A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA. Characteristics include an open tube stoma and an excretory system with lateral canals.

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (1/9183)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (2/9183)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Alterations in the conserved SL1 trans-spliced leader of Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrate flexibility in length and sequence requirements in vivo. (3/9183)

Approximately 70% of mRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans are trans spliced to conserved 21- to 23-nucleotide leader RNAs. While the function of SL1, the major C. elegans trans-spliced leader, is unknown, SL1 RNA, which contains this leader, is essential for embryogenesis. Efforts to characterize in vivo requirements of the SL1 leader sequence have been severely constrained by the essential role of the corresponding DNA sequences in SL1 RNA transcription. We devised a heterologous expression system that circumvents this problem, making it possible to probe the length and sequence requirements of the SL1 leader without interfering with its transcription. We report that expression of SL1 from a U2 snRNA promoter rescues mutants lacking the SL1-encoding genes and that the essential embryonic function of SL1 is retained when approximately one-third of the leader sequence and/or the length of the leader is significantly altered. In contrast, although all mutant SL1 RNAs were well expressed, more severe alterations eliminate this essential embryonic function. The one non-rescuing mutant leader tested was never detected on messages, demonstrating that part of the leader sequence is essential for trans splicing in vivo. Thus, in spite of the high degree of SL1 sequence conservation, its length, primary sequence, and composition are not critical parameters of its essential embryonic function. However, particular nucleotides in the leader are essential for the in vivo function of the SL1 RNA, perhaps for its assembly into a functional snRNP or for the trans-splicing reaction.  (+info)

The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene mog-1 encodes a member of the DEAH-Box protein family. (4/9183)

In the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germ line, the sex-determining gene fem-3 is repressed posttranscriptionally to arrest spermatogenesis and permit oogenesis. This repression requires a cis-acting regulatory element in the fem-3 3' untranslated region; the FBF protein, which binds to this element; and at least six mog genes. In this paper, we report the molecular characterization of mog-1 as well as additional phenotypic characterization of this gene. The mog-1 gene encodes a member of the DEAH-box family. Three mog-1 alleles possess premature stop codons and are likely to be null alleles, and one is a missense mutation and is likely to retain residual activity. mog-1 mRNA is expressed in both germ line and somatic tissues and appears to be ubiquitous. The MOG-1 DEAH-box protein is most closely related to proteins essential for splicing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but splicing appears to occur normally in a mog-1-null mutant. In addition to its involvement in the sperm-oocyte switch and control of fem-3, zygotic mog-1 is required for robust germ line proliferation and for normal growth during development. We suggest that mog-1 plays a broader role in RNA regulation than previously considered.  (+info)

NMD3 encodes an essential cytoplasmic protein required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5/9183)

A mutation in NMD3 was found to be lethal in the absence of XRN1, which encodes the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease responsible for mRNA turnover. Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. Cells bearing a temperature-sensitive allele of NMD3 had decreased levels of 60S subunits at the nonpermissive temperature which resulted in the formation of half-mer polysomes. Pulse-chase analysis of rRNA biogenesis indicated that 25S rRNA was made and processed with kinetics similar to wild-type kinetics. However, the mature RNA was rapidly degraded, with a half-life of 4 min. Nmd3p fractionated as a cytoplasmic protein and sedimented in the position of free 60S subunits in sucrose gradients. These results suggest that Nmd3p is a cytoplasmic factor required for a late cytoplasmic assembly step of the 60S subunit but is not a ribosomal protein. Putative orthologs of Nmd3p exist in Drosophila, in nematodes, and in archaebacteria but not in eubacteria. The Nmd3 protein sequence does not contain readily recognizable motifs of known function. However, these proteins all have an amino-terminal domain containing four repeats of Cx2C, reminiscent of zinc-binding proteins, implicated in nucleic acid binding or protein oligomerization.  (+info)

The nuclear receptor superfamily has undergone extensive proliferation and diversification in nematodes. (6/9183)

The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is the most abundant class of transcriptional regulators encoded in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, with >200 predicted genes revealed by the screens and analysis of genomic sequence reported here. This is the largest number of NR genes yet described from a single species, although our analysis of available genomic sequence from the related nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae indicates that it also has a large number. Existing data demonstrate expression for 25% of the C. elegans NR sequences. Sequence conservation and statistical arguments suggest that the majority represent functional genes. An analysis of these genes based on the DNA-binding domain motif revealed that several NR classes conserved in both vertebrates and insects are also represented among the nematode genes, consistent with the existence of ancient NR classes shared among most, and perhaps all, metazoans. Most of the nematode NR sequences, however, are distinct from those currently known in other phyla, and reveal a previously unobserved diversity within the NR superfamily. In C. elegans, extensive proliferation and diversification of NR sequences have occurred on chromosome V, accounting for > 50% of the predicted NR genes.  (+info)

Characterization of a mutant pancreatic eIF-2alpha kinase, PEK, and co-localization with somatostatin in islet delta cells. (7/9183)

Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2alpha (eIF-2alpha) is one of the key steps where protein synthesis is regulated in response to changes in environmental conditions. The phosphorylation is carried out in part by three distinct eIF-2alpha kinases including mammalian double-stranded RNA-dependent eIF-2alpha kinase (PKR) and heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI), and yeast GCN2. We report the identification and characterization of a related kinase, PEK, which shares common features with other eIF-2alpha kinases including phosphorylation of eIF-2alpha in vitro. We show that human PEK is regulated by different mechanisms than PKR or HRI. In contrast to PKR or HRI, which are dependent on autophosphorylation for their kinase activity, a point mutation that replaced the conserved Lys-614 with an alanine completely abolished the eIF-2alpha kinase activity, whereas the mutant PEK was still autophosphorylated when expressed in Sf-9 cells. Northern blot analysis indicates that PEK mRNA was predominantly expressed in pancreas, though low expression was also present in several tissues. Consistent with the high levels of mRNA in pancreas, the PEK protein was only detected in human pancreatic islets, and the kinase co-localized with somatostatin, a pancreatic delta cell-specific hormone. Thus PEK is believed to play an important role in regulating protein synthesis in the pancreatic islet, especially in islet delta cells.  (+info)

Characterization of a Caenorhabditis elegans recA-like gene Ce-rdh-1 involved in meiotic recombination. (8/9183)

A recA-like gene was identified in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome project database. The putative product of the gene, termed Ce-rdh-1 (C. elegans RAD51 and DMC1/LIM15 homolog 1), consists of 357 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of Ce-rdh-1 showed 46-60% identity to both RAD51 type and DMC1/LIM15 type genes in several eukaryote species. The results of RNAi (RNA-mediated interference) indicated that repression of Ce-rdh-1 blocked chromosome condensation of six bivalents and dissociation of chiasmata in oocytes of F1 progeny. Oogenesis did not proceed to the diakinesis stage. Accordingly, all the eggs produced (F2) died in early stages. These results suggest that Ce-rdh-1 participates in meiotic recombination.  (+info)

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WormBase is an online biological database about the biology and genome of the nematode model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and contains information about other related nematodes. WormBase is used by the C. elegans research community both as an information resource and as a place to publish and distribute their results. The database is regularly updated with new versions being released every two months. WormBase is one of the organizations participating in the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. WormBase comprises the following main data sets: The annotated genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis remanei, Caenorhabditis brenneri, Caenorhabditis angaria, Pristionchus pacificus, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus; Hand-curated annotations describing the function of ~20,500 C. elegans protein-coding genes and ~16,000 C. elegans non-coding genes; Gene families; Orthologies; Genomic ...
The molecular mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy during spaceflight are not well understood. We have analyzed the effects of a 10-day spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans muscle development. DNA microarray, real-time quantitative PCR, and quantitative western blot analyses revealed that the amount of MHC in both body-wall and pharyngeal muscle decrease in response to spaceflight. Decreased transcription of the body-wall myogenic transcription factor HLH-1 (CeMyoD) and of the three pharyngeal myogenic transcription factors, PEB-1, CEH-22 and PHA-4 were also observed. Upon return to Earth animals displayed reduced rates of movement, indicating a functional defect. These results demonstrate that C. elegans muscle development is altered in response to spaceflight. This altered development occurs at the level of gene transcription and was observed in the presence of innervation, not simply in isolated cells. This important finding coupled with past observations of decreased levels of the same ...
The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a model system for the study of the genetic basis of aging. Maternal-effect mutations in four genes-clk-1, clk-2, clk-3, and gro-1- interact genetically to determine both the duration of development and life-span. Analysis of the phenotypes of these mutants suggests the existence of a general physiological clock in the worm. Mutations in certain genes involved in dauer formation (an alternative larval stage induced by adverse conditions in which development is arrested) can also extend life-span, but the life extension of Clock mutants appears to be independent of these genes. The daf-2(e1370) clk-1(e2519) worms, which carry life-span-extending mutations from two different pathways, live nearly five times as long as wild-type worms.. ...
We describe a general strategy for the genetic mapping in parallel of multiple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci. This approach allows the systematic identification for cloning of physical genetic loci within about 100 kb of any gene in Caenorhabditis elegans. We have used this strategy of parallel RFLP mapping to clone the heterochronic gene lin-14, which controls the timing and sequence of many C. elegans postembryonic developmental events. We found that of about 400 polymorphic loci in the C. elegans genome associated with the Tc1 family of repetitive elements, six are within 0.3 map unit of lin-14. The three closest lin-14-linked Tc1-containing restriction fragments were cloned and used to identify by hybridization an 830-kb region of contiguous cloned DNA fragments assembled from cosmid and yeast artificial chromosome libraries. A lin-14 intragenic recombinant that separated a previously cryptic lin-14 semidominant mutation from a cis-acting lin-14 suppressor mutation was ...
The germ cells of multicellular organisms protect their developmental potential through specialized mechanisms. A shared feature of germ cells from worms to humans is the presence of nonmembrane-bound, ribonucleoprotein organelles called germ granules. Depletion of germ granules in Caenorhabditis elegans (i.e., P granules) leads to sterility and, in some germlines, expression of the neuronal transgene unc-119::gfp and the muscle myosin MYO-3. Thus, P granules are hypothesized to maintain germ cell totipotency by preventing somatic development, although the mechanism by which P granules carry out this function is unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome and single molecule RNA-FISH analyses of dissected P granule-depleted gonads at different developmental stages. Our results demonstrate that P granules are necessary for adult germ cells to downregulate spermatogenesis RNAs and to prevent the accumulation of numerous soma-specific RNAs. P granule-depleted gonads that express the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The human GRB2 and Drosophila Drk genes can functionally replace the Caenorhabditis elegans cell signaling gene sem-5. AU - Stern, M. J.. AU - Marengere, L. E.M.. AU - Daly, R. J.. AU - Lowenstein, E. J.. AU - Kokel, M.. AU - Batzer, A.. AU - Olivier, P.. AU - Pawson, T.. AU - Schlessinger, J.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans gene sem-5 affect cell signaling processes involved in guiding a class of cell migrations and inducing vulval cell fates. The sem-5 sequence encodes a protein comprised almost exclusively of SH2 and SH3 domains (SH, src homology region) that are found together in many signaling proteins and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. A human protein, GRB2, was identified by its ability to associate with the activated human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGFR). The GRB2 and Sem-5 proteins share an identical architecture of their SH2 and SH3 domains and 58% amino acid sequence identity. Here we demonstrate that GRB2 and a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Caenorhabditis elegans AMP-activated protein kinase AAK-2 is phosphorylated by LKB1 and is required for resistance to oxidative stress and for normal motility and foraging behavior. AU - Lee, Hyojin. AU - Jeong, Soo Cho. AU - Lambacher, Nils. AU - Lee, Jieun. AU - Lee, Se Jin. AU - Tae, Hoon Lee. AU - Gartner, Anton. AU - Koo, Hyeon Sook. PY - 2008/5/30. Y1 - 2008/5/30. N2 - AAK-2 is one of two α isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans and is involved in life span maintenance, stress responses, and germ cell cycle arrest upon dauer entry. We found that AAK-2 was phosphorylated at threonine 243 in response to paraquat treatment and that this phosphorylation depends on PAR-4, the C. elegans LKB1 homologue. Both aak-2 mutation and par-4 knockdown increased the sensitivity of C. elegans worms to paraquat, and the double deficiency did not further increase sensitivity, indicating that aak-2 and par-4 act in a linear pathway. Both mutations also ...
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Defining a behavior that requires the function of specific neurons in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can allow one to screen for mutations that disrupt the specification or function of those neurons. We identified serotonin-immunoreactive neurons required for tail curling or turnin …
Mouse mAb M38 was used in indirect immunofluorescence experiments to detect a stage-specific antigen on the surface of the first larval stage (L1) of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and to detect alterations in the apparent expression of this antigen in two distinct classes of C. elegans mutants. In previously described srf-2 and srf-3 mutants (Politz S. M., M. T. Philipp, M. Estevez, P.J. OBrien, and K. J. Chin. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:2901-2905), the antigen is not detected on the surface of any stage. Conversely, in srf-(yj43) and other similar mutants, the antigen is expressed on the surface of the first through the fourth (L4) larval stages. To understand the molecular basis of these alterations, the antigen was characterized in gel immunoblotting experiments. After SDS-PAGE separation and transfer to nitrocellulose, M38 detected a protein antigen in extracts of wild-type L1 populations. The antigen was sensitive to digestion by Pronase and O-glycanase ...
The detection and abundance of Escherichia coli in water is used to monitor and mandate the quality of drinking and recreational water. Distinguishing commensal waterborne E. coli isolates from those that cause diarrhea or extraintestinal disease in humans is important for quantifying human health risk. A DNA microarray was used to evaluate the distribution of virulence genes in 148 E. coli environmental isolates from a watershed in eastern Ontario, Canada, and in eight clinical isolates. Their pathogenic potential was evaluated with Caenorhabditis elegans, and the concordance between the bioassay result and the pathotype deduced by genotyping was explored. Isolates identified as potentially pathogenic on the basis of their complement of virulence genes were significantly more likely to be pathogenic to C. elegans than those determined to be potentially nonpathogenic. A number of isolates that were identified as nonpathogenic on the basis of genotyping were pathogenic in the infection assay, ...
Genetic and embryological experiments have established the Caenorhabditis elegans adult hermaphrodite gonad as a paradigm for studying the control of germline development and the role of soma-germline interactions. We describe ultrastructural features relating to essential germline events and the so …
P-glycoproteins can cause multidrug resistance in mammalian tumor cells by active extrusion of cytotoxic drugs. The natural function of these evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound ATP binding transport proteins is unknown. In mammals, P-glycoproteins are abundantly present in organs associated with the digestive tract. We have studied the tissue-specific expression of Caenorhabditis elegans P-glycoprotein genes pgp-1 and pgp-3 by transformation of nematodes with pgp-lacZ gene fusion constructs in which the promoter area of the pgp genes was fused to the coding region of lacZ. Expression of pgp-1 and pgp-3, as inferred from pgp-lacZ transgenic nematodes, was confined to the intestinal cells. The expression patterns of both genes were virtually indistinguishable. Quantitative analysis of pgp mRNA levels during development showed that pgp-1, -2, and -3 were expressed throughout the life cycle of C.elegans, albeit with some variation indicating developmental regulation. The expression of P-glycoprotein
Development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is highly reproducible and the fate of every somatic cell has been reported. We describe here a previously uncharacterized cell fate in C. elegans: we show that germ cells, which in hermaphrodites can differentiate into sperm and oocytes, also undergo apoptotic cell death. In adult hermaphrodites, over 300 germ cells die, using the same apoptotic execution machinery (ced-3, ced-4 and ced-9) as the previously described 131 somatic cell deaths. However, this machinery is activated by a distinct pathway, as loss of egl-1 function, which inhibits somatic cell death, does not affect germ cell apoptosis. Germ cell death requires ras/MAPK pathway activation and is used to maintain germline homeostasis. We suggest that apoptosis eliminates excess germ cells that acted as nurse cells to provide cytoplasmic components to maturing oocytes.. ...
Aging is characterized by general physiological decline over time. A hallmark of human senescence is the onset of various age-related afflictions including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although environmental and stochastic factors undoubtedly contribute to the increased incidence of disease with age, recent studies suggest that intrinsic genetic determinants govern both life span and overall health. Current aging research aims at achieving the longevity dividend, in which life span extension in humans is accomplished with a concomitant increase in the quality of life (Olshansky et al., 2007). Significant progress has been made using model organisms, especially the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, to delineate the genetic and biochemical pathways involved in aging to identify strategies for therapeutic intervention in humans. In this review, we discuss how C. elegans has contributed to our understanding of insulin signaling and aging. ...
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As a consequence of the Earths axial rotation, organisms display daily recurring rhythms in behavior and biochemical properties, such as hormone titers. The neuronal system controlling such changes is best studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, most homologs of these genes function in the heterochronic pathway controlling the (timing of) developmental events. Recent data indicate that in the worm at least one of the genes involved in developmental timing is also active in circadian rhythm control, thereby opening up new perspectives on a central (neuronal) timer interfering with many processes. Also, new neuropeptidergic clock homologs have been identified in nematodes, supporting the idea of a broad range of clock-regulated targets. We will describe the current knowledge on homologous clock genes in C. elegans with a focus on the recently discovered pigment dispersing factor gene homologs. Similarities between developmental and daily ...
The pace of technical developments allowing the direct manipulation of genome sequences has seen a marked acceleration in recent years with the emergence of RNA-targeted nucleases derived from bacterial immune systems (Doudna and Charpentier 2014; Zetsche et al. 2015). In particular, the binary system relying on the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease targeted by CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat) RNAs has been successfully used to generate point mutations, deletion, or DNA insertions in an ever-growing number of experimental systems. S. pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 has been adapted early on in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Friedland et al. 2013; Dickinson et al. 2013; Chen et al. 2013; Frøkjær-Jensen 2013; Dickinson and Goldstein 2016). Previously, heritable genome engineering could only be achieved in C. elegans by remobilizing a Drosophila Mos1 transposon, which could be inserted and excised in the germline (Robert and Bessereau 2007; ...
The vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and phosphorylate several chromatin proteins and transcription factors. In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, VRK-1 is required for proper nuclear envelope formation. In this work, we present the first investigation of the developmental role of VRKs by means of a novel C. elegans vrk-1 mutant allele. We found that VRK-1 is essential in hermaphrodites for formation of the vulva, uterus, and utse and for development and maintenance of the somatic gonad and thus the germ line. VRK-1 regulates anchor cell polarity and the timing of anchor cell invasion through the basement membranes separating vulval and somatic gonadal cells during the L3 larval stage. VRK-1 is also required for proper specification and proliferation of uterine cells and sex myoblasts. Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-like protein EGL-17 and its receptor EGL-15 is reduced in vrk-1 mutants, suggesting that VRK-1 might act at least ...
Mutations in the gene unc-53 of Caenorhabditis elegans result in behavioral and anatomical abnormalities. Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy revealed neuroanatomical defects in all main longitudinal nervous tracts. Whole tracts were found to
Large-conductance calcium and voltage-activated potassium channels, termed SLO-1 (or BK), are pivotal players in the regulation of cell excitability across the animal phyla. Furthermore, emerging evidence indicates that these channels are key mediators of a number of neuroactive drugs, including the most recent new anthelmintic, the cyclo-octadepsipeptide emodepside. Detailed reviews of the structure, function and pharmacology of BK channels have recently been provided (Salkoff et al. in Nat Rev Neurosci 7:921-931, 2006; Ghatta et al. in Pharmacol Ther 110:103-116, 2006) and therefore these aspects will only briefly be covered here. The purpose of this review is to discuss how SLO-1 channels might function as regulators of neural transmission and network activity. In particular, we focus on the role of SLO-1 in the regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans behaviour and highlight the role of this channel as an effector for pleiotropic actions of neuroactive drugs, including emodepside. On the premise ...
Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi that infect virtually all animals. Recently, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed as a convenient model for studying microsporidia infection in a whole-animal host through the identification and characterization of a natural microsporidian pathogen of this commonly studied laboratory organism. The C. elegans natural microsporidian pathogen is named Nematocida parisii, and it causes a lethal intestinal infection in C. elegans. Comparison of the genomes of N. parisii and its closely related species Nematocida sp. 1, together with the genomes of other microsporidian species, has provided insight into the evolutionary events that led to the emergence of the large, specialized microsporidia phylum. Cell biology studies of N. parisii infection in C. elegans have shown how N. parisii restructures host intestinal cells and, in particular, how it hijacks host exocytosis for nonlytic exit to facilitate
Abstract The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling (IIS) pathway in metazoans has evolutionarily conserved roles in growth control, metabolic homeostasis, stress responses, reproduction, and lifespan. Genetic manipulations that reduce IIS in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the mouse have been shown not only to produce substantial increases in lifespan but also to ameliorate several age-related diseases. In C. elegans, the multitude of phenotypes produced by the reduction in IIS are all suppressed in the absence of the worm FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, suggesting that they are all under common regulation. It is not yet clear in other animal models whether the activity of FOXOs mediate all of the physiological effects of reduced IIS, especially increased lifespan. We have addressed this issue by examining the effects of reduced IIS in the absence of dFOXO in Drosophila, using a newly generated null allele of dfoxo. We found ...
Extensive studies have been carried out on Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of aging and the effects of perturbing known aging-related genes on lifespan and behavior. This research has generated large amounts of experimental data that is increasingly difficult to integrate and analyze with existing databases and domain knowledge. To address this challenge, we demonstrate a scalable and effective approach for automatic evidence gathering and evaluation that leverages existing experimental data and literature-curated facts to identify genes involved in aging and lifespan regulation in C. elegans. We developed a semantic knowledge base for aging by integrating data about C. elegans genes from WormBase with data about 2005 human and model organism genes from GenAge and 149 genes from GenDR, and with the Bio2RDF network of linked data for the life sciences. Using HyQue (a Semantic Web tool for hypothesis-based querying and evaluation) to interrogate this knowledge base, we
RNA interference (RNAi) is a widespread and widely exploited phenomenon which has potential as a strategy for both the treatment of disease and pest control. RNAi results in down‐regulation of a specific gene in response to the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). RNAi is one of a family of processes mediated by small non‐coding RNAs [1], [2]. In Caenorhabditis elegans, and in a number of other organisms, RNAi is systemic so that the introduction of dsRNA into one tissue triggers gene silencing in other tissues [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. Furthermore, systemic RNAi enables C. elegans and other organisms to exhibit environmental RNAi [5]. For example, feeding C. elegans on bacteria expressing dsRNA initiates a widespread RNAi response [8], [9]. Studies in C. elegans and other organisms have provided mechanistic insights into RNAi [4], [10], [11], [12], [13], although the role of exogenous RNAi in the normal life of C. elegans and other animals remains unclear [14].. Whilst C. elegans ...
During the course of normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, 131 cells in a Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite undergo programmed cell death. Loss of function mutations in either of the genes ced-3 or ced-4 abolish cell deaths, enabling these undead cells to survive and be incorporated into the adult with no obvious deleterious consequences. Ultrastructural reconstructions have shown that undead cells exhibit many differentiated characteristics. Most of the reconstructed cells appeared to be neurons with all the characteristic features associated with such cells, such as processes, synaptic vesicles and presynaptic specializations. However, clear morphological differences were seen among the undead neurons, suggesting a diversity of cell type. One of the reconstructed cells was a rectal epithelial cell, which had displaced its lineal sister that normally functions in this role. Removal of the ability to undergo programmed cell death by mutation therefore reveals a diversity of ...
We are studying the development of the intestine in the small free-living nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. The worm intestine develops as a simple clone of cells, entirely deriving from a single cell in the eight-cell embryo. We mainly focus on the transcription factor network that drives development of the intestine. From our work and that of others, we now know all the core transcription factors that control intestinal genes, from specification to differentiation, and they all are GATA factors similar to the factors that are central to the development of the human intestine. We are now trying to figure out how these factors actually work, i.e. to define the molecular and thermodynamic basis of developmental specificity. Does all the specificity reside in the DNA binding domain? And if so, how much does the binding free energy to an intestinal gene differ from the binding free energy to a gene expressed in a different lineage, e.g. the hypodermis (skin)? Are there other protein domains ...
During gastrulation of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, individual cells ingress into a solid ball of cells. Gastrulation in a basal nematode, in contrast, has now been found to occur by invagination into a blastocoel, revealing an unanticipated embryological affinity between nematodes and all other triploblastic metazoans. ...
LAG1 is a longevity gene, the first such gene to be identified and cloned from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A close homolog of this gene, which we call LAC1, has been found in the yeast genome. We have cloned the human homolog of LAG1 with the ultimate goal of examining its possible function in human aging. In the process, we have also cloned a homolog from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Both of these homologs, LAG1Hs and LAG1Ce-1, functionally complemented the lethality of a lag1delta lac1delta double deletion, despite low overall sequence similarity to the yeast proteins. The proteins shared a short sequence, the Lag1 motif, and a similar transmembrane domain profile. Another, more distant human homolog, TRAM, which lacks this motif, did not complement. LAG1Hs also restored the life span of the double deletion, demonstrating that it functions in establishing the longevity phenotype in yeast. LAG1Hs mapped to 19p12, and it was expressed in only three tissues: brain, skeletal ...
Caenorhabditis elegans MIG-13 protein: required for positioning of Q neuroblasts and their descendents along the anteroposterior axis; isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBAnk AF150958
For the first days, we will introduce students to the nematode C. elegans. Students will work with different experimental set-ups that will allow us to explore a variety of C. elegans behavior. We will analyze C. elegans behavior in response to thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli. The transparency of the animal makes it feasible to use genetically encoded calcium sensors to monitor neural activity in response to sensory stimuli. Transgenic expression of light-activated ion channels, allows us to turn neurons on and off. These optogenetic experiments will be used to define neural requirements of sensory processing. Students will use these techniques to determine 1) how C. elegans responds and remembers the temperature at which was raised; 2) analyze the neural dynamics of a compound motor sequence that is evoked by touch; 3) determine the neural requirements of calcium channels chemosensation. These experiments are an ideal introduction to Calcium imaging optogenetics in a genetically ...
Purification of biomass ethanol from the products of brown sugar yeast-fermentation produces a large amount of residue. This fermentation residue contains abundant brown sugar-derived nutrients and is mainly used as compost or livestock feed. However, the in vivo physiological effects of oral residue ingestion are not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological action and molecular mechanism of fermented brown sugar residue in nematode stress tolerance, aging, and lifespan using Caenorhabditis elegans. Fermented brown sugar residue was divided into two layers, supernatant and precipitate, and each was given to nematodes. Analysis of motility and survival rate under thermal stress revealed reduced mobility and increased survival rate following treatment with fermented brown sugar residue. The survival rate of nematodes under 1% H2O2 was markedly increased by the residue and mitochondrial membrane depolarization was induced and mitochondrial radical oxygen species levels increased.
Caenorhabditis elegans shares several molecular and physiological homologies with humans and thus plays a key role in studying biological processes. As a consequence, much progress has been made in automating the analysis of C. elegans. However, there is still a strong need to achieve more progress in automating the analysis of static images of adult worms. In this paper, a three-phase semi-automated system has been proposed. As a first phase, a novel segmentation framework, based on variational level sets and local pressure force function, has been introduced to handle effectively images corrupted with intensity inhomogeneity. Then, a set of robust invariant symbolic features for high-throughput screening of image-based C. elegans phenotypes are extracted. Finally, a classification model is applied to discriminate between the different subsets. The proposed system demonstrates its effectiveness in measuring morphological phenotypes in individual worms of C. elegans.. ...
Genetic studies have identified over a dozen genes that function in programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans(1-3). Although the ultimate effects on cell survival or engulfment of mutations in each cell death gene have been extensively described, much less is known about how these mutations affect the kinetics of death and engulfment, or the interactions between these two processes. We have used four-dimensional-Nomarski time-lapse video microscopy to follow in detail how cell death genes regulate the extent and kinetics of apoptotic cell death and removal in the early C. elegans embryo. Here we show that blocking engulfment enhances cell survival when cells are subjected to weak pro-apoptotic signals. Thus, genes that mediate corpse removal can also function to actively kill cells.. ...
A specific behavioural response of Caenorhabditis elegans, the rapid increase of locomotion in response to anoxia/reoxygenation called the O2-ON response, has been used to model key aspects of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. A genetic suppressor screen demonstrated a direct causal role of CYP (cytochrome P450)-13A12 in this response and suggested that CYP-eicosanoids, which in mammals influence the contractility of cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, might function in C. elegans as specific regulators of the body muscle cell activity. In the present study we show that co-expression of CYP-13A12 with the NADPH-CYP-reductase EMB-8 in insect cells resulted in the reconstitution of an active microsomal mono-oxygenase system that metabolized EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and also AA (arachidonic acid) to specific sets of regioisomeric epoxy and hydroxy derivatives. The main products included 17,18-EEQ (17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid) from EPA and 14,15-EET (14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid) ...
Benzimidazole anti-microtubule drugs, such as benomyl, induce paralysis and slow the growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We have identified 28 mutations in C. elegans that confer resistance to benzimidazoles. All resistant mutations map to a single locus, ben-1. Virtually all these mutations are genetically dominant. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis established that ben-1 encodes a beta-tubulin. Some resistant mutants are completely deleted for the ben-1 gene. Since the deletion strains appear to be fully resistant to the drugs, the ben-1 product appears to be the only benzimidazole-sensitive beta-tubulin in C. elegans. Furthermore, since animals lacking ben-1 are viable and coordinated, the ben-1 beta-tubulin appears to be nonessential for growth and movement. The ben-1 function is likely to be redundant in the nematode genome. ...
Approximately 10% of Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system synapses are electrical, that is, gap junctions composed of innexins. The locomotory nervous system consists of several pairs of interneurons and three major classes of motor neurons, all with stereotypical patterns of connectivity that include gap junctions. Mutations in the two innexin genes unc-7 and unc-9 result in identical uncoordinated movement phenotypes, and their respective gene products were investigated for their contribution to electrical synapse connectivity. unc-7 encodes three innexin isoforms. Two of these, UNC-7S and UNC-7SR, are functionally equivalent and play an essential role in coordinated locomotion. UNC-7S and UNC-7SR are widely expressed and co-localize extensively with green fluorescent protein-tagged innexin UNC-9 in the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. A subset of UNC-7S/SR expression visualizes gap junctions formed between the AVB forward command interneurons and their B class motor neuron partners. Experiments
Many crucial events in metazoan development and physiology are governed by diffusible signals that trigger specific responses in highly restricted subsets of cells. This exquisite specificity of intercellular signaling requires precisely controlled expression of receptors and downstream signaling components that effect appropriate responses. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven a valuable model for the study of signaling specificity, notably for mechanisms of signaling through the Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (for a review, see Moghal and Sternberg, 2003). The sole EGF-like ligand and EGF receptor in the C. elegans genome are encoded by the genes lin-3 and let-23, respectively (Hill and Sternberg, 1992; Aroian et al., 1990) (Wormbase WS210). Recently we described a role for LET-23 in the regulation of C. elegans behavior (Van Buskirk and Sternberg, 2007). Caenorhabditis elegans develops through four larval stages before adulthood, and each larval molt is preceded by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Developmental regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans DNA topoisomerase I expression. AU - Jang, Yeon Joo. AU - Park, Hyungki. AU - Lee, Junho. AU - Koo, Hyeon Sook. PY - 1998/5/31. Y1 - 1998/5/31. N2 - The developmental regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans DNA topoisomerase I expression was examined using synchronized Caenorhabditis elegans cultures. Variations of the relative mRNA and protein levels of the enzyme during their development were measured by Northern and Western analyses, respectively. The mRNA level was the highest at the embryonic stage, decreasing rapidly to the one tenth level at the L1 stage, and then increasing by a few fold at the L4 and young adult stages. The protein level was the highest at the L1 stage, with gradual decreasing at the following stages until it showed a slight increase at the young adult stage. Based on our results of the expressional regulation, the possible roles of DNA topoisomerase I in the development of C. elegans are discussed.. AB - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA for a Menkes/Wilson disease gene homologue and its function in a yeast CCC2 gene deletion mutant. AU - Sambongi, Yoshihiro. AU - Wakabayashi, Tokumitsu. AU - Yoshimizu, Takao. AU - Omote, Hiroshi. AU - Oka, Toshihiko. AU - Futai, Masamitsu. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - The full-length cDNA coding for a putative copper transporting P-type ATPase (Cu2+-ATPase) was cloned from Caenorhabditis elegans. The putative Cu2+-ATPase is a 1,238-amino acid protein, and highly homologous to the Menkes and Wilson disease gene products mutations of which are responsible for human defects of copper metabolism. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with a disrupted CCC2 gene (yeast Menkes/Wilson disease gene homologue) was rescued by the cDNA for the C. elegans Cu2+-ATPase but not by the cDNA with an Asp-786 (an invariant phosphorylation site) to Asn mutation, suggesting that the C. elegans Cu2+-ATPase functions as a copper transporter in yeast. The expressed C. elegans ...
Mutations in the human Mid1 gene cause Opitz G/BBB syndrome, which is characterized by various midline closure defects. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Mid1, madd-2, positively regulates signaling by the unc-40 Netrin receptor during the extension of muscle arms to the midline and in axon guidance and branching. During uterine development, a specialized cell called anchor cell (AC) breaches the basal laminae separating the uterus from the epidermis and invades the underlying vulval tissue. AC invasion is guided by an UNC-6 Netrin signal from the ventral nerve cord and an unknown guidance signal from the vulval cells. Using genetic epistasis analysis, we show that madd-2 regulates AC invasion downstream of or in parallel with the Netrin signaling pathway. Measurements of AC shape, polarity and dynamics indicate that MADD-2 prevents the formation of ectopic AC protrusions in the absence of guidance signals. We propose that MADD-2 represses the intrinsic invasive capacity of the AC, while the ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans genome is known to code for at least 1149 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but the GPCR(s) critical to the regulation of reproduction in this nematode are not yet known. This study examined whether GPCRs orthologous to human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) exist in C. elegans. Our sequence analyses indicated the presence of two proteins in C. elegans, one of 401 amino acids [GenBank: NP_491453; WormBase: F54D7.3] and another of 379 amino acids [GenBank: NP_506566; WormBase: C15H11.2] with 46.9% and 44.7% nucleotide similarity to human GnRHR1 and GnRHR2, respectively. Like human GnRHR1, structural analysis of the C. elegans GnRHR1 orthologue (Ce-GnRHR) predicted a rhodopsin family member with 7 transmembrane domains, G protein coupling sites and phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C. Of the functionally important amino acids in human GnRHR1, 56% were conserved in the C. elegans orthologue. Ce-GnRHR was actively transcribed in adult worms and
Both dauer formation (a stage of developmental arrest) and adult life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans are negatively regulated by insulin-like signaling, but little is known about cellular pathways that mediate these processes. Autophagy, through the sequestration and delivery of cargo to the lysosomes, is the major route for degrading long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. Using nematodes with a loss-of-function mutation in the insulin-like signaling pathway, we show that bec-1, the C. elegans ortholog of the yeast and mammalian autophagy gene APG6/VPS30/beclin1, is essential for normal dauer morphogenesis and life-span extension. Dauer formation is associated with increased autophagy and also requires C. elegans orthologs of the yeast autophagy genes APG1, APG7, APG8, and AUT10. Thus, autophagy is a cellular pathway essential for dauer development and life-span extension in C. elegans.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Origin, properties, and regulated expression of multiple mRNAs encoded by the protein kinase C1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans. AU - Land, Marianne. AU - Islas-Trejo, Alma. AU - Rubin, Charles S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994/5/20. Y1 - 1994/5/20. N2 - Recently, we cloned and characterized cDNA encoding a novel, protein kinase C (designated PKC1B) from Caenorhabditis elegans. PKC1B (707 amino acid residues) is a developmentally regulated, calcium-independent kinase that is expressed exclusively in sensory neurons and related interneurons. We have now discovered a mechanism by which a second, distinct mRNA (PKC1A mRNA) with increased protein coding potential is generated from the C. elegans PKC1 gene. PKC1A mRNA is produced in a process that involves the utilization of an alternative, distal promoter, the incorporation of two unique exons into the mRNA, and alternative cis/trans splicing. Diversity among PKC1 gene transcripts is ...
In nematodes an alternative third larval stage, often called the dauer stage, allows the animals to weather periods of low food availability (if free living) or to disperse (if parasitic). Recently, studies of mutations in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have indicated that mutations in age-1 and daf-2 , genes that control the entry into and exit from the dauer stage, have a profound effect upon the life span of the animal. Catalase activity is increased in age-1 and daf-2 animals and might be important for life-span extension. We show that C. elegans contains two catalases, CTL-2 is a typical animal peroxisomal catalase. The ctl-1 gene encodes the first cytosolic catalase identified in an animal. The ctl-1 catalase is regulated by age-1 and daf-2 and is responsible for the increase in catalase activity seen in these mutants. We have identified a mutation affecting the expression of ctl-1. The ctl-1 mutation causes the early death of dauer larvae and prevents the life-span extension of the ...
The prototype of the Cdx family of homeodomain transcription factors is the Drosophila caudal protein. The initial maternal expression of caudal mRNA is ubiquitous and a posterior to anterior gradient of the protein develops during the syncytial blastoderm stage and persists until the onset of cellularization. Zygotic expression, which commences in the cellular blastoderm stage, is also localized to the posterior in a region which gives rise to terminal abdominal structures and the hindgut. During later embryonic development, expression of caudal is found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpigian tubules (MacDonald and Struhl, 1986; Mlodzik and Gehring, 1987).. Caudal homologues have been identified in a wide range of animal groups. A caudal‐related gene with a similar posterior expression pattern has been cloned from the short or intermediate germ band insect Bombyx mori and homologues are present in other invertebrates, including the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the annelid worm ...
Howard Robert Horvitz (born May 8, 1947) is an American biologist best known for his research on the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, together with Sydney Brenner and John E. Sulston. Horvitz was born in Chicago, Illinois to Jewish parents, the son of Mary R. (Savit), a school teacher, and Oscar Freedom Horvitz, a GAO accountant. He majored in mathematics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he joined Alpha Epsilon Pi and spent his summers working for IBM, at first wiring panels for accounting machines and then in his final summer helping to develop IBMs Conversational Programming System. During his senior year, Horvitz took his first courses in biology and was encouraged by his professors to continue to study biology in graduate school, despite his limited coursework in the field. After he completed his undergraduate studies in 1968, he enrolled in graduate studies in biology at Harvard University, where ...
The role of lipids in the process of embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans is still poorly understood. Cytochrome P450s, a class of lipid-modifying enzymes, are good candidates to be involved in the production or degradation of lipids essential for development. We investigated two highly similar cytochrome P450s in C. elegans, cyp-31A2 and cyp-31A3, that are homologs of the gene responsible for Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy in humans. Depletion of both cytochromes either by RNAi or using a double deletion mutant, led to the failure of establishing the correct polarity of the embryo and to complete the extrusion of the polar bodies during meiosis. In addition, the egg became osmotic sensitive and permeable to dyes. The phenotype of cyp-31A2 or cyp-31A3 is very similar to a class of mutants that have polarization and osmotic defects (POD), thus the genes were renamed to pod-7 and pod-8, respectively. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the activity of pod-7/pod-8 ...
Aims: To investigate the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the control of aging and healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Results: We show that the model organism, C. elegans, synthesizes H2S. Three H2S-synthesizing enzymes are present in C. elegans, namely cystathionine γ lyase (CSE), cystathionine β synthetase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate transferase (MPST or 3-MST). Genetic deficiency of mpst-1 (3-MST orthologue 1), but not cth-2 (CSE orthologue), reduced the lifespan of C. elegans. This effect was reversed by a pharmacological H2S donor (GYY4137). GYY4137 also reduced detrimental age-dependent changes in a range of physiological indices, including pharyngeal contraction and defecation. Treatment of C. elegans with GYY4137 increased the expression of several age-related, stress response, and antioxidant genes, whereas MitoSOX Red fluorescence, indicative of reactive oxygen species generation, was increased in mpst-1 knockouts and decreased by GYY4137 treatment. GYY4137 additionally ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans run gene encodes a Runt domain factor. Runx1, Runx2, and Runx3 are the three known mammalian homologs of run. Runx1, which plays an essential role in hematopoiesis, has been identified at the breakpoint of chromosome translocations that are responsible for human leukemia. Runx2 plays an essential role in osteogenesis, and inactivation of one allele of Runx2 is responsible for the human disease cleidocranial dysplasia. To understand the role of run in C. elegans, we used transgenic run::GFP reporter constructs and a double-stranded RNA-mediated interference method. The expression of run was detected as early as the bean stage exclusively in the nuclei of seam hypodermal cells and lasted until the L3 stage. At the larval stage, expression of run was additionally detected in intestinal cells. The regulatory elements responsible for the postembryonic hypodermal seam cells and intestinal cells were separately located within a 7.2-kb-long intron region. This is the first ...
Caenorhabditis elegans are free-living bacterivorous nematodes that naturally consume bacteria as food source. As an excellent genetic model, C. elegans has proven to be a successful system to study innate immune responses to human pathogens, which resulted in identification of many evolutionarily conserved defense pathways. Most of these studies examined innate immune pathway mutants in a single genetic background in response to monoculture of human pathogens that worms might not necessarily encounter in the wild. While this has led to the successful genetic dissection of these defense pathways, in order to fully understand their biological functions, the relevant ecological and evolutionary context needs to be taken into account. The bacterial environment C. elegans naturally encounter is likely to be highly heterogeneous. While many bacteria are mainly considered as dietary resource for worms, some could be potential pathogens. Worms thus constantly face the challenge to defend against the ...
Turraea fischeri is an East African traditional herb, which is widely used in traditional medicine. In this study, we profiled the secondary metabolites in the methanol extract of T. fischeri bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS, and 20 compounds were tentatively identified. Several isomers of the flavonolignan cinchonain-I and bis-dihydroxyphenylpropanoid-substituted catechin hexosides dominated the extract. Robust in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties were observed in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Additionally, the extract exhibited promising hepatoprotective activities in D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) treated rats. A significant reduction in the elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increase of glutathione (GSH) was observed in rats treated with the bark extract in addition to D
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated worm-stars. Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy,
The elt-1 RNAi phenotype provides a useful insight into the function of seam cells during postembryonic development. The loss of alae in the adult cuticle confirms the role of seam cells in producing this structure, which has previously been shown by laser ablation studies (Singh and Sulston, 1978). The apparently normal appearance of the underlying cuticle is also consistent with these previous studies and presumably this is derived from the dorsal/ventral hypodermis. RNAi of elt-1, applied during larval development, has a severe effect on the integrity of adult worms within a few hours of the L4-adult moult. Adult hermaphrodites show a `burst-vulva phenotype, in which the uterus herneates through the vulva. This is likely to be a direct consequence of seam-cell loss because the lateral seam anchors the vulval and uterine cells in position by virtue of the utse cell connection (Michaux et al., 2001; Newman et al., 2000; Sharma-Kishore et al., 1999). This hypothesis is supported by the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Tcl transposable elements in Caenorhabditis elegans.. AU - Emmons, S. W.. AU - Ruan, K. S.. AU - Levitt, A.. AU - Yesner, L.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - C. elegans strains contain variable numbers of a 1.6-kb transposable genetic element. Activity of this element, which is denoted Tcl, shows regulation at at least two levels. At one level, excision of Tcl elements occurs in somatic cells at a frequency several orders of magnitude higher than in germ cells. Evidence is presented suggesting that this results from regulation at the level of trans-acting functions that are required for excision or that repress excision. At the second level, germ line transposition of Tcl occurs at greater frequency in some strains than in others. The hypothesis is proposed that this is because Tcl is one component of a two-element system, the second element of which differs between strains. Evidence for a second putative transposable element family in C. elegans is presented. This ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology (RPM)-1 is a member of a conserved family of proteins called Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR) proteins. PHR proteins are key regulators of neuronal development. In C. elegans, RPM-1 (regulator of presynaptic morphology-1) regulates axon termination and guidance in the mechanosensory neurons, and regulates synapse formation in the mechanosensory and motor neurons (Po et al., 2010). In adult C. elegans, RPM-1 also plays a role in axon regeneration in motor neurons (Hammarlund et al., 2009). Importantly, Drosophila Highwire, zebrafish Esrom/Phr1, and murine Phr1 also regulate synapse formation and axon extension highlighting the evolutionarily conserved function of the PHR proteins (Po et al., 2010).. Previous studies showed that RPM-1 functions, in part, as an E3 ubiquitin ligase by binding to the F box SyNaptic protein (FSN)-1 and negatively regulating a MAPK pathway that includes: the Dual Leucine zipper-bearing Kinase (DLK)-1, MAPK Kinase ...
Under experimental conditions, virtually all behaviors of Caenorhabditis elegans are achieved by combinations of simple locomotion, including forward, reversal movement, turning by deep body bending, and gradual shallow turning. To study how worms regulate these locomotion in response to sensory information, acidic pH avoidance behavior was analyzed by using worm tracking system. In the acidic pH avoidance, we characterized two types of behavioral maneuvers that have similar behavioral sequences in chemotaxis and thermotaxis. A stereotypic reversal-turn-forward sequence of reversal avoidance caused an abrupt random reorientation, and a shallow gradual turn in curve avoidance caused non-random reorientation in a less acidic direction to avoid the acidic pH. Our results suggest that these two maneuvers were each triggered by a distinct threshold pH. A simulation study using the two-distinct-threshold model reproduced the avoidance behavior of the real worm, supporting the presence of the threshold.
Neuropeptides regulate all aspects of behavior in multicellular organisms. Because of their ability to act at long distances, neuropeptides can exert their effects beyond the conventional synaptic connections, thereby adding an intricate layer of complexity to the activity of neural networks. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system have been identified.The actions of these peptides supplement the synaptic connections of the 302 neurons, allowing for fine tuning of neural networks and increasing the ways in which behaviors can be regulated. In this review, we focus on a large family of genes encoding FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These genes, the flp genes, have been used as a starting point to identifying flp genes throughout Nematoda. Nematodes have the largest family of FaRPs described thus far. The challenges in the future are the elucidation of their functions and the identification of the receptors and
Metals are major contaminants that influence human health. Many metals have physiologic roles, but excessive levels can be harmful. Advances in technology have made toxicogenomic analyses possible to characterize the effects of metal exposure on the entire genome. Much of what is known about cellular responses to metals has come from mammalian systems; however the use of non-mammalian species is gaining wider attention. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a small round worm whose genome has been fully sequenced and its development from egg to adult is well characterized. It is an attractive model for high throughput screens due to its short lifespan, ease of genetic mutability, low cost and high homology with humans. Research performed in C. elegans has led to insights in apoptosis, gene expression and neurodegeneration, all of which can be altered by metal exposure. Additionally, by using worms one can potentially study how the mechanisms that underline differential responses to metals in nematodes
The eukaryotic ubiquitin-conjugation system sets the turnover rate of many proteins and includes activating enzymes (E1s), conjugating enzymes (UBCs/E2s), and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), which are responsible for activation, covalent attachment and substrate recognition, respectively. There are also ubiquitin-like proteins with distinct functions, which require their own E1s and E2s for attachment. We describe the results of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments on the E1s, UBC/E2s and ubiquitin-like proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also present a phylogenetic analysis of UBCs. The C. elegans genome encodes 20 UBCs and three ubiquitin E2 variant proteins. RNAi shows that only four UBCs are essential for embryogenesis: LET-70 (UBC-2), a functional homolog of yeast Ubc4/5p, UBC-9, an ortholog of yeast Ubc9p, which transfers the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO, UBC-12, an ortholog of yeast Ubc12p, which transfers the ubiquitin-like modifier Rub1/Nedd8, and UBC-14, an ortholog of Drosophila Courtless.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has in recent years been proven to be a powerful in vivo model for testing antimicrobial compounds. We report here that the alkaloid compound Harmane (2-methyl-β-carboline) increases the lifespan of nematodes infected with a human pathogen, the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and several other bacterial pathogens. This was shown to be unrelated to the weak antibiotic effect of Harmane. Using GFP-expressing E. coli EDL933, we showed that Harmane does not lower the colonization burden in the nematodes. We also found that the expression of the putative immune effector gene F35E12.5 was up-regulated in response to Harmane treatment. This indicates that Harmane stimulates the innate immune response of the nematode; thereby increasing its lifespan during bacterial infection. Expression of F35E12.5 is predominantly regulated through the p38 MAPK pathway; however, intriguingly the lifespan extension resulting from Harmane was higher in ...
An additional genetic locus in Caenorhabditis elegans, unc-116, was identified in a screen for mutations resulting in defective locomotion. unc-116 was cloned by use of a transposon insertion mutant and the physical and genetic map of the genome. The cDNA sequence predicts an 815-amino acid protein. Based upon sequence comparison and secondary structure predictions, unc-116 encodes all three domains of the kinesin heavy chain: the motor, stalk, and tail. While the motor and tail domains have a high degree of identity to the equivalent domains of cloned kinesin heavy chains, the rodII domain of the stalk is significantly shorter than those previously reported and is not predicted to form a coiled-coil alpha-helix. Analysis of mutational defects in two C. elegans genes encoding anterograde motor molecules, unc-116 and unc-104, should provide insight into the in vivo functions of these members of the kinesin heavy chain superfamily.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel calcineurin-interacting protein, CNP-3, modulates calcineurin deficient phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans. AU - Kim, Yun Hee. AU - Song, Hyun Ok. AU - Ko, Kyung Min. AU - Singaravelu, Gunasekaran. AU - Jee, Chang Hoon. AU - Kang, Junsu. AU - Ahnn, Joohong. PY - 2008/6/30. Y1 - 2008/6/30. N2 - Calcineurin (Cn) is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that has diverse functions in different cell types and organisms. We screened proteins interacting with the C. elegans CnA homolog, TAX-6, by the yeast two-hybrid system. CNP-3 (Calcineurin interacting protein-3) is a novel protein that physically interacts with the catalytic domain of TAX-6. It is strongly expressed in the nuclei of intestine, hypodermis, dorsal uterine regions and spermatheca. Expression begins around the 60-cell stage and proceeds during all larval stages and the adult. To elucidate the biological function of cnp-3 we isolated a cnp-3 deletion mutant. Since CNP-3 binds CnA, ...
This paper presents a simple yet biologicallygrounded model for the neural control of Caenorhabditis elegans forward locomotion. We identify a minimal circuit within the C. elegans ventral cord that is likely to be sufficient to generate and sustain forward locomotion in vivo. This limited subcircuit appears to contain no obvious central pattern generated control. For that subcircuit, we present a model that relies on a chain of oscillators along the body which are driven by local and proximate mechano-sensory input. Computer simulations were used to study the model under a variety of conditions and to test whether it is behaviourally plausible. Within our model, we find that a minimal circuit of AVB interneurons and B-class motoneurons is sufficient to generate and sustain fictive forward locomotion patterns that are robust to significant environmental perturbations. The model predicts speed and amplitude modulation by the AVB command interneurons. An extended model including D-class ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, approximately 22 nucleotide RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by base-pairing to complementary sites in the target mRNA. The first miRNA, lin-4, was discovered in 1993 in Caenorhabditis elegans; since then hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in C. elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, plants, mouse, and humans, where they approach a number equivalent to 1-2% of the protein-coding genes. With the exception of plants, miRNAs most commonly regulate targets by imperfectly pairing to 3 untranslated regions (UTRs), leading to translational repression or mRNA destabilization. The microRNA miR-196 is encoded at three paralogous locations in the HoxA, B, and C clusters in mammals and has conserved complementarity to the 3UTRs of Hoxb8, Hoxc8, and Hoxa7; in particular, miR-1 96 has complete complementarity to Hoxb8 with the exception of a single G:U wobble. In 2004, Yekta et al., were able to detect RNA fragments diagnostic of miR-1 96-directed ...
Despite the prominence of Caenorhabditis elegans as a major developmental and genetic model system, its phylogenetic relationship to its closest relatives has not been resolved. Resolution of these relationships is necessary for studying the steps that underlie life history, genomic, and morphological evolution of this important system. By using data from five different nuclear genes from 10 Caenorhabditis species currently in culture, we find a well resolved phylogeny that reveals three striking patterns in the evolution of this animal group: (i) Hermaphroditism has evolved independently in C. elegans and its close relative Caenorhabditis briggsae; (ii) there is a large degree of intron turnover within Caenorhabditis, and intron losses are much more frequent than intron gains; and (iii) despite the lack of marked morphological diversity, more genetic disparity is present within this one genus than has occurred within all vertebrates. ...
Progressive neuronal deterioration accompanied by sensory functions decline is typically observed during aging. On the other hand, structural or functional alterations of specific sensory neurons extend lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Hormesis is a phenomenon by which the body benefits from moderate stress of various kinds which at high doses are harmful. Several studies indicate that different stressors can hormetically extend lifespan in C. elegans and suggest that hormetic effects could be exploited as a strategy to slow down aging and the development of age-associated (neuronal) diseases in humans. Mitochondria play a central role in the aging process and hormetic-like bimodal dose-response effects on C. elegans lifespan have been observed following different levels of mitochondrial stress. Here we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial stress may hormetically extend C. elegans lifespan through subtle neuronal alterations. In support of our hypothesis we find that life-lengthening
The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva develops during postembryonic (larval) development from ventral epidermal precursors, and connects the developing uterus to the external environment. In the adult, the vulva is necessary for egg-laying (see Egg-laying) and for copulation with males (see Male mating behavior). Vulval development has attracted general interest for three main reasons. First, it serves as a paradigm for organogenesis. In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. It is also a striking example of tissue remodeling: the formation of a hole at a precise location in an organism. Second, it has been important for the genetic analyses of signaling and signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor LET-23 and RAS LET-60; (see RTKRas/MAP kinase signaling), LIN-12 (see LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans), and WNT (see Wnt signaling), as well as the functions of the SynMuv and ...
The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva develops during postembryonic (larval) development from ventral epidermal precursors, and connects the developing uterus to the external environment. In the adult, the vulva is necessary for egg-laying (see Egg-laying) and for copulation with males (see Male mating behavior). Vulval development has attracted general interest for three main reasons. First, it serves as a paradigm for organogenesis. In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. It is also a striking example of tissue remodeling: the formation of a hole at a precise location in an organism. Second, it has been important for the genetic analyses of signaling and signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor LET-23 and RAS LET-60; (see RTKRas/MAP kinase signaling), LIN-12 (see LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans), and WNT (see Wnt signaling), as well as the functions of the SynMuv and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Caenorhabditis elegans as an environmental monitor using DNA microarray analysis. AU - Custodia, N.. AU - Won, S. J.. AU - Novillo, A.. AU - Wieland, M.. AU - Li, C.. AU - Callard, I. P.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - In order to assist in the identification of possible endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in groundwater, we are developing Caenorhabolitis elegans as a high throughput bioassay system in which responses to EDC may be detected by gene expression using DNA microarray analysis. As a first step we examined gene expression patterns and vitellogenin responses of this organism to vertebrate steroids, in liquid culture. Western blotting showed the expected number and size of vitellogenin translation products after estrogen exposure. At 10-9 M, vitellogenin decreased, but at 10-7 and 10-5, vitellogenin was increased. Testosterone (10-5 M) increased the synthesis of vitellogenin, but progesterone-treated ...
Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) enables the production of long timelapse recordings from live fluorescent specimens. 1047- and 900-nm excitation were used to image both a vital fluorescent membrane probe, FM 4-64, and a modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Automated four-dimensional (4D) data collection yielded individual recordings comprising thousands of images, each allowing analysis of all of the cell divisions, contacts, migrations, and fusions that occur during a span of several hours of embryogenesis.. ©1998 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Current Name: Aphyosemion elegans. Describer(s), Year: (Boulenger, 1899). IDENTITY: elegans A.. Family-group Names: Nothobranchiidae Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiinae Garman, 1895 , Nothobranchiini Garman, 1895 , Aphyosemina Huber, 2000 (#Aphyosemiina #Aphyosemionina) Genus: Aphyosemion Myers, 1924. Subgenus: Aphyosemion Myers, 1924. Abbreviated genus: A.. Abbreviated subgenus: (A.). Species: elegans. Index name: elegans: Aphyosemion elegans. Full name: Aphyosemion (Aphyosemion) elegans. TYPOLOGY: elegans A.. Original name: Haplochilus elegans. Describer(s): Boulenger. Year of description: 1899. Original description: Boulenger, G.A. 1899. Poissons nouveaux du Congo. Cinquième Partie. Cyprins, Silures, Cyprinodontes, Acanthopterygiens. Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Tervuren, Zool. Ser., 1 (5): 113, pl. 47 (fig. 2).. Gender/Accordance: [Subst.]. SYSTEMATICS: elegans A.. Current status: valid sp.. Status evaluation (current): discussed {no red bars on male sides are mentioned in the description, only -red- ...
0, Molecular and genetic characterization of GON-2, a TRPM cation channel required for gonadogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of o Doctor of Philosophy in Biological Sciences by Rachel West DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire January, 2004 Examining9ommittee: Eric }. IAInbig (Chair) c:, Victor R. A)fibros Eleanor M. Maine Carol L. Folt Dean of Graduate Studies ...
Phosphine is a fumigant used to protect stored commodities from infestation by pest insects, though high-level phosphine resistance in many insect species threatens the continued use of the fumigant. The mechanisms of toxicity and resistance are not clearly understood. In this study, the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, was employed to investigate the effects of phosphine on its proposed in vivo target, the mitochondrion. We found that phosphine rapidly perturbs mitochondrial morphology, inhibits oxidative respiration by 70%, and causes a severe drop in mitochondrial membrane potential ({Delta}{Psi}m) within 5 h of exposure. We then examined the phosphine-resistant strain of nematode, pre-33, to determine whether resistance was associated with any changes to mitochondrial physiology. Oxygen consumption was reduced by 70% in these mutant animals, which also had more mitochondrial genome copies than wild-type animals, a common response to reduced metabolic capacity. The mutant also had an ...
We have examined the cortex of Caenorhabditis elegans eggs during pseudocleavage (PC), a period of the first cell cycle which is important for the generation of asymmetry at first cleavage (Strome, S. 1989. Int. Rev. Cytol. 114: 81-123). We have found that directed, actin dependent, cytoplasmic, and cortical flow occurs during this period coincident with a rearrangement of the cortical actin cytoskeleton (Strome, S. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103: 2241-2252). The flow velocity (4-7 microns/min) is similar to previously determined particle movements driven by cortical actin flows in motile cells. We show that directed flows occur in one of the daughters of the first division that itself divides asymmetrically, but not in its sister that divides symmetrically. The cortical and cytoplasmic events of PC can be mimicked in other cells during cytokinesis by displacing the mitotic apparatus with the microtubule polymerization inhibitor nocodazole. In all cases, the polarity of the resulting cortical and ...
Glutathione is the most abundant thiol in the vast majority of organisms and is maintained in its reduced form by the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase. In this work, we describe the genetic and functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans gsr-1 gene that encodes the only glutathione reductase protein in this model organism. By using green fluorescent protein reporters we demonstrate that gsr-1 produces two GSR-1 isoforms, one located in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. gsr-1 loss of function mutants display a fully penetrant embryonic lethal phenotype characterized by a progressive and robust cell division delay accompanied by an aberrant distribution of interphasic chromatin in the periphery of the cell nucleus. Maternally expressed GSR-1 is sufficient to support embryonic development but these animals are short-lived, sensitized to chemical stress and have increased mitochondrial fragmentation and lower mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, the embryonic lethality of gsr-1 ...
The protease separase plays a key role in sister chromatid disjunction and centriole disengagement. To maintain genomic stability, separase activity is strictly regulated by binding of an inhibitory protein, securin. Despite its central role in cell division, the separase and securin complex is poorly understood at the structural level. This is partly owing to the difficulty of generating a sufficient quantity of homogeneous, stable protein. Here, we report the production of Caenorhabditis elegans separase-securin complex, and its characterization using biochemical methods and by negative staining electron microscopy. Single particle analysis generated a density map at a resolution of 21-24 Å that reveals a close, globular structure of complex connectivity harbouring two lobes. One lobe matches closely a homology model of the N-terminal HEAT repeat domain of separase, whereas the second lobe readily accommodates homology models of the separase C-terminal death and caspase-like domains. The ...
The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, like Drosophila, has been studied largely because of its importance in genetics. In ... Hodgkin J (2001). "Caenorhabditis elegans". In Brenner S, Miller JH (eds.). Encyclopedia of Genetics. Elsevier. pp. 251-256. ... Ardiel, EL; Rankin, CH (2010). "An elegant mind: learning and memory in Caenorhabditis elegans". Learning and Memory. 17 (4): ... Brenner, Sydney (1974). "The Genetics of CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Medical ...
"SWISS-MODEL , Caenorhabditis elegans". swissmodel.expasy.org. Retrieved 2020-02-14. "SWISS-MODEL , Escherichia coli". ... Model organisms include human, mouse, C.elegans, E.coli, and various pathogens including severe acute respiratory syndrome ...
Caenorhabditis elegans. Wall chart". Science. 270 (5235): 415-430. doi:10.1126/science.270.5235.410. PMID 7569996. S2CID ... Kimble, J. E.; White, J. G. (1981). "On the control of germ cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans". Developmental Biology ... Durbin, Richard Michael (1987). Studies on the development and organisation of the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans ( ... White's research investigates cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. With collaborators Sydney Brenner, John ...
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied because of its importance in genetics. In the early 1970s, Sydney Brenner ... Hodgkin J (2001). "Caenorhabditis elegans". In Brenner S, Miller JH (eds.). Encyclopedia of Genetics. Elsevier. pp. 251-256. ... elegans. Each of these has its own advantages and disadvantages as a model system. For example, the C. elegans nervous system ... "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ...
Nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans. Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics. Low cost. Also popular for some purposes have ... Riddle DL, Blumenthal T, Meyer BJ, Priess JR (1997). C.elegans II. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press ...
Caenorhabditis elegans) • Large roundworm (Ascaris suum) Mollusca • Owl limpet (Lottia gigantea) • Pacific oyster (Crassostrea ...
Caenorhabditis elegans M04F3.5 protein. The vertebrate IRSp53/MIM family is divided into two major groups: the IRSp53 subfamily ...
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living, transparent nematode, about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil ... OpenWorm is an international open science project to simulate the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans at the cellular level as a ... Wood, WB (1988). The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-87969-433-3. ... There are fewer than one thousand cells in the whole body of a C. elegans worm, and because C. Elegans is a model organism, ...
Decay of mature miRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by the 5'-to-3' exoribonuclease XRN2, also known as Rat1p. In ... Lee RC, Ambros V (October 2001). "An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans". Science. 294 (5543): 862-4. ... Chatterjee S, Grosshans H (September 2009). "Active turnover modulates mature microRNA activity in Caenorhabditis elegans". ... "The microRNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genes & Development. 17 (8): 991-1008. doi:10.1101/gad.1074403. PMC 196042. PMID ...
In one instance they were used to genetically screen a population of Caenorhabditis elegans. At this point in time scientists ... Herman, Robert K.; Albertson, Donna G.; Brenner, Sydney (1976-05-15). "Chromosome Rearrangements in Caenorhabditis Elegans". ... For that reason, balancers are also used in other model organisms, most notably the worm C.elegans and the mouse. Typical ...
Around the same time, the presenilin homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, sel-12, was independently identified as a contributor ... Levitan D, Greenwald I (September 1995). "Facilitation of lin-12-mediated signalling by sel-12, a Caenorhabditis elegans S182 ... Smialowska A, Baumeister R (2006). "Presenilin function in Caenorhabditis elegans". Neuro-Degenerative Diseases. 3 (4-5): 227- ... including model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and ...
Brenner, S. (May 1974). "The Genetics of Caenorhabditis Elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 71-94. PMC 1213120. PMID 4366476. Zilly FE ... unc-18 Gene Encodes a Novel Protein Affecting the Kinetics of Acetylcholine Metabolism in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ... elegans) and are a member of the Sec1/Munc18-like (SM) protein family. Munc-18 proteins have been identified as essential ...
He established the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for the investigation of developmental biology, and ... Brenner then focused on establishing Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for the investigation of animal development ... Sulston, J.; Brenner, S. (1974). "The DNA of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 95-104. doi:10.1093/genetics/77.1.95. ... Brenner, Sydney (1974). "The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 71-94. doi:10.1093/genetics/77.1.71. PMC ...
Specimens of Caenorhabditis elegans survive. June 2 - The first European Mars mission Mars Express launched. September 27 - The ...
Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ... "The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 71-94. doi:10.1093/genetics/77.1.71. PMC 1213120. PMID 4366476. ...
Early studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster saw large-scale, systematic loss of function (LOF) screens ... "The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 71-94. PMC 1213120. PMID 4366476. Gans M, Audit C, Masson M ( ... in Caenorhabditis elegans development". Mechanisms of Development. 95 (1-2): 67-76. doi:10.1016/s0925-4773(00)00339-7. PMID ... "The polo-like kinase PLK-1 is required for nuclear envelope breakdown and the completion of meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans ...
"Centriole assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 444: 619-623. doi:10.1038/nature05318. Marsh, Brad J.; Mastronarde, ...
Sulston, J.; Brenner, S. (1974). "The DNA of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 95-104. doi:10.1093/genetics/77.1.95. ... Sulston, J. E.; Horvitz, H. R. (1977). "Post-embryonic cell lineages of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans". Developmental ... Sulston, J.E.; Horvitz, H.R. (1977). "Post-embryonic cell lineages of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans". Developmental ... The C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998). "Genome Sequence of the Nematode C. elegans: A Platform for Investigating Biology ...
Praitis V, Maduro MF (2011). "Transgenesis in C. elegans". Caenorhabditis elegans: Molecular Genetics and Development. Methods ... The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the major model organisms for researching molecular biology. RNA interference ( ... Diogo J, Bratanich A (November 2014). "The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to study viruses". Archives of Virology. ... Conte D, MacNeil LT, Walhout AJ, Mello CC (January 2015). RNA Interference in Caenorhabditis elegans. Current Protocols in ...
Caenorhabditis elegans uncharacterised protein ZC168.2. These neurohormones are peptides of 70 to 80 amino acid residues which ...
Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical protein W06E11.4. Methanococcus jannaschii hypothetical protein MJ0592. This particular ... "Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans by comparative proteomics". Genome ...
In Caenorhabditis elegans self-fertilized eggs exit the body through the vulva. This organ develops from a subset of cell of an ... Kornfeld (1997). "Vulval development in Caenorhabditis elegans". Trends Genet. 13 (2): 55-61. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(97)01005-6 ... Sternberg and Horvitz; Horvitz, HR (1986). "Pattern formation during vulval development in C. elegans". Cell. 44 (5): 761-72. ...
The term netrin was first used in a study done in 1990 in Caenorhabditis elegans and was called UNC-6. Studies performed on ... UNC is a set of proteins first identified through a set of screening tests in Caenorhabditis elegans, looking for roundworms ... There are three phases in hermaphrodite distal tip cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans which are distinguished by the ... Eight pairs of chemosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans take up fluorescein dyes entering through the chemosensory organs ...
"The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans". www.wormbook.org.. *^ Kavlie, RG; Kernan, MJ; Eberl, DF (May 2010). "Hearing in ... One roundworm of note, C. elegans, lives in the soil and has found much use as a model organism. C. elegans has had its entire ... Most nematode species are dioecious, with separate male and female individuals, though some, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, ... White JG, Southgate E, Thomson JN, Brenner S (August 1976). "The structure of the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans ...
"The neuronal genome of Caenorhabditis elegans". www.wormbook.org. Functionally, mEPSPs and miniature end-plate potentials ( ...
Caenorhabditis elegans protein phosphatase ptp-1. Chishti AH, Kim AC, Marfatia SM, Lutchman M, Hanspal M, Jindal H, Liu SC, Low ...
Blumenthal, Thomas; Gleason, Kathy Seggerson (February 2003). "Caenorhabditis elegans operons: form and function". Nature ... Exon Messenger RNA Conrad, Richard; Fen Liou, Ruey; Blumenthal, Thomas (1993-02-25). "Functional analysis of a C. elegans trans ...
"Analysis of Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans". In Rothman JH, Singson A (eds.). Caenorhabditis Elegans: Cell Biology and ... Schulz TJ, Zarse K, Voigt A, Urban N, Birringer M, Ristow M (October 2007). "Glucose restriction extends Caenorhabditis elegans ... As of 2015[update], metformin was under study for its potential effect on slowing ageing in the worm C.elegans and the cricket ... As of 2009[update], the record for lifespan extension in C. elegans is a single-gene mutation which increases adult survival by ...
Caenorhabditis elegans. 秀麗隱杆線蟲 97,000,000 18,250 Arabidopsis thaliana. 阿拉伯芥(擬南芥) 125,000,000 25,500 ...
Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans 9.8×107 First multicellular animal genome, December 1998.[10] ... The C. elegans sequencing consortium (1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology" ...
Nematood Caenorhabditis elegans ehk varbuss on bioloogias oluline mudelorganism. Üldiselt on mikroskoopilised loomad väga laia ... C. elegans as a Model System Genes, Genomes, and Human Genetics, on-line course, Rutgers University ...
... as 97 Mbp do verme Caenorhabditis elegans),[66] para rematar a década co primeiro cromosoma humano (o 22), que foi ... C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology". ...
The recombinase paralog rfs-1 is found in the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, where it is not essential for homologous ...
Abwydod: Caenorhabditis elegans. *Burum: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (burum pobi). Cyfeiriadau[golygu , golygu cod y dudalen]. *↑ ...
Teprve popsání fenoménu RNAi u hlístice Caenorhabditis elegans (háďátko obecné) znamenalo skutečnou revoluci v molekulární ... Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature 391: 806-11 ...
O xene him-14 do verme Caenorhabditis elegans codifica un ortólogo de MSH4.[7] A formación de sobrecruzamentos durante a meiose ... Winand NJ, Panzer JA, Kolodner RD (1998). "Cloning and characterization of the human and Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of the ... Winand NJ, Panzer JA, Kolodner RD (Oct 1998). "Cloning and characterization of the human and Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of ... "Crossing over during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis requires a conserved MutS-based pathway that is partially dispensable in ...
Caenorhabditis elegans (a roundworm), Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly), Danio rerio (the zebrafish), Mus musculus ... C. elegans has a short life-cycle, is easy to manipulate genetically, and has a simple but well-understood nervous system. The ... Small-animal models include the fruit fly, the roundworm C. elegans, and the zebrafish. Of the three, the fruit fly is the most ...
... a species group in the taxonomy of the genus Caenorhabditis, in the 'Elegans' supergroup with Caenorhabditis japonica as type ...
Červ Caenorhabditis elegans je príkladom dobre známeho mnohobunkového živočícha; každá z jeho 1090 somatických buniek má svoj ...
An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 294, 858-862. ... An extensive class of small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 294, 862-864. ...
... his daring introduction of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a system for tracing the birth and death of every cell in a ...
The second identified in 2007 is called EFF1, which helps form the skin of Caenorhabditis elegans, part of a whole family of FF ... In this image, a wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans is stained to highlight the nuclei of its cells. ...
... including the worm Caenorhabditis elegans,[75] and the regenerative planarian Schmidtea mediterranea[76][77] and axolotl ...
"An abundant class of tiny RNAs with probable regulatory roles in Caenorhabditis elegans". Science. 294 (5543): 858-62. doi: ... elegans (MI0000050) and Drosophila melanogaster (MI0000374). microRNAs have been implicated in human cancer in a number of ...
... was identified in Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), an enzyme that produces inositol ... "Synaptic Polarity Depends on Phosphatidylinositol Signaling Regulated by myo-Inositol Monophosphatase in Caenorhabditis elegans ... "Inositol monophosphatase regulates localization of synaptic components and behavior in the mature nervous system of C. elegans ...
This thaumatin domain has been found in species as diverse as rice and Caenorhabditis elegans. Thaumatins are pathogenesis- ...
"Two cytochrome P450s in Caenorhabditis elegans are essential for the organization of eggshell, correct execution of meiosis and ... BCD is associated with mutations in the CYP4V2 gene.[2] The nematode C. elegans has a duplicated gene (cyp31A2 and cyp31A3) ...
Longitudinal section through the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans showing the position of the pharynx in the animal body. ...
Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a cost of US$0.75 per base. Meanwhile, sequencing of human cDNA ... "A high-resolution, nucleosome position map of C. elegans reveals a lack of universal sequence-dictated positioning". Genome ...
Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 7106-13. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.11.7106. PMID ...
The nervous system of one very small worm, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, has been mapped out down to the synaptic level ... In C. elegans, males have exactly 383 neurons, while hermaphrodites have exactly 302 neurons.[14] ...
"Identification of potential therapeutic drugs for huntington's disease using Caenorhabditis elegans". PLoS ONE. 2 (6): e504. ...
"Aging and resistance to oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... to support the role of oxidative stress in aging in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, ...
Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans, in Nature, via University of ... "Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 391 (6669): 806-811. ...
doi:10.1016/0012-1606(80)90352-8. Sulston2, JE (1983). "The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". ... doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00050-1. Sulston, JE (1980). "The Caenorhabditis elegans male: postembryonic development of ...
za zistenie presného sledu, v ktorom sa delia a umierajú bunky červa Caenorhabditis elegans a za objasnenie procesu ...
... the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), and the common house mouse (Mus musculus ...
Kamath RS, Ahringer J (August 2003). "Genome-wide RNAi screening in Caenorhabditis elegans". Methods. 30 (4): 313-21. doi: ... Fortunato A, Fraser AG (2005). "Uncover genetic interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans by RNA interference". Bioscience Reports ... by introducing sense and antisense RNA to par-1 mRNA in Caenorhabditis elegans caused degradation of the par-1 message.[128] It ... "RNA interference may result in unexpected phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nucleic Acids Research. 47 (8): 3957-3969. doi ...
Here we show using electron tomography of staged C. elegans one-cell embryos that daughter centriole assembly begins with the ... Now centriole assembly in C. elegans has been followed ultrastructurally using electron tomography. Assembly starts with ... elegans. Centriole assembly occurs in at least three distinct steps: tube formation, tube elongation and singlet microtubule ... Figure 3: Centriole assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans is a multi-step process. ...
... many studies focused initially on Caenorhabditis elegans, since this model organism has a relatively small genome amenable to ... The genome of C. elegans is approximately 100 million base pairs, whereas the human genome consists of more than 3 billion. ... Other articles where Caenorhabditis elegans is discussed: aging: Genetics and life span: … ... studies centred on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a near-microscopic soil worm that had been identified by Brenner as an ...
Source for information on Roundworms: Caenorhabditis Elegans: Encyclopedia of Aging dictionary. ... CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS Aging is a complex deteriorative process affecting the survival of both living and nonliving things. ... Brenner, S. The Genetics of Caenorhabditis Elegans. Genetics 77 (1974): 71-94. ... Johnson, T. E., and Wood, W. B. Genetic Analysis of the Life-Span of Caenorhabditis Elegans. Proceedings of the National ...
In fact, we know an adult C. elegans has exactly 959 somatic cells, and their full lineage all the way back to the zygote. ... Caenorhabiditis elegans is a free-living (non-parasitic) species of soil nematode which makes a good model organism for ... Mutations have been found in C. elegans that slow down its metabolic rate and at the same time increase its lifespan.. You can ... C. elegans has been thoroughly studied by geneticists, developmental biologists and neurologists. The worms can be used to ...
The Orsay virus is a virus that affects C. elegans, as well as the Caenorhabditis elegans Cer1 virus and the Caenorhabditis ... "Caenorhabditis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Wood, WB (1988). The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cold Spring Harbor ... As of 2014, C. elegans is the most basal species in the Elegans group (10 species) of the Elegans supergroup (17 species) ... elegans View the ce11 genome assembly in the UCSC Genome Browser. Caenorhabditis elegans at eppo.int (EPPO code CAEOEL). ...
The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans.. Brenner S.. Abstract. Methods are described for the isolation, complementation and ... mapping of mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans, a small free-living nematode worm. About 300 EMS-induced mutants affecting ...
CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS DEFICIENCY MAPPING. D. Christine Sigurdson, Gail J. Spanier and Robert K. Herman ... CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS DEFICIENCY MAPPING. D. Christine Sigurdson, Gail J. Spanier and Robert K. Herman ... CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS DEFICIENCY MAPPING. D. Christine Sigurdson, Gail J. Spanier and Robert K. Herman ... II following X-ray treatment of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Complementation tests between the deficiencies and ethyl ...
Role of autophagy in Caenorhabditis elegans.. Kovacs AL1, Zhang H.. Author information. 1. Department of Anatomy, Cell and ... During Caenorhabditis elegans development, autophagy plays an important role in many physiological processes, including ... Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/chemistry. *Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics. *Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/ ...
Methods are described for the isolation, complementation and mapping of mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans, a small free-living ... the genetic units in C.elegans are large. ... THE GENETICS OF CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS Message Subject (Your ...
Caenorhabditis elegans Cer1 virus is a species of retroviruses in the genus Metavirus. Bowen, N. J. (1999-10-01). "Genomic ... Analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans Reveals Ancient Families of Retroviral-like Elements". Genome Research. Cold Spring Harbor ...
1995) in Caenorhabditis elegans: Modern Biological Analysis of an Organism, eds Epstein H F, Shakes D C(Academic, New York), pp ... Lethal paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Creg Darby, Christine L. Cosma, James H. Thomas, Colin ... Lethal paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Creg Darby, Christine L. Cosma, James H. Thomas, Colin ... Lethal paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bergerac[2] (for instance strain BO)[3]. *Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bristol[4] (for instance ... The Orsay virus is a virus that affects C. elegans, as well as the Caenorhabditis elegans Cer1 virus[50] and the Caenorhabditis ... "Caenorhabditis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.. *^ Wood, WB (1988). The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cold Spring Harbor ... Caenorhabditis elegans (/ˌsiːnoʊræbˈdaɪtəs ˈɛləɡænz/[6]) is a free-living, transparent nematode, about 1 mm in length,[7] that ...
... Patricia Back, Bart P. Braeckman, and Filip Matthijssens ... Patricia Back, Bart P. Braeckman, and Filip Matthijssens, "ROS in Aging Caenorhabditis elegans: Damage or Signaling?," ...
We describe methods to use Caenorhabditis elegansas an alternative model for studying mitochondrial... ... 2005) Genetic analysis oflysosomal trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 3273-3288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Wood, W. B. (ed.) (1988) The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY. ... Gandre S., van der Bliek A.M. (2007) Mitochondrial Division in Caenorhabditis elegans. In: Leister D., Herrmann J.M. (eds) ...
Caenorhabditis elegans Natural variation Cold tolerance Temperature acclimation Abbreviations. C. elegans. Caenorhabditis ... Natural variation of cold tolerance in wild-type C. elegans Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits cultivation-temperature-dependent ... Caenorhabditis elegans were cultured under well-fed conditions. Three or more well-fed adults (P0) were placed on a 3.5 cm NGM ... Wicks SR, Yeh RT, Gish WR, Waterston RH, Plasterk RH (2001) Rapid gene mapping in Caenorhabditis elegans using a high density ...
Over the past years, C. elegans motility has been studied across a wide range of environments, including crawling on ... Ultimately, MEME provides researchers with an attractive platform for C. elegans segmentation and skeletonizing across a ... The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-known model organism used to investigate fundamental questions in biology. ... Caenorhabditis elegans Is the Subject Area "Caenorhabditis elegans" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
C. elegans har ikkje immunseller.[2] Det ytre laget av C. elegans vert laga og skilt ut av 12 seller med til saman 157 ... Hobert, Oliver (2010). «Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans». Worm Book. doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.12.2.. ... Caenorhabditis elegans er ein gjennomsiktig 1-2 millimeter lang rundmakk. Han finst i ròtnande frukter og stenglar og er ein ... Tuck, Simon (2014). «The control of cell growth and body size in Caenorhabditis elegans». Experimental Cell Research 321 (1): ...
Caenorhabditis briggsae. Caenorhabditis tropicalis. Caenorhabditis elegans. Caenorhabditis remanei (Caenorhabditis vulgaris). ... Caenorhabditis elegansImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... tr,Q18652,Q18652_CAEEL Uncharacterized protein OS=Caenorhabditis elegans GN=C46A5.1 PE=4 SV=1 ...
... was discovered in 1993 in Caenorhabditis elegans; since then hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in C. elegans, Drosophila ... MicroRNA targeting in mus musculus and Caenorhabditis elegans. Author(s). Lafkas, Ginamarie N ... The lin-4 miRNA plays a role in regulating the heterochronic genes involved in larval development in C. elegans. We used ...
Caenorhabditis elegans. Caenorhabditis tropicalis. Caenorhabditis latens. Caenorhabditis remanei (Caenorhabditis vulgaris). ... Caenorhabditis elegansImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p ... Caenorhabditis brenneri (Nematode worm). Caenorhabditis japonica. 287. UniRef50_Q17568. Cluster: Uncharacterized protein. 8. ... tr,Q17568,Q17568_CAEEL Uncharacterized protein OS=Caenorhabditis elegans GN=C01G5.5 PE=1 SV=1 ...
... elegans were isolated and characterized with the goal of identifying genes involved in control of directed cell movement. ... Mutations affecting embryonic cell migrations in Caenorhabditis elegans Dev Genet. 1990;11(1):49-64. doi: 10.1002/dvg. ... Four recessive mutations that affect long-range embryonic migration of the two canal-associated neurons (CANs) in C. elegans ...
In Caenorhabditis elegans, PAR proteins are required for the early asymmetrical divisions t … ... A non-muscle myosin required for embryonic polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans Nature. 1996 Aug 1;382(6590):455-8. doi: 10.1038/ ... In Caenorhabditis elegans, PAR proteins are required for the early asymmetrical divisions that establish embryonic polarity, ... Here we report the identification in C. elegans of nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain (designated NMY-2) by means of its ...
Step-Response Analysis of Chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Adam C. Miller, Tod R. Thiele, Serge Faumont, Marin L. Moravec ... Step-Response Analysis of Chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Adam C. Miller, Tod R. Thiele, Serge Faumont, Marin L. Moravec ... Step-Response Analysis of Chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Adam C. Miller, Tod R. Thiele, Serge Faumont, Marin L. Moravec ... Step-Response Analysis of Chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis elegans Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. elegans have ~65% similarity with human ... disease genes and, therefore, studies on C. elegans can be translated to human, as well as, C. elegans can be used in the study ... elegans. Microfluidic devices with the power to manipulate and detect bio-samples, regents or biomolecules in micro-scale ... One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. elegans have ~65% similarity with human ...
1986) The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 314:1-340. ... 2010) Caenorhabditis elegans: a new model organism for studies of axon regeneration. Dev Dyn 239:1460-1464. ... 1995) Expression of human beta-amyloid peptide in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9368-9372. ... 2010) Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan extension caused by treatment with an orally active ROS-generator is dependent on DAF-16 ...
Biological assays involving C. elegans frequently require a large number of animals that are appropriately staged and exhibi ... elegans is one of the widely studied animal model organisms in biology. It develops through 4 larval stages (L1-L4) in 2 to 3 ... Electrical sorting of Caenorhabditis elegans Pouya Rezai,a Sangeena Salam,b Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy*a and Bhagwati P. ... Electrical sorting of Caenorhabditis elegans P. Rezai, S. Salam, P. R. Selvaganapathy and B. P. Gupta, Lab Chip, 2012, 12, 1831 ...
C. elegans II [Cloth]. C. elegans II [Paper]. C. elegans Atlas [Concealed wire binding]. ... The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (Cold Spring Harbor Monograph Series 17). Book Series: Cold Spring Harbor Monograph Series ... Subject Area(s): Developmental Biology; Molecular Biology; Neurobiology; Caenorhabditis elegans. Edited by William B. Wood, ... Biology of C. elegans. Introduction to C. elegans Biology (W.B. Wood); Genetics (R.K. Herman); The Genome (S.W. Emmons); The ...
We recently showed that Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva, an arrested stage specialized for survival in adverse conditions, ... Caenorhabditis elegans Is the Subject Area "Caenorhabditis elegans" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Citation: Kim, Dennis H. " Bacteria and the Aging and Longevity of Caenorhabditis Elegans ." Annu. Rev. Genet. 47, no. 1 ( ... Bacteria and the Aging and Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. Research and Teaching Output of the MIT Community. ... The molecular genetic analysis of longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans has yielded fundamental insights into evolutionarily ... Recent studies suggest that interactions between C. elegans and its microbial environment may influence the aging and longevity ...
Serotonin and octopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... The biogenic amines serotonin and octopamine are present in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Serotonin, detected ... Exogenous serotonin and octopamine elicit specific and opposite behavioral responses in Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that ...
  • Methods are described for the isolation, complementation and mapping of mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans, a small free-living nematode worm. (nih.gov)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple organism that is an small free living nematode. (citizendium.org)
  • In 1965 Sydney Brenner chose the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a promising model system for a concerted genetic, ultrastructural, and behavioral attack on the development and function of a simple nervous system. (cshlpress.com)
  • Recently, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (FIGURES 1,3-6) became the first animal and more importantly, the first multicellular organism, to have the sequencing of its genome essentially completed ( C. elegans Consortium, Science 282:2011-2045, 1998). (apsnet.org)
  • C. elegans is a free-living nematode that is found in soil and in compost heaps. (asm.org)
  • many studies focused initially on Caenorhabditis elegans , since this model organism has a relatively small genome amenable to basic genetic research. (britannica.com)
  • studies centred on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , a near-microscopic soil worm that had been identified by Brenner as an ideal organism on which to study programmed cell death. (britannica.com)
  • Caenorhabiditis elegans is a free-living (non- parasitic ) species of soil nematode which makes a good model organism for biological study because it has a small genome of only six chromosome s. (everything2.com)
  • In 1974, he began research into the molecular and developmental biology of C. elegans, which has since been extensively used as a model organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans is a microscopic, soil-dwelling roundworm that has been powerfully used as a model organism since the early 1970's. (jove.com)
  • This video provides an overview of basic C. elegans biology , a timeline of the many milestones in its short but storied history, and finally a few exciting applications using C. elegans as a model organism. (jove.com)
  • One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans . (mdpi.com)
  • C. elegans has been used as a model organism in scientific research since 1963. (ravelry.com)
  • C. elegans was the first multicellular organism to have its whole genome sequenced. (ravelry.com)
  • First, lets get to know C. elegans as a model organism. (jove.com)
  • Now that we have reviewed C. elegans basics, lets learn what makes them a powerful model organism. (jove.com)
  • Thus, the small size of this organism pre-adapts C. elegans to living in soil environments that commonly become hypoxic. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we used the nematode model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, to evaluate the physiological effects of FBSR. (scirp.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans genome sequencing project, a collaboration between Robert Waterston's group in St. Louis and John Sulston's group in Cambridge, is currently on schedule towards its goal of obtaining the complete sequence of this organism and all its estimated 15,000 to 20,000 genes by 1998 (Sulston et al. (springer.com)
  • The model organism of our studies was a tiny soil worm named C. elegans, which, despite a small nervous system, performs complex behaviors. (europa.eu)
  • To expand the understanding of aging in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, global quantification of metabolite and protein levels in young and aged nematodes was performed using mass spectrometry. (ovid.com)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most attractive model organisms in biomedical research for understanding human diseases and for drug testing at a whole-organism level, since many biological pathways and genes have been conserved between itself and humans. (epfl.ch)
  • The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been a powerful experimental organism for almost half a century. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Orsay virus is the only known virus capable of naturally infecting the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans , which shares many evolutionarily conserved genes with humans. (asm.org)
  • The recent discovery of Orsay virus, the first natural viral pathogen of C. elegans , has provided a unique opportunity to exploit this classic model organism to identify host factors critical for virus infection ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • To gain insights into the host defense responses to B. pseudomallei infection within the context of a whole organism, we performed a genome-wide transcriptome analysis on infected Caenorhabditis elegans. (omicsonline.org)
  • To define the proteome of a live animal with tissue and subcellular resolution, we adapted a localized proteomics technology for use in the multicellular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans . (sciencemag.org)
  • Full-genome RNAi profiling of early embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans . (nature.com)
  • The genome of C. elegans is approximately 100 million base pairs, whereas the human genome consists of more than 3 billion. (britannica.com)
  • Complete sequencing of the genome of C. elegans indicated that at least 36% of the 19,000 predicted proteins have matches in humans ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The key attributes of C. elegans as an experimental system for biological systems are its simplicity, transparency, ease of cultivation in the laboratory, short life cycle, suitability of genetic analysis and small genome size. (citizendium.org)
  • The C. elegans has a small genome, yet a very complex one. (citizendium.org)
  • Analysis of this expanded and corrected data set suggested that the high A/U content of C. elegans 3'UTRs facilitated genome compaction, because the elements specifying cleavage and polyadenylation, which are A/U rich, can more readily emerge in A/U-rich regions. (nih.gov)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans is a small round worm whose genome has been fully sequenced and its development from egg to adult is well characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • By cDNA library screening, bioinformatic searches, and genome/transcriptome data mining for proteins with Arg-Phe-Gly sequences flanked by N- and C-terminal tri-, di-, or mono-basic residues, we and others identified 31 genes encoding FLPs in C. elegans ( 10 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans genome contains monomorphic minisatellites and simple sequences. (colorado.edu)
  • Here we demonstrate the presence of sequences in the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans which are homologous to two sets of short sequence DNA. (colorado.edu)
  • Addgene: Transgene-Free Genome Editing in Caenorhabditis elegans Using CRISPR-Cas. (addgene.org)
  • We employ state-of-the-art machine learning methods to assay and improve the accuracy of the genome annotation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (caltech.edu)
  • Notably, only 37% and 50%, respectively, of the presently unconfirmed genes in the C. elegans genome annotation agree with our predictions, thus we hypothesize that a sizable fraction of those genes are not correctly annotated. (caltech.edu)
  • We conclude that the genome annotation of C. elegans and other organisms can be greatly enhanced using modern machine learning technology. (caltech.edu)
  • We used RNA-mediated interference to target 98% of all genes predicted in the C. elegans genome in combination with differential interference contrast time-lapse microscopy. (epfl.ch)
  • Genome-wide fluorescent tagging approaches have been initiated to analyze protein localization in the animals Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster . (sciencemag.org)
  • New research at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate Universit used microscopy techniques to piece together the brain of the millimeter-long Caenorhabditis elegans, revealing that their neurons fire action potentials - a spike in voltage due to neurons sending sensory information in the cell membrane. (news-medical.net)
  • In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , the escape circuit was defined by using a complete synaptic wiring diagram of the 302 neurons in its nervous system ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • C. elegans neurons contain dendrites which extend from the cell to receive neurotransmitters, and a process that extends to the nerve ring (the "brain") for a synaptic connection between neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biggest difference is that C. elegans has motor excitatory and inhibitory neurons, known as cholinergic and gabaergic neurons, which simply act as further regulation for the tiny creature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four recessive mutations that affect long-range embryonic migration of the two canal-associated neurons (CANs) in C. elegans were isolated and characterized with the goal of identifying genes involved in control of directed cell movement. (nih.gov)
  • Bargmann CI, Hartwieg E and Horvitz HR (1993) Odorant‐selective genes and neurons mediate olfaction in C. elegans. (els.net)
  • Goodman MB, Hall DH, Avery L and Lockery SR (1998) Active currents regulate sensitivity and dynamic range in C. elegans neurons. (els.net)
  • Whereas the human brain is immensely complex, C. elegans contain only 302 neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings were intriguing, because they suggested that neurons of C. elegans are somehow rendered "aging resistant. (jneurosci.org)
  • Many mature central nervous system (CNS) neurons in non-mammals, such as C. elegans, Drosophila, and zebrafish, are able to regenerate after injuries. (genome.jp)
  • Most neurons in C. elegans express at least one neuropeptide gene and in the majority of neurons, neuropeptides are co-localized with classical small molecule transmitters, such as acetylcholine, GABA, serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 1. Previous work has shown that 12 of the 14 types of neurons in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal nervous system are collectively but not individually necessary for the trapping and transport of bacteria. (biologists.org)
  • Estimates of the induced mutation frequency of both the visible mutants and X chromosome lethals suggests that, just as in Drosophila, the genetic units in C. elegans are large. (nih.gov)
  • Invertebrate models, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , offer sophisticated genetic methods but have rarely been used to study infectious disease. (pnas.org)
  • since then hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in C. elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, plants, mouse, and humans, where they approach a number equivalent to 1-2% of the protein-coding genes. (mit.edu)
  • Biology I: yeast, Drosophila and C. elegans . (jove.com)
  • Therefore, the discovery that a number of simple and genetically tractable model organisms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana ( 16 ), Drosophila melanogaster ( 19 ), Caenorhabditis elegans ( 48 ), and zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) ( 75 ), are susceptible to a number of human pathogens has been a remarkable advance in this field. (asm.org)
  • The C. elegans zyg-1 gene encodes a regulator of centrosome duplication with distinct maternal and paternal roles in the embryo. (nature.com)
  • Priess JR and Hirsh DI (1986) C. elegans morphogenesis: The role of the cytoskeleton in elongation of the embryo. (els.net)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans embryo at 1.5-fold stage inside egg. (apsnet.org)
  • To dissect this interaction, we use live and fixed assays in the one-cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. (rupress.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans epidermis comprises 78 cells which cover the external surface of the embryo as a single cell layer. (biologists.org)
  • 1994 ) Translational control of maternal glp-1 mRNA establishes an asymmetry in the C. elegans embryo. (biologists.org)
  • Zur präzisen Identifizierung von spezifischen Interaktionen im C. elegans Embryo wurde ein neuer quantitativer Ansatz entwickelt, welcher die Expression von Fusionsproteinen an grün fluoreszierendes Protein in vivo mit markierungsfreier Interaktionsproteomik kombiniert. (hu-berlin.de)
  • CIL:13902, Caenorhabditis elegans, embryo. (ucsd.edu)
  • Here we address this problem in a screen designed to identify all genes required for the first two rounds of cell division in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. (epfl.ch)
  • O'Connell, K. F., Leys, C. M. & White, J. G. A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive cell-division mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans . (nature.com)
  • Also, the C. elegans genetic center, or CGC, maintains a large repository of mutants, which are available to researchers for a small fee. (jove.com)
  • For their identification, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans AC model and tested mutants in which signaling pathways pertinent to acclimatory responses are mutated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • C. elegans mutants with severe motility defects acquire almost no biofilm, indicating that normal animals accumulate the biofilm matrix as they move through a Yersinia lawn. (asm.org)
  • Here, we characterize mutants that lack μ2 adaptin, encoded by the apm-2 gene (also called dpy-23 ), in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the decrease in synaptic vesicle number does not cause a locomotion defect in μ2 knockout mutants, so a smaller reserve pool might be adequate for C. elegans under normal condition. (rupress.org)
  • In a screen reexamining Caenorhabditis elegans legacy mutants isolated 30 years ago, we identified a novel allele of the gene encoding topoisomerase II, top-2 ( it7 ). (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, CA treatment had no impact on the lifespan of skn-1 and hsf-1 mutants, confirming that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) pathways were associated with the longevity mechanism of CA. These findings contribute to our knowledge of the lifespan extension and underlying mechanism of action of CA in C. elegans . (rsc.org)
  • The dauer arrest phenotype of eak-3 mutants is fully suppressed by mutations in daf-16/FoxO, which encodes the major target of C. elegans insulin-like signaling, and daf-12, which encodes a nuclear receptor regulated by steroid hormones known as dafachronic acids. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here we show using electron tomography of staged C. elegans one-cell embryos that daughter centriole assembly begins with the formation and elongation of a central tube followed by the peripheral assembly of nine singlet microtubules. (nature.com)
  • We describe experiments with two types of immunologic probes, rabbit sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies, directed against cytoplasmic granules that are unique to germ-line cells in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans , and that may correspond to the germ-line-specific structures seen by electron microscopy in C. elegans embryos. (springer.com)
  • A specific set of cells is eliminated by cell extrusion by caspase-deficient C. elegans embryos. (mit.edu)
  • By taking advantage of a lethal phenotype characteristic of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos that fail to move, we have identified 13 genes required for muscle assembly and function and discovered a new lethal class of alleles for three previously known muscle-affecting genes. (psu.edu)
  • Developing embryos in the uterus of the nematode C. elegans. (apsnet.org)
  • In order to accurately identify specific interactions in C. elegans embryos, a new quantitative approach was developed combining in vivo expressed GFP fusion proteins with label-free interaction proteomics. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In this work, we present new microfluidic and MEMS-based tools enabling the characterization of C. elegans worms and embryos in vivo. (epfl.ch)
  • In our work, we use cellular force microscopy (CFM), a technique that combines micro-indentation with high-resolution force sensing approaching that of atomic force microscopy, to quantitatively study the mechanical properties of the eggshell of living C. elegans embryos. (epfl.ch)
  • Genetic analysis in the small nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has elucidated the mechanisms of many basic biological processes. (els.net)
  • The nematode (worm) C. elegans is one of the widely studied animal model organisms in biology. (rsc.org)
  • have now obtained clues to this process from a surprising source, namely a soil-dwelling nematode worm called Caenorhabiditis elegans . (elifesciences.org)
  • Mutations have been found in C. elegans that slow down its metabolic rate and at the same time increase its lifespan . (everything2.com)
  • JNK regulates lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating nuclear translocation of forkhead transcription factor/DAF-16. (wikipathways.org)
  • C. elegans are small (∼1.5 mm) round worms with a short lifespan of 3 weeks and a life cycle of 3 days, that can be maintained cheaply in a humid environment containing atmospheric oxygen and bacteria grown on agar as a food source. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological action and molecular mechanism of fermented brown sugar residue in nematode stress tolerance, aging, and lifespan using Caenorhabditis elegans . (scirp.org)
  • We found that FBSR increases the C. elegans lifespan, suppresses the decline in exercise caused by aging, and increases stress tolerance. (scirp.org)
  • Here we show that loss of a specific eIF4E isoform (IFE-2) that functions in somatic tissues4reduces global protein synthesis, protects from oxidative stress and extends lifespan inCaenorhabditis elegans.Lifespan extension is independent of the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16, which mediates the effects of the insulin-like signalling pathway on ageing. (ovid.com)
  • To investigate this question, we screened a library of compounds with known mammalian pharmacology for compounds that increase C. elegans lifespan. (caltech.edu)
  • The results suggest that CA increased the lifespan of C. elegans . (rsc.org)
  • In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, insulin-like signaling functions in larvae to inhibit dauer arrest and acts during adulthood to regulate lifespan. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Removal of germ cells - the sperm and egg producing cells - increases longevity of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. (news-medical.net)
  • Bioactive peptides from Angelica sinensis protein hydrolyzate delay senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through antioxidant activities," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , vol. 2016, Article ID 8956981, 10 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • Kimura KD, Tissenbaum HA, Liu Y and Ruvkun G (1997) daf‐2, an insulin receptor‐like gene that regulates longevity and diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans. (els.net)
  • Citation Query A Mitochondrial Superoxide Signal Triggers increased Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. (psu.edu)
  • A Mitochondrial Superoxide Signal Triggers increased Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. (psu.edu)
  • Superoxide is essential for longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans =-=[59]-=- and there is evidence in mice that several oncogenes actively promote a ROS detoxification program that is required for tumour initiation [60]. (psu.edu)
  • daf-2, an insulin receptor-like gene that regulates longevity and diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikipathways.org)
  • Lessons from C. elegans: signaling pathways for longevity. (wikipathways.org)
  • The Fork head transcription factor DAF-16 transduces insulin-like metabolic and longevity signals in C. elegans. (wikipathways.org)
  • Longevity and stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikipathways.org)
  • A phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase family member regulating longevity and diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikipathways.org)
  • Genes that regulate both development and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. (wikipathways.org)
  • We identified 60 compounds that increase longevity in C. elegans, 33 of which also increased resistance to oxidative stress. (caltech.edu)
  • In the present study, we examined the effects on longevity extension, as well as the mechanism of action, of CA in Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ). (rsc.org)
  • We have shown that the escape response allows C. elegans increases it chances to escape from predacious fungi that use constricting rings to entrap nematodes. (mbl.edu)
  • Thus, despite the enormous evolutionary distance between humans and nematodes, C. elegans may be a valid model for studies of numerous disease processes. (pnas.org)
  • The positively charged ENPs were observed to heteroagglomerate with Escherichia coli cells, suggesting that the ENP were impacting the ability of nematodes to feed, leading to a false positive toxic effect on C. elegans growth and reproduction. (nist.gov)
  • The simplicity and completely defined synaptic connectivity of C. elegans nervous system in combination with powerful genetic methods, optogenetics, calcium imaging and electrophysiology allows us to address how the nervous controls behavior with a cellular and molecular resolution that cannot be readily attained in any other system. (mbl.edu)
  • Using these three approaches in the compact and tractable C. elegans nervous system, we aim to connect genes involved in behavioral plasticity to specific changes in synaptic function and neural circuit logic. (mbl.edu)
  • The c. elegans have a simple nervous system, there are many nerves connected to the muscles that generates simple movements. (citizendium.org)
  • White JG, Southgate E, Thomson JN and Brenner S (1986) The structure of the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans. (els.net)
  • The chemotaxis behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans raises, in simplified form, the key question of how the nervous system transforms sensory input into motor output to regulate a goal-directed response. (jneurosci.org)
  • Previous studies have suggested that the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans maintains its structural integrity with age despite the deterioration of surrounding tissues. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is possible that the C. elegans pathways that inhibit regeneration function to stabilize the mature, uninjured nervous system. (genome.jp)
  • In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system have been identified. (frontiersin.org)
  • By integrating these new data with information from the literature, such as the known wiring diagram of C. elegans nervous system, we can know propose a working model of the thermal avoidance circuit. (europa.eu)
  • humans led to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , a near-microscopic soil worm that begins life with just 1,090 cells. (britannica.com)
  • In C. elegans , however, neither steps nor impulses have been achieved under normal assay conditions in which the worm is crawling on an agar surface. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since then, with the help of a growing number of investigators, knowledge about the biology of "the worm" has accumulated at a steadily accelerating pace to the extent that C. elegans is now probably the most completely understood metazoan in terms of anatomy, genetics, development, and behavior. (cshlpress.com)
  • This "Book of the Worm" serves as a reference source for C. elegans investigators as well as an introductory monograph for other biologists. (cshlpress.com)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans is a transparent worm about 1 mm in length that lives in soil. (ravelry.com)
  • In a second study, we present a new microfluidic worm culture system with integrated luminescence-based sensing of the on-chip oxygen concentration for measuring the oxygen uptake of C. elegans worms. (epfl.ch)
  • Here we report the molecular identification and expression of a Na/HCO3 cotransporter from the round worm, Caeno-rhabditis elegans (ceNBC). (mcmaster.ca)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans centrosomal protein SPD-2 is required for both pericentriolar material recruitment and centriole duplication. (nature.com)
  • Labrousse, A. M., Zapaterra, M., Rube, D. A., and van der Bliek, A. M. (1999) C. elegans dynamin-related protein drp-1 controls severing of the mitochondrial outer membrane. (springer.com)
  • Winston, W. M., Molodowitch, C., and Hunter, C. P. (2002) Systemic RNAi in C. elegans requires the putative transmembrane protein SID-1. (springer.com)
  • The physiological function of the Caenorhabditis elegans G protein Go has been genetically characterized. (sciencemag.org)
  • In C. elegans, early embryogenesis provides an attractive model system for mapping in vivo protein interactions. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In a screen for genes that modulate C. elegans insulin-like signaling, we identified eak-3, which encodes a novel protein that is specifically expressed in the two endocrine XXX cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
  • This study examined the effects of oxygen tensions ranging from 0 to 90 kPa on the metabolic rate (rate of carbon dioxide production), movement and survivorship of the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (biologists.org)
  • The objective of this research project is to identify molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of metal-inducible metallothionein (MT) gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (epa.gov)
  • In invertebrates, however, knowledge of CSPGs core proteins and proteoglycan-related functions is relatively limited, even for Caenorhabditis elegans. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we have used this protocol to map the chondroitin glycoproteome in C. elegans, resulting in the identification of 15 novel CPG proteins in addition to the nine previously established. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1995 ) Interchangeability of Caenorhabditis elegans DSL proteins and intrinsic signalling activity of their extracellular domains in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Studies of the development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans established that programmed cell death involves specific genes and proteins and that those genes and proteins act within the cells that die. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim of the research is to identify metal regulatory elements (MREs) within the promoters of two C. elegans MT genes, and isolate and characterize proteins that interact with the candidate MREs. (epa.gov)
  • Complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding metal-regulatory proteins will be obtained by screening C. elegans expression libraries with oligonucleotides based on the partial amino acid sequence. (epa.gov)
  • We identified and localized more than 3000 proteins from strains of C. elegans expressing APX in either the nucleus or cytoplasm of the intestine, epidermis, body wall muscle, or pharyngeal muscle. (sciencemag.org)
  • The C. elegans wiring diagram provides an opportunity to define many complete neuronal paths from sensory stimulus to behavior. (pnas.org)
  • The past few years have seen the completion of two major long-term projects that provide new insights into C. elegans development and lay important groundwork for future investigation: completion of the cell lineages of both sexes, from zygote to adult, and description of the complete anatomy at the level of electron microscope resolution, providing a complete "wiring diagram" of cell contacts in the animal. (cshlpress.com)
  • Cell lineage of a C. elegans hermaphrodite. (els.net)
  • who was investigating the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (britannica.com)
  • Sundaram M and Han M (1996) Control and integration of cell signaling pathways during C. elegans vulval development. (els.net)
  • In this review, toxicogenomic studies performed in C. elegans exposed to various metals will be discussed, highlighting how this non-mammalian system can be utilized to study cellular processes and pathways induced by metals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Understanding systemic RNAi transport pathways in C. elegans may help identify strategies for effective delivery in mammals. (harvard.edu)
  • 1995 ) Three genes of the MAP kinase cascade, mek-2, mpk-1/sur-1 and let-60 ras , are required for meiotic cell cycle progression in Caenorhabditis elegans . (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ) The fog-3 gene and regulation of cell fate in the germ line of Caenorhabditis elegans . (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ) gld-1 , a tumor suppressor gene required for oocyte development in Caenorhabditis elegans . (biologists.org)
  • In fact, we know an adult C. elegans has exactly 959 somatic cells , and their full lineage all the way back to the zygote . (everything2.com)
  • [2] After the L4 stage the C. elegans will undergo a final molt to produce an adult. (citizendium.org)
  • Extensive work on adult C. elegans animals has elucidated genes involved in the many processes involved in or affected by aging. (wikipathways.org)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans adult and two juveniles. (apsnet.org)
  • AC attained by maintaining adult C. elegans at 25 degrees C for 18 h enhanced heat endurance of wild-type worms subjected to heat stress (35 degrees C) and conferred protection against hypoxia and cadmium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bacterial members of the adult C. elegans microbiota were isolated by culture and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (asm.org)
  • Students will work with different experimental set-ups that will allow us to explore a variety of C. elegans behavior. (mbl.edu)
  • We will analyze C. elegans behavior in response to thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli. (mbl.edu)
  • Specifically, I am using the learned thermotaxis behavior of C. elegans as a model to examine how learning impacts synaptic physiology and neural circuit activity. (mbl.edu)
  • Aging in C. elegans involves measurable declines in morphology, reproduction, and behavior. (wikipathways.org)
  • Transgenerational Effects of Early Life Starvation on Growth, Reproduction, and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Functional genomic analysis of cell division in C. elegans using RNAi of genes on chromosome III. (nature.com)
  • 2002) Loss of the putative RNA-directed RNA polymerase RRF-3 makes C. elegans hypersensitive to RNAi. (springer.com)
  • Systemic RNAi enables easy and efficient whole-animal gene silencing in C. elegans. (harvard.edu)
  • The Hunter lab conducted a genetic screen in C. elegans that identified five genes, sid-1 through -5, that are specifically required for systemic RNAi. (harvard.edu)
  • A targeted RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown screen further identified the C. elegans gene nck-1 , which has a human ortholog that interacts with TNK2 and WASP, as required for Orsay virus infection. (asm.org)
  • While Caenorhabditis elegans has played a critical role in the discoveries of evolutionarily conserved processes such as RNA interference (RNAi) ( 1 ), its use in the study of host-virus interactions has been limited by a lack of viruses capable of infecting C. elegans . (asm.org)
  • C. elegans are multicellular organisms that are approximately 1 mm long. (jove.com)
  • C. elegans navigates to favorable conditions by chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and aerotaxis. (pnas.org)
  • The sensorimotor transformation underlying Caenorhabditis elegans chemotaxis has been difficult to measure directly under normal assay conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that the step responses likely to underlie C. elegans chemotaxis in steep gradients are complex, with multiple phases and a nonlinear dependence on the sign and amplitude of the stimulus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Biological assays involving C. elegans frequently require a large number of animals that are appropriately staged and exhibit a similar behaviour. (rsc.org)
  • When the ENPs were tested in two alternate C. elegans assays that did not contain E. coli, we found greatly reduced toxicity of ENPs at the concentrations tested. (nist.gov)
  • During Caenorhabditis elegans development, autophagy plays an important role in many physiological processes, including survival under starvation conditions, modulation of life span, and regulation of necrotic cell death caused by toxic ion-channel variants. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, reactive oxygen species, which cause aging, are produced in the nematode [7] [8] , making C. elegans a suitable model to study the physiological effects of oxidative damage. (scirp.org)
  • Background: Physiologically based modelling using DEBtox (dynamic energy budget in toxicology) and transcriptional profiling were used in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify how physiological modes of action, as indicated by effects on system level resource allocation were associated with changes in gene expression following exposure to three toxic chemicals: cadmium, fluoranthene (FA) and atrazine (AZ). (uva.nl)
  • The general goal of this research project is to shed new light on the molecular and neural basis of thermal nociception, by using the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (europa.eu)
  • Ei sekvensering av genomet til C. elegans på kring 97 megabasepar vart publisert i 1998 og gjorde C. elegans til den fyrste fleirsella organismen som fekk genomet sitt sekvensert. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • de Bono M and Bargmann CI (1998) Natural variation in a neuropeptide Y receptor homolog modifies social behaviour and food response in C. elegans. (els.net)
  • Fire A, Xu S, Montgomery MK, Kostas SA, Driver SE and Mello CC (1998) Potent and specific genetic interference by double‐stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. (els.net)
  • 1998). Identification and Expression of an Electroneutral Na/HCO3 Cotransporter from Caenorhabditis elegans (ceNBC). (mcmaster.ca)
  • In 1963, Sydney Brenner proposed research into C. elegans, primarily in the area of neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1963, Sydney Brenner decided to establish C. elegans as a model system, and used it to explore gene function. (jove.com)
  • My studies are focused on this question and seek to understand the cell biology of synapses in the thermotaxis circuit of C. elegans , a model system that facilitates in vivo inspection of neuronal cell biology. (mbl.edu)
  • Recently, Ausubel and colleagues ( 5 - 7 ) described a model for P. aeruginosa pathogenesis that uses C. elegans . (pnas.org)
  • We describe methods to use Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative model for studying mitochondrial division, taking advantage of the many wonderful resources provided by the C. elegans community. (springer.com)
  • The C. elegans are part of the model system. (citizendium.org)
  • Given all of the characteristics that make C. elegans such an attractive model system, it's no wonder that many landmark discoveries have been made by studying worms. (jove.com)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans is an attractive model for studying effects of metals on gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this thesis the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a model system to study the adverse side effects of HIV-1 antiretroviral medicines administered alone or in combination. (uva.nl)
  • Here we consider how one such model, the nematode C. elegans , has provided insights into the components from both the host and the microbe that underlie the host-pathogen interface. (asm.org)
  • In the intervening period, C. elegans has been used as a model in which to study a wide range of biological phenomena, and consequently there are vast amounts of genotypic and phenotypic data available to investigators. (asm.org)
  • C. elegans offers a number of benefits as a model host for studying innate immunity. (asm.org)
  • We characterized the long-term phenotypic consequences of starvation during early larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine potential fitness effects and develop it as a model for mechanistic studies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In 1900, Maupas initially named it Rhabditides elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1900, Maupas initially named it Rhabditides elegans , Osche placed it in the subgenus Caenorhabditis in 1952, and in 1955, Dougherty raised Caenorhabditis to the status of genus . (wikipedia.org)
  • in fact, the species described here, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, (see Figure 1) lives for only three weeks under normal conditions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Cer1 virus is a species of retroviruses in the genus Metavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. (rice.edu)
  • Sulston JE, Schierenberg E, White JG and Thomson JN (1983) The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode C. elegans. (els.net)
  • The biomechanical properties of the C. elegans embryonic eggshell are largely unknown. (epfl.ch)
  • Wightman, B., Ha, I., and Ruvkun, G. (1993) Posttranscriptional regulation of the heterochronic gene lin-14 by lin-4 mediates temporal pattern formation in C. elegans . (springer.com)
  • [2] Mellom anna vart mikro-RNA oppdaga i C. elegans i 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, research using Caenorhabditis elegans to explore the effects of calcium dysregulation due to presenilin mutations on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration is explored. (mdpi.com)
  • Meanwhile, CA was absorbed by the worms and promoted the healthspan of C. elegans by improving the mobility, reducing the accumulation of age pigment, delaying Aβ-induced and polyQ-dependent paralysis and increasing the resistance to heat and oxidative stress. (rsc.org)
  • Asymmetric arginine dimethylation determines life span in C. elegans by regulating forkhead transcription factor DAF-16. (wikipathways.org)
  • The lin-4 miRNA plays a role in regulating the heterochronic genes involved in larval development in C. elegans. (mit.edu)
  • The microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, or C. elegans, is known to spend up to 20 minutes seeking out snacks in its immediate surroundings before endeavoring to look elsewhere. (news-medical.net)
  • Studies in invertebrates, particularly Caenorhabditis elegans, have uncovered numerous genes involved in aging, many conserved in mammals. (caltech.edu)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. (news-medical.net)
  • The ability to generate transgenic animals to study gene expression and function is a powerful and important part of the Caenorhabditis elegans genetic toolbox. (rug.nl)
  • Research performed in C. elegans has led to insights in apoptosis, gene expression, and neurodegeneration, all of which can be altered by metal exposure. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1976, John Sulston, who worked with Brenner, published a complete cell lineage of C. elegans. (jove.com)
  • n -Butylidenephthalide protects against dopaminergic neuron degeneration and α -synuclein accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans models of Parkinson's disease," PLoS ONE , vol. 9, no. 1, article e85305, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • 1990 ) fog-1 , a regulatory gene required for specification of spermatogenesis in the germ line of Caenorhabditis elegans . (biologists.org)
  • In relation to lipid metabolism, C. elegans does not have any specialized adipose tissues, a pancreas, a liver, or even blood to deliver nutrients compared to mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (harvard.edu)
  • These studies identify compounds that can now be explored for beneficial effects on aging in mammals, as well as tools that can be used to further investigate the mechanisms underlying aging in C. elegans. (caltech.edu)
  • 1992 ) Characterization of a germ-line proliferation mutation in C. elegans . (biologists.org)
  • The standard wild-type strain N2, strain MT7929 carrying the unc-13(e51) mutation, and strain CB190 carrying the unc-54(e190) mutation were obtained from the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center, University of Minnesota. (asm.org)
  • C. elegans strains carrying loss-of-function mutations in egl-9 are strongly resistant to the paralytic killing. (pnas.org)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans: Cell Biology and Physiology 2nd Edition by Joel Rothman and Publisher Academic Press. (vitalsource.com)
  • More recently, these investigations have uncovered details of the natural pathogens of C. elegans , including the description of a novel intracellular microsporidian parasite as well as new nodaviruses, the first identification of viral infections of this nematode. (asm.org)
  • Gandre S., van der Bliek A.M. (2007) Mitochondrial Division in Caenorhabditis elegans . (springer.com)
  • In addition, we performed a C. elegans metabolic assay using a mitochondrial uncoupling agent, which increased OCR by a factor of ¿ 2 when compared to basal respiration rates. (epfl.ch)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in C. elegans egl-9 , a gene required for normal egg laying, confer strong resistance to the paralysis. (pnas.org)
  • Most research has concentrated on the development of the animal, but an increasing amount of interest into the aging process in C. elegans is apparent, with a dozen or more high-profile articles on genes that slow the aging process appearing around the turn of the century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • S. W. Emmons, M. R. Klass, and D. Hirsh, "Analysis of the constancy of DNA sequences during development and evolution of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 1333-1337, 1979. (hindawi.com)
  • With the extensive development of serial-section electron microscopy of Caenorhabditis elegans , and experimental studies of its development, it has been possible to analyse in more detail the structure of the buccal capsule and its formation during moulting. (wormatlas.org)
  • We show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans orients to the earth's magnetic field during vertical burrowing migrations. (elifesciences.org)
  • During Caenorhabditis elegans ovulation, the somatic gonad integrates signals from germ cells and propels a mature oocyte into the spermatheca for fertilization. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. (harvard.edu)
  • In this study, we evaluated the performance of silicon, polystyrene, and gold ENPs with different charged coatings and sizes to examine in a standard Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity assay containing an Escherichia coli food supply. (nist.gov)
  • Compared to standard methods also recently applied to C. elegans UTRs, 3P-Seq identified 8,580 additional UTRs while excluding thousands of shorter UTR isoforms that do not seem to be authentic. (nih.gov)
  • Several methods are available for effective delivery of dsRNA to Caenorhabditis elegans, including ingestion-based feeding and soaking methods, injection of dsRNAs, and transgene-mediated transcription of dsRNA in vivo. (ku.edu)
  • In C. elegans and other invertebrates, neuropeptides, which are short sequences of amino acids, can act as primary transmitters as well as neuromodulators. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1999) The rde-1 gene, RNA interference, and transposon silencing in C. elegans . (springer.com)
  • The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetically tractable alternative for investigating the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (pnas.org)
  • This suggests that flea blockage by Y. pestis is a biofilm-mediated process and that C. elegans may be an experimentally tractable surrogate for fleas. (asm.org)
  • Thus, genetic screening in C. elegans identified critical roles in virus infection for evolutionarily conserved genes in a known human pathway. (asm.org)