Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (1/5831)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (2/5831)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene mog-1 encodes a member of the DEAH-Box protein family. (3/5831)

In the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germ line, the sex-determining gene fem-3 is repressed posttranscriptionally to arrest spermatogenesis and permit oogenesis. This repression requires a cis-acting regulatory element in the fem-3 3' untranslated region; the FBF protein, which binds to this element; and at least six mog genes. In this paper, we report the molecular characterization of mog-1 as well as additional phenotypic characterization of this gene. The mog-1 gene encodes a member of the DEAH-box family. Three mog-1 alleles possess premature stop codons and are likely to be null alleles, and one is a missense mutation and is likely to retain residual activity. mog-1 mRNA is expressed in both germ line and somatic tissues and appears to be ubiquitous. The MOG-1 DEAH-box protein is most closely related to proteins essential for splicing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but splicing appears to occur normally in a mog-1-null mutant. In addition to its involvement in the sperm-oocyte switch and control of fem-3, zygotic mog-1 is required for robust germ line proliferation and for normal growth during development. We suggest that mog-1 plays a broader role in RNA regulation than previously considered.  (+info)

Characterization of a Caenorhabditis elegans recA-like gene Ce-rdh-1 involved in meiotic recombination. (4/5831)

A recA-like gene was identified in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome project database. The putative product of the gene, termed Ce-rdh-1 (C. elegans RAD51 and DMC1/LIM15 homolog 1), consists of 357 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of Ce-rdh-1 showed 46-60% identity to both RAD51 type and DMC1/LIM15 type genes in several eukaryote species. The results of RNAi (RNA-mediated interference) indicated that repression of Ce-rdh-1 blocked chromosome condensation of six bivalents and dissociation of chiasmata in oocytes of F1 progeny. Oogenesis did not proceed to the diakinesis stage. Accordingly, all the eggs produced (F2) died in early stages. These results suggest that Ce-rdh-1 participates in meiotic recombination.  (+info)

The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-2 links Hox patterning to migration of the HSN motor neuron. (5/5831)

The Caenorhabditis elegans HSN motor neurons permit genetic analysis of neuronal development at single-cell resolution. The egl-5 Hox gene, which patterns the posterior of the embryo, is required for both early (embryonic) and late (larval) development of the HSN. Here we show that ham-2 encodes a zinc finger protein that acts downstream of egl-5 to direct HSN cell migration, an early differentiation event. We also demonstrate that the EGL-43 zinc finger protein, also required for HSN migration, is expressed in the HSN specifically during its migration. In an egl-5 mutant background, the HSN still expresses EGL-43, but expression is no longer down-regulated at the end of the cell's migration. Finally, we find a new role in early HSN differentiation for UNC-86, a POU homeodomain transcription factor shown previously to act downstream of egl-5 in the regulation of late HSN differentiation. In an unc-86; ham-2 double mutant the HSNs are defective in EGL-43 down-regulation, an egl-5-like phenotype that is absent in either single mutant. Thus, in the HSN, a Hox gene, egl-5, regulates cell fate by activating the transcription of genes encoding the transcription factors HAM-2 and UNC-86 that in turn individually control some differentiation events and combinatorially affect others.  (+info)

Patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans posterior structures by the Abdominal-B homolog, egl-5. (6/5831)

The Caenorhabditis elegans body axis, like that of other animals, is patterned by the action of Hox genes. In order to examine the function of one C. elegans Hox gene in depth, we determined the postembryonic expression pattern of egl-5, the C. elegans member of the Abdominal-B Hox gene paralog group, by means of whole-mount staining with a polyclonal antibody. A major site of egl-5 expression and function is in the epithelium joining the posterior digestive tract with the external epidermis. Patterning this region and its derived structures is a conserved function of Abd-B paralog group genes in other animals. Cells that initiate egl-5 expression during embryogenesis are clustered around the presumptive anus. Expression is initiated postembryonically in four additional mesodermal and ectodermal cell lineages or tissues. Once initiated in a lineage, egl-5 expression continues throughout development, suggesting that the action of egl-5 can be regarded as defining a positional cell identity. A variety of cross-regulatory interactions between egl-5 and the next more anterior Hox gene, mab-5, help define the expression domains of their respective gene products. In its expression in a localized body region, function as a marker of positional cell identity, and interactions with another Hox gene, egl-5 resembles Hox genes of other animals. This suggests that C. elegans, in spite of its small cell number and reproducible cell lineages, may not differ greatly from other animals in the way it employs Hox genes for regional specification during development.  (+info)

Merbarone, a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II, induces apoptosis in CEM cells through activation of ICE/CED-3-like protease. (7/5831)

Merbarone (5-[N-phenyl carboxamido]-2-thiobarbituric acid) is an anticancer drug that inhibits the catalytic activity of DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) without damaging DNA or stabilizing DNA-topo II cleavable complexes. Although the cytotoxicity of the complex-stabilizing DNA-topo II inhibitors such as VP-16 (etoposide) has been partially elucidated, the cytotoxicity of merbarone is poorly understood. Here, we report that merbarone induces programmed cell death or apoptosis in human leukemic CEM cells, characterized by internucleosomal DNA cleavage and nuclear condensation. Treatment of CEM cells with apoptosis-inducing concentrations of merbarone caused activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase, c-jun gene induction, activation of caspase-3/CPP32-like protease but not caspase-1, and the proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Treatment of CEM cells with a potent inhibitor of caspases, Z-Asp-2. 6-dichlorobenzoyloxymethyl-ketone, inhibited merbarone-induced caspase-3/CPP32-like activity and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the catalytic inhibition of topo II by merbarone leads to apoptotic cell death through a caspase-3-like protease-dependent mechanism. These results further suggest that c-Jun and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling may be involved in the cytotoxicity of merbarone.  (+info)

Interaction of 5-lipoxygenase with cellular proteins. (8/5831)

5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) plays a pivotal role in cellular leukotriene synthesis. To identify proteins interacting with human 5LO, we used a two-hybrid approach to screen a human lung cDNA library. From a total of 1.5 x 10(7) yeast transformants, nine independent clones representing three different proteins were isolated and found to specifically interact with 5LO. Four 1.7- to 1.8-kb clones represented a 16-kDa protein named coactosin-like protein for its significant homology with coactosin, a protein found to be associated with actin in Dictyostelium discoideum. Coactosin-like protein thus may provide a link between 5LO and the cytoskeleton. Two other yeast clones of 1.5 kb encoded transforming growth factor (TGF) type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 partial cDNA. TGF type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 recently has been reported to associate with the activated form of the TGF beta receptor I and may be involved in the TGF beta-induced up-regulation of 5LO expression and activity observed in HL-60 and Mono Mac 6 cells. Finally, three identical 2.1-kb clones contained the partial cDNA of a human protein with high homology to a hypothetical helicase K12H4. 8 from Caenorhabditis elegans and consequently was named DeltaK12H4. 8 homologue. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a RNase III motif and a double-stranded RNA binding domain, indicative of a protein of nuclear origin. The identification of these 5LO-interacting proteins provides additional approaches to studies of the cellular functions of 5LO.  (+info)

esp-8 was mapped to a 400-kb region of chromosome II and rescued with a 13-kb fragment containing the F59A6.1 coding sequence and 3.8 kb of upstream promoter sequence. F59A6.1 encodes the C. elegans ortholog of the mammalian MAPKKK ASK1 that has recently been found to correspond to the nsy-1 locus (9). The esp-8/nsy-1(ag3) mutation is a C-to-T change that converts the codon for Gln1013 to a premature stop codon just after the kinase domain. Another putative null allele,nsy-1(ky397) (9, 10), also showed sensitivity to PA14 comparable to esp-8/nsy-1(ag3) (Fig. 3A). Genetic and biochemical data suggest that NSY-1 is a direct activator of SEK-1 in the signaling pathway mediating asymmetric neuronal cell fate in AWC sensory neurons (8).. Although the Nsy phenotype corresponds to nsy-1 andsek-1 function in the AWC neurons, nsy-1 andsek-1 are expressed in a number of tissues types, including the intestine (8, 9). Whereas the signal transduction pathways that are involved in the Nsy and Esp phenotypes ...
Forkhead box O ( FoxO) transcription factors FoxO1, FoxO3a, FoxO4 and FoxO6, the mammalian orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16, are emerging as an important family of proteins that modulate the expression of genes ...
This gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 4 in a region that is associated with susceptibility to celiac disease. The encoded protein is similar to a Chinese hamster protein that is associated with spermatocyte and adipocyte differentiation. The C-terminus of the protein is also similar to a Caenorhabditis elegans protein that plays a role in lipid storage. In mammals, this protein is thought to function in the regulation of epithelial growth and differentiation, and in tumor development ...
Several of the RNAi candidates (dve-1; lin-40; nhr-49; ceh-20; lin-11; and nhr-77) appeared to non-discriminately shorten lifespan in all strains tested, suggesting that the corresponding transcription factors are broadly required for survival. Interestingly, four RNAi clones (ZC123.3; nhr-119; ceh-37; and aha-1) affected wild-type and isp-1;ctb-1 mutant worms lifespan to the same extent but exerted only a moderate or no effect on daf-16 and age-1 mutant longevity ...
Positioning edgetic residues in CED-9 structures. (a) Positions of edgetic residues in the CED-9 sequence. The portion of CED-9 present in the crystal (PDB ID c
1. Baldwin, J.G., Nadler, S.A., and Wall, D.H. 1997. Nematodes: Pervading the Earth and Linking all Life. Pp. 176-191. In: Raven, P.H. (ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 625 pp.. 2. Bargmann, C. I. 1998. Neurobiology of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. Science 282:2028-2033.. 3. Bargmann, C. I. And Mori, I. 1997. Chemotaxis and Thermotaxis. Pp. 717-737. In: Riddle, D.L., Blumenthal, T., Meyer, B.J. and Priess, J.R. (eds). C. elegans II. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, NY 1222 pp.. 4. Bird, D.M. and Opperman, C. H. 1998. Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Nematol. 30:299-308.. 5. Bird, D.M., Opperman, C.H., Jones S.J.M., and Baillie, D.L. 1999. The Caenorhabditis elegans gemome: a guide in the post genomics age. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 37:247-265.. 6. Blaxter, M. 1998. Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode. Science 282:2041-2046.. 7. Blaxter, M. and Bird, D. 1997. Parasitic nematodes. Pp. 851-878. In: Riddle, D.L., Blumenthal, T., Meyer, B.J. and Priess, J.R. (eds). C. ...
The molecular mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy during spaceflight are not well understood. We have analyzed the effects of a 10-day spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans muscle development. DNA microarray, real-time quantitative PCR, and quantitative western blot analyses revealed that the amount of MHC in both body-wall and pharyngeal muscle decrease in response to spaceflight. Decreased transcription of the body-wall myogenic transcription factor HLH-1 (CeMyoD) and of the three pharyngeal myogenic transcription factors, PEB-1, CEH-22 and PHA-4 were also observed. Upon return to Earth animals displayed reduced rates of movement, indicating a functional defect. These results demonstrate that C. elegans muscle development is altered in response to spaceflight. This altered development occurs at the level of gene transcription and was observed in the presence of innervation, not simply in isolated cells. This important finding coupled with past observations of decreased levels of the same ...
The germ cells of multicellular organisms protect their developmental potential through specialized mechanisms. A shared feature of germ cells from worms to humans is the presence of nonmembrane-bound, ribonucleoprotein organelles called germ granules. Depletion of germ granules in Caenorhabditis elegans (i.e., P granules) leads to sterility and, in some germlines, expression of the neuronal transgene unc-119::gfp and the muscle myosin MYO-3. Thus, P granules are hypothesized to maintain germ cell totipotency by preventing somatic development, although the mechanism by which P granules carry out this function is unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome and single molecule RNA-FISH analyses of dissected P granule-depleted gonads at different developmental stages. Our results demonstrate that P granules are necessary for adult germ cells to downregulate spermatogenesis RNAs and to prevent the accumulation of numerous soma-specific RNAs. P granule-depleted gonads that express the ...
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ xmlns:rdf=http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# xmlns:bibo=http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ xmlns:dspace=http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0# xmlns:foaf=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ xmlns:void=http://rdfs.org/ns/void# xmlns:xsd=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# , ,rdf:Description rdf:about=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/34900, ,bibo:uri rdf:resource=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/34900/, ,dc:creator,Deehan, Kevin,/dc:creator, ,dc:creator,Wilson, Kristy J.,/dc:creator, ,dc:language,eng,/dc:language, ,dcterms:abstract xml:lang=eng,UNC-89 is a giant polypeptide located at the sarcomeric M-line of Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. The human homologue is obscurin. To understand how UNC-89 is localized and functions, we have been identifying its binding partners. Screening a yeast two-hybrid library revealed that UNC-89 interacts with ...
Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have functional equivalents across eukaryotic evolution. Whereas the molecular architecture of SAS-6 and its role in initiating centriole formation are well understood, the mechanisms by which SAS-5 and its relatives function is unclear. Here, we combine biophysical and structural analysis to uncover the architecture of SAS-5 and examine its functional implications in vivo. Our work reveals that two distinct self-associating domains are necessary to form higher-order oligomers of SAS-5: a trimeric coiled coil and a novel globular dimeric Implico domain. Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are necessary for function in vivo. Rogala, Kacper B; Dynes, Nicola J; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Yan, Jun; Pong, Sheng Kai;
The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a model system for the study of the genetic basis of aging. Maternal-effect mutations in four genes-clk-1, clk-2, clk-3, and gro-1- interact genetically to determine both the duration of development and life-span. Analysis of the phenotypes of these mutants suggests the existence of a general physiological clock in the worm. Mutations in certain genes involved in dauer formation (an alternative larval stage induced by adverse conditions in which development is arrested) can also extend life-span, but the life extension of Clock mutants appears to be independent of these genes. The daf-2(e1370) clk-1(e2519) worms, which carry life-span-extending mutations from two different pathways, live nearly five times as long as wild-type worms.. ...
The vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and phosphorylate several chromatin proteins and transcription factors. In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, VRK-1 is required for proper nuclear envelope formation. In this work, we present the first investigation of the developmental role of VRKs by means of a novel C. elegans vrk-1 mutant allele. We found that VRK-1 is essential in hermaphrodites for formation of the vulva, uterus, and utse and for development and maintenance of the somatic gonad and thus the germ line. VRK-1 regulates anchor cell polarity and the timing of anchor cell invasion through the basement membranes separating vulval and somatic gonadal cells during the L3 larval stage. VRK-1 is also required for proper specification and proliferation of uterine cells and sex myoblasts. Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-like protein EGL-17 and its receptor EGL-15 is reduced in vrk-1 mutants, suggesting that VRK-1 might act at least ...
Development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is highly reproducible and the fate of every somatic cell has been reported. We describe here a previously uncharacterized cell fate in C. elegans: we show that germ cells, which in hermaphrodites can differentiate into sperm and oocytes, also undergo apoptotic cell death. In adult hermaphrodites, over 300 germ cells die, using the same apoptotic execution machinery (ced-3, ced-4 and ced-9) as the previously described 131 somatic cell deaths. However, this machinery is activated by a distinct pathway, as loss of egl-1 function, which inhibits somatic cell death, does not affect germ cell apoptosis. Germ cell death requires ras/MAPK pathway activation and is used to maintain germline homeostasis. We suggest that apoptosis eliminates excess germ cells that acted as nurse cells to provide cytoplasmic components to maturing oocytes.. ...
The gene lin-11 is required for the asymmetric division of a vulval precursor cell type in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Putative lin-11 complementary DNAs were sequenced and found to encode a protein that contains both a homeodomain and two tandem copies of a novel cysteine-rich motif: C-X2- …
Mouse mAb M38 was used in indirect immunofluorescence experiments to detect a stage-specific antigen on the surface of the first larval stage (L1) of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and to detect alterations in the apparent expression of this antigen in two distinct classes of C. elegans mutants. In previously described srf-2 and srf-3 mutants (Politz S. M., M. T. Philipp, M. Estevez, P.J. OBrien, and K. J. Chin. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:2901-2905), the antigen is not detected on the surface of any stage. Conversely, in srf-(yj43) and other similar mutants, the antigen is expressed on the surface of the first through the fourth (L4) larval stages. To understand the molecular basis of these alterations, the antigen was characterized in gel immunoblotting experiments. After SDS-PAGE separation and transfer to nitrocellulose, M38 detected a protein antigen in extracts of wild-type L1 populations. The antigen was sensitive to digestion by Pronase and O-glycanase ...
During the course of normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, 131 cells in a Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite undergo programmed cell death. Loss of function mutations in either of the genes ced-3 or ced-4 abolish cell deaths, enabling these undead cells to survive and be incorporated into the adult with no obvious deleterious consequences. Ultrastructural reconstructions have shown that undead cells exhibit many differentiated characteristics. Most of the reconstructed cells appeared to be neurons with all the characteristic features associated with such cells, such as processes, synaptic vesicles and presynaptic specializations. However, clear morphological differences were seen among the undead neurons, suggesting a diversity of cell type. One of the reconstructed cells was a rectal epithelial cell, which had displaced its lineal sister that normally functions in this role. Removal of the ability to undergo programmed cell death by mutation therefore reveals a diversity of ...
Members of the Hox gene family encode transcription factors that specify positional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of nearly all metazoans. One among the Caenorhabditis elegans Hox genes is egl-5. A deletion allele of egl-5 was isolated in a screen for animals which fail to develop swollen tails when exposed to the bacterial pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum. We show that compromised rectal development, which occurs as a result of loss of egl-5 function, results in a failure of rectal epithelial cells to express the ERK MAP kinase mpk-1, which was previously shown to mediate tail-swelling in response to bacterial infection. Tissue-specific rescue experiments demonstrated that egl-5 and mpk-1 act autonomously in rectal cells in the morphological response. The weak egl-5 allele (n1439), which does not compromise rectal development, fails to affect tail-swelling. We find that this allele carries an inserted repeat element approximately 13.8 kb upstream of the egl-5 open reading frame, which
Aging is characterized by general physiological decline over time. A hallmark of human senescence is the onset of various age-related afflictions including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although environmental and stochastic factors undoubtedly contribute to the increased incidence of disease with age, recent studies suggest that intrinsic genetic determinants govern both life span and overall health. Current aging research aims at achieving the longevity dividend, in which life span extension in humans is accomplished with a concomitant increase in the quality of life (Olshansky et al., 2007). Significant progress has been made using model organisms, especially the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, to delineate the genetic and biochemical pathways involved in aging to identify strategies for therapeutic intervention in humans. In this review, we discuss how C. elegans has contributed to our understanding of insulin signaling and aging. ...
Specification of some cell fates in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is mediated by cytoplasmic localization under control of the maternal genome. Using nine newly isolated mutations, and two existing mutations, we have analyzed the role of the maternally expressed gene par-4 in cytoplasmic localization. We recovered seven new par-4 alleles in screens for maternal effect lethal mutations that result in failure to differentiate intestinal cells. Two additional par-4 mutations were identified in noncomplementation screens using strains with a high frequency of transposon mobility. All 11 mutations cause defects early in development of embryos produced by homozygous mutant mothers. Analysis with a deficiency in the region indicates that it33 is a strong loss-of-function mutation. par-4(it33) terminal stage embryos contain many cells, but show no morphogenesis, and are lacking intestinal cells. Temperature shifts with the it57ts allele suggest that the critical period for both intestinal ...
Defining a behavior that requires the function of specific neurons in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can allow one to screen for mutations that disrupt the specification or function of those neurons. We identified serotonin-immunoreactive neurons required for tail curling or turnin …
Extensive studies have been carried out on Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of aging and the effects of perturbing known aging-related genes on lifespan and behavior. This research has generated large amounts of experimental data that is increasingly difficult to integrate and analyze with existing databases and domain knowledge. To address this challenge, we demonstrate a scalable and effective approach for automatic evidence gathering and evaluation that leverages existing experimental data and literature-curated facts to identify genes involved in aging and lifespan regulation in C. elegans. We developed a semantic knowledge base for aging by integrating data about C. elegans genes from WormBase with data about 2005 human and model organism genes from GenAge and 149 genes from GenDR, and with the Bio2RDF network of linked data for the life sciences. Using HyQue (a Semantic Web tool for hypothesis-based querying and evaluation) to interrogate this knowledge base, we
RNA interference (RNAi) is a widespread and widely exploited phenomenon which has potential as a strategy for both the treatment of disease and pest control. RNAi results in down‐regulation of a specific gene in response to the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). RNAi is one of a family of processes mediated by small non‐coding RNAs [1], [2]. In Caenorhabditis elegans, and in a number of other organisms, RNAi is systemic so that the introduction of dsRNA into one tissue triggers gene silencing in other tissues [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. Furthermore, systemic RNAi enables C. elegans and other organisms to exhibit environmental RNAi [5]. For example, feeding C. elegans on bacteria expressing dsRNA initiates a widespread RNAi response [8], [9]. Studies in C. elegans and other organisms have provided mechanistic insights into RNAi [4], [10], [11], [12], [13], although the role of exogenous RNAi in the normal life of C. elegans and other animals remains unclear [14].. Whilst C. elegans ...
Mutations in the gene unc-53 of Caenorhabditis elegans result in behavioral and anatomical abnormalities. Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy revealed neuroanatomical defects in all main longitudinal nervous tracts. Whole tracts were found to
Caenorhabditis elegans MIG-13 protein: required for positioning of Q neuroblasts and their descendents along the anteroposterior axis; isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBAnk AF150958
As a consequence of the Earths axial rotation, organisms display daily recurring rhythms in behavior and biochemical properties, such as hormone titers. The neuronal system controlling such changes is best studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, most homologs of these genes function in the heterochronic pathway controlling the (timing of) developmental events. Recent data indicate that in the worm at least one of the genes involved in developmental timing is also active in circadian rhythm control, thereby opening up new perspectives on a central (neuronal) timer interfering with many processes. Also, new neuropeptidergic clock homologs have been identified in nematodes, supporting the idea of a broad range of clock-regulated targets. We will describe the current knowledge on homologous clock genes in C. elegans with a focus on the recently discovered pigment dispersing factor gene homologs. Similarities between developmental and daily ...
Genetic studies have identified over a dozen genes that function in programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans(1-3). Although the ultimate effects on cell survival or engulfment of mutations in each cell death gene have been extensively described, much less is known about how these mutations affect the kinetics of death and engulfment, or the interactions between these two processes. We have used four-dimensional-Nomarski time-lapse video microscopy to follow in detail how cell death genes regulate the extent and kinetics of apoptotic cell death and removal in the early C. elegans embryo. Here we show that blocking engulfment enhances cell survival when cells are subjected to weak pro-apoptotic signals. Thus, genes that mediate corpse removal can also function to actively kill cells.. ...
Abstract The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling (IIS) pathway in metazoans has evolutionarily conserved roles in growth control, metabolic homeostasis, stress responses, reproduction, and lifespan. Genetic manipulations that reduce IIS in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the mouse have been shown not only to produce substantial increases in lifespan but also to ameliorate several age-related diseases. In C. elegans, the multitude of phenotypes produced by the reduction in IIS are all suppressed in the absence of the worm FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, suggesting that they are all under common regulation. It is not yet clear in other animal models whether the activity of FOXOs mediate all of the physiological effects of reduced IIS, especially increased lifespan. We have addressed this issue by examining the effects of reduced IIS in the absence of dFOXO in Drosophila, using a newly generated null allele of dfoxo. We found ...
A specific behavioural response of Caenorhabditis elegans, the rapid increase of locomotion in response to anoxia/reoxygenation called the O2-ON response, has been used to model key aspects of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. A genetic suppressor screen demonstrated a direct causal role of CYP (cytochrome P450)-13A12 in this response and suggested that CYP-eicosanoids, which in mammals influence the contractility of cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, might function in C. elegans as specific regulators of the body muscle cell activity. In the present study we show that co-expression of CYP-13A12 with the NADPH-CYP-reductase EMB-8 in insect cells resulted in the reconstitution of an active microsomal mono-oxygenase system that metabolized EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and also AA (arachidonic acid) to specific sets of regioisomeric epoxy and hydroxy derivatives. The main products included 17,18-EEQ (17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid) from EPA and 14,15-EET (14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid) ...
Phagocytosis of dying cells is critical in development and immunity1-3. Although proteins for recognition and engulfment of cellular debris following cell death are known4,5, proteins that directly mediate phagosome sealing are uncharacterized. Furthermore, whether all phagocytic targets are cleared using the same machinery is unclear. Degeneration of morphologically complex cells, such as neurons, glia and melanocytes, produces phagocytic targets of various shapes and sizes located in different microenvironments6,7. Thus, such cells offer unique settings to explore engulfment programme mechanisms and specificity. Here, we report that dismantling and clearance of a morphologically complex Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial cell requires separate cell soma, proximal and distal process programmes. Similar compartment-specific events govern the elimination of a C. elegans neuron. Although canonical engulfment proteins drive cell soma clearance, these are not required for process removal. We find that EFF-1,
Benzimidazole anti-microtubule drugs, such as benomyl, induce paralysis and slow the growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We have identified 28 mutations in C. elegans that confer resistance to benzimidazoles. All resistant mutations map to a single locus, ben-1. Virtually all these mutations are genetically dominant. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis established that ben-1 encodes a beta-tubulin. Some resistant mutants are completely deleted for the ben-1 gene. Since the deletion strains appear to be fully resistant to the drugs, the ben-1 product appears to be the only benzimidazole-sensitive beta-tubulin in C. elegans. Furthermore, since animals lacking ben-1 are viable and coordinated, the ben-1 beta-tubulin appears to be nonessential for growth and movement. The ben-1 function is likely to be redundant in the nematode genome. ...
Caenorhabditis elegans shares several molecular and physiological homologies with humans and thus plays a key role in studying biological processes. As a consequence, much progress has been made in automating the analysis of C. elegans. However, there is still a strong need to achieve more progress in automating the analysis of static images of adult worms. In this paper, a three-phase semi-automated system has been proposed. As a first phase, a novel segmentation framework, based on variational level sets and local pressure force function, has been introduced to handle effectively images corrupted with intensity inhomogeneity. Then, a set of robust invariant symbolic features for high-throughput screening of image-based C. elegans phenotypes are extracted. Finally, a classification model is applied to discriminate between the different subsets. The proposed system demonstrates its effectiveness in measuring morphological phenotypes in individual worms of C. elegans.. ...
Cytoskeletal regulation is important in cell migration. The Caenorhabditis elegans gonadal distal tip cells (DTCs) offer a simple model with which to investigate the mechanism of cell migration in organogenesis. Here, we report that one of the spectraplakin isoforms, VAB-10B1, plays an essential role in cell and nuclear migration of DTCs by regulating the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. In the vab-10(tk27) mutant, which lacks VAB-10B1, alignment of filamentous (F)-actin and MTs was weakly and severely disorganized, respectively, which resulted in a failure to translocate the DTC nucleus and a premature termination of DTC migration. An MT growing-tip marker, EBP-2-GFP, revealed that polarized outgrowth of MTs towards the nuclei of migrating DTCs was strikingly impaired in tk27 animals. A vab-10 mini-gene encoding only the actin- and MT-binding domains significantly rescued the gonadal defects, suggesting that VAB-10B1 has a role in linking actin and MT filaments. These results suggest ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Apoptosis/*physiology, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, Caenorhabditis/genetics, Caenorhabditis elegans/embryology/genetics/*physiology, Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*physiology, DNA/genetics/radiation effects, DNA Damage, Gene Deletion, Gene Expression Regulation; Developmental/radiation effects, Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics, Models; Biological, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Repressor Proteins/genetics, Sequence Homology; Amino Acid, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics/physiology, X-Rays ...
Gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription and translation, as well as mRNA and protein stability. Although systems-level functions of transcription factors and microRNAs are rapidly being characterized, few studies have focused on the posttranscriptional gene regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs). RBPs are important to many aspects of gene regulation. Thus, it is essential to know which genes encode RBPs, which RBPs regulate which gene(s), and how RBP genes are themselves regulated. Here we provide a comprehensive compendium of RBPs from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (wRBP1.0). We predict that as many as 887 (4.4%) of C. elegans genes may encode RBPs ~250 of which likely function in a gene-specific manner. In addition, we find that RBPs, and most notably gene-specific RBPs, are themselves enriched for binding and modification by regulatory proteins, indicating the potential for extensive regulation of RBPs at many different levels. wRBP1.0 will provide a
The WAVE/SCAR complex promotes actin nucleation through the Arp2/3 complex, in response to Rac signaling. We show that loss of WVE-1/GEX-1, the only C. elegans WAVE/SCAR homolog, by genetic mutation or by RNAi, has the same phenotype as loss of GEX-2/Sra1/p140/PIR121, GEX-3/NAP1/HEM2/KETTE, or ABI-1/ABI, the three other components of the C. elegans WAVE/SCAR complex. We find that the entire WAVE/SCAR complex promotes actin-dependent events at different times and in different tissues during development. During C. elegans embryogenesis loss of CED-10/Rac1, WAVE/SCAR complex components, or Arp2/3 blocks epidermal cell migrations despite correct epidermal cell differentiation. 4D movies show that this failure occurs due to decreased membrane dynamics in specific epidermal cells. Unlike myoblasts in Drosophila, epidermal cell fusions in C. elegans can occur in the absence of WAVE/SCAR or Arp2/3. Instead we find that subcellular enrichment of F-actin in epithelial tissues requires the Rac-WAVE/SCAR-Arp2/3
Cell invasion is a tightly controlled process occurring during development and tumor progression. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a genetic model to study cell invasion during normal development. In the third larval stage, the anchor ce
The dauer larva state and the age-1 mutation, both of which extend life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans, were tested for hyperresistance to cellular damage that may be relevant to aging. The age-1 strain TJ401 displayed hyperresistance to oxidative stress relative to its parental strain. The activities of two enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, showed an age-dependent increase in mutant animals, which was not seen in the parental strain. These increases in activities paralleled the time course of the hyperresistance. The results are consistent with the age-1 gene product functioning as a negative regulator of SOD and catalase activities. In wild-type and age-1 dauer larvae, elevated levels of SOD activity, but not of catalase activity, were present when compared with young adults. The common increase in SOD activity prompted cloning the C. elegans Cu/Zn SOD gene. Its position on the physical map of the genome was in the region to which the ...
A search of the C. elegans genome for potential homologues of the yeast MEN/SIN genes revealed several candidate genes, although for some of these genes the sequence similarities were only limited and for TEM1, CDC15, and BFA1 no putative homologues could be identified (Table I). All candidate genes were tested in C. elegans for a possible function in a hypothetical MEN/SIN-like regulatory network, using RNAi to deplete the corresponding products. For depletion of putative MEN/SIN gene products, both RNAi feeding and injection methods (Montgomery and Fire, 1998; Timmons et al., 2001) were tried to maximize the probability of functional inactivation. The results of these experiments are summarized in Table I. A priori, we had expected that depletion of a gene product required for the regulation of mitotic exit or the onset of cytokinesis should result in embryonic lethality. However, of all components tested, only the depletion of the C. elegans homologue of the budding yeast Cdc14p phosphatase ...
The pace of technical developments allowing the direct manipulation of genome sequences has seen a marked acceleration in recent years with the emergence of RNA-targeted nucleases derived from bacterial immune systems (Doudna and Charpentier 2014; Zetsche et al. 2015). In particular, the binary system relying on the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease targeted by CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat) RNAs has been successfully used to generate point mutations, deletion, or DNA insertions in an ever-growing number of experimental systems. S. pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 has been adapted early on in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Friedland et al. 2013; Dickinson et al. 2013; Chen et al. 2013; Frøkjær-Jensen 2013; Dickinson and Goldstein 2016). Previously, heritable genome engineering could only be achieved in C. elegans by remobilizing a Drosophila Mos1 transposon, which could be inserted and excised in the germline (Robert and Bessereau 2007; ...
BACKGROUND : The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used extensively to identify the genetic requirements for proper nervous system development and function. Key to this process is the direction of vesicles to the growing axons and dendrites, which is required for growth-cone extension and synapse formation in the developing neurons. The contribution and mechanism of membrane traffic in neuronal development are not fully understood, however. RESULTS : We show that the C. elegans gene unc-69 is required for axon outgrowth, guidance, fasciculation and normal presynaptic organization. We identify UNC-69 as an evolutionarily conserved 108-amino-acid protein with a short coiled-coil domain. UNC-69 interacts physically with UNC-76, mutations in which produce similar defects to loss of unc-69 function. In addition, a weak reduction-of-function allele, unc-69(ju69), preferentially causes mislocalization of the synaptic vesicle marker synaptobrevin. UNC-69 and UNC-76 colocalize as puncta in ...
C elegans Lin-3 protein: amino acid sequence given in first source; lin-3 encodes an inductive signal for vulval development; from Caenorhabditis elegans
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We are studying the development of the intestine in the small free-living nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. The worm intestine develops as a simple clone of cells, entirely deriving from a single cell in the eight-cell embryo. We mainly focus on the transcription factor network that drives development of the intestine. From our work and that of others, we now know all the core transcription factors that control intestinal genes, from specification to differentiation, and they all are GATA factors similar to the factors that are central to the development of the human intestine. We are now trying to figure out how these factors actually work, i.e. to define the molecular and thermodynamic basis of developmental specificity. Does all the specificity reside in the DNA binding domain? And if so, how much does the binding free energy to an intestinal gene differ from the binding free energy to a gene expressed in a different lineage, e.g. the hypodermis (skin)? Are there other protein domains ...
During gastrulation of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, individual cells ingress into a solid ball of cells. Gastrulation in a basal nematode, in contrast, has now been found to occur by invagination into a blastocoel, revealing an unanticipated embryological affinity between nematodes and all other triploblastic metazoans. ...
Mutations in the human Mid1 gene cause Opitz G/BBB syndrome, which is characterized by various midline closure defects. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Mid1, madd-2, positively regulates signaling by the unc-40 Netrin receptor during the extension of muscle arms to the midline and in axon guidance and branching. During uterine development, a specialized cell called anchor cell (AC) breaches the basal laminae separating the uterus from the epidermis and invades the underlying vulval tissue. AC invasion is guided by an UNC-6 Netrin signal from the ventral nerve cord and an unknown guidance signal from the vulval cells. Using genetic epistasis analysis, we show that madd-2 regulates AC invasion downstream of or in parallel with the Netrin signaling pathway. Measurements of AC shape, polarity and dynamics indicate that MADD-2 prevents the formation of ectopic AC protrusions in the absence of guidance signals. We propose that MADD-2 represses the intrinsic invasive capacity of the AC, while the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The Caenorhabditis elegans AMP-activated protein kinase AAK-2 is phosphorylated by LKB1 and is required for resistance to oxidative stress and for normal motility and foraging behavior. AU - Lee, Hyojin. AU - Jeong, Soo Cho. AU - Lambacher, Nils. AU - Lee, Jieun. AU - Lee, Se Jin. AU - Tae, Hoon Lee. AU - Gartner, Anton. AU - Koo, Hyeon Sook. PY - 2008/5/30. Y1 - 2008/5/30. N2 - AAK-2 is one of two α isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans and is involved in life span maintenance, stress responses, and germ cell cycle arrest upon dauer entry. We found that AAK-2 was phosphorylated at threonine 243 in response to paraquat treatment and that this phosphorylation depends on PAR-4, the C. elegans LKB1 homologue. Both aak-2 mutation and par-4 knockdown increased the sensitivity of C. elegans worms to paraquat, and the double deficiency did not further increase sensitivity, indicating that aak-2 and par-4 act in a linear pathway. Both mutations also ...
Approximately 10% of Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system synapses are electrical, that is, gap junctions composed of innexins. The locomotory nervous system consists of several pairs of interneurons and three major classes of motor neurons, all with stereotypical patterns of connectivity that include gap junctions. Mutations in the two innexin genes unc-7 and unc-9 result in identical uncoordinated movement phenotypes, and their respective gene products were investigated for their contribution to electrical synapse connectivity. unc-7 encodes three innexin isoforms. Two of these, UNC-7S and UNC-7SR, are functionally equivalent and play an essential role in coordinated locomotion. UNC-7S and UNC-7SR are widely expressed and co-localize extensively with green fluorescent protein-tagged innexin UNC-9 in the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. A subset of UNC-7S/SR expression visualizes gap junctions formed between the AVB forward command interneurons and their B class motor neuron partners. Experiments
The role of lipids in the process of embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans is still poorly understood. Cytochrome P450s, a class of lipid-modifying enzymes, are good candidates to be involved in the production or degradation of lipids essential for development. We investigated two highly similar cytochrome P450s in C. elegans, cyp-31A2 and cyp-31A3, that are homologs of the gene responsible for Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy in humans. Depletion of both cytochromes either by RNAi or using a double deletion mutant, led to the failure of establishing the correct polarity of the embryo and to complete the extrusion of the polar bodies during meiosis. In addition, the egg became osmotic sensitive and permeable to dyes. The phenotype of cyp-31A2 or cyp-31A3 is very similar to a class of mutants that have polarization and osmotic defects (POD), thus the genes were renamed to pod-7 and pod-8, respectively. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the activity of pod-7/pod-8 ...
The elt-1 RNAi phenotype provides a useful insight into the function of seam cells during postembryonic development. The loss of alae in the adult cuticle confirms the role of seam cells in producing this structure, which has previously been shown by laser ablation studies (Singh and Sulston, 1978). The apparently normal appearance of the underlying cuticle is also consistent with these previous studies and presumably this is derived from the dorsal/ventral hypodermis. RNAi of elt-1, applied during larval development, has a severe effect on the integrity of adult worms within a few hours of the L4-adult moult. Adult hermaphrodites show a `burst-vulva phenotype, in which the uterus herneates through the vulva. This is likely to be a direct consequence of seam-cell loss because the lateral seam anchors the vulval and uterine cells in position by virtue of the utse cell connection (Michaux et al., 2001; Newman et al., 2000; Sharma-Kishore et al., 1999). This hypothesis is supported by the ...
Caenorhabditis elegans are free-living bacterivorous nematodes that naturally consume bacteria as food source. As an excellent genetic model, C. elegans has proven to be a successful system to study innate immune responses to human pathogens, which resulted in identification of many evolutionarily conserved defense pathways. Most of these studies examined innate immune pathway mutants in a single genetic background in response to monoculture of human pathogens that worms might not necessarily encounter in the wild. While this has led to the successful genetic dissection of these defense pathways, in order to fully understand their biological functions, the relevant ecological and evolutionary context needs to be taken into account. The bacterial environment C. elegans naturally encounter is likely to be highly heterogeneous. While many bacteria are mainly considered as dietary resource for worms, some could be potential pathogens. Worms thus constantly face the challenge to defend against the ...
Aims: To investigate the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the control of aging and healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Results: We show that the model organism, C. elegans, synthesizes H2S. Three H2S-synthesizing enzymes are present in C. elegans, namely cystathionine γ lyase (CSE), cystathionine β synthetase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate transferase (MPST or 3-MST). Genetic deficiency of mpst-1 (3-MST orthologue 1), but not cth-2 (CSE orthologue), reduced the lifespan of C. elegans. This effect was reversed by a pharmacological H2S donor (GYY4137). GYY4137 also reduced detrimental age-dependent changes in a range of physiological indices, including pharyngeal contraction and defecation. Treatment of C. elegans with GYY4137 increased the expression of several age-related, stress response, and antioxidant genes, whereas MitoSOX Red fluorescence, indicative of reactive oxygen species generation, was increased in mpst-1 knockouts and decreased by GYY4137 treatment. GYY4137 additionally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of transport of IFT particles in C. elegans cilia by the concerted action of kinesin-II and OSM-3 motors. AU - Pan, Xiaoyu. AU - Ou, Guangshuo. AU - Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul. AU - Blacque, Oliver E.. AU - Endres, Nicholas F.. AU - Tao, Li. AU - Mogilner, Alex. AU - Leroux, Michel R.. AU - Vale, Ronald D.. AU - Scholey, Jonathan M.. PY - 2006/9/25. Y1 - 2006/9/25. N2 - The assembly and function of cilia on Caenorhabditis elegans neurons depends on the action of two kinesin-2 motors, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homodimeric OSM-3-kinesin, which cooperate to move the same intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles along microtubule (MT) doublets. Using competitive in vitro MT gliding assays, we show that purified kinesin-II and OSM-3 cooperate to generate movement similar to that seen along the cilium in the absence of any additional regulatory factors. Quantitative modeling suggests that this could reflect an alternating action mechanism, in which the motors take turns to ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology (RPM)-1 is a member of a conserved family of proteins called Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR) proteins. PHR proteins are key regulators of neuronal development. In C. elegans, RPM-1 (regulator of presynaptic morphology-1) regulates axon termination and guidance in the mechanosensory neurons, and regulates synapse formation in the mechanosensory and motor neurons (Po et al., 2010). In adult C. elegans, RPM-1 also plays a role in axon regeneration in motor neurons (Hammarlund et al., 2009). Importantly, Drosophila Highwire, zebrafish Esrom/Phr1, and murine Phr1 also regulate synapse formation and axon extension highlighting the evolutionarily conserved function of the PHR proteins (Po et al., 2010).. Previous studies showed that RPM-1 functions, in part, as an E3 ubiquitin ligase by binding to the F box SyNaptic protein (FSN)-1 and negatively regulating a MAPK pathway that includes: the Dual Leucine zipper-bearing Kinase (DLK)-1, MAPK Kinase ...
The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva develops during postembryonic (larval) development from ventral epidermal precursors, and connects the developing uterus to the external environment. In the adult, the vulva is necessary for egg-laying (see Egg-laying) and for copulation with males (see Male mating behavior). Vulval development has attracted general interest for three main reasons. First, it serves as a paradigm for organogenesis. In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. It is also a striking example of tissue remodeling: the formation of a hole at a precise location in an organism. Second, it has been important for the genetic analyses of signaling and signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor LET-23 and RAS LET-60; (see RTKRas/MAP kinase signaling), LIN-12 (see LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans), and WNT (see Wnt signaling), as well as the functions of the SynMuv and ...
The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva develops during postembryonic (larval) development from ventral epidermal precursors, and connects the developing uterus to the external environment. In the adult, the vulva is necessary for egg-laying (see Egg-laying) and for copulation with males (see Male mating behavior). Vulval development has attracted general interest for three main reasons. First, it serves as a paradigm for organogenesis. In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. It is also a striking example of tissue remodeling: the formation of a hole at a precise location in an organism. Second, it has been important for the genetic analyses of signaling and signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor LET-23 and RAS LET-60; (see RTKRas/MAP kinase signaling), LIN-12 (see LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans), and WNT (see Wnt signaling), as well as the functions of the SynMuv and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Tcl transposable elements in Caenorhabditis elegans.. AU - Emmons, S. W.. AU - Ruan, K. S.. AU - Levitt, A.. AU - Yesner, L.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - C. elegans strains contain variable numbers of a 1.6-kb transposable genetic element. Activity of this element, which is denoted Tcl, shows regulation at at least two levels. At one level, excision of Tcl elements occurs in somatic cells at a frequency several orders of magnitude higher than in germ cells. Evidence is presented suggesting that this results from regulation at the level of trans-acting functions that are required for excision or that repress excision. At the second level, germ line transposition of Tcl occurs at greater frequency in some strains than in others. The hypothesis is proposed that this is because Tcl is one component of a two-element system, the second element of which differs between strains. Evidence for a second putative transposable element family in C. elegans is presented. This ...
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated worm-stars. Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy,
Early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos provide an excellent model for the study of developmental processes. Development can be studied by direct observation under the light microscope and can be perturbed using laser manipulations, drug inhibitor treatments, and genetic mutants. The first division of the C. elegans embryo is asymmetric, generating two daughter cells unequal in size and developmental fate. These distinct fates are generated by the partitioning of cytoplasmic determinants during the first mitotic cell cycle. Partitioning of these determinants is thought to be driven by cytoplasmic flow. Recent studies in C. elegans in the past year have identified a number of components necessary for this flow, giving us a clearer picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental asymmetry.
The eukaryotic ubiquitin-conjugation system sets the turnover rate of many proteins and includes activating enzymes (E1s), conjugating enzymes (UBCs/E2s), and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), which are responsible for activation, covalent attachment and substrate recognition, respectively. There are also ubiquitin-like proteins with distinct functions, which require their own E1s and E2s for attachment. We describe the results of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments on the E1s, UBC/E2s and ubiquitin-like proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also present a phylogenetic analysis of UBCs. The C. elegans genome encodes 20 UBCs and three ubiquitin E2 variant proteins. RNAi shows that only four UBCs are essential for embryogenesis: LET-70 (UBC-2), a functional homolog of yeast Ubc4/5p, UBC-9, an ortholog of yeast Ubc9p, which transfers the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO, UBC-12, an ortholog of yeast Ubc12p, which transfers the ubiquitin-like modifier Rub1/Nedd8, and UBC-14, an ortholog of Drosophila Courtless.
Neuropeptides regulate all aspects of behavior in multicellular organisms. Because of their ability to act at long distances, neuropeptides can exert their effects beyond the conventional synaptic connections, thereby adding an intricate layer of complexity to the activity of neural networks. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system have been identified.The actions of these peptides supplement the synaptic connections of the 302 neurons, allowing for fine tuning of neural networks and increasing the ways in which behaviors can be regulated. In this review, we focus on a large family of genes encoding FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These genes, the flp genes, have been used as a starting point to identifying flp genes throughout Nematoda. Nematodes have the largest family of FaRPs described thus far. The challenges in the future are the elucidation of their functions and the identification of the receptors and
Metals are major contaminants that influence human health. Many metals have physiologic roles, but excessive levels can be harmful. Advances in technology have made toxicogenomic analyses possible to characterize the effects of metal exposure on the entire genome. Much of what is known about cellular responses to metals has come from mammalian systems; however the use of non-mammalian species is gaining wider attention. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a small round worm whose genome has been fully sequenced and its development from egg to adult is well characterized. It is an attractive model for high throughput screens due to its short lifespan, ease of genetic mutability, low cost and high homology with humans. Research performed in C. elegans has led to insights in apoptosis, gene expression and neurodegeneration, all of which can be altered by metal exposure. Additionally, by using worms one can potentially study how the mechanisms that underline differential responses to metals in nematodes
Under experimental conditions, virtually all behaviors of Caenorhabditis elegans are achieved by combinations of simple locomotion, including forward, reversal movement, turning by deep body bending, and gradual shallow turning. To study how worms regulate these locomotion in response to sensory information, acidic pH avoidance behavior was analyzed by using worm tracking system. In the acidic pH avoidance, we characterized two types of behavioral maneuvers that have similar behavioral sequences in chemotaxis and thermotaxis. A stereotypic reversal-turn-forward sequence of reversal avoidance caused an abrupt random reorientation, and a shallow gradual turn in curve avoidance caused non-random reorientation in a less acidic direction to avoid the acidic pH. Our results suggest that these two maneuvers were each triggered by a distinct threshold pH. A simulation study using the two-distinct-threshold model reproduced the avoidance behavior of the real worm, supporting the presence of the threshold.
An additional genetic locus in Caenorhabditis elegans, unc-116, was identified in a screen for mutations resulting in defective locomotion. unc-116 was cloned by use of a transposon insertion mutant and the physical and genetic map of the genome. The cDNA sequence predicts an 815-amino acid protein. Based upon sequence comparison and secondary structure predictions, unc-116 encodes all three domains of the kinesin heavy chain: the motor, stalk, and tail. While the motor and tail domains have a high degree of identity to the equivalent domains of cloned kinesin heavy chains, the rodII domain of the stalk is significantly shorter than those previously reported and is not predicted to form a coiled-coil alpha-helix. Analysis of mutational defects in two C. elegans genes encoding anterograde motor molecules, unc-116 and unc-104, should provide insight into the in vivo functions of these members of the kinesin heavy chain superfamily.. ...
Involved in several cell fate decisions that require cell-cell interactions. It is possible that lin-12 encodes a membrane-bound receptor for a signal that enables expression of the ventral uterine precursor cell fate. Activity in cell fate decisions and tumorigenesis is negatively regulated by sel-10.
The prototype of the Cdx family of homeodomain transcription factors is the Drosophila caudal protein. The initial maternal expression of caudal mRNA is ubiquitous and a posterior to anterior gradient of the protein develops during the syncytial blastoderm stage and persists until the onset of cellularization. Zygotic expression, which commences in the cellular blastoderm stage, is also localized to the posterior in a region which gives rise to terminal abdominal structures and the hindgut. During later embryonic development, expression of caudal is found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpigian tubules (MacDonald and Struhl, 1986; Mlodzik and Gehring, 1987).. Caudal homologues have been identified in a wide range of animal groups. A caudal‐related gene with a similar posterior expression pattern has been cloned from the short or intermediate germ band insect Bombyx mori and homologues are present in other invertebrates, including the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the annelid worm ...
Progressive neuronal deterioration accompanied by sensory functions decline is typically observed during aging. On the other hand, structural or functional alterations of specific sensory neurons extend lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Hormesis is a phenomenon by which the body benefits from moderate stress of various kinds which at high doses are harmful. Several studies indicate that different stressors can hormetically extend lifespan in C. elegans and suggest that hormetic effects could be exploited as a strategy to slow down aging and the development of age-associated (neuronal) diseases in humans. Mitochondria play a central role in the aging process and hormetic-like bimodal dose-response effects on C. elegans lifespan have been observed following different levels of mitochondrial stress. Here we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial stress may hormetically extend C. elegans lifespan through subtle neuronal alterations. In support of our hypothesis we find that life-lengthening
This paper presents a simple yet biologicallygrounded model for the neural control of Caenorhabditis elegans forward locomotion. We identify a minimal circuit within the C. elegans ventral cord that is likely to be sufficient to generate and sustain forward locomotion in vivo. This limited subcircuit appears to contain no obvious central pattern generated control. For that subcircuit, we present a model that relies on a chain of oscillators along the body which are driven by local and proximate mechano-sensory input. Computer simulations were used to study the model under a variety of conditions and to test whether it is behaviourally plausible. Within our model, we find that a minimal circuit of AVB interneurons and B-class motoneurons is sufficient to generate and sustain fictive forward locomotion patterns that are robust to significant environmental perturbations. The model predicts speed and amplitude modulation by the AVB command interneurons. An extended model including D-class ...
Strains. Nematodes were grown at 20°C under standard conditions that included uncrowded conditions and the presence of ample food (the Escherichia coli strain OP50). Wild-type nematodes were C. elegans strain N2. Mutant strains were obtained from the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center.. cDNA clones and expression constructs. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed to amplify conserved regions of ionotropic glutamate receptors, we amplified DNA fragments from first-strand mixed-stage C. elegans cDNA that encoded portions of glr-3 and glr-5. These partial gene products were used to screen cDNA libraries at high stringency. After screening ∼106 clones, we obtained several partial cDNAs for each gene, indicating that mRNA encoding these glutamate receptor subunits is present at relatively low levels. Hence, we were unable to isolate full-length cDNAs using this approach. We also searched the published C. elegans genome for genes related in sequence to glr-1, glr-3, andglr-5 and identified ...
Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) enables the production of long timelapse recordings from live fluorescent specimens. 1047- and 900-nm excitation were used to image both a vital fluorescent membrane probe, FM 4-64, and a modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Automated four-dimensional (4D) data collection yielded individual recordings comprising thousands of images, each allowing analysis of all of the cell divisions, contacts, migrations, and fusions that occur during a span of several hours of embryogenesis.. ©1998 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
0, Molecular and genetic characterization of GON-2, a TRPM cation channel required for gonadogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of o Doctor of Philosophy in Biological Sciences by Rachel West DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire January, 2004 Examining9ommittee: Eric }. IAInbig (Chair) c:, Victor R. A)fibros Eleanor M. Maine Carol L. Folt Dean of Graduate Studies ...
PubMed journal article: Caenorhabditis elegans EAK-3 inhibits dauer arrest via nonautonomous regulation of nuclear DAF-16/FoxO activity. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Current Name: Aphyosemion elegans. Describer(s), Year: (Boulenger, 1899). IDENTITY: elegans A.. Family-group Names: Nothobranchiidae Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiinae Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiini Garman, 1895 , Aphyosemina Huber, 2000 (#Aphyosemiina #Aphyosemionina) Genus: Aphyosemion Myers, 1924. Subgenus: Aphyosemion Myers, 1924. Abbreviated genus: A.. Abbreviated subgenus: (A.). Species: elegans. Index name: elegans: Aphyosemion elegans. Full name: Aphyosemion (Aphyosemion) elegans. TYPOLOGY: elegans A.. Original name: Haplochilus elegans. Describer(s): Boulenger. Year of description: 1899. Original description: Boulenger, G.A. 1899. Poissons nouveaux du Congo. Cinquième Partie. Cyprins, Silures, Cyprinodontes, Acanthopterygiens. Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Tervuren, Zool. Ser., 1 (5): 113, pl. 47 (fig. 2).. Gender/Accordance: [Subst.]. SYSTEMATICS: elegans A.. Current status: valid sp.. Status evaluation (current): discussed {no red bars on male sides are mentioned in the description, only -red- ...
We have examined the cortex of Caenorhabditis elegans eggs during pseudocleavage (PC), a period of the first cell cycle which is important for the generation of asymmetry at first cleavage (Strome, S. 1989. Int. Rev. Cytol. 114: 81-123). We have found that directed, actin dependent, cytoplasmic, and cortical flow occurs during this period coincident with a rearrangement of the cortical actin cytoskeleton (Strome, S. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103: 2241-2252). The flow velocity (4-7 microns/min) is similar to previously determined particle movements driven by cortical actin flows in motile cells. We show that directed flows occur in one of the daughters of the first division that itself divides asymmetrically, but not in its sister that divides symmetrically. The cortical and cytoplasmic events of PC can be mimicked in other cells during cytokinesis by displacing the mitotic apparatus with the microtubule polymerization inhibitor nocodazole. In all cases, the polarity of the resulting cortical and ...
Eit vakse individ har kring 1 000 seller, og dette talet er konstant; vaksne individ veks berre ved at sellene vert større.[2][3] C. elegans har to kjønnskategoriar: tvikjønn og hankjønn. Tvikjønna makkar kan fræva seg sjølve, medan hannmakkar berre kan fræva tvikjønna makkar.[4] Meltesystemet til C. elegans har 20 epitelseller som liknar på dei ein finn hjå menneske. C. elegans har ikkje immunseller.[2] Det ytre laget av C. elegans vert laga og skilt ut av 12 seller med til saman 157 sellekjernar.[3] Langs sidene av vaksne C. elegans-individ går det òg to band kalla alae, skilte ut av samansmelta saumseller.[5] Nervesystemet til C. elegans er det mest komplekse vevet i organismen. Hjå tvikjønna makkar utgjer det kring 37% av alle kroppssellene. Tvikjønna makkar har 302 nerveseller fordelte på 118 ulike typar og 56 gliaseller. Hannar har 385 nerveseller og soleis fleire enn tvikjønna. Dei fleste ekstra nervesellene hjå hannane sit i halen. Hannane har åtferd knytt til ...
The action potential (AP) is the basic signaling unit in various crucial physiological processing, for instance, in neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and glandular secretion (Koch, 1990). The classic model animal, Caenorhabditis elegans (or C. elegans), with a simple and compact nervous system, conservatively employs the calcium-mediated all-or-none APs for odor response in AWA olfactory neurons (Liu et al., 2018), as well as for muscle contraction in body wall muscles (Gao and Zhen, 2011; Liu et al., 2011) and pharyngeal muscles (Davis et al., 1999). Plateau potentials were also observed in ASE and RMD neurons (Goodman et al., 1998; Mellem et al., 2008; Lockery et al., 2009; Lockery and Goodman, 2009), though the underlying roles in specific behavior are still elusive. Either in neurons or in muscles, the action potential firing is dependent on the excitatory pre-synaptic vesicles release. The minimum number of the presynaptic vesicles to elicit a single action potential in C. elegans has ...
Phosphine is a fumigant used to protect stored commodities from infestation by pest insects, though high-level phosphine resistance in many insect species threatens the continued use of the fumigant. The mechanisms of toxicity and resistance are not clearly understood. In this study, the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, was employed to investigate the effects of phosphine on its proposed in vivo target, the mitochondrion. We found that phosphine rapidly perturbs mitochondrial morphology, inhibits oxidative respiration by 70%, and causes a severe drop in mitochondrial membrane potential ({Delta}{Psi}m) within 5 h of exposure. We then examined the phosphine-resistant strain of nematode, pre-33, to determine whether resistance was associated with any changes to mitochondrial physiology. Oxygen consumption was reduced by 70% in these mutant animals, which also had more mitochondrial genome copies than wild-type animals, a common response to reduced metabolic capacity. The mutant also had an ...
Glutathione is the most abundant thiol in the vast majority of organisms and is maintained in its reduced form by the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase. In this work, we describe the genetic and functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans gsr-1 gene that encodes the only glutathione reductase protein in this model organism. By using green fluorescent protein reporters we demonstrate that gsr-1 produces two GSR-1 isoforms, one located in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. gsr-1 loss of function mutants display a fully penetrant embryonic lethal phenotype characterized by a progressive and robust cell division delay accompanied by an aberrant distribution of interphasic chromatin in the periphery of the cell nucleus. Maternally expressed GSR-1 is sufficient to support embryonic development but these animals are short-lived, sensitized to chemical stress and have increased mitochondrial fragmentation and lower mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, the embryonic lethality of gsr-1 ...
Because C. elegans chromosomes are holocentric and lack centromeric heterochromatin, HP1 proteins are dispensable for chromosome segregation and mitotic viability in this organism [23, 25]. We have exploited this fact to examine in detail the role of one of the C. elegans HP1 homologues, HPL-2, in regulating developmental pathways of gene expression, a second physiological function ascribed to heterochromatin. By comparing the effects of hpl-2 deletion at different stages of development, we have shed light on a novel role for this HP1 family member in dauer diapause, longevity and lipid metabolism. These three processes have in common an extremely tight response to environmental factors. Thus, our data link a response to environmental factors to the epigenetic regulator HPL-2. At least some of the genes identified in this study are shown by CHIP-on chip to be bound by HPL-2, and are therefore likely to represent direct targets.. We show that hpl-2 plays a role in the choice between dauer and ...
The protease separase plays a key role in sister chromatid disjunction and centriole disengagement. To maintain genomic stability, separase activity is strictly regulated by binding of an inhibitory protein, securin. Despite its central role in cell division, the separase and securin complex is poorly understood at the structural level. This is partly owing to the difficulty of generating a sufficient quantity of homogeneous, stable protein. Here, we report the production of Caenorhabditis elegans separase-securin complex, and its characterization using biochemical methods and by negative staining electron microscopy. Single particle analysis generated a density map at a resolution of 21-24 Å that reveals a close, globular structure of complex connectivity harbouring two lobes. One lobe matches closely a homology model of the N-terminal HEAT repeat domain of separase, whereas the second lobe readily accommodates homology models of the separase C-terminal death and caspase-like domains. The ...
Early studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster saw large-scale, systematic loss of function (LOF) screens ... Due to their small genomes and limited number of encoded proteins, viruses exploit host proteins for entry, replication, and ... "The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 71-94. PMC 1213120. PMID 4366476. Gans M, Audit C, Masson M ( ... in Caenorhabditis elegans development". Mechanisms of Development. 95 (1-2): 67-76. doi:10.1016/s0925-4773(00)00339-7. PMID ...
... a protein which is a homologue to the protein product of a sex-determining gene in Caenorhabditis elegans, is a neuronal ... Underwood JG, Boutz PL, Dougherty JD, Stoilov P, Black DL (2005). "Homologues of the Caenorhabditis elegans Fox-1 protein are ... Fox-3 is one of a family of mammalian homologues of the Fox-1 protein, originally discovered in the nematode worm C. elegans as ... a protein originally identified from genetic studies of the nematode worm C. elegans. Western blotting shows that mAb A60 binds ...
"Bifunctional glyoxylate cycle protein of Caenorhabditis elegans: a developmentally regulated protein of intestine and muscle". ... Transport of PEP across the mitochondrial membrane is accomplished by dedicated transport proteins; however no such proteins ... it triggers phosphorylation of enzymes and regulatory proteins by Protein Kinase A (a cyclic AMP regulated kinase) resulting in ... In the liver, the FOX protein FoxO normally promotes gluconeogenesis in the fasted state, but insulin blocks Fox0 upon feeding ...
... like UNC-60A and cofilin like UNC-60B proteins of Caenorhabditis elegans". Biomolecular NMR Assignments. 9 (2): 261-265. doi: ... He is known for his studies on Protein NMR Spectroscopy and the pathogenesis of diseases such as tuberculosis and visceral ... Proteins and Proteomics. 1864 (10): 1304-1314. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2016.06.013. PMID 27378575. Shukla, Vaibhav Kumar; Kabra, ...
July 2003). "Loss of kindlin-1, a human homolog of the Caenorhabditis elegans actin-extracellular-matrix linker protein UNC-112 ... The KIND1 gene mutated in Kindler syndrome codes for the protein kindlin-1, which is thought to be active in the interactions ...
... (RNAi-DEfective 1) is a primary Argonaute protein required for RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans ... "RDE-1 slicer activity is required only for passenger-strand cleavage during RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nat Struct Mol ... Canonical Argonaute proteins possess three primary domains forming a crescent-shaped base: the PAZ, MID, and PIWI domains. PAZ ... Habig JW, Aruscavage PJ, Bass BL (2008). "In C. elegans, high levels of dsRNA allow RNAi in the absence of RDE-4". PLOS ONE. 3 ...
... where she researched protein folding in Caenorhabditis elegans. She is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in curriculum, instruction, ... "Immunological Strategies to Study GRP170 in Caenorhabditis elegans". Buffalo State College. 2017-08-08. Retrieved 10 September ...
... a Mammalian Homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans Polarity Protein PAR-3". J Cell Biol. 143 (1): 95-106. doi:10.1083/jcb.143.1.95 ... These molecules are the proteins Cdc42, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Par6, Par3/Bazooka/ASIP. Crumbs, "Stardust" and ... Basal and lateral membranes share common determinants, the proteins LLGL1, DLG1, and SCRIB. These three proteins all localize ... Crumbs is the only transmembrane protein in this list and the Crumbs complex serves as an apical cue to keep the aPKC complex ...
Non-human protein homologs for cystinosin include ERS1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast cells) and the Caenorhabditis elegans ... CTNS is the gene that encodes the protein cystinosin in humans. Cystinosin is a lysosomal seven-transmembrane protein that ... The protein obeys Michaelis-Menton kinetics and has an associated KM of 278 ± 49 μM.[11][13] ... and is a member of the lysosomal cystine transporter family of transport proteins.[10] It comprises 367 amino acid residues, ...
... a human homolog of the Caenorhabditis elegans actin-extracellular-matrix linker protein UNC-112, causes Kindler syndrome". Am. ... or unc-112-related protein 2 (URP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FERMT3 gene. The kindlin family of proteins, ... The FERMT3 protein has a key role in the regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis. This protein may also help maintain the ... Wang L, Deng W, Shi T, Ma D (2008). "URP2SF, a FERM and PH domain containing protein, regulates NF-kappaB and apoptosis". ...
Caenorhabditis elegans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. During this five-year period over 1,100 protein structures were ... "Protein Structure Initiative (Pilot Phase) Fact Sheet". Protein Structure Initiative. Archived from the original on October 1, ... By the end of this phase, the Protein Structure Initiative had solved over 4,800 protein structures; over 4,100 of these were ... "Protein Structure Initiative (Production Phase) Fact Sheet". Protein Structure Initiative. Archived from the original on June ...
"Stress induced nuclear granules form in response to accumulation of misfolded proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans". BMC Cell ... Both structures serve to mediate binding to nuclear transport proteins.[5]. Most proteins, ribosomal subunits, and some DNAs ... The nuclear lamina is composed mostly of lamin proteins. Like all proteins, lamins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and later ... Speckles are dynamic structures, and both their protein and RNA-protein components can cycle continuously between speckles and ...
Other orthologs have been found including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations that change the amino ... EXT2 (protein) has also been shown to interact with TRAP1, a heat shock protein. Heat shock proteins will bind to specific ... "The structure of the human multiple exostoses 2 gene and characterization of homologs in mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans". ... Fgf proteins and Wnt proteins. The only individuals with this mutation exist in the heterozygous form, this means that they ...
... which helps form the skin of Caenorhabditis elegans, part of a whole family of FF proteins. Felix Rey, of the Pasteur Institute ... In this image, a wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans is stained to highlight the nuclei of its cells. ... About 800 million years ago,[37] a minor genetic change in a single molecule called guanylate kinase protein-interaction domain ... in Paris has constructed the 3D structure of the EFF1 protein[39] and shown it does the work of linking one cell to another, in ...
... and other mammals but species such as the fruit fly Drosophila or the worm Caenorhabditis elegans have one or more proteins ... REEP (for Receptor Expression-Enhancing protein) proteins are member of the DP1/Yop1p family. There are six of them in humans ... Self-Assembly of Tubular Topology by Protein Hairpins Weaving the web of ER tubules Hereditary spastic paraplegia proteins ... such as the biosynthesis of secretory and membrane proteins, protein modification, lipid synthesis and calcium storage (used in ...
The droplets can also grow to be many molecules across (micrometres) Studies of droplets of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein ... Another example of liquid droplets in cells are the germline P granules in Caenorhabditis elegans. These granules separate out ... Membrane protein, or membrane-associated protein, clustering at neurological synapses, cell-cell tight junctions, or other ... The Dishevelled (Dsh or Dvl) protein undergoes clustering in the cytoplasm via its DIX domain, which mediates protein ...
Meiotic recombination is also unnecessary for homologous chromosome synapsis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Revenkova ... Then the intervening regions of the chromosome are brought together, and may be connected by a protein-RNA complex called the ... The DNA damage response protein TOPBP1 has also been identified as a crucial factor in meiotic sex chromosome silencing. DNA ... Autosomes undergo synapsis during meiosis, and are held together by a protein complex along the whole length of the chromosomes ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans AMP-activated protein kinase AAK-2 is phosphorylated by LKB1 and is required for resistance to ... AMPKα1 (PRKAA1; protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit). *AMPKα2 (protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 ... LKB1, a novel serine/threonine protein kinase and potential tumour suppressor, is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein ... a b GeneCard for protein-coding STK11 *↑ a b c d e Sapkota GP, Boudeau J, Deak M, Kieloch A, Morrice N, Alessi DR. ...
Caenorhabditis elegans cell polarity protein PAR6 as an adaptor that links the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to atypical protein ... GTP-dependent protein binding. • GTPase activity. • enzyme binding. • protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase ... protein phosphorylation. • Rho protein signal transduction. • regulation of lamellipodium assembly. • Rac protein signal ... "Interaction of Nck-associated protein 1 with activated GTP-binding protein Rac". The Biochemical Journal. 322 (3): 873-8. doi: ...
... "tra-2 Encodes a Membrane Protein and May Mediate Cell Communication in the Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Determination Pathway". ... Kod nematoda, kao što je C. elegans, mužjak ima jean X hromosom (X0), a uparena konstitucija XX daje hermafrodite. Njihov ... "RNA Binding Protein Sex-Lethal (Sxl) and Control of Drosophila Sex Determination and Dosage Compensation". Microbiology and ...
Caenorhabditis elegans cell polarity protein PAR6 as an adaptor that links the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to atypical protein ... protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ... Cell division control protein 42 homolog, also known as Cdc42, is a protein involved in regulation of the cell cycle. It was ...
Johansson A، Driessens M، Aspenström P (2000). "The mammalian homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans polarity protein PAR-6 is ... Caenorhabditis elegans cell polarity protein PAR6 as an adaptor that links the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to atypical protein ... GTP-dependent protein binding. • ‏GO:0001948 ربط بروتيني. • Rho GTPase binding. • protein kinase C binding. ... Joberty G، Petersen C، Gao L، Macara IG (2000). "The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C to ...
... at least 37 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans) that are "insulin-like" or "IGF-1-like", whereas in the mammals insulin- ... IGF-1 and IGF-2 are regulated by a family of proteins known as the IGF-binding proteins. These proteins help to modulate IGF ... an insulin receptor-like gene that regulates longevity and diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans". Science. 277 (5328): 942-6. doi ... elegans. Additionally, C. elegans do not have specialized organs such as the (Islets of Langerhans), which sense insulin in ...
... and that Skp1 links the F-box protein to the core ubiquitination complex. Subsequent genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans ... Skp1 - Skp1 is an adaptor protein that is essential for the recognition and binding of F-box proteins. Cullin (CUL1) - Cullin ... The SCF complex also marks various other cellular proteins for destruction. SCF contains a variable F-box protein and three ... Instead, FBP affinity for protein substrates is regulated through cyclin-CDK-mediated phosphorylation of target proteins. ...
Protein-coding genes. The genome contains an estimated 20,470 protein-coding genes.[95] About 35% of C. elegans genes have ... Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bergerac[2] (for instance strain BO)[3]. *Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bristol[4] (for instance ... The Orsay virus is a virus that affects C. elegans, as well as the Caenorhabditis elegans Cer1 virus[50] and the Caenorhabditis ... "Caenorhabditis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.. *^ Wood, WB (1988). The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cold Spring Harbor ...
Systems Biology of RNA Binding Proteins. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 825. s. 431. ISBN 978-1-4939-1220-9. doi ... C. elegans har ikkje immunseller.[2] Det ytre laget av C. elegans vert laga og skilt ut av 12 seller med til saman 157 ... Hobert, Oliver (2010). «Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans». Worm Book. doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.12.2.. ... Caenorhabditis elegans er ein gjennomsiktig 1-2 millimeter lang rundmakk. Han finst i ròtnande frukter og stenglar og er ein ...
... and subsequently in Caenorhabditis elegans, embryonic stem cells, and tissue culture cells. As a novel modification of HITS- ... Because RNA-binding proteins are frequently components of multi-protein complexes, RNAs bound to non-target proteins may be co- ... Formaldehyde cross-linking methods have been used to preserve RNA-protein interactions, but also generate protein-protein cross ... Proteinase K digestion is then performed in order to remove protein from the RNA-protein complexes. This step leaves a peptide ...
Research on Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that multiple mechanisms including RNA regulation may play a role in maintaining ... Work with zebrafish and mammals suggest a further interplay between miRNA and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in determining ... "Translational Regulators Maintain Totipotency in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germline". Science. 311 (5762): 851-853. Bibcode: ... Kedde M, Agami R (April 2008). "Interplay between microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins determines developmental processes". Cell ...
Host microbe interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans. Techniques. *Dark field microscopy. *Impedance microbiology ... Protein production systems[edit]. Commonly used protein production systems include those derived from bacteria,[2] yeast,[3][4] ... Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein. It is typically achieved by the ... In biology, to make too many copies of a protein or other substance. Overexpression of certain proteins or other substances may ...
Cali BM, Kuchma SL, Latham J, Anderson P (February 1999). "smg-7 is required for mRNA surveillance in Caenorhabditis elegans". ... This pathway is active when Ski7 protein is available in the cell. The Ski7 protein is thought to bind to the empty A site of ... have been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans as essential trans-acting factors contributing to ... The NSD Ski7 protein appears to be restricted strictly to yeast species which suggest that NSD is the most recently evolved ...
Caenorhabditis elegans. 秀麗隱杆線蟲 97,000,000 18,250 Arabidopsis thaliana. 阿拉伯芥(擬南芥) 125,000,000 25,500 ... non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying that the genome contains many ...
... as 97 Mbp do verme Caenorhabditis elegans),[66] para rematar a década co primeiro cromosoma humano (o 22), que foi ... "A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions" (PDF). Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14. Páxs. 313-324. ... C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology". ... "Protein Engineering 7 (7). ISSN 1741-0134, Páxs. 841-848.. *↑ 70,0 70,1 Thompson, J. D.; et al. (1994). "CLUSTAL W: improving ...
The recombinase paralog rfs-1 is found in the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, where it is not essential for homologous ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2[10] and RAD52. ... Protein domains in homologous recombination-related proteins are conserved across the three main groups of life: archaea, ...
Abwydod: Caenorhabditis elegans. *Burum: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (burum pobi). Cyfeiriadau[golygu , golygu cod y dudalen]. *↑ ... Opsiwn arall yw anodiad awtomatig - defnyddio pŵer cyfrifiadurol i gymharu dilyniannau protein a DNA. ...
O xene him-14 do verme Caenorhabditis elegans codifica un ortólogo de MSH4.[7] A formación de sobrecruzamentos durante a meiose ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature 437 (7062): 1173-8. PMID 16189514. doi: ... Winand NJ, Panzer JA, Kolodner RD (1998). "Cloning and characterization of the human and Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of the ... Winand NJ, Panzer JA, Kolodner RD (Oct 1998). "Cloning and characterization of the human and Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of ...
Caenorhabditis elegans (a roundworm), Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly), Danio rerio (the zebrafish), Mus musculus ... There are a number of ALS genes that encode for RNA-binding proteins. The first to be discovered was TDP-43 protein,[35] a ... Mutant SOD1 protein forms intracellular aggregations that inhibit protein degradation. Cytoplasmic aggregations of wild-type ( ... Once these mutant RNA-binding proteins are misfolded and aggregated, they may be able to misfold normal protein both within and ...
Červ Caenorhabditis elegans je príkladom dobre známeho mnohobunkového živočícha; každá z jeho 1090 somatických buniek má svoj ... The complement of protein kinases of the microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi in relation to those of Saccharomyces ...
An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 294, 858-862. ... Protein synthesis RNAs[change , change source]. Messenger RNA[change , change source]. The structure of a mature eukaryotic ... An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 294, 862-864. ... Genes code for proteins in bits called exons. The bits can be joined together in different ways to make different mRNAs. Thus, ...
... his daring introduction of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a system for tracing the birth and death of every cell in a ... For discoveries concerning the nutrient-activated TOR proteins and their central role in the metabolic control of cell growth.[ ... For their invention of Herceptin, the first monoclonal antibody that blocks a cancer-causing protein, and for its development ... For the discovery and recognition of the broad significance of the ubiquitin system of regulated protein degradation, a ...
... including the worm Caenorhabditis elegans,[75] and the regenerative planarian Schmidtea mediterranea[76][77] and axolotl ... October 2017). "Multiplexed quantification of proteins and transcripts in single cells". Nature Biotechnology. 35 (10): 936-939 ... In 2017, two approaches were introduced to simultaneously measure single-cell mRNA and protein expression through ...
... was identified in Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), an enzyme that produces inositol ... This led to the conclusion that IMPase is required for the correct localization of synaptic protein components.[13][14] The egl ... "Synaptic Polarity Depends on Phosphatidylinositol Signaling Regulated by myo-Inositol Monophosphatase in Caenorhabditis elegans ... "Inositol monophosphatase regulates localization of synaptic components and behavior in the mature nervous system of C. elegans ...
This thaumatin domain has been found in species as diverse as rice and Caenorhabditis elegans. Thaumatins are pathogenesis- ... Curculin, a sweet protein from Malaysia with taste-modifying activity. *Miraculin, a protein from West Africa with taste- ... The thaumatin protein is considered a prototype for a pathogen-response protein domain. ... similarity between this PR protein and other PR proteins to the maize alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor has suggested PR proteins ...
Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a cost of US$0.75 per base. Meanwhile, sequencing of human cDNA ... Protein nanopore sequencing utilizes membrane protein complexes such as α-hemolysin, MspA (Mycobacterium smegmatis Porin A) or ... a small protein secreted by the pancreas. This provided the first conclusive evidence that proteins were chemical entities with ... Sanger is one of the few scientists who was awarded two Nobel prizes, one for the sequencing of proteins, and the other for the ...
Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 7106-13. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.11.7106. PMID ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A (eIF3a) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF3A gene.[5][6][7] ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134 ... protein binding. • structural molecule activity. • translation initiation factor activity. • receptor tyrosine kinase binding. ...
The nervous system of one very small worm, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, has been mapped out down to the synaptic level ... Recent studies have shown that sponge cells express a group of proteins that cluster together to form a structure resembling a ... In C. elegans, males have exactly 383 neurons, while hermaphrodites have exactly 302 neurons.[14] ... In choanoflagellates and mesomycetozoea, these proteins are upregulated during colonial phases, suggesting the importance of ...
"Identification of potential therapeutic drugs for huntington's disease using Caenorhabditis elegans". PLoS ONE. 2 (6): e504. ... "Huntingtin Protein and Protein Aggregation , HOPES - A guide to the science of Huntington's disease".. ... "A protein interaction network links GIT1, an enhancer of Huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease". Mol. Cell. 15 (6): ... "Rhes, a striatal specific protein, mediates mutant-huntingtin cytotoxicity". Science. 324 (5932): 1327-30. doi:10.1126/science ...
"Aging and resistance to oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[149] Proteins related ... while damage to proteins causes enzyme inhibition, denaturation and protein degradation.[60] ... to support the role of oxidative stress in aging in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, ...
Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans, in Nature, via University of ... before it can produce a protein - effectively shutting specific genes down. ... "Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 391 (6669): 806-811. ...
doi:10.1016/0012-1606(80)90352-8. Sulston2, JE (1983). "The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". ... and the scaffold protein FIP200. Class III PI3K complex, containing hVps34, Beclin-1, p150 and Atg14-like protein or ... doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00050-1. Sulston, JE (1980). "The Caenorhabditis elegans male: postembryonic development of ... It has also been shown that in mice null for the proapoptotic factor Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein) a larger percentage of ...
... the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), and the common house mouse (Mus musculus ... 2002), I.3. Proteins: The Shape and Structure of Proteins *^ Alberts et al. (2002), I.3. Proteins: Protein Function Archived 25 ... like the fibers formed by the protein collagen. Proteins can bind to other proteins and simple molecules, sometimes acting as ... A single nucleotide difference within DNA can cause a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein. Because protein ...
Exogenous dsRNA is detected and bound by an effector protein, known as RDE-4 in C. elegans and R2D2 in Drosophila, that ... Kamath RS, Ahringer J (August 2003). "Genome-wide RNAi screening in Caenorhabditis elegans". Methods. 30 (4): 313-21. doi: ... Exogenous dsRNA is detected and bound by an effector protein, known as RDE-4 in C. elegans and R2D2 in Drosophila, that ... Fortunato A, Fraser AG (2005). "Uncover genetic interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans by RNA interference". Bioscience Reports ...
Červ Caenorhabditis elegans je príkladom dobre známeho mnohobunkového živočícha; každá z jeho 1090 somatických buniek má svoj ... Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... The complement of protein kinases of the microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi in relation to those of Saccharomyces ...
Durbin, Richard Michael (1987). Studies on the development and organisation of the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans ( ... Elegans hook protein, ZYG-12, mediates the essential attachment between the centrosome and nucleus". Cell. 115 (7): 825-836. ... Caenorhabditis elegans. Wall chart". Science. 270 (5235): 415-430. doi:10.1126/science.270.5235.410. PMID 7569996.. ... White, John (1975). Computer aided reconstruction of the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans (PhD thesis). University of ...
It has been found in humans, mice, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... protein complex. • apical part of cell. • clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • ruffle. • cytosol. • extracellular exosome. • ... protein binding. • minus-end directed microfilament motor activity. • ADP binding. • actin binding. • nucleotide binding. • ...
Kamath R, Ahringer J (2003). "Genome-wide RNAi screening in Caenorhabditis elegans". Methods 30 (4): 313-21. PMID 12828945. doi ... Antisense nucleic acids and proteins: fundamentals and applications. pp. 4, 136. ISBN 0824785169.. ... Fortunato A, Fraser A (2005). "Uncover genetic interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans by RNA interference". Biosci Rep 25 (5-6 ... chamada RDE-4 no verme Caenorhabditis elegans e R2D2 na mosca Drosophila, que estimula a actividade de Dicer.[12] Esta proteína ...
In this respect, potato tuber tissue is similar to Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and Escherichia coli: they ... the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.[50][ ... Protein (g) 9.4 7.1 12.6 2.0 1.4 13.0 1.6 1.5 11.3 1.3 50 ... protein, and contains negligible fat (see table). In an amount ... especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings).[62] In particular, consuming reheated or cooled potatoes ...
Sydney Brenner, Nobel laureate (for work with Caenorhabditis elegans). *Roger Guillemin, Nobel laureate (for elucidating the ... Tony Hunter, discoverer of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins.. *Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, prominent developmental ...
"Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 391 (6669): 806-11. PMID ... der ikke længere kan translateres til protein. En type af RNA transkriberet fra genomet, miRNA, arbejder på samme måde.[2] ...
The C-terminus of the protein is also similar to a Caenorhabditis elegans protein that plays a role in lipid storage. In ... The encoded protein is similar to a Chinese hamster protein that is associated with spermatocyte and adipocyte differentiation ... Red hashes in protein strip are splice sites.. • Blue-white-red bars are log2 copy ratio distributions (-1 to +1) from Zack et ... mammals, this protein is thought to function in the regulation of epithelial growth and differentiation, and in tumor ...
Apical junction molecule [Caenorhabditis elegans] Apical junction molecule [Caenorhabditis elegans]. gi,1061385445,ref,NP_ ... Molecular and functional analysis of apical junction formation in the gut epithelium of Caenorhabditis elegans. [Dev Biol. 2004 ... Cooperative regulation of AJM-1 controls junctional integrity in Caenorhabditis elegans epithelia. [Nat Cell Biol. 2001] ... Molecular and functional analysis of apical junction formation in the gut epithelium of Caenorhabditis elegans.. Segbert C, ...
Myoblast growth factor receptor egl-15 [Caenorhabditis elegans] Myoblast growth factor receptor egl-15 [Caenorhabditis elegans] ... N-Glycosylation regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor/EGL-15 activity in Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo. [J Biol Chem. ... N-Glycosylation regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor/EGL-15 activity in Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo.. Polanska UM, ... Myoblast growth factor receptor egl-15 [Caenorhabditis elegans]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_001300354.1 ...
Polyglutamine aggregates alter protein folding homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sanjeev H. Satyal, Enrico Schmidt, ... Polyglutamine aggregates alter protein folding homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sanjeev H. Satyal, Enrico Schmidt, ... Polyglutamine aggregates alter protein folding homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Polyglutamine aggregates alter protein folding homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sanjeev H. Satyal, Enrico Schmidt, ...
2000) Polyglutamine aggregates alter protein folding homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5750-5755 ... Neuronal circuitry regulates the response of Caenorhabditis elegans to misfolded proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system for studying non-cell-autonomous mechanisms in protein-misfolding diseases ... Neuronal circuitry regulates the response of Caenorhabditis elegans to misfolded proteins. Veena Prahlad and Richard I. ...
Caenorhabditis briggsae. Caenorhabditis tropicalis. Caenorhabditis elegans. Caenorhabditis remanei (Caenorhabditis vulgaris). ... tr,Q18652,Q18652_CAEEL Uncharacterized protein OS=Caenorhabditis elegans GN=C46A5.1 PE=4 SV=1 ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q18652. A8XRK5. A0A1I7SXY4. E3M536. ...
Caenorhabditis elegans. Caenorhabditis tropicalis. Caenorhabditis latens. Caenorhabditis remanei (Caenorhabditis vulgaris). ... Caenorhabditis brenneri (Nematode worm). Caenorhabditis japonica. 287. UniRef50_Q17568. Cluster: Uncharacterized protein. 8. ... tr,Q17568,Q17568_CAEEL Uncharacterized protein OS=Caenorhabditis elegans GN=C01G5.5 PE=1 SV=1 ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Checkpoint Proteins Control Survival of the Postmitotic Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. By Anders Olsen, Maithili C. ... Checkpoint Proteins Control Survival of the Postmitotic Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. By Anders Olsen, Maithili C. ... Checkpoint Proteins Control Survival of the Postmitotic Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant ... P. B. L. Pun, J. Gruber, S. Y. Tang et al., "Ageing in nematodes: do antioxidants extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans?" ... P. Martorell, E. Bataller, S. Llopis et al., "A cocoa peptide protects Caenorhabditis elegans from oxidative stress and β- ... Q. Wang, F. Yang, W. Guo et al., "Caenorhabditis elegans in Chinese medicinal studies: making the case for aging and ...
Li, H., G. Kulkarni and W. G. Wadsworth, 2008 RPM-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans protein that functions in presynaptic ... A Ubiquitin E2 Variant Protein Acts in Axon Termination and Synaptogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Gloriana Trujillo, ... A Ubiquitin E2 Variant Protein Acts in Axon Termination and Synaptogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Gloriana Trujillo, ... A Ubiquitin E2 Variant Protein Acts in Axon Termination and Synaptogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Gloriana Trujillo, ...
1989 Posttranslational insertion of a membrane protein on Caenorhabditis elegans sperm occurs without de novo protein synthesis ... 1983 Identification of a large multigene family encoding the major sperm protein of Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Mol. Biol. 171: ... Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for example, are known to ... spe-12 Encodes a Sperm Cell Surface Protein That Promotes Spermiogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Jeremy Nance, Alicia N. ...
Protein. C18E9.6 (WormBase) UBL-5. Protein. F46F11.4 (WormBase) Unfolded Proteins. Protein. dnj-10. GeneProduct. F22B7.5 ( ... Mitochondrial Unfolded-Protein Response (Caenorhabditis elegans). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 20:23, 24 January 2014 by ... Protein. ZC376.7 (WormBase) CLPP-1. Protein. ZK970.2 (WormBase) ClpX-like Protease/ (D2030.2). Protein. D2030.2 (Ensembl) ClpX- ... Unfolded Proteins. Protein Fragments. GCN-2. ATFS-1. eIF2-alpha. (Y37E3.10). ClpX-like. Protease/. (K07A3.3). HSP-60. SPG-7. 9 ...
Protein. C18E9.6 (WormBase) UBL-5. Protein. F46F11.4 (WormBase) Unfolded Proteins. Protein. dnj-10. GeneProduct. F22B7.5 ( ... Mitochondrial Unfolded-Protein Response (Caenorhabditis elegans). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 22:21, 29 January 2014 by ... Protein. ZC376.7 (WormBase) CLPP-1. Protein. ZK970.2 (WormBase) ClpX-like Protease/ (D2030.2). Protein. D2030.2 (Ensembl) ClpX- ... Protein Fragments. ATFS-1 Fragments. CLPP-1. Unfolded Proteins. GCN-2. GSP-1. ClpX-like. Protease/. (D2030.2). HSP-6. Ethidium ...
Identification of functional residues on Caenorhabditis elegans actin-interacting protein 1 (UNC-78) for disassembly of actin ... Description: Actin interacting protein 1 protein , Length: 611 No structure alignment results are available for 1PEV.A ... Pre-calculated protein structure alignments at the RCSB PDB website. Bioinformatics 26: 2983-2985 ...
... isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBAnk AF150958 ... Caenorhabditis elegans MIG-13 protein: required for positioning of Q neuroblasts and their descendents along the ... Helminth Proteins: 1*Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: 4*Caenorhabditis elegans MIG-13 protein ... Caenorhabditis elegans MIG-13 protein. Subscribe to New Research on Caenorhabditis elegans MIG-13 protein ...
The lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor homolog DAF-2, ... Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans longevity protein DAF-16 by insulin/IGF-1 and germline signaling Nat Genet. 2001 Jun; ... The lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor homolog DAF-2, ... Lifespan in C. elegans can be extended by perturbing sensory neurons or germ cells. In both cases, lifespan extension requires ...
Mutations in a protein kinase C homolog confer phorbol ester resistance on Caenorhabditis elegans ... Mutations in a protein kinase C homolog confer phorbol ester resistance on Caenorhabditis elegans ... Mutations in a protein kinase C homolog confer phorbol ester resistance on Caenorhabditis elegans ... Mutations in a protein kinase C homolog confer phorbol ester resistance on Caenorhabditis elegans ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology (RPM)-1 is a member of a conserved family of proteins called Pam ... RAE-1, a Novel PHR Binding Protein, Is Required for Axon Termination and Synapse Formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Brock ... 2008) Cellular and molecular determinants targeting the Caenorhabditis elegans PHR protein RPM-1 to perisynaptic regions. Dev ... RAE-1, a Novel PHR Binding Protein, Is Required for Axon Termination and Synapse Formation in Caenorhabditis elegans ...
... of Glutamate Receptor Subunits in the Nervous System of Caenorhabditis elegans and Their Regulation by the Homeodomain Protein ... 1986) The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond [Biol] 314:1-340. ... 1993) A dual mechanosensory and chemosensory neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:2227-2231. ... In Caenorhabditis elegans, 10 putative ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits have been identified, a surprising number for an ...
A predicted membrane protein, TRA-2A, directs hermaphrodite development in Caenorhabditis elegans ... A predicted membrane protein, TRA-2A, directs hermaphrodite development in Caenorhabditis elegans ... A predicted membrane protein, TRA-2A, directs hermaphrodite development in Caenorhabditis elegans ... A predicted membrane protein, TRA-2A, directs hermaphrodite development in Caenorhabditis elegans ...
Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled, in part, by the insulin-like signaling and heat shock response pathways. ... Pattern Formation in the Longevity-Related Expression of Heat Shock Protein-16.2 in Caenorhabditis elegans. *J. M. Wentz ORCID ... Hua QX, Nakagawa SH, Wilken J, Ramos RR, Jia W, Bass J, Weiss MA (2003) A divergent INS protein in Caenorhabditis elegans ... Lin K, Hsin H, Libina N, Kenyon C (2001) Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans longevity protein DAF-16 by insulin/IGF-1 and ...
... elegans RPGs, providing a new insight regarding the regulation of these genes in C. elegans. In this study, we performed an in- ... depth examination of C. elegans RPG regulation and found nine highly conserved motifs in the upstream regions of C. elegans ... Even though their protein sequences are strongly conserved, their mechanism of regulation is not conserved across yeast, ... Our results indicate that C. elegans RPGs are regulated by a complex novel series of regulatory elements that is evolutionarily ...
DPY-30, a nuclear protein essential early in embryogenesis for Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation ... DPY-30, a nuclear protein essential early in embryogenesis for Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation ... DPY-30, a nuclear protein essential early in embryogenesis for Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation ... DPY-30, a nuclear protein essential early in embryogenesis for Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation ...
... PLoS Genet. 2014 Aug 28;10 ... Caenorhabditis elegans / growth & development* * Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / genetics* * Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins ... To understand how the oocyte reprogramming potential is controlled, we sought Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in which embryonic ... In contrast to other TRIM-NHL proteins, we found that LIN-41 is unlikely to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Similar to ...
... we monitored changes in protein folding by following protein... ... To study the relationship between protein homeostasis, stress ... Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System to Study Protein Homeostasis in a Multicellular Organism. Ido Karady1, Anna ... Prahlad, V., Morimoto, R. I. Neuronal circuitry regulates the response of Caenorhabditis elegans to misfolded proteins. Proc. ... we monitored changes in protein folding by following protein dysfunction, protein localization in the cell and protein ...
Protein kinase VRK-1 regulates cell invasion and EGL-17/FGF signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. ... In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, VRK-1 is required for proper nuclear envelope formation. In this work, we present the ... Caenorhabditis elegans. Cell invasion. Cell polarity. Cell signaling. FGF. Uterus. Vaccinia-related kinase. vrk-1. Vulva. ... Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-like protein EGL-17 and its receptor EGL-15 is reduced in vrk-1 mutants, suggesting ...
Normal locomotion of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans requires transmission of contractile force through a series of ... 0/Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0/Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0/Helminth Proteins; 0/Lipoprotein(a); 0/MUA-3 protein, C elegans ... Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics, metabolism*. Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins*. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Adhesion ... MUP-4 is a novel transmembrane protein with functions in epithelial cell adhesion in Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Cell Biol. 154: ...
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have ... The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation Rogala, Kacper B ; ... In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have ... Home , The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation ...
SMG-2 Is a Phosphorylated Protein Required for mRNA Surveillance in Caenorhabditis elegans and Related to Upf1p of Yeast. ... SMG-2 Is a Phosphorylated Protein Required for mRNA Surveillance in Caenorhabditis elegans and Related to Upf1p of Yeast ... SMG-2 Is a Phosphorylated Protein Required for mRNA Surveillance in Caenorhabditis elegans and Related to Upf1p of Yeast ... SMG-2 Is a Phosphorylated Protein Required for mRNA Surveillance in Caenorhabditis elegans and Related to Upf1p of Yeast ...
1999) SMG-2 is a phosphorylated protein required for mRNA surveillance in Caenorhabditis elegans and related to Upf1p of yeast. ... and HA-tagged proteins, respectively (Fig. 5A and B). Western blot analysis of total protein demonstrated that each protein was ... Comparison of Upf3-X and hUpf3 proteins from H. sapiens, C. elegans, S. pombe, and S. cerevisiae. (A) Amino acid alignment of ... Here, we describe human orthologues to S. cerevisiae Upf2p and S. cerevisiae Upf3p (Caenorhabditis elegans SMG-4) based on ...
A Compendium of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA Binding Proteins Predicts Extensive Regulation at Multiple Levels. Alex M. Tamburino ... A Compendium of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA Binding Proteins Predicts Extensive Regulation at Multiple Levels. Alex M. Tamburino ... A Compendium of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA Binding Proteins Predicts Extensive Regulation at Multiple Levels. Alex M. Tamburino ... A Compendium of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA Binding Proteins Predicts Extensive Regulation at Multiple Levels ...
  • Huntington's disease, the most frequent of these autosomal dominant diseases, is characterized by insoluble granular and fibrous deposits of huntingtin protein in neurons ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Previous findings that the heat shock response in Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by thermosensory neurons led us to consider whether neuronal activity could also be responsible for the inadequate response of an organism to chronic protein misfolding. (pnas.org)
  • Whereas polyglutamine expansion-expressing animals with WT thermosensory neurons readily express protein aggregates, leading to cellular dysfunction without concomitant up-regulation of molecular chaperones, modulation of the nervous system results in chaperone up-regulation that suppresses aggregation and toxicity. (pnas.org)
  • Cell-nonautonomous control of chaperone expression by the thermosensory neurons allows C. elegans to respond differently to acute stress such as heat shock, and chronic stress caused by the expression of misfolded proteins, suggesting that neuronal signaling determines the course of cellular proteotoxicity. (pnas.org)
  • Previous studies in the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans have shown that the HSR is regulated by the AFD thermosensory neurons and AIY interneurons ( 29 ). (pnas.org)
  • Salidroside protects Caenorhabditis elegans neurons from polyglutamine-mediated toxicity by reducing oxidative stress," Molecules , vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 7757-7769, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Lifespan in C. elegans can be extended by perturbing sensory neurons or germ cells. (nih.gov)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , 10 putative ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits have been identified, a surprising number for an organism with only 302 neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • We also show that expression of these subunits in this circuit is differentially regulated by the homeodomain protein UNC-42 and that UNC-42 is also required for axonal pathfinding of neurons in the circuit. (jneurosci.org)
  • To address questions of receptor complexity, composition, and organization at the level of individual neurons, we have examined the expression and regulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the nervous system of C. elegans . (jneurosci.org)
  • Singhal, A. & Shaham, S. Infrared laser-induced gene expression for tracking development and function of single C. elegans embryonic neurons. (nature.com)
  • NeuN (Fox-3, Rbfox3, or Hexaribonucleotide Binding Protein-3), a protein which is a homologue to the protein product of a sex-determining gene in Caenorhabditis elegans, is a neuronal nuclear antigen that is commonly used as a biomarker for neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most neurons in C. elegans express at least one neuropeptide gene and in the majority of neurons, neuropeptides are co-localized with classical small molecule transmitters, such as acetylcholine, GABA, serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • New research at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate Universit used microscopy techniques to piece together the brain of the millimeter-long Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing that their neurons fire action potentials - a spike in voltage due to neurons sending sensory information in the cell membrane. (news-medical.net)
  • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology The University of British Columbia 2146 Health Sciences Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z3 Date: May 15,2002 ABSTRACT A major route for protein degradation occurs via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (ubc.ca)
  • abstract = "Calcineurin (Cn) is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that has diverse functions in different cell types and organisms. (elsevier.com)
  • The lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor homolog DAF-2, which signals through a conserved phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/Akt pathway. (nih.gov)
  • DPY-30 is required for the sex-specific association of DPY-27 (a chromosome condensation protein homolog) with the hermaphrodite X chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Here we used genome-wide expression profiling to assess novel functions of the Caenorhabditis elegans HP1 homolog HPL-2 at specific developmental stages. (beds.ac.uk)
  • UBC-2, an essential E2 in the nematode C. elegans, is a functional homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae UBC4, a member of a branch of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes required for the degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. (ubc.ca)
  • We show that RNT-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans RUNX homolog, is constantly produced and degraded by the ubiquitination-proteasome pathway in the intestine of the nematode. (elsevier.com)
  • We screened proteins interacting with the C. elegans CnA homolog, TAX-6, by the yeast two-hybrid system. (elsevier.com)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Tubulin polymerization-promoting protein homolog (tppp-1), mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • Cooperative regulation of AJM-1 controls junctional integrity in Caenorhabditis elegans epithelia. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the evidence that protein misfolding triggers HSF-1 ( 9 , 10 ), the up-regulation of chaperones and activation of HSF-1 is infrequently observed in animal models of protein aggregation and tissues from affected humans ( 11 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Even though their protein sequences are strongly conserved, their mechanism of regulation is not conserved across yeast, Drosophila , and vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A recent investigation of genomic sequences conserved across both nematode species and associated with different gene groups indicated the existence of several elements in the upstream regions of C. elegans RPGs, providing a new insight regarding the regulation of these genes in C. elegans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we performed an in-depth examination of C. elegans RPG regulation and found nine highly conserved motifs in the upstream regions of C. elegans RPGs using the motif discovery algorithm DME. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similar to other TRIM-NHL proteins, the somatic function of LIN-41 is thought to involve mRNA regulation. (nih.gov)
  • The C. elegans RasGAPs have thus undergone partial specialization after gene duplication to allow the differential regulation of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway in different cell types. (uzh.ch)
  • Identification of cis-regulatory elements from the C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 required for embryonic expression and for regulation by the transcription factors LIN-1, LIN-31 and LIN-39. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although systems-level functions of transcription factors and microRNAs are rapidly being characterized, few studies have focused on the posttranscriptional gene regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs). (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, we find that RBPs, and most notably gene-specific RBPs, are themselves enriched for binding and modification by regulatory proteins, indicating the potential for extensive regulation of RBPs at many different levels. (umassmed.edu)
  • Regulation of anchor cell invasion and uterine cell fates by the egl-43 Evi-1 proto-oncogene in Caenorhabditis elegans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Regulation by miRNAs often results in down-regulation of target mRNA and protein expression by mechanisms that are yet to be fully elucidated. (core.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, regulation of lin-14 at the mRNA and protein levels can be uncoupled by changes in culture conditions, indicating that miRNA function can be modulated by environment in multicellular organisms. (core.ac.uk)
  • In addition to being targeted by miRNAs, these mRNAs are also extensively regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) through RNA processing, transport, stability, and translation regulation. (prelekara.sk)
  • Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family proteins have a well-characterized role in heterochromatin packaging and gene regulation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • NeuN/Fox-3 and the other Fox proteins function in the regulation of mRNA splicing and bind specific RNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alternate name for Fox-3 is hexaribonucleotide binding protein 3 since Fox-3, like Fox-2 and Fox-1, bind the hexaribonucleotide UGCAUG, this binding being involved in the regulation of mRNA splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcriptional regulation of C. elegans myosin genes is in many respects similar to that of vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Sydney Brenner promoted Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, and subsequent investigations pursued resistance to the nicotinic anthelmintic drug levamisole in C. elegans at a genetic level. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Deletion of the single FIT protein in Caenorhabditis elegans is lethal, suggesting that LD budding is an essential process in this organism. (rupress.org)
  • We explored Caenorhabditis elegans as a test organism after finding that V. cholerae can cause lethal infection of this nematode. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our results demonstrate a key role for PrtV in V. cholerae interaction with grazing predators, and we establish Caenorhabditis elegans as a convenient organism for identification of V. cholerae factors involved in host interactions and environmental persistence. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have identified the spe-12 gene, which encodes a novel protein containing a single transmembrane domain. (genetics.org)
  • We demonstrate that dpy-30 encodes a novel nuclear protein of 123 amino acids that is present in both hermaphrodites and males (XO) throughout development. (biologists.org)
  • mua-3, a gene required for mechanical tissue integrity in Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes a novel transmembrane protein of epithelial attachment complexes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans lev-8 gene encodes a novel type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis of the genomes of both Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans has revealed large families of genes that encode potential ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits ( Littleton and Ganetzky, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Four motifs were partially similar to transcription factor binding sites from C. elegans , Drosophila , yeast, and human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster saw large-scale, systematic loss of function (LOF) screens performed through saturation mutagenesis, demonstrating the potential of this approach to characterise genetic pathways and identify genes with unique and essential functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dwarfin family also includes the Drosophila protein MAD that is required for the function of decapentaplegic (DPP) and may play a role in DPP signalling. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This signaling cascade further regulates the activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), CEBP-1 , via a mechanism involving 3′-UTR-mediated mRNA decay. (genetics.org)
  • spe-12 mRNA is expressed in the sperm-producing germ line and the protein localizes to the spermatid cell surface. (genetics.org)
  • Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), also called mRNA surveillance, is an important pathway used by all organisms that have been tested to degrade mRNAs that prematurely terminate translation and, as a consequence, eliminate the production of aberrant proteins that could be potentially harmful. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, human orthologues to S. cerevisiae Upf3p ( C. elegans SMG-4) derive from two genes, one of which is X-linked and both of which generate multiple isoforms due to alternative pre-mRNA splicing. (asm.org)
  • In order to cope with the generation of PTCs and their potential to result in deleterious proteins that function in new or dominant-negative ways, mammalian cells have evolved a pathway called nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) or mRNA surveillance (reviewed in references 20 , 28 , 30 , 31 , and 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription and translation, as well as mRNA and protein stability. (umassmed.edu)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans, the lin-4 miRNA recognizes multiple sites in the lin-14 3′UTR and directs mRNA degradation and translational repression, but it is unclear how these processes are coupled. (core.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that nutrient deprivation results in loss of lin-14 mRNA, but not protein, repression. (core.ac.uk)
  • Proteomic and functional analysis of Argonaute-containing mRNA-protein complexes in human cells. (prelekara.sk)
  • The 5′ end of the C. elegans C subunit mRNA is produced by the trans-splicing of the C gene transcript to a 22-base pair C. elegans leader sequence originally described by Krause, M., and Hirsh, D. ((1987) Cell 49, 753-761). (elsevier.com)
  • The sizes of the C. elegans C subunit gene, cytoplasmic mRNA (2.5 kb), and subunit protein are similar to the sizes of the murine Ca gene, mRNA, and polypeptide. (elsevier.com)
  • This compound could increase the mRNA level of stress response gene gst-4 , and the mRNA and protein expression level of heat shock protein hsp-16.2 under heat stress. (mdpi.com)
  • The PHR proteins act as E3 ubiquitin ligases for the dual-leucine-zipper-bearing MAP kinase kinase kinase (DLK MAPKKK) to regulate the signal transduction cascade. (genetics.org)
  • Upon binding of receptors to exposed subendothelial ligands, signal transducers (including G-proteins, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C) collaborate to activate the cells. (genetics.org)
  • Protective coupling of mitochondrial function and protein synthesis via the eIF2α kinase GCN-2. (wikipathways.org)
  • Hirose T, Nakano Y, Nagamatsu Y, Misumi T, Ohta H, Ohshima Y (2003) Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 controls body size and lifespan in C. elegans . (springer.com)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans Kin1 protein kinase homologue, identified through a Caenorhabditis elegans screen, promotes virulence in mammals. (duke.edu)
  • Genetic analysis of one strain revealed an insertion in a gene homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae KIN1, which encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase. (duke.edu)
  • These findings show that the C. neoformans Kin1 kinase homologue is required for full virulence in disparate hosts and that C. elegans can be used as a substitute host to identify novel factors involved in fungal pathogenesis in mammals. (duke.edu)
  • AAK-2 is one of two α isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans and is involved in life span maintenance, stress responses, and germ cell cycle arrest upon dauer entry. (elsevier.com)
  • cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates numerous cellular processes in eukaryotes in response to extracellular and intracellular signals, via a flexible post-translational modification system. (yu.edu)
  • Human CED-6 encodes a functional homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans engulfment protein CED-6. (uzh.ch)
  • Overexpression of hCED-6 rescues the engulfment defect of ced-6 mutants in C. elegans significantly, suggesting that hCED-6 is a functional homologue of C. elegans CED-6. (uzh.ch)
  • used proteomic methods to show that NeuN corresponds to a protein known as Fox-3, also known as Rbfox3, a mammalian homologue of Fox-1, a protein originally identified from genetic studies of the nematode worm C. elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that AAK-2 was phosphorylated at threonine 243 in response to paraquat treatment and that this phosphorylation depends on PAR-4, the C. elegans LKB1 homologue. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we show that in C. elegans, endocytic recycling is inhibited by NUM-1A, the nematode Numb homologue. (diva-portal.org)
  • The PTB2 domain of these proteins binds to the cytosolic domains of the Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein APP and related proteins APLP1 and APLP2, generating a highly redundant system that is hard to dissect by reverse genetics. (biologists.org)
  • By reverse genetics we identified an extracellular protease, the previously uncharacterized PrtV protein, as being necessary for killing. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thermosensory Neuronal Mutants Suppress Aggregation of Polyglutamine Expansion Proteins Expressed in Intestinal Cells of C. elegans . (pnas.org)
  • To understand how the oocyte reprogramming potential is controlled, we sought Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in which embryonic transcription is initiated precociously in germ cells. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-like protein EGL-17 and its receptor EGL-15 is reduced in vrk-1 mutants, suggesting that VRK-1 might act at least partially through activation of FGF signaling. (csic.es)
  • Despite similarities in the sequences of SMG-2 and Upf1p, expression of Upf1p in C. elegans does not rescue smg-2 mutants. (asm.org)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans sqv mutants are defective in vulval epithelial invagination and have a severe reduction in hermaphrodite fertility. (elsevier.com)
  • To date, human (h) Upf1 protein (p) (hUpf1p), a group 1 RNA helicase named after its Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologue that functions in both translation termination and NMD, has been the only factor shown to be required for NMD in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
  • Many organisms including Bacillus subtilis, Synechocystis sp, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans possess multiple SulP family paralogues. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • HSF-1 regulates the inducible expression of HS proteins (HSPs), many of which are molecular chaperones that protect the proteome by enhancing folding, suppressing misfolding, and targeting damaged proteins for degradation ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we examine whether neuronal activity also regulates the cellular response to chronic expression of misfolded proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Ubiquitin-like protein 5 positively regulates chaperone gene expression in the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. (wikipathways.org)
  • Previous studies in Caenorhabditis elegans showed that RPM-1 (Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology-1) regulates axon termination and synapse formation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Endocytic protein intersectin-l regulates actin assembly via Cdc42 and N-WASP. (springer.com)
  • Through a comprehensive functional study of the LSm family members, we found that lsm-1 and lsm-3 are not essential for C. elegans viability, but their perturbation, by RNAi or mutations, produces defects in development, reproduction, and motility. (pasteur.fr)
  • An RNAi-based screen of putative ALG-1 Argonaute interactors has identified a role for a conserved RNA binding protein, HRPK-1, in modulating miRNA activity during C . elegans development. (prelekara.sk)
  • 10. Parry DH, Xu J, Ruvkun G. A Whole-Genome RNAi Screen for C. elegans miRNA Pathway Genes. (prelekara.sk)
  • By the year 2000, RNA interference (RNAi) technology had emerged as a fast, simple, and inexpensive technique for targeted gene knockdown, and was routinely being used to study in vivo gene function in C. elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998), almost all of the ~19,000 genes in C. elegans had been analysed using RNAi-based knockdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of genome-wide knockout screens, recent studies have demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 screens are able to achieve highly efficient and complete protein depletion, and overcome the off-target issues seen with RNAi screens. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) was employed in an attempt to determine the biological function of UBC-2 interacting proteins in vivo. (ubc.ca)
  • RNAi with mca-1 produced a subtle body shortening phenotype, although genes encoding UBC-2 interacting proteins appear to be non-essential. (ubc.ca)
  • Inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase in C. elegans using statins or RNAi leads to developmental arrest and loss of membrane association of a GFP-based prenylation reporter. (gu.se)
  • In C. elegans, RNAi phenotypes can be induced by injecting worms with dsRNA23,24, by soaking them in solutions containing dsRNA10,26, or even by feeding them bacteria that express dsRNA27-29. (biology-online.org)
  • RNAi is now a routine method to inactivate genes in C. elegans. (biology-online.org)
  • Different isoforms of the C. elegans FGF receptor are required for attraction and repulsion of the migrating sex myoblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence analysis of the predicted proteins identified two NMDA and eight non-NMDA receptor subunits. (jneurosci.org)
  • Finally, we present highly penetrant defects from NAA-mediated degradation of the FTZ-F1 nuclear hormone receptor, NHR-25 , during C. elegans uterine-vulval development. (g3journal.org)
  • C. elegans Vulva Induction: An In Vivo Model to Study Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling and Trafficking. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Additional studies reveal that 5-HIAA functions to inhibit egg laying in a manner dependent on the 5-HT receptor SER-1 and the G protein GOA-1. (iupui.edu)
  • We screened all LRR-containing transmembrane receptors in C. elegans and identified the G protein-coupled receptor FSHR-1 as an important component of the C. elegans immune response to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. (meta.org)
  • Activation of a G protein-coupled receptor by its endogenous ligand triggers the innate immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans. (labex-inform.com)
  • Activation of single nicotinic receptor channels from Caenorhabditis elegans muscle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification and characterization of novel nicotinic receptor-associated proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology (RPM)-1 is a member of a conserved family of proteins called Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR) proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • For a review of the Fox family of proteins see this reference. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of proteins was first identified in Caenorhabditis elegans. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We found that a conserved family of proteins, fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT) proteins, is required for proper budding of LDs from the ER. (rupress.org)
  • Belle A, Tanay A, Bitincka L, Shamir R, O'Shea EK (2006) Quantification of protein half-lives in the budding yeast proteome. (springer.com)
  • In order to identify proteins that interact with UBC-2, a yeast two-hybrid analysis was employed. (ubc.ca)
  • Putative TJBC-2 interacting proteins identified include: a ubiquitin-like budding yeast DSK2 ortholog referred to as DSK-2, two RING finger proteins, a protein containing a FYVE domain, a calcium ATPase called MCA-1, and ubiquitin. (ubc.ca)
  • By yeast two-hybrid screening, we found three novel interactors (UNC-95, LIM-8, and LIM-9) for UNC-97/PINCH in Caenorhabditis elegans. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • All interactions identified by yeast two-hybrid assays were confirmed by in vitro binding assays using purified proteins. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Elimination or reduction of FIT proteins in yeast and higher eukaryotes causes LDs to remain in the ER membrane. (rupress.org)
  • The expression of polyglutamine repeats as green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins in body wall muscle cells causes discrete cytoplasmic aggregates that appear early in embryogenesis and correlates with a delay in larval to adult development. (pnas.org)
  • mua-3 encodes a predicted 3,767 amino acid protein with a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane helix, and a smaller cytoplasmic domain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The finding that hUpf3p-X is a shuttling protein provides additional indication that NMD has both nuclear and cytoplasmic components. (asm.org)
  • We further investigated the function of lsm-1, which encodes the distinctive protein of the cytoplasmic complex. (pasteur.fr)
  • We also observed that under stress, cytoplasmic LSm proteins aggregate into granules in an LSM-1-dependent manner. (pasteur.fr)
  • Interestingly the protein coded by exon 15 adds a C-terminal PY type nuclear localization sequence, which presumably explains why NeuN/Fox-3 protein can be both nuclear and, in some cell types, also cytoplasmic. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins contain 12 transmembrane helices followed by a cytoplasmic STAS domain at the C terminus. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are essential, tightly regulated, and highly expressed during embryonic development and cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ii) CeTOCA proteins localize to cell-cell junctions and are required for proper embryonic morphogenesis, to position hypodermal cells and to organize junctional actin and the junction-associated protein AJM-1. (unimi.it)
  • In this study, we therefore employed space flown C. elegans to confirm and extend the findings made with cultured embryonic avian muscle cells. (biologists.org)
  • Dissection of genetic pathways in C. elegans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To further elucidate the role of GRKs in regulating GPCR-mediated behaviors, we utilized the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans Our studies demonstrate that grk-2 loss-of-function strains are egg laying-defective and contain low levels of serotonin (5-HT) and high levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). (iupui.edu)
  • A genetic approach and the hermaphrodite/male reproductive biology of C. elegans facilitated the identification of a number of genes required for sperm-oocyte interactions at fertilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, we report the genetic and molecular characterizations of hrpk-1 and its role in C . elegans development and miRNA-mediated target repression. (prelekara.sk)
  • By combining genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular biochemical experiments in mammalian cells, we showed that: i) loss of CeTOCA proteins reduced the efficiency of Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in oocytes. (unimi.it)
  • Genetic interference with CeTOCAs interacting proteins WSP-1 and WVE-1, and other components of the WVE-1 complex, produced a similar effect. (unimi.it)
  • The nematode C. elegans provides many advantages for a molecular genetic approach to signal transduction. (yu.edu)
  • Banse SA, Hunter CP (2012) Vampiric isolation of extracellular fluid from Caenorhabditis elegans . (springer.com)
  • The extracellular domain contains four distinct protein modules: 5 low density lipoprotein type A, 52 epidermal growth factor, 1 von Willebrand factor A, and 2 sea urchin-enterokinase-agrin modules. (biomedsearch.com)
  • SPE-9 is a transmembrane protein with a predicted extracellular domain that contains ten epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like motifs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium-dependent serine proteinase (CASP) which degrades the extracellular matrix proteins type I and IV collagen and fibronectin (1 copy). (yale.edu)
  • This protein network resembles a specialized cytoskeleton-like apparatus, which may represent the precursor to mammalian cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix-like complexes Other Mycoplasma species lack distinct tip structures yet are capable of cytadherence, and they may use related genes or proteins or alternative mechanisms of surface parasitism. (biology-online.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that AMX-2 is the primary monoamine oxidase that metabolizes 5-HT in C. elegans, and we also found that grk-2 loss-of-function strains have abnormally high levels of AMX-2 compared with wild-type nematodes. (iupui.edu)
  • Escherichia coli hypothetical protein ychM. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical protein F41D9.5. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • M04C3.3 partially confirmed by cDNA(s) contains similarity to Borrelia burgdorferi Conserved hypothetical protein. (biology-online.org)
  • To better understand additional signaling pathways that mediate RPM-1's function, we purified RPM-1 and used mass spectrometry to identify RPM-1 binding proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled, in part, by the insulin-like signaling and heat shock response pathways. (springer.com)
  • The matrix peptide exporter HAF-1 signals a mitochondrial UPR by activating the transcription factor ZC376.7 in C. elegans. (wikipathways.org)
  • The vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and phosphorylate several chromatin proteins and transcription factors. (csic.es)
  • Identification of these cofactors is important for understanding how BTB-zinc finger proteins influence transcription. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RUNX proteins are evolutionarily conserved transcription factors known to be involved in various developmental processes. (elsevier.com)
  • In this report we demonstrate that muscles of C. elegans that developed in space, during the European Space Agency (ESA) DELTA mission, display decreased expression of the transcription factors controlling both body wall and pharyngeal muscle myogenesis as well as decreased expression of muscle-specific MHCs. (biologists.org)
  • The failure of activating the transcription factor DAF-16 might explain why this compound could not act as aspirin to extend the lifespan of C. elegans . (mdpi.com)
  • A novel molecular strategy to block transcription factor activity using small molecule interference of multiple protein-protein interactions is reported. (elifesciences.org)
  • Molecular and functional analysis of apical junction formation in the gut epithelium of Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
  • M. Memarpoor-Yazdi, H. Mahaki, and H. Zare-Zardini, "Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates and purified peptides from Zizyphus jujuba fruits," Journal of Functional Foods , vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 62-70, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have functional equivalents across eukaryotic evolution. (epfl.ch)
  • Chromatin accessibility dynamics reveal novel functional enhancers in C. elegans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fertilization in Caenorhabditis elegans requires functional SPE-9 protein in sperm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both a functional heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex and a homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting-tethering complex are required for VPS41 to elicit neuroprotection in a model of Parkinson's disease. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • We also show that during mitosis, UNC-84 remains at the nuclear periphery until late anaphase, similar to known inner nuclear membrane proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • dynein recruitment to the cell cortex by a heterotrimeric G-protein α subunit in complex with a TPR-GoLoco motif protein (GPR-1/2, Pins, LGN) and coiled-coil protein (LIN-5, Mud, NuMA). (uu.nl)
  • We demonstrate using immunoprecipitations of epitope-tagged proteins transiently produced in HeLa cells that hUpf2p interacts with hUpf1p, hUpf3p-X, and hUpf3p, and we define the domains required for the interactions. (asm.org)
  • GPCR signaling is mediated by agonist-promoted interactions of GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins, GPCR kinases (GRKs), and arrestins. (iupui.edu)
  • After getting my Master's degree at Imperial College London, I moved "oop north", to Durham University for my PhD. I used the C. elegans: E. coli (host/microbe) model to look at interactions between host and gut bacteria - focussing on how particular metabolites might influence health and ageing. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • UEV-3 can bind PMK-3 in heterologous protein interaction assays. (genetics.org)
  • We define a RAE-1 binding region in RPM-1, and show that this binding interaction is conserved and also occurs between Rae1 and the human ortholog of RPM-1 called Pam (protein associated with Myc). (jneurosci.org)
  • We have mapped the interaction of C. elegans (Ce)RAE-1 to a conserved RAE-1 binding motif in RPM-1, and shown that the human ortholog of RPM-1 [called Protein Associated with Myc (Pam) or Myc-Binding Protein (MYCBP)-2] interacts with rat Rae1 in a similar manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • The non-redundant system of the nematode will prove useful for studying the basic biology of the Fe65-APP interaction and the molecular events regulated by this evolutionarily conserved system of interacting proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Since DSK-2 represented 60% of the putative interactors isolated from the screen, this project focused on the interaction of UBC-2 and DSK-2, and demonstrated a novel interaction between an E2 and an ubiquitin-domain protein (UDP) in vitro. (ubc.ca)
  • The PrtV protein appears to have an indirect role in the interaction of V. cholerae with mammalian host cells as judged from tests with tight monolayers of human intestinal epithelial cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Phosphorylation of substrate proteins leads to control of enzyme activity and/or gene expression. (yu.edu)
  • Vertebrate Tob proteins have antiproliferative activity and ERK phosphorylation of Tob proteins has been proposed to abrogate "antiproliferative" activity. (ecu.edu)
  • In eukaryotes, these processes are often associated with characteristic epigenetic changes brought about by the activity of chromatin-associated proteins and enzymes that influence the transition between chromatin states, thereby influencing transcriptional activity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Structure of a SLC26 anion transporter STAS domain in complex with acyl carrier protein: implications for E. coli YchM in fatty acid metabolism. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both aak-2 mutation and par-4 knockdown increased the sensitivity of C. elegans worms to paraquat, and the double deficiency did not further increase sensitivity, indicating that aak-2 and par-4 act in a linear pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Fitness trade-offs and environmentally induced mutation buffering in isogenic C. elegans. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Novel kelch-like protein, KLEIP, is involved in actin assembly at cell-cell contact sites of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The TOCA family of F-BAR-containing proteins bind to and remodel lipid bilayers via their conserved F-BAR domains, and regulate actin dynamics via their N-Wasp binding SH3 domains. (unimi.it)
  • Thus, these proteins are predicted to play a pivotal role in coordinating membrane traffic with actin dynamics during cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. (unimi.it)
  • Coordinated actions of actin and BAR proteins upstream of dynamin at endocytic clathrin-coated pits. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a predicted membrane protein, named TRA-2A, which has been proposed to provide the primary feminising activity of the tra-2 locus. (biologists.org)
  • This screen identified LIN-41, a TRIM-NHL protein and a component of the somatic heterochronic pathway, as a temporal regulator of pluripotency in the germline. (nih.gov)
  • All metazoan genomes encode multiple RAS GTPase activating proteins (RasGAPs) that negatively regulate the conserved RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. (uzh.ch)
  • Our previous analysis of the engulfment gene ced-6 in Caenorhabditis elegans has suggested that CED-6 is an adaptor protein that participates in a signal transduction pathway that mediates the specific recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells [1]. (uzh.ch)
  • Thus, CED-6, and the CED-6 signal transduction pathway, might be conserved from C. elegans to humans and are present in most, if not all, human tissues. (uzh.ch)
  • Using Caenorhabditis elegans , we characterize a novel apical secretion pathway involving multivesicularbodies and the release of exosomes at the apical plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • A major route for protein degradation occurs via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (ubc.ca)
  • They act by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway that leads to the synthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a precursor for cholesterol synthesis and the source of lipid moieties for protein prenylation. (gu.se)
  • To combat the deleterious effects of accumulated protein damage, all cells possess robust quality-control systems, specifically molecular chaperones and clearance machineries, that sense and respond to protein misfolding. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show, in animals expressing polyglutamine expansion proteins and mutant SOD-1 G93A in intestinal or muscle cells, that the nervous system does indeed control the cellular response to misfolded proteins. (pnas.org)
  • The inability to maintain protein quality control has detrimental effects on cell physiology and function, and is the basis of diseases of protein conformation, including Huntington disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and type II diabetes, in which cells accumulate misfolded and aggregated proteins ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • To inhibit aggregation and toxicity, cells and organisms have evolved multiple stress responsive networks that detect and respond to the accumulation of damaged proteins ( 3 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Work in cultured mammalian cells and Caenorhabditis elegans has yielded clues to the mechanisms linking perturbations in the protein-folding environment in the mitochondrial matrix to the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. (wikipathways.org)
  • Following thermal stress, expression levels of small heat shock protein-16.2 show a spatial patterning across the 20 intestinal cells that reside along the length of the worm. (springer.com)
  • We propose that the patterned expression of heat shock protein is caused by a diffusion-driven instability within the pseudocoelom, or fluid-filled cavity, that borders the intestinal cells in C. elegans . (springer.com)
  • Ribosomes are essential components of all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and the sequences of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are conserved across all eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because ribosomes are necessary for the expression of all protein-coding genes, they are highly expressed in replicating cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GFP fusion protein in the ventral nerve cord and vulva precursor cells restores vulva and uterus formation, suggesting both cell autonomous and non-autonomous roles of VRK-1. (csic.es)
  • We take advantage of the photostability of NAA to demonstrate via quantitative high-resolution microscopy that rapid degradation of target proteins can be detected in single cells within 30 min of exposure. (g3journal.org)
  • UNC-84 protein is first detected at the 26-cell stage and thereafter is present in most cells during development and in adults. (elsevier.com)
  • This protein was first detected in 4-6 cells of the clonal E lineage of 100-cell embryos. (utmb.edu)
  • FOG-3, the single Caenorhabditis elegans Tob/BTG protein, directs germ cells to adopt the sperm fate at the expense of oogenesis. (ecu.edu)
  • Princeton University researchers have discovered that learned behaviors can be inherited for multiple generations in C. elegans, transmitted from parent to progeny via eggs and sperm cells. (news-medical.net)
  • GFP fusion protein is localized to the baso-lateral surfaces of many polarized epithelial cells including the hypodermis and the intestine. (diva-portal.org)
  • We show that increased NUM-1A levels cause morphological defects in these cells similar to those caused by loss-of-function mutations in rme-1, a positive regulator of recycling both in C. elegans and mammals. (diva-portal.org)
  • Note: Depending on protein expression and specificity of antibody, this protocol can also be used to immunoprecipitate endogenous proteins. (bio-protocol.org)
  • We show that endogenous UNC-84 protein colocalizes with Ce-lamin at the nuclear envelope and that the envelope localization of UNC-84 requires Ce-lamin. (elsevier.com)
  • Our previous studies showed that UNC-98, a C2H2 Zn finger protein, acts as a linkage between UNC-97, an integrin-associated protein, and MHC A in myosin thick filaments. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • S. Abbas and M. Wink, "Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) increases lifespan and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans ," Planta Medica , vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 216-221, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • A deuterohemin peptide extends lifespan and increases stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans ," Free Radical Research , vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 813-820, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • One of the compounds, 5-(bis(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)amino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid, moderately increased the survival of C. elegans under heat stress, but could not extend the lifespan under optimum conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Voutev and Hubbard 2008 ) in Caenorhabditis elegans allow tissue-specific study of gene products, but the persistence of the protein of interest following RNA depletion or DNA recombination can delay manifestation of an otherwise acute phenotype. (g3journal.org)
  • Fox is, in fact, an acronym of "Feminizing locus on X". The mammalian genome contains three genes homologous to C. elegans Fox-1, called Fox-1, Fox-2 and Fox-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • RRM domains are one of the most common in the human genome and are found in numerous proteins which bind RNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-Omics and Genome-Scale Modeling Reveal a Metabolic Shift During C. Elegans Ageing. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • By cDNA library screening, bioinformatic searches, and genome/transcriptome data mining for proteins with Arg-Phe-Gly sequences flanked by N- and C-terminal tri-, di-, or mono-basic residues, we and others identified 31 genes encoding FLPs in C. elegans ( 10 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology. (genscript.com)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • See 13 reference sequence protein isoforms for the ajm-1 gene. (nih.gov)
  • See 16 reference sequence protein isoforms for the egl-15 gene. (nih.gov)
  • The efficiency of protein folding can be affected by several factors, including primary sequence mutations or alterations in the cellular environment. (pnas.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Names and taxonomy' section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we describe our isolation and characterization of a human cDNA encoding a protein, hCED-6, with strong sequence similarity to C. elegans CED-6. (uzh.ch)
  • A sequence of about thirty to forty amino-acid residues long found in the sequence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown [1 to 6] to be present, in a more or less conserved form, in a large number of other, mostly animal proteins. (yale.edu)
  • These sequences represent the protein coding region of the tppp-1 cDNA ORF which is encoded by the open reading frame (ORF) sequence. (genscript.com)
  • GenScript guarantees 100% sequence accuracy of all synthetic DNA constructs we deliver, but we do not guarantee protein expression in your experimental system. (genscript.com)
  • Here, we report that dismantling and clearance of a morphologically complex Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial cell requires separate cell soma, proximal and distal process programmes. (nature.com)
  • CNP-3 (Calcineurin interacting protein-3) is a novel protein that physically interacts with the catalytic domain of TAX-6. (elsevier.com)
  • Cables, a novel protein, interacts with Cdk5 in brain lysates. (mit.edu)
  • FSHR-1 acts in the C. elegans intestine, the primary site of exposure to ingested pathogens. (meta.org)
  • We propose that rnt-1 is regulated at the protein level for its role in the immediate response to environmental challenges in the intestine. (elsevier.com)
  • Epstein, Henry F. / Bifunctional glyoxylate cycle protein of Caenorhabditis elegans : A developmentally regulated protein of intestine and muscle . (utmb.edu)
  • The killing effect is associated with the colonization of bacteria within the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine. (diva-portal.org)
  • Small protein tags such as ubiquitin have also been shown to control the activation of kinases. (genetics.org)
  • The identity of γ-secretase with presenilins, or with protein complexes involving presenilins, has been recently suggested ( Wolfe and Haass, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-84 gene cause defects in nuclear migration and anchoring. (elsevier.com)
  • These mutations allowed us to establish that the V0 sector mediates secretion of Hedgehog-related proteins. (rupress.org)
  • To understand the mechanism of how rpm-1 functions, we have used mass spectrometry to identify RPM-1 binding proteins, and have identified RAE-1 (RNA Export protein-1) as an evolutionarily conserved binding partner. (jneurosci.org)
  • W. Chen, L. Rezaizadehnajafi, and M. Wink, "Influence of resveratrol on oxidative stress resistance and life span in Caenorhabditis elegans ," Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 682-688, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • The Fox proteins are all about 46kDa in size, and each includes a central, highly conserved ~70 amino acid RRM or RNA recognition motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The altered homeostasis associated with polyglutamine aggregates causes both the sequestration of an otherwise soluble protein with shorter arrays of glutamine repeats and the relocalization of a nuclear glutamine-rich protein. (pnas.org)
  • The elevated levels of heat shock proteins, also termed molecular chaperones because of their involvement in various steps of protein folding, assist the cell in restoring the protein-folding homeostasis after stress exposure ( 20 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • The mitochondrial UPR - protecting organelle protein homeostasis. (wikipathways.org)
  • The expression of polyglutamine repeats containing proteins in different model animal systems reproduces features of the diseased state, such as the age-dependent appearance of aggregates and neuronal death ( 9 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • PHR proteins are key regulators of neuronal development. (jneurosci.org)