplicate caffeine nap coverage, all.. Take a caffeine nap. The Achieve-IT blog has posted a tip about ... The caffeine has to travel through your gastro-intestinal tract, giving you time to nap before it kicks in. ... Scientists say that a successful midday nap depends on two things: timing and (no kidding) caffeine consumption. Experiments ...
Should kids have caffeine? And what is it exactly? Find out in this article for kids. ... What Does Caffeine Do to Your Body?. Caffeine can make you feel hyper. Caffeine may boost a persons energy, but a lot of ... So what is caffeine, anyway?. Caffeine Is a Common Chemical. Caffeine (say: KA-feen) is a natural chemical found in tea leaves ... In fact, kids with heart problems should not drink caffeine.. Do You Need Caffeine?. Caffeine isnt a nutrient, like calcium, ...
Learn more about our range of Caffeine Energy Tablets ... Get quality Caffeine Energy Tablets at Tesco. Shop in store or ...
Whether you avoid caffeine or simply moderate your intake, you may want to know which sodas you can drink. Here are 7 exciting ... 5-7. Other caffeine-free sodas. A few other sodas are typically caffeine-free, although these generally pack plenty of sugar ... Caffeine can kick start your senses within 15 minutes. See exactly what caffeine does to your body with this interactive ... The only difference in their ingredients and formula is that no caffeine is added, so you can rest assured that the caffeine- ...
... caffeine is one seriously misunderstood substance. Its not a simple upper, and it works differently on different peop ... Enter caffeine. It occurs in all kinds of plants, and chemical relatives of caffeine are found in your own body. But taken in ... Caffeine Doesnt Actually Get You Wired. Right off the bat, its worth stating again: the human brain, and caffeine, are ... Weve covered all kinds of caffeine "hacks" here at Lifehacker, from taking "caffeine naps" to getting "optimally wired." And, ...
Claudia contacted me for help with her caffeine addiction. She had a hectic job as a teacher, and often used caffeine as both ... Using EFT for a caffeine addiction Important Note: This article was written prior to 2010 and is now outdated. Please use my ... Ironically, the day you sent your email was the first day in six weeks that I had had caffeine. I wont go into my excuses for ... Three weeks later she checked in: I really dont have the desire for caffeine anymore... even have some coffee in my freezer ...
https://add0n.com/caffeine.html. Page source. https://github.com/chandler-stimson/caffeine. Related. * Youtube converter button ... https://add0n.com/caffeine.html. Page dassistance. ... Caffeine par chandler-stimson 0.0 / 5 * Votre évaluation. ...
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; see the image below) is the most widely consumed stimulant drug in the world. It is present ... Caffeine clearance is increased in smokers. With smoking cessation, serum caffeine concentrations can double even if caffeine ... Caffeine is primarily metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) oxidase system in the liver. The plasma half-life of caffeine ... 3] Caffeine intake intake in US children and adolescents remained stable from 1999 to 2010, but sources of caffeine changed: ...
Caffeine-fuelled Travels through Indonesia describes a 15,000-kilometer journey by road, rail, boat and on foot. In this essay ... My latest travel book - "Kopi Dulu: Caffeine-fuelled Travels through Indonesia" - describes a 15,000-kilometer journey by road ... 15,000 kilometers by boat, train, car and on foot: Highlights of a caffeine-fueled journey through Indonesia ... His latest book, "Kopi Dulu: Caffeine-fuelled Travels through Indonesia," highlights his 15,000-kilometer journey though the ...
Caffeine, and Phenylephrine. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects. ... For all patients taking acetaminophen, caffeine, and phenylephrine: *If you are allergic to acetaminophen, caffeine, and ... Limit your use of caffeine (for example, tea, coffee, cola) and chocolate. Use with acetaminophen, caffeine, and phenylephrine ... How is this medicine (Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Phenylephrine) best taken?. Use acetaminophen, caffeine, and phenylephrine ...
A study found that high quality decaf coffee can reduce caffeine withdrawal symptoms. ... Many depend on caffeines jolt of energy and credit its caffeine with making them more alert and focused. Research suggests, ... Caffeine is also an ingredient in tea, energy drinks, and sodas. According to the FDA, it is both a food additive and a drug. ... Coffee and caffeine. Americans love coffee. According to market research company DriveResearch, three out of four Americans ...
Just how much caffeine is too much? The limit for the average person is 300 to 400 milligrams of caffeine a day. The average ... Why is too much caffeine bad? Aside from caffeine jitters, if you consume more than 500 milligrams every day, it can induce ... Annemarie also says that caffeine cravings can be stronger when you eat meat, sugar, flour, grain, and salt, so as hard as it ... So grab a glass of water when youre craving caffeine, or better yet, drink water all day to stay hydrated and prevent feeling ...
I also managed to quit caffeine (three cups of strong Lipton black tea a day). I lowered the caffeine by going to 2 1/2... ... I also managed to quit caffeine (three cups of strong Lipton black tea a day). I lowered the caffeine by going to 2 1/2 cups ... Caffeine is definitely not good for someone with panic disorder. I initiated that dumb habit last year to increase motivation ... I hope because it was easy to kick the caffeine habit that I will be able to kick tianeptine too. ...
The caffeine content of some of our teas is available here.. Caffeine tolerance varies greatly among individuals, and an excess ... This is due to caffeine, and caffeine has been a matter of controversy. It is a stimulant that has been shown to speed reaction ... Until they reach the age of seven or eight months, babies cannot get rid of caffeine metabolites, and traces of caffeine can ... Caffeine content is also affected by the length of the infusion in water. Black tea infused for 5 minutes yields 40-100 ...
Try switching to decaffeinated products (which may still have some caffeine, but in much smaller amounts) or caffeine-free ... How Can I Cut Back on Caffeine?. Having a hard time cutting out coffee all at once? Heres an easy way to start:. *Limit your ... Its hard to know exactly how much caffeine is in a cup of coffee. The total can depend on things like the brand of coffee, how ... Drinking lots of caffeine during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, and possibly ...
... caffeine can be part of a healthy diet for most people, but too much caffeine may pose a danger to your health. Depending on ... 7. Is drinking a lot of caffeine a substitute for sleep? No. Caffeine is a stimulant, which may cause you to be more alert and ... Spilling the Beans: How Much Caffeine is Too Much?. According to scientists at the FDA, caffeine can be part of a healthy diet ... Is it okay for kids to consume energy drinks that contain caffeine?. Energy drinks can have more than twice the caffeine in an ...
... code-named Caffeine. On the surface, the changes introduced by Caffeine seem mostly cosmetic-rearranging the way that images, ... For instance, Caffeine is undoubtedly faster than the current Google Search, often coming back with results in about half the ... Caffeine Injection Gives Google Search a Boost. The next-generation architecture of Googles Web search service is bigger, ... But, again, I couldnt see much similarity between Bing and Caffeine. Even so, for the team behind Bing, Im sure theres no ...
Since the meteoric rise of instant coffee, people havent quite brewed coffee the old-fashioned way in a while. And no, an automated espresso machine using ground coffee isnt really the old-fashioned way either. The folks at Continuum decided that maybe it was time to bring the Ye Olde style of brewing coffee back. The Crema
... or distribute dietary supplement products that contain pure or highly concentrated caffeine, or are considering doing so. ... Guidance for Industry: Highly Concentrated Caffeine in Dietary Supplements April 2018 Download the Final Guidance Document Read ... Products consisting of or containing only pure or highly concentrated caffeine have been linked to at least two deaths in the ... Many products that consist of only or primarily pure or highly concentrated caffeine are sold as dietary supplements. FDA ...
But does caffeine cause more than just a morning boost? Over the years, caffeine has been singled out as a possible factor in ... Who Should Keep Caffeine in Check?. Some people would clearly do well to limit their caffeine consumption, or avoid it ... Even if you only drink a cup or two of coffee, tea, or soda each day, try to cut back on caffeine gradually. Moderate caffeine ... need more caffeine to get a kick than their nonsmoking counterparts because smoking causes caffeine to be metabolized more ...
A team at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, found that caffeine enhances certain memories for at least a day ... A jolt of caffeine can boost memory, according to a study published Sunday that provides a scientific motive for students ... "Caffeine is associated with healthy longevity and may have some protective effects from cognitive decline like Alzheimers ... "If we used a standard recognition memory task without these tricky similar items, we would have found no effect of caffeine," ...
Caffeine Content is a fully-featured flash card app that has two great ways to look up your favorite ... ... Do you know how much caffeine is in YOUR beverage? ... Do you know how much caffeine is in YOUR beverage?. Caffeine ... Theres also a search feature (search by name) and a complete index (sorted by caffeine content)!. With Caffeine Content, ... Index (sorted by caffeine content). + Beautiful, Easy-to-Use Interface. Individual cards can be added to or removed from a ...
And while caffeine may not necessarily be good for them, could it actually kill them? ... Teens Sudden Death Raises Caffeine Concern Among Parents. May 16, 2017 / 6:12 PM EDT. / CBS New York ... Doctors say a teenage boy died after drinking a lot of caffeine in a short amount of time. As CBS2s Elise Finch reported, that ... He said because caffeine is present in so many foods and drinks that people think its harmless. ...
  • The amount of caffeine in energy drinks can vary widely, and sometimes the labels on the drinks do not give you the actual amount of caffeine in them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Are breastfeeding , since a small amount of caffeine that you consume is passed along to your baby. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is an average amount of caffeine. (kidshealth.org)
  • Consumers should take care when consuming for the first time a new packaged food containing added caffeine if the amount of caffeine in the food is not declared on the label. (fda.gov)
  • Pregnant women should watch the amount of caffeine they consume, as well. (empowher.com)
  • Even after 12 hours, your body still retains about one-eighth of the amount of caffeine you originally consumed. (livestrong.com)
  • It's hard to nail down the precise amount of caffeine per cup. (livestrong.com)
  • It's important to know that even decaf coffee contains a small amount of caffeine, so don't overload on decaf coffee. (healthline.com)
  • If you are planning to become pregnant, reducing the amount of caffeine you drink daily is an important step to both conception and pregnancy health , not to mention the health and well-being of the baby. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Prime Energy, the coveted drink created by YouTubers KSI and Logan Paul, has come under fire for containing the same amount of caffeine as six cans of Coke. (mirror.co.uk)
  • The best drinks for kids are water and milk, which don't contain caffeine. (kidshealth.org)
  • These dark colas - and their diet versions - contain caffeine. (healthline.com)
  • Green tea and black tea, energy drinks, cola, and other soft drinks contain caffeine. (kidshealth.org)
  • Is it okay for kids to consume energy drinks that contain caffeine? (fda.gov)
  • 1. Which kinds of foods and beverages contain caffeine? (fda.gov)
  • Many OTC headache treatments, such as Excedrin, and some prescription headache medications actually contain caffeine, according to Cleveland Clinic . (healthline.com)
  • If you're not a fan of coffee but you want to use caffeine to soothe your headache, consider trying green or black tea - both contain caffeine. (healthline.com)
  • Tea, soft drinks and chocolate all contain caffeine. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Coffee-flavored products such as ice cream and yogurt, chocolate syrup and cocoa all contain caffeine as well. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Some pain relief medications and cold/flu remedies contain caffeine as so some herbal medicines such as guarana. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • There was no age restriction on the bottles, as it didn't contain caffeine, so children were able to buy the sports drink, although a nutritionist warned against it . (mirror.co.uk)
  • You may continue to feel the effects of caffeine for four to six hours. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people are more sensitive to the effects of caffeine than others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Children can be especially sensitive to the effects of caffeine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, there is wide variation in both how sensitive people are to the effects of caffeine and how fast they metabolize it (break it down). (fda.gov)
  • When it comes to caffeine and kids, the bottom line is that there is limited data for possible negative effects of caffeine on children. (childrens.com)
  • Once you start drinking four or more cups of coffee, or otherwise consuming 500 mg to 600 mg of caffeine daily, you are more likely to experience the ill effects of caffeine. (livestrong.com)
  • The should more correctly be called stimulant drinks - not energy drinks - to warn users of the stimulant effects of caffeine. (mirror.co.uk)
  • They suggest that the correlation found at 15 weeks but not at 30 weeks suggests a developmental window during which fetal brains may be more susceptible to the effects of caffeine. (medscape.com)
  • In humans, tolerance to some subjective effects of caffeine may occur, but most of the time, complete tolerance to many effects of caffeine on the central nervous system (CNS) does not occur. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The most notable behavioral effects of caffeine occur after consumption of low-to-moderate doses (50-300 mg) and include increased alertness, energy, and ability to concentrate. (medscape.com)
  • Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeine is a naturally occurring chemical stimulant called trimethylxanthine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Caffeine is a stimulant (say: STIM-yuh-lunt). (kidshealth.org)
  • She had a hectic job as a teacher, and often used caffeine as both a stimulant for her mood and body as well as a relaxing agent. (emofree.com)
  • Some 80% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, a drug that acts as a central nervous system stimulant. (empowher.com)
  • Caffeine is a stimulant that can cause high blood pressure and heart rate . (childrens.com)
  • Facts About Caffeine Caffeine is a stimulant and a diuretic. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Because caffeine is a stimulant, it increases your blood pressure and heart rate, both of which are not recommended during pregnancy. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Caffeine is a stimulant and the most common response to it is increased alertness. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant, which until recently was banned by the International Amateur Athletic Federation. (irunfar.com)
  • The limit for the average person is 300 to 400 milligrams of caffeine a day . (popsugar.com)
  • Studies show that getting more than 200 milligrams of caffeine a day during pregnancy may not be healthy. (kidshealth.org)
  • More specifically, it revealed that children between ages 8 and 12 consume an average of 109 milligrams of caffeine a day - which is almost the same as drinking three 12-ounce cans of caffeinated soda each day. (childrens.com)
  • Some people experience sleep disruption or anxiety if they consume caffeine, but others show little disturbance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people consume caffeine from drinks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At least four out of five Americans regularly consume caffeine, the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world. (empowher.com)
  • The inclusion of caffeine withdrawal in the American Psychological Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has been widely questioned, since most adults consume caffeine in the form of coffee, tea and cola drinks without experiencing any negative side effects. (umassmed.edu)
  • If you get a headache when you consume caffeine, water might be the best way to find relief as it will counter the dehydration brought on by caffeine. (healthline.com)
  • It is dangerous to combine alcohol and caffeine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Buzz: The Science and Lore of Alcohol and Caffeine , by Stephen R. Braun, is well worth the short 224-page read. (lifehacker.com)
  • Energy drinks are beverages that have added caffeine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But what we do know is that energy drinks can be dangerous because they have large amounts of caffeine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Caffeine is also an ingredient in tea, energy drinks, and sodas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Energy drinks can have more than twice the caffeine in an equal amount of coffee. (fda.gov)
  • Caffeine in energy drinks can range from 40-250 mg per 8 fluid ounces. (fda.gov)
  • Energy drinks are the latest entry into the beverage market and perhaps the most potent way to get a caffeine fix. (empowher.com)
  • PARIS - A jolt of caffeine can boost memory, according to a study published Sunday that provides a scientific motive for students slurping coffee, tea or energy drinks when cramming for exams. (jordantimes.com)
  • NEW YORK (CBSNewYork) -- Soda, coffee, and energy drinks are popular with teenagers, and while caffeine may not necessarily be good for them, could it actually kill them? (cbsnews.com)
  • Existing permissions in the Code for the addition of caffeine to food (i.e. in cola type drinks as a food additive and to caffeinated energy drinks) remain in effect, with the maximum permitted thresholds prescribed in the Code for these specific foods still applicable. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The CDC Caffeine and Alcohol fact sheet discusses the dangers, prevalence, and public health implications of mixing alcohol with caffeine or energy drinks. (nih.gov)
  • But scientists say that tipplers of caffeine-laden energy drinks mixed with alcohol may have a tougher time knowing when to stop than those who imbibe booze alone. (npr.org)
  • Last November, the manufacturers of Four Loko agreed to strip the caffeine out of the potent alcohol drink after the Food and Drug Administration made noises about regulating sales of alcoholic energy drinks. (npr.org)
  • But drinking alcohol and an energy drink together is different, the researchers say, because the caffeine content in most energy drinks is higher than that in soft drinks, and the high schoolers and college students who favor and are marketed the combo are more likely to drink a lot. (npr.org)
  • Caffeine intake from foods (e.g., cookies, brownies, cakes, and candies that contain chocolate) and beverages (e.g., soda, tea, coffee, chocolate milk, and energy drinks) was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Version 5). (cdc.gov)
  • Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages (CABs) were premixed beverages popular in the 2000s 12 that combined alcohol, caffeine, and other stimulants. (cdc.gov)
  • 2,14 Producers of CABs responded by removing caffeine and other stimulants from their products. (cdc.gov)
  • The human brain will always find ways of downregulating/upregulating/adjusting to any drug we take, so my feeling is that most psychiatric drugs and stimulants like caffeine are only temporary in their ability to help some recover from any given illness. (dr-bob.org)
  • The FDA has not set a level for children, but the American Academy of Pediatrics discourages the consumption of caffeine and other stimulants by children and adolescents. (fda.gov)
  • Caffeine is one of the most loved stimulants in America. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Avoid caffeine with other stimulants, like ephedrine . (botanical-online.com)
  • A team at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, found that caffeine enhances certain memories for at least a day after they were formed. (jordantimes.com)
  • If we had found that caffeine reduced procedural errors under conditions of sleep deprivation, this would have broad implications for individuals who must perform high stakes procedures with insufficient sleep, like surgeons, pilots, and police officers," said Fenn. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • One study that evaluated the caffeine consumption of more than 59,000 women during their pregnancies found that caffeine was associated with a lower birth weight, reported BMC Medicine in February 2013. (livestrong.com)
  • A 2014 review , which looked at the results of 20 different studies with a total of 4262 participants, found that caffeine slightly enhances the efficacy of analgesics like ibuprofen (Advil) or acetaminophen (Tylenol). (healthline.com)
  • This review found that caffeine "significantly" boosted the efficacy of OTC headache treatments. (healthline.com)
  • Dr. Glatter said some people are more sensitive to caffeine than others, but they may not realize how much until it's too late. (cbsnews.com)
  • Men are generally more sensitive to caffeine than women, and certain medications and health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, can also play a part on its effect. (livestrong.com)
  • Some people are more sensitive to caffeine than others and the sensitivity may manifest as jitters, indigestion or disturbed sleeping patterns. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • She added: 'Children are more sensitive to caffeine than adults, meaning a lower dose can have a more pronounced effect. (mirror.co.uk)
  • Moreover, this dose is 5-10 times higher than the dose necessary to stimulate the caudate nucleus (extrapyramidal motor system) and the neural structures regulating the sleep-wake cycle, the 2 functions that are most sensitive to caffeine. (medscape.com)
  • While most root beers (and their diet versions) are caffeine-free, Barq's regular root beer contains caffeine - though its diet spin-off does not. (healthline.com)
  • Chai tea contains caffeine. (livestrong.com)
  • Whether you enjoy a cup of chai tea that's heavy on the spices or prefer a more mellow blend, you can be sure it contains black tea - and black tea contains caffeine. (livestrong.com)
  • Black tea naturally contains caffeine, which means your cup of chai also has it, unless you use decaffeinated tea. (livestrong.com)
  • Remember that coffee isn't the only thing that contains caffeine. (healthline.com)
  • The vast majority of the world's adult population consumes at least one beverage that contains caffeine every day . (medscape.com)
  • For example, some pain relievers, cold medicines, and over-the-counter medicines for alertness contain synthetic caffeine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Today, caffeine is used much as it has been for generations: It provides a 'boost of energy' or a feeling of heightened alertness. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This makes it hard to distinguish between someone's natural alertness and that derived from caffeine. (jordantimes.com)
  • Caffeine intake blocks adenosine receptors in the brain, causing blood vessels to constrict and neurons to fire more rapidly, which can lead to a heightened feeling of alertness. (umassmed.edu)
  • Regular caffeine drinkers cite numerous benefits of their favorite drinks, including increased alertness, elevated mood, and aerobic endurance. (healingdaily.com)
  • While caffeine may not be useful in enhancing the ability of a sleep-deprived person to perform complex tasks, it does enhance perceived wakefullness and alertness. (irunfar.com)
  • Every morning, millions of adults consume voluminous cups of coffee, seeking the jolting effect of caffeine. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The test sought to discern the effect of caffeine on the hippocampus, a part of the brain that distinguishes between patterns - requiring both short- and long-term memory. (jordantimes.com)
  • If we used a standard recognition memory task without these tricky similar items, we would have found no effect of caffeine," Yassa said. (jordantimes.com)
  • Sadra Rezakhaniha, from the Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch Faculty of Basic Sciences in Tehran, Iran, and colleagues investigated the effect of caffeine restriction on the improvement and severity of PMNE in a randomized clinical trial involving 534 children aged 6 to 15 years. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Coffee is one of the most abundant sources of caffeine, although other consumable items contain the drug. (livestrong.com)
  • some authorities recommend that pregnant women limit caffeine to the equivalent of two cups of coffee per day or less. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Food Safety Authority reported that up to 400 mg of caffeine per day (around 5.7 mg/kg of body mass per day) does not raise safety concerns for non-pregnant adults, while intakes up to 200 mg per day for pregnant and lactating women do not raise safety concerns for the fetus or the breast-fed infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are pregnant , since caffeine passes through the placenta to your baby. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using acetaminophen, caffeine, and phenylephrine while you are pregnant. (drugs.com)
  • Due to these concerns, pregnant and nursing mothers should limit or avoid any beverage with caffeine, including tea. (holymtn.com)
  • If you're pregnant, check with your doctor about having caffeine. (kidshealth.org)
  • In addition, if you're pregnant, trying to become pregnant, or breastfeeding, or are concerned about another condition or medication, we recommend talking to your health care provider about whether you need to limit caffeine consumption. (fda.gov)
  • But Because caffeine can raise blood pressure, pregnant women should limit caffeine during pregnancy. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Pregnant women should limit caffeine intake to 150 milligrams to 300 milligrams daily, reports the American Pregnancy Association (APA). (livestrong.com)
  • Still, it's best to talk to your doctor before consuming herbs or caffeine when you're pregnant or nursing. (livestrong.com)
  • However, even though the studies are somewhat unclear in terms of infertility, one thing is proven for certain, caffeine causes problems once you are pregnant. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • I wouldn't interpret this study in any way as saying that pregnant women should avoid caffeine, although one could say they might want to avoid caffeine in excess. (medscape.com)
  • Caffeine is present in the feed of the Brazilian and the relationship between consumption and the occurrence of apnea of prematurity has been investigated in pregnant women, since when crossing the placenta may stimulate the respiratory center. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many people feel as though they cannot function in the morning without a cup of coffee (and its caffeine-powered boost) to kick-start the day. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The Achieve-IT blog has posted a tip about getting a great energy boost with a caffeine nap. (lifehacker.com)
  • Caffeine may boost a person's energy, but a lot of caffeine can also cause other, not-so-great effects. (kidshealth.org)
  • But does caffeine cause more than just a morning boost? (empowher.com)
  • The researchers learned that caffeine certainly gave the participants an energy boost, but combining it with poor sleep led to more mistakes when completing assessments. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • The researchers who carried out the study say that the results support those of other studies which suggest that caffeine can boost the memory and prevent it from flagging as the day progresses. (worldhealth.net)
  • Even when your not sleep walking, caffeine can give you a powerful mental boost… if only you will believe in it's power. (irunfar.com)
  • Has been measuring the caffeine levels in espresso, cappuccino and filter coffee at Greggs , Starbucks, Caffe Nero, Costa Coffee , and Pret A Manger to see just where to go to get the best energy boost. (yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk)
  • However, pure powdered caffeine, which is available as a dietary supplement, can be lethal in tablespoon-sized amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Try switching to decaffeinated products (which may still have some caffeine, but in much smaller amounts) or caffeine-free alternatives. (kidshealth.org)
  • While moderate amounts (a cup or two of coffee a day) have not been proven to cause birth defects, caffeine does cross the placenta. (empowher.com)
  • Doctors said in order to avoid medical emergencies and tragedies, children should only be allowed to have small amounts of caffeine over a long period of time. (cbsnews.com)
  • If you are used to drinking copious amounts of caffeine, you will not be as immediately and severely affected by its consumption as someone who rarely takes a sip of tea. (livestrong.com)
  • If you've been drinking large amounts of caffeine regularly, then addiction is likely. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Caffeine may cause problems in the nursing infant if mothers take large amounts of coffee . (botanical-online.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends consuming no more than 400 milligrams of caffeine daily, or the amount in about four to five cups of coffee. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • I also managed to quit caffeine (three cups of strong Lipton black tea a day). (dr-bob.org)
  • I lowered the caffeine by going to 2 1/2 cups for one day, then 2 cups a day for a few days. (dr-bob.org)
  • Afterwards, half of the group were given a 200 milligramme dose of caffeine - roughly equivalent to two cups of strong espresso - and the others a dummy pill known as a placebo. (jordantimes.com)
  • Most adults can consume 200 mg to 300 mg of caffeine per day, which translates to two to four cups of coffee, without any health concerns or negative side effects. (livestrong.com)
  • Cleveland Clinic recommends limiting the use of pain relievers and reducing caffeine consumption to the equivalent of two cups of coffee a day . (healthline.com)
  • The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology has reported that women who drink more than 200 milligrams of caffeine per day, that's about two cups of coffee, doubled their risk for miscarriage over those who drank none. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • It has been found that taking an average of 600 mg of caffeine daily (the equivalent of 3 to 6 cups of coffee) can cause problems of nervousness, sleeplessness, irritability in infants. (botanical-online.com)
  • The inflection point seemed to be about 750 mg of caffeine daily (eight cups or more of coffee), and a lower intake was associated with a slightly lower risk for ADHD. (medscape.com)
  • In November 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) told the manufacturers of seven CABs that their drinks could no longer stay on the market in their current form, stating that "FDA does not find support for the claim that the addition of caffeine to these alcoholic beverages is 'generally recognized as safe,' which is the legal standard. (cdc.gov)
  • The addition of caffeine (100-130 mg) to commonly prescribed pain relievers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen modestly improves the proportion of people who achieve pain relief. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consumption of caffeine after abdominal surgery shortens the time to recovery of normal bowel function and shortens length of hospital stay. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United Kingdom, the consumption of caffeine is similar to that in Sweden and Finland, but 72% is from tea. (medscape.com)
  • Because caffeine overdoses, intentional or unintentional, are relatively common in the United States, physicians and other medical personnel must be aware of caffeine toxicity to recognize and treat it appropriately. (medscape.com)
  • The thyroid should be examined because thyrotoxicosis may mimic caffeine toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Laboratory studies are indicated in patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms of caffeine toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics has stated that "there is heightened awareness of the risks of caffeine use, abuse, and even toxicity in children and adolescents. (fda.gov)
  • Caffeine Toxicity: Could Too Much Caffeine Cause Nerve Damage? (livestrong.com)
  • Caffeine has moderate acute toxicity. (janusinfo.se)
  • Check the ingredient list on the label and choose caffeine-free or decaf drinks. (kidshealth.org)
  • A study found that high quality decaf coffee can help ease caffeine withdrawal symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Good decaf reduces symptoms of caffeine withdrawal in a new study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Instead of your usual latte, reach for decaf coffee or a savory sweet chai tea to quench that morning habit - green tea has only 30 milligrams of caffeine . (popsugar.com)
  • No. Decaf coffees and teas have less caffeine than their regular counterparts, but they still contain some caffeine. (fda.gov)
  • Furthermore, caffeine drinkers did not show any decline in performance on the tests throughout the day, whereas the performance of those given decaf for the experiment declined significantly when the test was performed once again in the afternoon. (worldhealth.net)
  • A 12-ounce can of cola offers 35 milligrams of caffeine , Mountain Dew has 55 milligrams, and Red Bull and Rockstar each have about 80 milligrams. (popsugar.com)
  • As these adults consume their coffee, they do so unaware that some of the youngest Americans are also getting a treatment of caffeine -- not to stay awake, but to assist in treating a major sleep disorder found in some neonates. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Many former students can recall using strong coffee or caffeine pills to stay awake while cramming for finals. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Caffeine may improve the ability to stay awake and attend to a task, but it doesn't do much to prevent the sort of procedural errors that can cause things like medical mistakes and car accidents," said Fenn. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Results: Over the past month, 20% of police officers reported using sleep-promoting drugs and drugs causing sleepiness, while wake-promoting agents were used by 28% of police (5% used wake-promoting drugs, 23% used high levels of caffeine and 4% smoked to stay awake). (cdc.gov)
  • Wake-promoting drug use, high caffeine and smoking to stay awake were associated with increased odds of a fatigue -related error, stress and burnout (ORs ranging from 1.68 to 2.56). (cdc.gov)
  • Although many soft drinks on the market are caffeinated, several caffeine-free options are available. (healthline.com)
  • When questioning people about their caffeine-consuming habits, for example, many researchers failed to ask about caffeine sources other than coffee or tea, such as soft drinks, chocolate, and certain medications (see chart). (empowher.com)
  • Caffeine is present in a number of dietary sources including tea, coffee, cocoa beverages, candy bars, and soft drinks. (medscape.com)
  • People who are used to caffeine and don't get it can have headaches or trouble focusing , and feel tired or grumpy all day long. (kidshealth.org)
  • Many people eliminate caffeine from their diet due to negative health effects, religious restrictions, pregnancy, headaches, or other health reasons. (healthline.com)
  • She had tried getting off caffeine before, and struggled with terrible headaches, lethargy and abnormal levels of fatigue. (emofree.com)
  • Aside from caffeine jitters, if you consume more than 500 milligrams every day, it can induce anxiety, insomnia, and muscle tremors and can even lead to increased heart rate and blood pressure, headaches, or digestion issues. (popsugar.com)
  • Caffeine can be useful in treating pain and tension-type headaches and, in certain cases, during athletic training. (livestrong.com)
  • The combination of ergotamine and caffeine is used to prevent and treat migraine headaches. (nih.gov)
  • Caffeine Headache: Can Coffee Help or Give Headaches? (healthline.com)
  • Does caffeine cure or cause headaches? (healthline.com)
  • While some people use caffeine as a cure for headaches or hangovers, others find that caffeine - not to mention caffeine withdrawal - gives them headaches. (healthline.com)
  • In some cases, caffeine may ease headaches and enhance over-the-counter (OTC) headache treatments. (healthline.com)
  • A more recent review also looked at whether caffeine improves the efficacy of analgesics when it comes to treating headaches. (healthline.com)
  • Most of the studies on caffeine and headaches look at tension headaches and migraine specifically. (healthline.com)
  • But there's no scientific evidence that caffeine doesn't reduce other kinds of headaches . (healthline.com)
  • Either way, it seems that caffeine can reduce pain from headaches, or at least increase the strength of your pain medication. (healthline.com)
  • Since caffeine prevents the dilation of blood vessels, it tends to prevent headaches. (healthline.com)
  • On the other hand, caffeine can cause headaches. (healthline.com)
  • Headaches can also be caused by a caffeine overdose. (healthline.com)
  • According to Mayo Clinic , overdosing on caffeine can cause headaches as well as a range of other side effects. (healthline.com)
  • While caffeine can both cure and cause headaches, caffeine withdrawal can also have an effect. (healthline.com)
  • If you're starting to reduce your caffeine intake, you might experience headaches. (healthline.com)
  • A 2009 paper noted that headaches are one of the main symptoms of caffeine withdrawal. (healthline.com)
  • Because caffeine can stave off your headaches, reducing your caffeine intake might result in more painful and frequent headaches. (healthline.com)
  • Caffeine and caffeine withdrawal headaches aren't necessarily different to regular headaches. (healthline.com)
  • When caffeine is stopped suddenly, often headaches and tiredness are immediate repercussions. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • It is known that high doses of caffeine can cause abortions or malformation in the baby. (botanical-online.com)
  • According to a new study, if a cup of decaffeinated coffee tastes sufficiently like real coffee, it may be able to reduce the unpleasant symptoms of caffeine withdrawal. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ingestion of products containing caffeine causes an increase in the urine, so the person who consumes these products should drink plenty of liquids to avoid dehydration. (botanical-online.com)
  • The most common worry about taking caffeine is that it is a diuretic and will quickly lead to dehydration. (irunfar.com)
  • For instance, the New York Times recently ran the short piece, The Claim: Caffeine Causes Dehydration , discussing how recent research (and reanalysis) shows caffeine not to be as powerful a diuretic as commonly thought. (irunfar.com)
  • Now a team of French physiologists has conducted a study to (1) assess whether caffeine treatment in premature neonates stimulates ventilation through peripheral chemoreceptors and (2) determine the potential influence of sleep states. (sciencedaily.com)
  • should stay away from caffeine because it stimulates the secretion of acid, which can irritate the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. (empowher.com)
  • Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, making you more alert and boosting attention. (livestrong.com)
  • this, in turn, nonspecifically stimulates most brain structures and thus likely reflects the side effects linked to high caffeine ingestion alone. (medscape.com)
  • Caffeine also increases cyclic AMP levels through nonselective inhibition of phosphodiesterase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeine increases energy, reduces sleepiness, and can even improve mood, but it absolutely does not replace a full night of sleep," said researcher Kimberly Fenn. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Neither should have as much caffeine as adults. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Two between-subjects experiments examined the effect of a sweetener disclaimer (Experiment 1, youth and adults ) or a caffeine disclaimer (Experiment 2, only adults ) on the perceived healthfulness of industrialised beverages . (bvsalud.org)
  • Remember, though, that caffeine shares some traits of those much harder drugs -- including the ability to cause addiction . (howstuffworks.com)
  • This time she addresses a caffeine addiction and gives some of the important languaging she used to initiate the process. (emofree.com)
  • Claudia' contacted me for help with her caffeine addiction. (emofree.com)
  • The University of Sydney study may offer a means of escaping caffeine addiction for those who want to quit drinking coffee. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When your very first thought after your alarm goes off is "I need coffee five minutes ago," you probably already know you're on the verge of a pretty serious addiction to caffeine . (popsugar.com)
  • Thus, although caffeine fulfills some of the criteria for drug dependence and shares with amphetamine and cocaine a certain specificity of action on the cerebral dopaminergic system, it does not act on the dopaminergic structures related to reward, motivation, and addiction. (medscape.com)
  • Caffeine is a diuretic which means it draws water from the body and causes increased elimination. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Since then I've seen multiple articles suggesting that caffeine has a much lesser than expected diuretic effect. (irunfar.com)
  • People may drink beverages containing caffeine to relieve or prevent drowsiness and to improve cognitive performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeine (say: KA-feen) is a natural chemical found in tea leaves, coffee beans, cacao (the stuff used to make chocolate), and kola nuts (the plant that gives cola soda its flavor). (kidshealth.org)
  • If caffeinated soda is more your thing, follow the same plan by slowly decreasing the amount of cola you consume, but don't replace it with caffeine-free soda ! (popsugar.com)
  • Drinking lots of caffeine during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of miscarriage , low birth weight, and possibly other pregnancy problems. (kidshealth.org)
  • The APA suggests avoiding caffeine as much as possible during pregnancy, however. (livestrong.com)
  • During pregnancy, caffeine crosses the placenta and reaches the baby. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • The use of caffeine containing products during pregnancy is a hotly debated topic. (botanical-online.com)
  • The aim of this study was to relate the consumption of maternal caffeine during pregnancy and the incidence of apnea in preterm infants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Caffeine can interfere with your ability to recognize how drunk you are, which can lead you to drink more. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some research has shown a possibility that caffeine can interfere with fetal development, including lowering birth weight and contributing to skeletal and other abnormalities. (holymtn.com)
  • Other studies have indicated that caffeine does interfere with the ability of the egg to implant in the uterus and when caffeine is combined with alcohol and smoking , there is a significant decrease in fertility. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Caffeine can interfere with some medications or their combination can be harmful, so people taking medications should not take caffeine-containing products without consulting the doctor or specialist. (botanical-online.com)
  • In hemodynamically stable patients with mild symptoms and a clear history of caffeine ingestion, no laboratory studies are indicated. (medscape.com)
  • The ingestion of caffeine may be counterproductive in many diseases, so, if you are suffering from some disease, you should consult with your doctor whether to take caffeine. (botanical-online.com)
  • In this Expert's Corner video, Dr. Lemos, who is professor of microbiology & physiological systems and biochemistry & molecular pharmacology, explains the neurobiology of caffeine withdrawal and says that symptoms can be akin to a migraine, including severe headache and nausea. (umassmed.edu)
  • The best-known source of caffeine is the coffee bean, the seed of the Coffea plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cup of coffee contains 80-175 mg of caffeine, depending on what "bean" (seed) is used, how it is roasted, and how it is prepared (e.g., drip, percolation, or espresso). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people use caffeine-containing beverages such as coffee or tea to try to treat their asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Express yourself with unique and affordable Coffee Mugs and Caffeine Mugs from CafePress. (cafepress.com)
  • While we don't carry porcelain coffee mugs, our ceramic Caffeine Mugs are an excellent substitution to your kitchen for sipping a hot drink of coffee, hot tea, or hot chocolate in the morning or winter evenings. (cafepress.com)
  • Promote something special about yourself or your family with a custom coffee or travel mug from our high quality selection of Caffeine Mugs. (cafepress.com)
  • Don't do drugs, kids' said the teacher as she sipped on her extra-large coffee, consuming 200 mg of caffeine in the process. (urbandictionary.com)
  • Man, if it wasn't for me snorting caffeine instead of having the usual cup of coffee , I'd probably have gotten fired for not showing up to work in the mornings . (urbandictionary.com)
  • And she says she "needs her caffeine" in the morning when she's reaching for her cup of coffee. (kidshealth.org)
  • As regards tea, it should be noted that all types of tea contain less caffeine than coffee. (holymtn.com)
  • It's hard to know exactly how much caffeine is in a cup of coffee. (kidshealth.org)
  • And remember that caffeine isn't only in coffee. (kidshealth.org)
  • Do you drink just one cup of coffee or tea first thing in the morning, hoping the caffeine in it will jump-start your day? (fda.gov)
  • Caffeine can be found naturally in the plants we use to make coffee, tea and chocolate. (fda.gov)
  • There are several online databases that provide estimates of caffeine content of certain foods and beverages such as coffee and tea. (fda.gov)
  • For reference, a 12 ounce can of a caffeinated soft drink typically contains 30 to 40 milligrams of caffeine, an 8-ounce cup of green or black tea 30-50 milligrams, and an 8-ounce cup of coffee closer to 80 to 100 milligrams. (fda.gov)
  • 3. If a coffee or tea says "decaffeinated," does that mean it contains no caffeine? (fda.gov)
  • And as anyone who can't get going in the morning without a cup of coffee, tea, or a caffeine-containing soft drink knows all too well, caffeine can be habit-forming. (empowher.com)
  • Although the idea of being "dependent" on caffeine is unsettling, most healthy people who drink a cup or two of coffee, tea, or soda every day suffer no more serious physical symptoms than jitteriness, irritability, and minor gastrointestinal upsets. (empowher.com)
  • Another confounding issue is that even though caffeine and coffee drinking may not contribute to disease in and of themselves, they seem to go hand-in-hand with a lifestyle that does. (empowher.com)
  • Depending on your own sensitivity to caffeine, you could max out with a single cup of coffee, which generally contains up to 100 mg of the stimulating drug. (livestrong.com)
  • Green Tea vs. Coffee: Which Has More Caffeine? (livestrong.com)
  • While there isn't a lot of hard and fast research on the subject, one study has shown that even one cup of coffee a day was enough caffeine to slow down conception. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • We all tend to think of caffeine and coffee together, but caffeine is present in many more foods and drinks than just coffee. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Hailing all the way from Melbourne, Coffee Anthology showcases an impressive selection of caffeine from Australia's top coffee roasters including Seven Seeds, Uncle Joe's and Proud Mary. (flightcentre.com.au)
  • The minimalistic space centres purely around the caffeine with limited food offerings, but the coffee is indeed Contessa's speciality. (flightcentre.com.au)
  • It's a naptastic rainy day here at iRunFar and, therefore, the perfect time to talk about caffeine… just after our coffee mugs get refilled. (irunfar.com)
  • Which coffee chain has the most caffeine in their coffee? (yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk)
  • shows which chain has the most caffeine in its coffee out of Pret, Greggs, Starbucks, Caffe Nero and Costa. (yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk)
  • Most of the time this shouldn't be an issue but if you drink a lot of coffee or need to limit your caffeine intake you might want to consider what you're ordering and where from. (yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk)
  • The analyses accounted for the fact that one cup of coffee contains more caffeine than one cup of tea. (medscape.com)
  • In a standard 150 mL cup, the content of caffeine ranges from 71 to 120 mg per cup for arabica coffee and from 131 to 220 mg per cup for robusta. (medscape.com)
  • Average caffeine consumption from all sources is approximately 76 mg/person/day but reaches 210-238 mg/person/day in the United States and Canada and exceeds 400 mg/person/day in Sweden and Finland, where 80-100% of the caffeine intake is from coffee alone. (medscape.com)
  • In the United States, the daily intake of caffeine from all sources is estimated to be 3 mg/kg/person, with two thirds of it coming from coffee consumed by subjects older than 10 years. (medscape.com)
  • Caffeine is used as a primary treatment for apnea of prematurity, but not prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, caffeine consumption in measured doses in this study did not correlate with the occurrence of apnea of prematurity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Only the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) study (enrolling 2006 infants) reported on this outcome. (lu.se)
  • Senator Charles Schumer has now called on the US Drug Administration to investigate Prime for its high caffeine content . (mirror.co.uk)
  • Guarana: A plant that has high caffeine content. (who.int)
  • Products containing added caffeine, guarana* etc. (who.int)
  • Pure and highly concentrated caffeine products present a significant public health threat and have contributed to at least two deaths in the United States. (fda.gov)
  • Many products that consist of only or primarily pure or highly concentrated caffeine are sold as dietary supplements. (fda.gov)
  • This document is intended to provide guidance to firms that manufacture, market, or distribute dietary supplement products that contain pure or highly concentrated caffeine, or are considering doing so. (fda.gov)
  • Urgent Proposal P1054 was prepared to amend the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code to prohibit the retail sale of pure and highly concentrated caffeine food products. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • The Ministerial Report and the Initial Consideration Report found pure and highly concentrated caffeine food products posed an immediate and acute risk to consumers. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • Caffeine tolerance varies greatly among individuals, and an excess of it is toxic. (holymtn.com)
  • Other factors that contribute to your maximum limit for caffeine include your gender, body size, age, medication use, health conditions and tolerance. (livestrong.com)
  • Tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity has been shown in animals. (medscape.com)
  • There is also synthetic (man-made) caffeine, which is added to some medicines, foods, and drinks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here's how much caffeine is in common foods and drinks. (kidshealth.org)
  • He said because caffeine is present in so many foods and drinks that people think it's harmless. (cbsnews.com)
  • Caffeine acts by blocking binding of adenosine to the adenosine A1 receptor, which enhances release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caffeine has a three-dimensional structure similar to that of adenosine, which allows it to bind and block its receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are actually a few different adenosine receptors throughout the body, but the one caffeine seems to interact with most directly is the A1 receptor. (lifehacker.com)
  • Update: Commenter dangermou5e reminds us of web comic The Oatmeal's take on adenosine and caffeine . (lifehacker.com)
  • When you withdraw caffeine-that's the controversy-then there are going to be more adenosine receptors than normal. (umassmed.edu)
  • Your mom says not to drink soda at night because the caffeine will keep you awake. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Many Hours Does Caffeine Keep You Awake? (livestrong.com)
  • Who should avoid or limit caffeine? (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you choose to avoid caffeine, you're not alone. (healthline.com)
  • Annemarie also says that caffeine cravings can be stronger when you eat meat , sugar, flour, grain, and salt, so as hard as it may be, try to avoid these foods. (popsugar.com)
  • If you react strongly to caffeine in a negative way, you may want to avoid these beverages altogether. (fda.gov)
  • Some people would clearly do well to limit their caffeine consumption, or avoid it altogether. (empowher.com)
  • Regular use of caffeine products to avoid falling asleep can cause sleep disorders. (botanical-online.com)
  • Avoid drinks with caffeine and alcohol. (cdc.gov)
  • Kids under 12 should probably skip the caffeine altogether. (kidshealth.org)
  • When alcohol is mixed with caffeine, the caffeine can mask the depressant effects of alcohol, making drinkers feel more alert than they would otherwise. (cdc.gov)
  • There are several varieties of clear soda, most of which are caffeine-free. (healthline.com)
  • Caffeine intoxication is a possibility, a condition that can result in muscle weakness, vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss, as was the case of one British teenager who was drinking about two gallons of soda every day for two years, according to Encyclopedia.com. (livestrong.com)
  • Unlike vitamins, minerals and other nutrients, there is no set limit for a maximum daily dose of caffeine. (livestrong.com)
  • Therefore, we must add all of them to calculate the total intake of caffeine. (botanical-online.com)
  • Many people have drinks with caffeine because they think it helps them to wake up and feel sharper. (kidshealth.org)
  • Caffeine can produce a mild form of drug dependence - associated with withdrawal symptoms such as sleepiness, headache, and irritability - when an individual stops using caffeine after repeated daily intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • After sudden caffeine cessation, withdrawal symptoms develop in a modest number of cases but are typically moderate and transient. (medscape.com)
  • Taking a closer look at this, Dr Lee explained: 'The European Food Standards Agency (EFSA) states a safe limit of caffeine for children (aged three to 18 years) as 3 mg/kg body weight per day. (mirror.co.uk)
  • For a 10-year-old weighing 30kg, this means an upper limit of 90 mg of caffeine. (mirror.co.uk)
  • Many depend on caffeine's jolt of energy and credit its caffeine with making them more alert and focused. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Need the jolt of caffeine to keep you going through the day? (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Caffeine's effects may be much milder than those of illicit drugs, but kicking a caffeine habit can be difficult for someone who has made the drug a large part of his or her diet and lifestyle. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The caffeine content of some of our teas is available here. (holymtn.com)
  • Caffeine content is also affected by the length of the infusion in water. (holymtn.com)
  • Caffeine Content is a fully-featured flash card app that has two great ways to look up your favorite drinks: by caffeine content and by name! (148apps.com)
  • There's also a search feature (search by name) and a complete index (sorted by caffeine content)! (148apps.com)
  • With Caffeine Content, you'll always have an indispensable reference right at your fingertips! (148apps.com)
  • Thanks to EnergyFiend (www.energyfiend.com) for the caffeine content data. (148apps.com)
  • Caffeine content depends on how much black tea was used and how long the tea was brewed before the chai tea bag was removed or the tea leaves were strained out. (livestrong.com)
  • But even with these variables, you can estimate caffeine content. (livestrong.com)
  • I hope because it was easy to kick the caffeine habit that I will be able to kick tianeptine too. (dr-bob.org)
  • Here's a look at why most experts say that moderate caffeine consumption is not a habit worth losing sleep over, and some advice for "addicts" who want to cut back. (empowher.com)
  • If you're trying to conceive , you might want to take another look at your caffeine habit. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Caffeine is addictive and can be a difficult habit to break. (pregnancy-info.net)
  • Until they reach the age of seven or eight months, babies cannot get rid of caffeine metabolites, and traces of caffeine can appear in breast milk too. (holymtn.com)
  • Caffeine and 14 of its metabolites are quantified in urine by use of high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) with stable isotope labeled internal standards. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the first two year cycle that caffeine and caffeine metabolites were measured. (cdc.gov)
  • Urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites were measured in a one third subsample of persons 6 years and over. (cdc.gov)
  • Our research shows you may be consuming significantly more, or less, caffeine than you bargained for," said Shefalee Loth, a nutritionist at Which? (yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk)
  • If you want to snort pure caffeine, don't even consider crushing up a No-Doz and railing it. (urbandictionary.com)
  • The FDA estimates toxic effects, like seizures, can be observed with rapid consumption of around 1,200 milligrams of caffeine, or 0.15 tablespoons of pure caffeine. (fda.gov)
  • The Canadian government recommends the following daily caffeine limits for kids. (childrens.com)
  • Her daily caffeine consumption for the two-year period topped out at about 1 g, or 1,000 mg, per day. (livestrong.com)
  • People who drink caffeine every day may start to depend on it. (kidshealth.org)
  • In fact, kids with heart problems should not drink caffeine. (kidshealth.org)
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized trials in preterm infants, in which methylxanthines (aminophylline, caffeine, or theophylline) were compared to placebo or no treatment for any indication (i.e. prevention of apnea, treatment of apnea, or prevention of re-intubation). (lu.se)