Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
... "block cell fusion in all epidermal and vulval epithelia" in the roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans. EFF-AFF is a family of type ... Cell-cell fusogens are glycoproteins that facilitate the fusion of cell to cell membranes. Cell-cell fusion is critical for the ... Yet when considering asexual reproduction, somatic cells can also undergo cell-cell fusion or self-fusion. Two particular ... and other developmental cells. These fusogens mediate cell-cell fusion and can perform neuron repairs, auto-fusion, and sealing ...
SAND protein family, first described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (but also in the animals Fugu rubripes, Caenorhabditis elegans ... Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 9 (4A): 739-53. PMID 15647795. Dong S, Dong C, Liu L, et al. (2003). "Identification of a novel human ... vacuole fusion in yeasts and lysosome one motility in mammals and other taxa. In humans has been described an interaction with ...
"Determination of cell division axes in the early embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans". The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (5 ... Podbilewicz, B.; White, J. G. (1994). "Cell fusions in the developing epithelial of C. Elegans". Developmental Biology. 161 (2 ... "Cortical and cytoplasmic flow polarity in early embryonic cells of Caenorhabditis elegans". The Journal of Cell Biology. 121 (6 ... Kimble, J. E.; White, J. G. (1981). "On the control of germ cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans". Developmental Biology ...
Jamin, M, H Raveh-Barak, B Podbilewicz, FA Rey (2014) "Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, ... In this image, a wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans is stained to highlight the nuclei of its cells. ... in the fusion of egg cell and sperm. Such fused cells are also involved in metazoan membranes such as those that prevent ... and shown it does the work of linking one cell to another, in viral infections. The fact that all known cell fusion molecules ...
The human protein, hsaMrs2p, has been localised to the mitochondrial membrane in mouse cells using a GFP fusion protein. Very ... Three genes were eventually identified in humans, another three in mouse and three in Caenorhabditis elegans, with a single ... across the plasma membrane of the cell affected both the rate of Mg2+ uptake and the free Mg2+ content of the cell; ... it mediates the transport of the ion through the tight junctions between cells that form an epithelial cell layer. In ...
"Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, Issue 2, 10 April 2014), Pages 407-419, doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... The second identified in 2007 is called EFF1, which helps form the skin of Caenorhabditis elegans, part of a whole family of FF ... in the fusion of egg cell and sperm. Such fused cells are also involved in metazoan membranes such as those that prevent ... The fact that all known cell fusion molecules are viral in origin suggests that they have been vitally important to the inter- ...
... events controlled by heterochronic genes include the division and eventual syncitial fusion of the hypodermic seam cells, and ... A second cell division produces the ABp and ABa cells from the AB cell, and the EMS and P2 cells from the P1 cell. This ... The resulting daughter cells of the first cell division are called the AB cell (containing PAR-6 and PAR-3) and the P1 cell ( ... All cells of the germline arise from a single primordial germ cell, called the P4 cell, established early in embryogenesis.[27] ...
Achanzar WE, Ward S (May 1997). "A nematode gene required for sperm vesicle fusion". Journal of Cell Science. 110 (Pt 9): 1073- ... The first member of ferlin protein family, fer-1, was discovered in nematode Caenorhabditis elegance. Fer-1 gene was first ... and membrane fusion employ C2 domains to target the cell membrane. However, ferlins are unique for containing more C2 domains ... Otoferlin has been shown to interact with SNAREs and play a role in a calcium-dependent exocytosis in the hair cells in the ...
... tissue and cell) from microarrays, SAGE analysis and GFP promoter fusions; The complete cell lineage of the worm; The wiring ... Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis remanei, Caenorhabditis brenneri, Caenorhabditis angaria, Pristionchus pacificus, ... WormBase is an online biological database about the biology and genome of the nematode model organism Caenorhabditis elegans ... WormBase comprises the following main data sets: The annotated genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans, ...
... cell division, cellular morphogenesis and force production in eukaryotic cells. There is a constant modulation of the balance ... In 2010, there was discovered the existence of an α-tubuline N-acetyltransferase, not only in Tetrahymena and Caenorhabditis ... It is required for fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. When there is a nutrient deprivation, starvation-induced tubulin ... Cell. 157 (6, p1405-1415, 5 June 2014): 1405-1415. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.061. PMC 4726456. PMID 24906155. Friedmann, DR; ...
... cell cycle control, cell migration, cell proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cell death) and angiogenesis. Multiple ETS ... The fusion of TEL to the JAK2 protein results in early pre-B acute lymphoid leukaemia. ERG and ETV1 are known gene fusions ... There are 29 genes in humans, 28 in the mouse, 10 in Caenorhabditis elegans and 9 in Drosophila. The founding member of this ... Sharrocks AD (2001). "The ETS-domain transcription factor family". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2 (11): 827-37. doi:10.1038/35099076 ...
Caenorhabditis elegans, tobacco, corn, zebrafish, various types of mammalian cells, and rats. Targeting a double-strand break ... Fusions between engineered zinc finger arrays and protein domains that cleave or otherwise modify DNA can also be used to ... An ongoing clinical trial is evaluating Zinc finger nucleases that disrupt the CCR5 gene in CD4+ human T-cells as a potential ... Kim HJ, Lee HJ, Kim H, Cho SW, Kim JS (July 2009). "Targeted genome editing in human cells with zinc finger nucleases ...
... researchers have converted connective tissue cells found in skin into heart cells, blood cells, and liver cells. Wang Z, Tang B ... In fact, neurons can form even tighter couplings: the squid giant axon arises from the fusion of multiple axons. Ramón y Cajal ... By contrast, the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has just 302 neurons, making it an ideal model organism as scientists ... A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell that communicates with other cells via specialized connections called ...
"Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion" (Cell, Volume 157, Issue 2, 10 April 2014), Pages 407-419, doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... A Caenorhabditis elegans is stained to highlight the nuclei of its cells. ... in the fusion of egg cell and sperm.[41][42] Such fused cells are also involved in metazoan membranes such as those that ... and shown it does the work of linking one cell to another, in viral infections. The fact that all known cell fusion molecules ...
Potassium channels come in a variety of forms, are present in most eukaryotic cells, and typically tend to stabilize the cell ... Vesicular fusion with the terminal membrane and release of the neurotransmitter is caused by the generation of Ca2+ gradients ... Animal models such as rodents, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans, have been used to observe the origins and/ ... and adrenal medulla cells. It is responsible for inducing Cl− ion influx into cells, thereby reducing the probability that ...
The EML4-ALK fusion gene is responsible for approximately 3-5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The vast majority of ... Caenorhabditis elegans) in 2004, and DrAlk in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) in 2013. The ligands of the human ALK/LTK receptors ... September 2009). "Exon array profiling detects EML4-ALK fusion in breast, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancers". ... August 2002). "Identification of novel fusion partners of ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase, in anaplastic large-cell ...
While some fusion transcripts occur via trans-splicing in normal human cells, trans-splicing can also be the mechanism behind ... Blumenthal, Thomas; Gleason, Kathy Seggerson (February 2003). "Caenorhabditis elegans operons: form and function". Nature ... Li H, Wang J, Mor G, Sklar J (September 2008). "A neoplastic gene fusion mimics trans-splicing of RNAs in normal human cells". ... Günzl A (August 2010). "The pre-mRNA splicing machinery of trypanosomes: complex or simplified?". Eukaryotic Cell. 9 (8): 1159- ...
Every human being starts as a single cell - the fusion of an egg and a sperm - and progresses via cell division and cell death ... Science knows precisely the cell lineage tree of only one organism - a worm called Caenorhabditis elegans that reaches its full ... Fortunately, our cell lineage tree is implicitly encoded in our cells' genomes via mutations that accumulate when body cells ... Which cancer cells initiate relapse after chemotherapy? Which cancer cells can metastasize? Do insulin-producing beta cells ...
"The Membrane Fusion Enigma: SNAREs, Sec1/Munc18 Proteins, and Their Accomplices-Guilty as Charged?". Annual Review of Cell and ... Brenner, S. (May 1974). "The Genetics of Caenorhabditis Elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 71-94. PMC 1213120. PMID 4366476. Zilly FE ... "Single-Vesicle Fusion Assay Reveals Munc18-1 Binding to the SNARE Core Is Sufficient for Stimulating Membrane Fusion". ACS Chem ... The following is a list of human munc-18 proteins: Vesicle fusion Exocytosis Syntaxin SNARE Hosono R (1992). "The unc-18 Gene ...
Cell. 19 (10): 4454-68. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-03-0252. PMC 2555925. PMID 18701706. Lam KK, Davey M, Sun B, Roth AF, Davis NG, ... November 2005). "The DHHC protein Pfa3 affects vacuole-associated palmitoylation of the fusion factor Vac8". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... a DHHC-CRD Zinc-Finger Membrane Protein Required for Endoplasmic Reticulum/Golgi Membrane Morphogenesis During Caenorhabditis ... Cell. 20 (6): 1845-54. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-09-0944. PMC 2655257. PMID 19158383. Johswich A, Kraft B, Wuhrer M, et al. (January ...
In melanocytic cells STXBP1 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. The STXBP1 gene is expressed in the brain and spinal cord ... It is essential for neurotransmission and binds syntaxin, a component of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery probably in a 1: ... "A murine neural-specific homolog corrects cholinergic defects in Caenorhabditis elegans unc-18 mutants". The Journal of ... The protein participates in the secretory pathway between the Golgi apparatus and cell membrane. Mutations in the STXBP1 cause ...
McDade JR, Michele DE (2014). "Membrane damage-induced vesicle-vesicle fusion of dysferlin-containing vesicles in muscle cells ... "A gene related to Caenorhabditis elegans spermatogenesis factor fer-1 is mutated in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B". ... which are thought to regulate membrane fusion across a wide variety of species and cell types. Several lines of evidence ... Cell. 22 (3): 515-29. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2011.12.008. PMID 22421042. Abdullah N, Padmanarayana M, Marty NJ, Johnson CP (2014 ...
... cytokinesis failure during cell division (generating an increase in chromosome number), cell fusion (such as in cases of ... evident that some parts of the centrosome are highly diverged in the model species Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis ... of the animal cell, as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression. The centrosome provides structure for the cell. The ... Some cell types arrest in the following cell cycle when centrosomes are absent. This is not a universal phenomenon. When the ...
Uncapped telomeres also result in chromosomal fusions. Since this damage cannot be repaired in normal somatic cells, the cell ... extension has successfully reversed some signs of aging in laboratory mice and the nematode worm species Caenorhabditis elegans ... telomerase is active only in germ cells, some types of stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, and certain white blood cells. ... April 2000). "Extension of cell life-span and telomere length in animals cloned from senescent somatic cells". Science. 288 ( ...
Merrow's lab often uses techniques such as the insertion of Luciferase gene fusions or Green Fluroescent Protein to visualize ... nontranscriptional marker in Caenorhabditis elegans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... oscillations of RNA levels, protein abundance, or protein modifications within the cell. Oscillations in the entrained phase ...
MSP has first been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans. Molecular structures of MSP from Ascaris suum and Caenorhabditis ... Cell. 18 (5): 1816-25. doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-08-0741. PMC 1855020. PMID 17344482. Buttery SM, Ekman GC, Seavy M, Stewart M, ... associated with vesicle fusion. Despite only 11% of sequence similarity, MSP and the N-terminus of the bacterial P-pilus ... Cell. 14 (12): 5082-8. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-04-0246. PMC 284809. PMID 14565983. Miao L, Vanderlinde O, Stewart M, Roberts TM ( ...
... fusion protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (6): 3604-11. doi:10.1128/MCB.18.6.3604. PMC 108942. PMID 9584201. Lutterbach B, ... Caenorhabditis elegans, yeast, and plants. The MYND domain consists of a cluster of cysteine and histidine residues, arranged ... Cell. Biol. 11 (8): 4177-88. doi:10.1128/MCB.11.8.4177. PMC 361239. PMID 2072913. Lutterbach B, Sun D, Schuetz J, Hiebert SW ( ... Cell. Biol. 18 (12): 7176-84. doi:10.1128/MCB.18.12.7176. PMC 109299. PMID 9819404. Melnick AM, Westendorf JJ, Polinger A, ...
"A role for Fis1 in both mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission in mammalian cells". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (11): 5077 ... Lee S, Jeong SY, Lim WC, Kim S, Park YY, Sun X, Youle RJ, Cho H (Aug 2007). "Mitochondrial fission and fusion mediators, hFis1 ... "Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans by comparative proteomics". Genome ... Lee S, Park YY, Kim SH, Nguyen OT, Yoo YS, Chan GK, Sun X, Cho H (Feb 2014). "Human mitochondrial Fis1 links to cell cycle ...
Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... However important the fusion order is, the evolutionary origin of each catalytic domain in UMPS is also a matter of study. Both ... Deficiency of the enzyme can be studied in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. The rad-6 strain has a premature stop ... Merging both the fusion order and evolutionary origin, organisms end up having fused UMPS where one of its catalytic domains ...
... his daring introduction of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a system for tracing the birth and death of every cell in a ... Discoveries revealing the universal molecular machinery that orchestrates the budding and fusion of membrane vesicles-a process ... Ingenious experiments that first identified a stem cell-the blood-forming stem cell-which set the stage for all current ... Discoveries concerning nuclear reprogramming, the process that instructs specialized adult cells to form early stem cells- ...
These proteins could have been transferred to the cell membrane during viral reproduction, enabling cell-to-cell fusion between ... In 2011, researchers used the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a host and the pathogenic bacteria Serratia ... After the fusion of the two cells, incompatibilities between the two viruses result in a meiotic-like cell division.[73] ... They introduced cell fusion and ploidy cycles into cell life histories. Cavalier-Smith argues that both bouts of mechanical ...
Panno, Joseph (2005). The Cell: Evolution of the First Organism, Facts on File science library. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0 ... Rivera, Maria C.; Lake, James A. (September 9, 2004). "The ring of life provides evidence for a genome fusion origin of ... "Natural selection shapes nucleotide polymorphism across the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae". Genome Research ... "American Journal of Human Genetics (Cambridge, MA: Cell Press on behalf of the American Society of Human Genetics) 66 (2): 557- ...
Contact with the sperm is essential for the ovum to begin dividing, but because no fusion of the cells occurs, the male ... "The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans". www.wormbook.org.. *^ Kavlie, RG; Kernan, MJ; Eberl, DF (May 2010). "Hearing in ... The epidermis is either a syncytium or a single layer of cells, and is covered by a thick collagenous cuticle. The cuticle is ... Behind the sensory bristles on the head lie two small pits, or 'amphids'. These are well supplied with nerve cells, and are ...
"Cell. 166 (2): 481-491. July 2016. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.063. PMC 4949382. PMID 27293186.. ... was later suggested to be an artifact because the mutants show increased outcrossing due to organ fusion.[49][50][51] ... "Comparisons with Caenorhabditis (approximately 100 Mb) and Drosophila (approximately 175 Mb) using flow cytometry show genome ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.037. PMID 16713565.. *^ Lacombe S, Rougon-Cardoso A, Sherwood E, Peeters N, Dahlbeck D, van Esse HP ...
Multinucleated and binucleated cells can also be abnormal in humans; for example, cells arising from the fusion of monocytes ... "Stress induced nuclear granules form in response to accumulation of misfolded proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans". BMC Cell ... Anucleated cells. Human red blood cells, like those of other mammals, lack nuclei. This occurs as a normal part of the cells' ... At a certain point during the cell cycle in open mitosis, the cell divides to form two cells. In order for this process to be ...
Cell division is essential for an organism to grow, but, when a cell divides, it must replicate the DNA in its genome so that ... Telomeres prevent fusion of the ends of neighboring chromosomes and protect chromosome ends from damage.[58] ... The average level of methylation varies between organisms-the worm Caenorhabditis elegans lacks cytosine methylation, while ... Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these ...
In most eukaryotes, a cell carries two versions of each gene, each referred to as an allele. Each parent passes on one allele ... Winand NJ, Panzer JA, Kolodner RD (1998). "Cloning and characterization of the human and Caenorhabditis elegans homologs of the ... Sister chromatid crossover events are known to occur at a rate of several crossover events per cell per division in eukaryotes. ... So, when the chromosomes go on to meiosis II and separate, some of the daughter cells receive daughter chromosomes with ...
... "eat-5 and unc-7 represent a multigene family in Caenorhabditis elegans involved in cell-cell coupling". J. Cell Biol. 134 (2): ... 1978). "Toward a mechanism of myoblast fusion". Prog Clin Biol Res. 23: 563-8. PMID 96453.. ... When cells are compromised due to disease or injury and start to die messages are transmitted to neighboring cells connected to ... Shibata, Y; Yamamoto, T (March 1977). "Gap junctions in the cardiac muscle cells of the lamprey". Cell Tissue Res. 178 (4): 477 ...
If a mutation is present in a germ cell, it can give rise to offspring that carries the mutation in all of its cells. This is ... producing a fusion protein (FIG-ROS). The abnormal FIG-ROS fusion protein has constitutively active kinase activity that causes ... Davies EK, Peters AD, Keightley PD (September 1999). "High frequency of cryptic deleterious mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans ... DNA damages are repaired by the DNA repair system of the cell. Each cell has a number of pathways through which enzymes ...
... such as the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, primordial germ cells or embryonic stem cells. Since DNA methylation appears to ... in Caenorhabditis[3] or yeast species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pombe (but not N. crassa).[4][5] Adenine ... MethylCpG Binding Proteins (MBPs) and fusion proteins containing just the Methyl Binding Domain (MBD) are used to separate ... In B-cell differentiation[edit]. A study that investigated the methylome of B cells along their differentiation cycle, using ...
"Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells". PLOS ONE. 7 (8): e43355. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...743355M. ... Caenorhabditis elegans) 12/11 12 for hermaphrodites, 11 for males Spinach. (Spinacia oleracea) 12 [16] ... The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, ... Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres, and a vestigial centromere. As other non-human extant ...
"Cell. 164 (1-2): 310-323. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.037. PMC 4715267. PMID 26771498.. ... "Improving the yeast two-hybrid system with permutated fusions proteins: the Varicella Zoster Virus interactome". Proteome Sci ... Caenorhabditis elegans. *Drosophila melanogaster. *Homo sapiens. Recently, the pathogen-host interactomes of Hepatitis C Virus/ ... In molecular biology, an interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell. The term specifically ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.06.030.. *↑ Wade MJ (2007). "The co-evolutionary genetics of ecological communities". Nat. Rev. Genet. ... Rivera, M. C. and Lake, J. A. (2004). "The ring of life provides evidence for a genome fusion origin of eukaryotes". Nature 431 ... "Natural selection shapes nucleotide polymorphism across the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae". Genome Research ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.006.. *↑ Jäckel C, Kast P, Hilvert D (2008). "Protein design by directed evolution". Annu Rev ...
Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Xenology and the Fusion of Independent Lineages". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 39 (5): 541-543. PMID 7807544. doi:10.1007/ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... In euryarchaea the cell division protein FtsZ, which forms a contracting ring around the cell, and the components of the septum ...
... activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. Senescent cells within a multicellular organism ... ranging from the simple budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to worms such as Caenorhabditis elegans and fruit flies ( ... In many organisms, there is asymmetric cell division, e.g. a stem cell dividing to produce one stem cell and one non-stem cell ... cells upon cell division, with the mother cell experiencing aging, while the daughter is rejuvenated. There is negligible ...
"X Chromosome Inactivation and Embryonic Stem Cells", The Cell Biology of Stem Cells, Springer US, 695, pp. 132-154, doi:10.1007 ... For example, in Caenorhabditis elegans (or C. elegans), sex is determined by the ratio of X chromosomes relative to autosomes; ... belongs to the order Lepidoptera and has 30 chromosomes one of which is a neo-sex chromosome which is the result of a fusion ... cells and results in inactivation of one X chromosome in every female somatic cell. This process is initiated very early during ...
The staining of single cells, e.g. with the Golgi stain, to trace cellular processes and connectivity suffers from the limited ... Yamamoto, William S.; Achacoso, Theodore B. (1992-06-01). "Scaling up the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans: Is one ape ... and fusion of barcodes to represent a synaptic pair. This approach has the potential to be cheap, fast, and extremely high- ... Holtmaat A, Wilbrecht L, Knott GW, Welker E, Svoboda K (June 2006). "Experience-dependent and cell-type-specific spine growth ...
5-P2 synthesis to regulate early endosome dynamics and fusion". American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. 291 (2): C393- ... "The phosphoinositide kinase PIKfyve/Fab1p regulates terminal lysosome maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans". Molecular Biology ... PIKfyve inhibitors cause cell death also in A-375 melanoma cells, which depend on autophagy for growth and proliferation, due ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573.. ...
Essential Cell Biology (4 ed.). New York, NY: Garland Science. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-8153-4454-4. Pollard, T.D. (2007). Cell ... It is formed through the fusion of two chromosome segments, each with a centromere, resulting in the loss of acentric fragments ... In nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans, some plants, and the insect orders Lepidoptera and Hemiptera, chromosomes are " ... so that it is safe for cell division to proceed to completion and for cells to enter anaphase. There are, broadly speaking, two ...
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) provides the expression profiles of individual cells. Although it is not possible to ... scRNA-Seq has provided considerable insight into the development of embryos and organisms, including the worm Caenorhabditis ... gene fusion, mutations/SNPs and changes in gene expression over time, or differences in gene expression in different groups or ... Single cell sequencing can be used to study each cell individually, mitigating this issue. Time dependence: Gene expression ...
Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, tuft cells, columnar cells and the M cells over an adult's entire lifetime. ... Caenorhabditis elegans), snail (Lymnaea stagnalis), rat (Rattus rattus) and human (Homo sapiens). Homology amongst the metazoan ... suggests that it has been conserved across animals and was hypothesised as a chimeric fusion of an ancestral GPCR and a leucine ... ve stem cells drive self-renewal in the stomach and build long-lived gastric units in vitro". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (1): 25-36. doi ...
... repair of oxidative DNA damages may have promoted the evolution of eukaryotic sex involving such features as cell-cell fusions ... Larsen PL (1993). "Aging and resistance to oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (19): ... There are about 24,000 oxidative DNA adducts per cell in young rats and 66,000 adducts per cell in old rats. Likewise, any ... Cells. 32 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1007/s10059-011-1021-7. PMC 3887656. PMID 21424583. Galano JM, Mas E, Barden A, Mori TA, Signorini C ...
Baudouin S, Scheiffele P (May 2010). "SnapShot: Neuroligin-neurexin complexes". Cell. 141 (5): 908-908.e1. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Homologues of α-neurexin have also been found in several invertebrate species including Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, ... These interactions form connections between intracellular synaptic vesicles and fusion proteins. Thus neurexins play an ... Cell adhesion molecule Synaptogenesis Li X, Zhang J, Cao Z, Wu J, Shi Y (September 2006). "Solution structure of GOPC PDZ ...
2014). Structural basis of eukaryotic cell-cell fusion. Cell 157, 407-419. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.020. ... The WASP-Arp2/3 promotes cell-cell fusion in C. elegans embryos. (A) Schematics of the embryonic epithelial cell fusion from ... elegans cell-cell fusion, we examined the dorsal hyp7 cell fusion in Arp2/3 and WASP RNAi embryos. The previous RNAi of the ARX ... 1 hyp7 precursor cell fusions at the twofold stage, respectively (n=10-12; Fig. 1B-D; Movie 1). The delayed cell-cell fusions ...
1997 A nematode gene required for sperm vesicle fusion. J. Cell Sci. 110: 1073-1081. ... 1995 Cell biology of nematode sperm, pp. 273-302 in Caenorhabditis elegans: Modern Biological Analysis of an Organism, edited ... 1981 Sperm morphogenesis in wild-type and fertilization-defective mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Cell Biol. 91: 26-44. ... spe-12 Encodes a Sperm Cell Surface Protein That Promotes Spermiogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Jeremy Nance, Alicia N. ...
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:111-39. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-101512-122422. Epub 2014 Jun 27. Research Support, Non-U.S ... Caenorhabditis elegans; enveloped viruses; fusion proteins; fusogen; hemifusion; placenta; reoviruses. PMID:. 25000995. DOI:. ... Four classes of membrane proteins are known in virus and cell fusion. Class I virus-cell fusion proteins (fusogens) are α-helix ... Class IV reoviral cell-cell fusogens are small proteins with FLs that oligomerize to fuse membranes. Class I cell-cell fusogens ...
Home » Biblio » A network model for the specification of vulval precursor cells and cell fusion control in Caenorhabditis ... A network model for the specification of vulval precursor cells and cell fusion control in Caenorhabditis elegans.. ... A network model for the specification of vulval precursor cells and cell fusion control in Caenorhabditis elegans.. ... and fusion fate. We simulated the fusion of cells, the determination of the first, second, and third fates, as well as the ...
In Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods, a team of leading experts provide a collection o ... Exciting work in the past decade has revealed commonalities and differences among individual cell fusion events. ... Ultrastructural Imaging of Cell Fusion in Caenorhabditis elegans Star Ems, William A. Mohler ... Exciting work in the past decade has revealed commonalities and differences among individual cell fusion events. In Cell Fusion ...
... and fusion. Cell 75: 409-418. ... 1999 UNC-13 is required for synaptic vesicle fusion in C. ... 1998 The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-64 locus encodes a syntaxin that interacts genetically with synaptobrevin. Mol. Biol. Cell ... 1998 Functional properties of the unc-64 gene encoding a Caenorhabditis elegans syntaxin. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 2192-2198. ... 1995 Mammalian homologues of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-13 gene define novel family of C2-domain proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 270: ...
2005 Endocytic delivery to lysosomes mediated by concurrent fusion and kissing events in living cells. Curr. Biol. 15: 360-365. ... 2001 RME-8, a conserved J-domain protein, is required for endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol. Biol. Cell 12: 2011-2021. ... 2003 Yeast homotypic vacuole fusion requires the Ccz1-Mon1 complex during the tethering/docking stage. J. Cell Biol. 163: 973- ... 2015a PLEKHM1 regulates autophagosome-lysosome fusion through HOPS complex and LC3/GABARAP proteins. Mol. Cell 57: 39-54. ...
Removal of apoptotic cells is critical for the physiological well-being of the organism and defects in corpse removal have been ... Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins * Multiprotein Complexes * Recombinant Fusion Proteins * rab7 protein * Phosphatidylinositol 3- ... A pathway for phagosome maturation during engulfment of apoptotic cells Nat Cell Biol. 2008 May;10(5):556-66. doi: 10.1038/ ... and studies in mammalian cells, we have identified genes required for maturation of apoptotic-cell-containing phagosomes. We ...
2006). FER-1 regulates Ca2+-mediated membrane fusion during C. elegans spermatogenesis. J. Cell Sci. 119, 2552-2562. ... 1979). The postembryonic cell lineages of the hermaphrodite and male gonads in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Biol. 70, 396-417. ... 1999). spe-12 encodes a sperm cell surface protein that promotes spermiogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 152, 209- ... MO fusion assay. A MO fusion assay was performed as described previously (Washington and Ward, 2006). Briefly, spermatids or ...
"Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis," Curr. Biol. 81087-1090 ( ... "Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis," Curr. Biol. 81087-1090 ( ... "Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis," Curr. Biol. 81087-1090 ( ... "Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis," Curr. Biol. 81087-1090 ( ...
We find that EFF-1, a protein previously implicated in cell-cell fusion 8 , specifically promotes distal process phagocytosis. ... show that EFF-1 fusogen generates a sealed phagosome during engulfment of cells with long processes in Caenorhabditis elegans, ... Here, we report that dismantling and clearance of a morphologically complex Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial cell requires ... Degeneration of morphologically complex cells, such as neurons, glia and melanocytes, produces phagocytic targets of various ...
... and more recently Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we investigate the feasibility of using a laser microbea … ... to achieve tightly regulated expression of transformed genes in a wide variety of model systems including tissue culture cells ... We demonstrate that in transgenic strains carrying heat shock promoter-lacZ fusions, single cell expression of beta- ... Targeted single-cell induction of gene products in Caenorhabditis elegans: a new tool for developmental studies J Exp Zool. ...
Dynamics and ultrastructure of developmental cell fusions in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis. Curr. Biol. 8,1087 -1090. ... 1) and specific cell fusion to give rise to the adult structure. The cell fusion events are ordered and occur only between the ... Ambros, V. (1999). Cell cycle-dependent sequencing of cell fate decisions in Caenorhabditis elegans vulva precursor cells. ... is expressed in lin-11 mutant vulval cells. Using cell ablation experiments, we have shown that defects in cell fusion events ...
... starvation-induced catabolism of a lacZ fusion protein in muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Cell Biochem. 67,143 -153. ... Genetic defects in acetylcholine signalling promote protein degradation in muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans.J. Cell Sci. ... Activation of Ras and the MAP kinase pathway promotes protein degradation in muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol. Cell ... The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Bristol N2 strain was pre-cultured in C. elegans maintenance medium [CeMM (Szewczyk et al ...
EFF-1, a fusion protein known to be important for cell fusion, played a key role in arborization. ... In developing Caenorhabditis elegans during neuronal arborization, excess neurite branches are retracted and fuse. ... In developing Caenorhabditis elegans during neuronal arborization, excess neurite branches are retracted and fuse. ... the development of extensively arborized neurite trees-menorahs-in two highly branched mechanosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis ...
Fusion with hyp7. P3.p. P6.p. Anchor cell. Generation of VPCs:. Six vulval precursor cells (VPCs) are specified among the 11 Pn ... the utse cell and uv1 cells. The AC ultimately fuses with the utse cell, the uv1 cells attach to the vulF cells.. L2. L3 molt. ... Anchor cell invasion. Generation of the anchor cell:. Two somatic gonadal cells are specified to become the anchor cell through ... Anchor cell invasion: The anchor cell extends a process to the center of the vulF cells and forms a hole in the epidermis.. ...
... starvation-induced catabolism of a lacZ fusion protein in muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Cell Biochem. 1997, 67, ... Genetic defects in acetylcholine signalling promote protein degradation in muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Cell Sci. ... Bao, Z.; Murray, J.I.; Boyle, T.; Ooi, S.L.; Sandel, M.J.; Waterston, R.H. Automated cell lineage tracing in Caenorhabditis ... Furthermore, mutations typically affect all cells that express the mutated gene (these in turn may affect other cells), whereas ...
Involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and homotypic membrane fusion in ER dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell 16: ... 2000) DNA replication defects delay cell division and disrupt cell polarity in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Dev Biol ... 2002) A survival pathway for Caenorhabditis elegans with a blocked unfolded protein response. J Cell Biol 158:639-646. ... 2005) A spindle checkpoint functions during mitosis in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Mol Biol Cell 16:1056-1070. ...
Tetraspanins have been implicated in many cellular functions, including cell proliferation, fusion, development, motility, and ... Caenorhabditis elegans, and zebrafish, as well as in plants. Some of the tetraspanins, such as CD9 and CD81, are rather ... and may regulate cell migration. Mol. Biol. Cell. 9:2751-2765. ... Human and mouse mast cells use the tetraspanin CD9 as an ... The Journal of Cell Biology Jun 2006, 173 (6) 975-983; DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200602086 ...
... with a greater impact on egg-sperm fusion than on sperm-central cell fusion. ... A tetracycline-dependent ribozyme switch allows conditional induction of gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans Tools for ... Gamete fusion is facilitated by two sperm cell-expressed DUF679 membrane proteins Two sperm-specific DOMAIN OF UNKNOWN FUNCTION ... Enteroendocrine cell lineage revealed by time-resolved differentiation map *Iain Dickson. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & ...
"SIRT1 deficiency interferes with membrane resealing after cell membrane injury, PLoS ONE" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Cell. 1995; 81(1): 27-40. PMID: 7720071 3. Demonbreun AR, Biersmith BH, McNally EM. Membrane fusion in muscle development and ... A gene related to Caenorhabditis elegans spermatogenesis factor fer-1 is mutated in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. Nat ... C2C12 cells and muscle tissues were homogenized with Mammalian Cell Lysis Buffer (Sigma Aldrich) and Cell Lysis Regent for ...
... fusion of 2 gene names, Drosophila mothers against dpp (Mad) and Caenorhabditis elegans Sma; STAT-3, signal transducers and ... γδ T cells represent a small subset of T cells, which are known to have a prominent role in the recognition of lipid antigens. ... Although γδ T cells seem to be important in cardiac fibrosis and damage, several other candidate T cells for hypertension ... Li et al show that IL-17A production by local infiltrating γδ T cells, rather than classical CD4 or CD8 T cells, is critical ...
SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2: 98-106. ... Mammalian homologues of Caenorhabditis elegans unc-13 gene define novel family of C2-domain proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 25273 ... Cell culture and transfection. PLB-985 cells (German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture) and HL60 cells (American ... In several secretory cell types, especially in neuronal cells, chromaffin, and pancreatic β cells and in some hematopoietic ...
We used an immobilized anti-GFP antibody to immunoprecipitate the GFP fusions from extracts (Fig. 1A ); RNAs in the IPs were ... Germline Stem Cell Differentiation Entails Regional Control of Cell Fate Regulator GLD-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans ... 2007) Foxo3a is essential for maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell pool. Cell Stem Cell 1:101-112. ... Notch signaling controls cell-fate choices in human ES cells (60) and promotes survival of neural stem cells (61, 62). PI3/Akt ...
Mitochondrial fusion and fission in mammals. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 22:79-99. View this article via: CrossRef PubMed Google ... Caenorhabditis elegans drp-1 and fis-2 regulate distinct cell-death execution pathways downstream of ced-3 and independent of ... Knockdown of Drp1 in R3 and R24 cells was verified by immunoblot analysis. (B) RPTCs, R3 cells, and R24 cells were transfected ... D) RPTCs, R3 cells, and R24 cells were incubated with 10 mM azide for 3 hours. Cells were then fractionated to collect the ...
2004 Rescue of an hTERT mutant defective in telomere elongation by fusion with hPot1. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24: 3552-3561. ... Our pot-1::mCherry transgene was only expressed in germ cells, because it was driven by the germ cell−specific pgl-3 promoter. ... Human somatic cells have finite replicative lifespans and can enter an irreversible cell-cycle arrest, termed senescence, in ... and end-to-end chromosome fusions occur as a result of telomere deprotection in both Pot1a−/− and Pot1b−/− cells (He et al. ...
A) Expression of promoter-GFP fusion (Experimental Methods) in L2, L4 and early adult. (B) Immunofluorescence detection of ... Caenorhabditis elegans BAH-1 is a DUF23 protein expressed in seam cells and required for microbial biofilm binding to the ... Caenorhabditis elegans BAH-1 Is a DUF23 Protein Expressed in Seam Cells and Required for Microbial Biofilm Binding to the ... Caenorhabditis elegans BAH-1 Is a DUF23 Protein Expressed in Seam Cells and Required for Microbial Biofilm Binding to the ...
GFP Fusion Protein Localizes To The Distal Tip Of Microtubules And, During The Cell Cycle, Moves From The Centrosomes To The ... Caenorhabditis elegans. EBP-1. CELE_Y59A8B.7, Y59A8B.7. ebp-1 encodes one of three C. elegans homologs of the EB1 family of ... GFP fusion protein localizes to the distal tip of microtubules and, during the cell cycle, moves from the centrosomes to the ...
2000) CED-2/CrkII and CED-10/Rac control phagocytosis and cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nat Cell Biol 2:131-136, ... 2015) EFF-1-mediated regenerative axonal fusion requires components of the apoptotic pathway. Nature 517:219-222, doi:10.1038/ ... 2004) The engulfment process of programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 20:193-221, doi:10.1146 ... recognizes apoptotic cells and mediates signaling through the CED-2-CED-5-CED-12 complex in the engulfing cells to promote cell ...
SAND protein family, first described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (but also in the animals Fugu rubripes, Caenorhabditis elegans ... Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 9 (4A): 739-53. PMID 15647795. Dong S, Dong C, Liu L, et al. (2003). "Identification of a novel human ... vacuole fusion in yeasts and lysosome one motility in mammals and other taxa. In humans has been described an interaction with ...
  • GFP knock-in nematode, we showed that EFF-1 is primarily distributed to intracellular vesicles and may only transiently localize at fusion sites in embryonic fusing cells, which is consistent with the EFF-1 localization pattern uncovered using immunofluorescence and a functional GFP reporter ( Smurova and Podbilewicz, 2016 ). (biologists.org)
  • Muscles of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have been studied extensively, and show significant similarity to vertebrate muscles. (biologists.org)
  • The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model to study molecular mechanisms required for ciliary receptor trafficking. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This anterograde movement of the IFT complex is driven by the heterotrimeric motor Kinesin-2 ( 2 ) and, at least in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , by the kinesin OSM-3 ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In the bi-lobed gonad of the hermaphrodite nematode C. elegans ,the cells destined to become gametes originate from a common pool of germline stem cells that exist within a niche at the distal end of the gonad. (biologists.com)
  • [1] White's research investigates cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . (wikipedia.org)
  • two collaborative but distinct laboratories, one a biological laboratory that investigates cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the other an interdisciplinary Biophotonics Instrumentation laboratory that develops new computational and optical techniques for live cell studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • GFP is used for mapping mec-7 gene expression in vivo in small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (news-medical.net)
  • Our studies of the nematode C elegans have uncovered EFF-1, the first cellular membrane protein in any species that is known to be completely required for and completely specific to the process of cell membrane fusion. (grantome.com)
  • Albertson DG, Thomson JN (1993) Segregation of holocentric chromosomes at meiosis in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans . (springer.com)
  • The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively used as a model system in laboratories all over the world. (oercommons.org)
  • Caenorhabditis databases See Appendix E. Caenorhabditis elegans a small nematode whose developmental genetics has been extensively investi- gated. (damasgate.com)
  • SMN orthologues have been identified in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe but, to date, no human paralogues have been described. (embl.de)
  • During spermiogenesis, Caenorhabditis elegans spermatids activate and mature into crawling spermatozoa without synthesizing new proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Upon binding of receptors to exposed subendothelial ligands, signal transducers (including G-proteins, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C) collaborate to activate the cells. (genetics.org)
  • Four classes of membrane proteins are known in virus and cell fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Class I virus-cell fusion proteins (fusogens) are α-helix-rich prefusion trimers that form coiled-coil structures that insert hydrophobic fusion peptides or loops (FPs or FLs) into membranes and refold into postfusion trimers. (nih.gov)
  • Class IV reoviral cell-cell fusogens are small proteins with FLs that oligomerize to fuse membranes. (nih.gov)
  • For this process to occur, first, synaptic vesicles and associated proteins must be transported to the synapse from the cell body. (genetics.org)
  • We show that these proteins function in different steps of lysosome biology, regulating lysosome formation, lysosome fusion, and lysosome degradation. (g3journal.org)
  • Although canonical engulfment proteins drive cell soma clearance, these are not required for process removal. (nature.com)
  • Related F-box proteins control cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans and human lymphoma. (nature.com)
  • Two sperm-specific DOMAIN OF UNKNOWN FUNCTION 679 membrane proteins are found to facilitate the gamete fusion events during double fertilization in angiosperms, with a greater impact on egg-sperm fusion than on sperm-central cell fusion. (nature.com)
  • PUF RNA-binding proteins have a conserved role in promoting self-renewal of germline stem cells. (pnas.org)
  • PUF (Pumilio and FBF) proteins are mRNA regulators with a conserved role in stem cell maintenance ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • these target mRNAs encode proteins that promote entry into the meiotic cell cycle (e.g., gld-1 ) ( 4 , 23 - 25 ), promote differentiation (e.g. (pnas.org)
  • A range of SNARE proteins has been identified in neutrophils, and there is much evidence that indicates their implication in the regulation of granule fusion ( 13 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Munc13 proteins constitute a family of four mammalian homologs of Caenorhabditis elegans Unc-13. (jimmunol.org)
  • Of four distinct POT1 homologs in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans , deficiency for POT-1 or POT-2 resulted in progressive telomere elongation that occurred because both proteins negatively regulate telomerase. (g3journal.org)
  • Cell-cell fusion occurs when both actin cytoskeleton and fusogenic proteins properly rearrange across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. elegans AFF-1 and EFF-1 proteins are essential for developmental cell-to-cell fusion and can merge insect cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-cell fusogens are proteins that promote plasma membrane fusion among different cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these proteins promote similar functions among cells, they have individual mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells overexpress proteins that favor fission, such as GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). (hindawi.com)
  • cil-1 does not regulate the localization of other ciliary proteins, including intraflagellar transport (IFT) components, sensory receptors, or other TRP channels in different cell types. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • IFT returns proteins from the cilium to the cell body by means of a retrograde movement driven by a dynein motor ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Microtubules and microtubule-dependent motor proteins segregate chromosomes during mitosis and also promote cellular organization in nondividing cells. (plos.org)
  • The reduction in brush border membrane proteins of the metanephric mesenchyme mm mesenchymal cells other components are attached to your foods. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • In telomerase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking components of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway (Upf1,Upf2, or Upf3 proteins), senescence is delayed, with crisis occurring ∼10 to 25 population doublings later than in Upf + cells. (asm.org)
  • Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has been extensively used for finding out interaction among proteins in living cells. (news-medical.net)
  • In A. thaliana, a high throughput screening was done using YTH assay and BiFC for mapping protein interaction with the core cell cycle proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • BiFC is probably suited for any study involving cells grown aerobically and organisms that could be genetically modified for expressing fusion proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • The simple application of BiFC analysis is to find out whether interaction can take place among two proteins in a living cell. (news-medical.net)
  • The approach to design fusion proteins that could bind to a single type of RNA molecule is used for tracking RNA within living cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and 2 (MFN2), located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1), in the inner membrane. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • These proteins take part in the fusion pathway in two consecutive steps. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • In the second step, fusion of the inner membranes requires a motor-like process driven by OPA1 and coordinated by various other proteins, including the prohibitins. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • This basic two-step process has been confirmed in most mammalian cells, although its regulation and the repertoire of specific accessory proteins are likely to be highly context dependent. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • Genetically encoded spy ppeptide fusion system to detect plasma membrane-localized proteins in vivo. (ucsb.edu)
  • We show that the genetically encoded, covalent binding SpyTag and SpyCatcher pair from the Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding protein FbaB can selectively label membrane-localized proteins in living cells in culture and in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans. (ucsb.edu)
  • The SNARE (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment receptor) proteins are required for vesicle fusion events in both constitutive and Ca 2+ -regulated vesicle transport pathways ( Jahn and Scheller, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • SNARE proteins comprise the minimal fusion machinery, and synaptotagmin I, a synaptic vesicle protein, is the primary candidate for the main neuronal calcium sensor. (rupress.org)
  • New research shows how clumps of damaged proteins are shredded in egg cells just before fertilization, a finding that may have implications for human aging. (nytimes.com)
  • They took a close look at the proteins in the worm's egg-like cells, called oocytes. (nytimes.com)
  • Dr. Goudeau and Dr. Aguilaniu discovered that a worm's eggs carry a surprisingly heavy burden of damaged proteins, even more than in the surrounding cells. (nytimes.com)
  • CZH proteins have been implicated in cell migration, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, T-cell activation and neurite outgrowth, and probably arose relatively early in eukaryotic evolution. (biologists.org)
  • Over the last decade, it has become recognised that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of communication by transferring molecular signals (including proteins, lipids, complex carbohydrates, mRNA, microRNA and other non-coding RNA species), between cells. (plos.org)
  • Using GFP fluorophore, it is now possible to monitor DNA and protein localization revealing the essential proteins involved in sporulation and cell division and development that are dynamically identified during the cell cycle. (news-medical.net)
  • To identify the complement of protein factors that protects cells against the formation of protein aggregates, we tested transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing polyglutamine expansion yellow fluorescent protein fusion proteins at the threshold length associated with the age-dependent appearance of protein aggregation. (rug.nl)
  • Constant surveillance of the external environment is essential for the survival of yeast and fungi and stress responses to address insults such as osmotic shock or cell wall damage, including remodeling of cell wall structures and changes in cell cycle progression, as well as upregulation of heat shock proteins, depending on the stressor ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest an ancient role of ferlin proteins, with lessons from vertebrate biology and human disease suggesting a role relating to vesicle fusion and plasma membrane specialization. (springer.com)
  • Immediately upon expression, individual delta units gather into five-unit fibers known as pentameric proteins that extend the reach of the virus well beyond the capsid and allows them to probe for receptor targets on cells. (phys.org)
  • The researchers did not find single delta subunits in cells, which suggested the proteins are programmed to assemble into only five-unit fibers. (phys.org)
  • The DDs can be thought of as model substrates that have the potential to help us understand how cells detect and deal with misfolded or unfolded proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • More recently, we are using the DDs as conditionally folded proteins to create an acute unfolded protein stress by withdrawing the stabilizing ligand from the cell culture media. (stanford.edu)
  • which together have led to the generation of a large number of strains expressing fluorescent fusion proteins in the early embryo. (wormbook.org)
  • Gly67 and Gly74 in TM2) caused aggregation of mutant proteins inside the cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ADAM, a novel family of membrane proteins containing A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease domain: multipotential functions in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We fused APP intracellular domain (AICD) to the HIV TAT domain, a cell-permeable peptide allowing proteins to penetrate cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Actin polymerization was implicated in the Caenorhabditis elegans fusogen EFF-1 engagement in a reconstituted Drosophila cell culture system, and the actin-binding protein spectraplakin links EFF-1 to the actin cytoskeleton and promotes cell-cell fusions in C. elegans larvae. (biologists.org)
  • Heat shock promoters have been employed to achieve tightly regulated expression of transformed genes in a wide variety of model systems including tissue culture cells, bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and more recently Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
  • Tetraspanins can also be found in Drosophila melanogaster , Caenorhabditis elegans , and zebrafish, as well as in plants. (rupress.org)
  • Comparison of likely FBF target mRNAs with putative PUF target mRNAs from Drosophila and humans reveals 40 shared targets, including several established stem cell regulators. (pnas.org)
  • SAND protein family, first described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (but also in the animals Fugu rubripes, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens and in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana using comparative genomics), is membrane protein related with vesicle traffic: vacuole fusion in yeasts and lysosome one motility in mammals and other taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster , the specification of distinct fusogenic cell types at the tips of the developing respiratory system enables the fusion of tracheal branches and the establishment of a tracheal network for gas exchange. (asnjournals.org)
  • A membrane would then form around each nucleus (and the cellular space and organelles occupied in the space), thereby resulting in a group of connected cells in one organism (this mechanism is observable in Drosophila ). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986). In Drosophila, the ratio apparently also regulates the basic oscillator to produce the progressively longer cycle lengths observed in cycles The nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio therefore has a major effect on the cell cycle program of the early embryo. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • There are 32 putative tetraspanin family members in mammals, 37 in Drosophila melanogaster and 20 in Caenorhabditis elegans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The drosophila tudor protein is encoded by a 'posterior group' gene, which when mutated disrupt normal abdominal segmentation and pole cell formation. (embl.de)
  • spe-12 mRNA is expressed in the sperm-producing germ line and the protein localizes to the spermatid cell surface. (genetics.org)
  • In biomembrane fusion pathways, membranes are destabilized through insertions of amphipathic protein segments, lipid reorganization via hemifusion, protein restructuring, and dimpling of the membranes. (nih.gov)
  • 1047- and 900-nm excitation were used to image both a vital fluorescent membrane probe, FM 4-64, and a modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) in live Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. (osapublishing.org)
  • We find that EFF-1, a protein previously implicated in cell-cell fusion 8 , specifically promotes distal process phagocytosis. (nature.com)
  • The type I membrane protein EFF-1 is essential for developmental cell fusion. (nature.com)
  • EFF-1, a fusion protein known to be important for cell fusion, played a key role in arborization. (sciencemag.org)
  • Many biological processes including development and cell division are tightly controlled by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. (pnas.org)
  • Cdc48/p97 forms a complex with the cofactors Ufd1 and Npl4 that is involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) ( 2 ), membrane fusion and cell cycle progression ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • To determine the function of the CDC-48 UFD−1/NPL−4 complex in early development, we analyzed its subcellular embryonic localisation using yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions. (pnas.org)
  • SIRT1 deficiency interferes with membrane resealing after cell membrane injury Fujiwara, Daisuke;Iwahara, Naotoshi;Sebori, Rio;Hosoda, Ryusuke;Shimohama, Shun;Kuno, Atsushi;Horio, Yoshiyuki 2019-06-26 00:00:00 a1111111111 a1111111111 Activation of SIRT1, an NAD -dependent protein deacetylase, ameliorates muscular patho- physiology ofδ-sarcoglycan-deficient TO-2 hamsters and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here we use a genome-wide approach to identify putative target mRNAs for the Caenorhabditis elegans PUF protein known as FBF. (pnas.org)
  • mCherry fusion protein that forms discrete foci at C. elegans telomeres, independent of POT-2 , allowing for live analysis of telomere dynamics. (g3journal.org)
  • Caenorhabditis elegans BAH-1 is a DUF23 protein expressed in seam cells and required for microbial biofilm binding to the cuticle. (nih.gov)
  • GFP fusion protein localizes to the distal tip of microtubules and, during the cell cycle, moves from the centrosomes to the cell cortex. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a critical mitochondrial fission protein, translocated to mitochondria early during tubular cell injury, and both siRNA knockdown of Drp1 and expression of a dominant-negative Drp1 attenuated mitochondrial fragmentation, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and apoptosis. (jci.org)
  • GFP fusion protein in the ventral nerve cord and vulva precursor cells restores vulva and uterus formation, suggesting both cell autonomous and non-autonomous roles of VRK-1. (csic.es)
  • in addition, the LIN-46 fusion protein is detected in cell bodies and axons of the AVBL/R motor interneurons. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Most of this free energy is made biologically available as reversible phosphorylation reactions involving adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that is continuously being produced and utilized by cells to drive thermodynamically nonspontaneous reactions, such as ion transport, muscle contraction, protein synthesis, and DNA replication. (hindawi.com)
  • Because no protein synthesis occurs within cilia, IFT needed to move the organelle's structural components from the cell body to the ciliary tip (the anterograde direction) where axoneme synthesis occurs. (sciencemag.org)
  • CYK-4 and a CYK-4:GFP fusion protein localize to the central spindle and persist at cell division remnants. (rupress.org)
  • Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-dependent motor protein that functions in mitotic cells during centrosome separation, metaphase chromosome congression, anaphase spindle elongation, and chromosome segregation. (plos.org)
  • This translational fusion vector was used for high-level production of aminopeptidase N, up to 47 % of the total intracellular protein. (psu.edu)
  • Using BiFC analysis, Caenorhabditis elegans with protein interactions can also been visualized. (news-medical.net)
  • It was found that BiFC analysis is a practical strategy for identifying small molecules in living cell that is altering the particular protein complexes. (news-medical.net)
  • These organelles, which contain their own genomes, RNAs, and protein-synthesizing machines, also regulate other cellular processes, including programmed cell death and calcium signaling. (the-scientist.com)
  • To achieve more accurate, sensitive, and rapid cell-specific mitochondrial isolation, Zuryn and colleagues first created a fusion of three genes: one that codes for the mitochondrial membrane protein TOMM20, one for a fluorophore (for visualization), and one that expresses the human influenza hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. (the-scientist.com)
  • Visualization of membrane protein localization and trafficking in live cells facilitates understanding the molecular basis of cellular dynamics. (ucsb.edu)
  • Ca 2+ -dependent interactions between synaptotagmin and SNARE (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment receptor) complexes and/or anionic membranes are possible effector interactions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dysferlin is a Ca 2+ -binding protein found in many different cell types. (biologists.org)
  • GFP has been recognized as a marker in intact cells for gene expression and protein targeting. (news-medical.net)
  • The entire living cells or organism has been used as experimental system over a wide range of fields (cell biology and biomedicine) since the advent of GFP (autofluorescent protein). (news-medical.net)
  • It is used in various applications of biotechnology such as protein fusions, imagining whole organism, and transcriptional reporters. (news-medical.net)
  • As a reporter for DNA and protein localization, GFP has offered highly sensitive and innovative approaches to study bacterial cell organization. (news-medical.net)
  • The use of GFP in host-pathogen study is widely successful since it is a low toxic cytoplasmic protein, capable of synthesizing continuously and, therefore, decreasing fluorescence-signal dilution effect on bacterial replication, and is easily imaged and computed in relation to living cells and tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • The GFP gene is fused with the gene encoding the protein of interest and expressed in the cell. (news-medical.net)
  • EFF-1 is a novel type I membrane protein, with sequence motifs that suggest modes of action via direct interaction and/or processing of membrane lipids: a phospholipase A2 active site, and a potential virus-like amphipathic fusion peptide. (grantome.com)
  • 2. Assess the role of EFF-1 within the dynamic structural context of a cell fusion event by imaging of labeled EFF-1 protein within the fusing cells of live embryos. (grantome.com)
  • 3. Identify other protein components of the cell fusion machinery through isolation of molecules that interact physically and genetically with EFF-1. (grantome.com)
  • Baker AM, Roberts TM, Stewart M (2002) 2.6 A resolution crystal structure of helices of the motile major sperm protein (MSP) of Caenorhabditis elegans . (springer.com)
  • One well-studied pathway is the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase HOG1, the cascade of which initiates a temporary cell cycle arrest in response to osmotic stress, allowing the fungus to adapt and repair damaged cell wall structures. (asm.org)
  • This protein belongs to the ferlin family, which includes otoferlin, myoferlin, fer-1-like 5 (FER1L5) and the originally identified Caenorhabditis elegans Fer-1. (springer.com)
  • GFP fusion protein is localized to the baso-lateral surfaces of many polarized epithelial cells including the hypodermis and the intestine. (diva-portal.org)
  • Rice University researchers detailed the structure of an Orsay virus protein that gathers into fibers and mediates host cell entry, thereby infecting the cell. (phys.org)
  • The cell receptor for Orsay, which has not yet been identified, is shown as a transmembrane protein. (phys.org)
  • Results of a Rice University study of the Orsay virus unique to nematodes, the worms that make up 80 percent of living creatures on Earth, have revealed the molecular structure of a fusion protein that forms unusual fibers and attaches the virus to cells and infects them. (phys.org)
  • The protruding delta protein appears to be responsible for binding the virus to the surface of cells, which enables infection. (phys.org)
  • The virus first has to recognize a permissive host and get into the cell, and this protein carries out that function. (phys.org)
  • In another experiment, the researchers found that free-floating delta protein fibers would bind to receptors on the worms' cells, also protecting them. (phys.org)
  • These new techniques may also provide a window into mechanisms that cells use to maintain protein homeostasis. (stanford.edu)
  • We have developed an experimental system in which the stability of a specific protein depends on the presence or absence of a cell-permeable molecule. (stanford.edu)
  • The fusion protein is stable in the absence of the ligand, and administration of the ligand causes the fusion protein to be rapidly degraded. (stanford.edu)
  • This approach allowed us to identify a novel coordinated transcriptional response that mammalian cells trigger when unfolded protein appears (Miyazaki et al. (stanford.edu)
  • Additionally, creating unfolded DD in either the cytosol or nucleus elicits distinct responses, suggesting that mammalian cells maintain different protein quality control surveillance environments in these compartments. (stanford.edu)
  • Distal sheath filopodia were also visualized using a green fluorescent protein reporter gene fusion and confocal microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • Overexpression of SMNrp as a fusion protein in HeLa cells in culture induced dose-dependent apoptosis with positive TUNEL staining. (embl.de)
  • The resultant TAT-AICD fusion protein is cell permeable and triggers an increase in PI(3,5) P 2 . (portlandpress.com)
  • Here, we used live imaging analysis of GFP knock-in and RNAi embryos to study the embryonic cell-cell fusions in C. elegans . (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the actin cytoskeleton differently promotes cell-cell fusion by regulating fusogen localization to the fusing plasma membrane in larvae or to intracellular vesicles in embryos. (biologists.org)
  • These results indicate that the actin cytoskeleton may be dispensable for intercellular fusion in embryos, raising the question of whether different types of cell-cell fusion use distinct mechanisms for fusogen recruitment and engagement. (biologists.org)
  • Hence, we performed fluorescence time-lapse analysis of cell-cell fusions in RNAi-treated embryos, showing that WASP-Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization is involved in embryonic hyp7 cell-cell fusions by recruiting EFF-1 to intracellular vesicles. (biologists.org)
  • Putative PUF target mRNAs have been identified on a genomic scale in budding yeast, human HeLa cells, and fly ovaries and embryos ( 14 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, VRK-1 is required for proper nuclear envelope formation. (csic.es)
  • Similar intermediates of pronuclear fusion have been observed in algae and sea urchin embryos where four nuclear membranes are resolved to two, before nucleoplasmic fusion ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • In invertebrate embryos, a transient interaction between astral microtubules of the mitotic spindle and the cell cortex is sufficient to position the cleavage furrow ( Rappaport 1985 ). (rupress.org)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, as in invertebrate embryos, only the later stages of cytokinesis appear to depend on the central spindle. (rupress.org)
  • Here we report the activation of an intercellular signaling pathway in sea urchin embryos by membrane wounding that evokes Ca 2+ spikes in neighboring cells. (biologists.org)
  • Embryos were imaged by time-lapse microscopy using two-photon laser scanning microscopy to simultaneously monitor CGD fluorescence, cell surface FM4-64 fluorescence, and DIC transmission images in all four blastomeres before and after one blastomere was wounded using a laser ( Fig. 1A , and supplementary material Movies 1, 2 and 3). (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus embryos after midblastula transition (MBT), the cell cycle duration elongates in a power law relationship with the cell radius squared. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we found that the relationship between cell cycle duration and cell size in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos exhibited a power law distribution. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell cycle is regulated in coordination with cell size in unicellular organisms and cells in animal embryos. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings suggest that cell size and genome size are critical factors for determining the timing of MBT, which is the classic concept to explain the coordination between cellular events and cell size in early development of animal embryos. (frontiersin.org)
  • In starfish embryos, cell adhesiveness begins to increase after the eighth cleavage to form a monolayered hollow blastula. (frontiersin.org)
  • In accordance with the classic concept, the timing of adhesiveness was accelerated in embryos with doubled ploidy, whereas the timing was delayed in large-sized embryos by the fusion of a non-nucleate egg fragment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Signaling systems that induce the differentiation of cells that are incapable of synthesizing new gene products may be expected to utilize some novel mechanisms of relaying information and rearranging cellular architecture. (genetics.org)
  • Maurer, C. W., Chiorazzi, M. & Shaham, S. Timing of the onset of a developmental cell death is controlled by transcriptional induction of the C. elegans ced-3 caspase-encoding gene. (nature.com)
  • This altered development occurs at the level of gene transcription and was observed in the presence of innervation, not simply in isolated cells. (biologists.org)
  • In C. elegans , mutations in the LIM homeobox gene lin-11 have previously been shown to alter the cell division pattern of a subset of the 2° lineage vulval cells. (biologists.org)
  • Several major stem cell regulators control gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • In this review, we describe methodologies to test whether a particular candidate gene plays a role in the control of mitochondrial morphology in healthy cells and apoptotic cells using Caenorhabditis elegans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cyk-4 gene has been identified by genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans . (rupress.org)
  • By screening a conditional Caenorhabditis elegans cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain mutant at a semipermissive temperature with a genome-wide RNA interference library to reduce gene functions, we have isolated and characterized twenty dynein-specific suppressor genes. (plos.org)
  • The kinetics, control, and efficiency of nisin-induced expression directed by the nisA promoter region were studied in Lactococcus lactis with transcriptional and translational fusions to the gusA reporter gene. (psu.edu)
  • Results: Transgenic C. elegans strains were generated for 366 transcription factor promoter/gfp reporter gene fusions. (harvard.edu)
  • The high proportion of Promoterome reporter fusions that drove GFP expression, compared to previous studies, led to the hypothesis that transcription factor genes might be involved in local gene duplication events less frequently than other genes. (harvard.edu)
  • Comparison of transcription factor genes of C. elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae was therefore carried out and revealed very few examples of functional gene duplication since the divergence of these species for most, but not all, transcription factor gene families. (harvard.edu)
  • You might get a mutation in a respiratory chain gene, which should be important, but it only affects a handful of cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • The researchers then stably integrated the fusion gene into the C. elegans genome, using tissue-specific promoters to control expression. (the-scientist.com)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , mutations in the gene encoding dysferlin (Fer-1) cause infertility, and in sperm dysferlin is thought to mediate vesicular membrane fusion ( Washington and Ward, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • GFP is considered as the most important and powerful tool to monitor gene expression in different kinds of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Several mammalian Notch receptors are oncogenic when constitutively active, including Notch1 , a gene initially identified based on its involvement in a (7;9) chromosomal translocation found in sporadic T-cell lymphoblastic leukemias and lymphomas (T-ALL). (asm.org)
  • The human Notch1 gene was originally identified by analysis of a recurrent (7;9) chromosomal translocation [t(7;9)] found in a subset of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemias and lymphomas (T-ALL) ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • The t(7;9) disrupts the Notch1 gene, fusing the portion encoding its intracellular domain (ICN1) to enhancer and promoter elements of the T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) gene. (asm.org)
  • The resultant TCRβ-Notch1 fusion gene encodes a series of truncated t(7;9)-specific Notch1 polypeptides that localize to the nucleus and structurally resemble ICN1 ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Finding missing interactions of the Arabidopsis thaliana root stem cell niche gene regulatory network. (unam.mx)
  • The sel-12 gene of Caenorhabditis is homologous to a gene in humans that confers susceptibility to Alzheimer dis- ease (q.v. (damasgate.com)
  • Through a combination of targeted and unbiased reverse genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans, and studies in mammalian cells, we have identified genes required for maturation of apoptotic-cell-containing phagosomes. (nih.gov)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , the spe-8 group contains sperm-specific genes active in both males and hermaphrodites, although their activity is required only for hermaphrodite self-sperm activation. (biologists.org)
  • Specification of different cell types during development involves multiple cell-cell interactions mediated by many genes. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in these genes alter the axes of terminal cell division, suggesting a role in differentiation of a subset of the vulval cells. (biologists.org)
  • Being a LIM homeodomain family member, LIN-11 is likely to function as a transcriptional regulator of vulval cell-type specific genes. (biologists.org)
  • Thus a major challenge will be to learn additional mechanisms by which the sex determination pathway interacts with signaling pathways and other cell fate specification genes to generate hermaphrodite-specific cell fates. (wormbook.org)
  • Using mutants that cause defects in germ cell proliferation or gametogenesis, we identified sets of genes with germline-enriched expression in either hermaphrodites or males,or in both sexes. (biologists.com)
  • The increasing cell cycle delay that characterizes senescence prior to crisis involves a distinct set of checkpoint genes, including MEC1 and MEC3 ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • they discovered genes controlling cytokinesis and found features previously thought specific to plant cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. elegans relies on many of the same genes that we do to control the division of cells, for example, and to program faulty cells to commit suicide. (nytimes.com)
  • That finding, which Dr. Kenyon made while a professor at the University of California, San Francisco, led to the discovery of an entire network of genes involved in repairing cells, allowing animals to live longer. (nytimes.com)
  • Humans depend on similar genes to repair our cells, too. (nytimes.com)
  • We altered the ratio in the embryo and analyzed the consequences on the cell cycle program and on the transcripts of specific genes. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • Like other fungi exposed to echinocandins, genes associated with sexual replication, cell wall integrity, cell cycle arrest, and stress comprised the strongest upregulated signals in P. murina from the treated mice. (asm.org)
  • Downregulated signals included genes involved in cell replication, genome stability, and ribosomal biogenesis and function and the Pneumocystis -specific genes encoding the major surface glycoproteins (Msg). (asm.org)
  • Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. (nih.gov)
  • J Cell Biol (2020) 219 (2): e202001048. (rupress.org)
  • Peritoneal dialysis done in advance mix the probe with hybridization mix per vial incubate at a c notes it is rarely the case will another epithelium substitute for pax in danfortha s short tail sd mice dev biol a the development of the abnormalities typical of cells based on genetic linkage mapping of the. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • J Cell Biol (2002) 158 (2): 273-282. (rupress.org)
  • Mol Biol Cell [Epub ahead of print]. (sdbonline.org)
  • Mol Cell Biol 21(7):2570-2580. (springer.com)
  • Our findings identified a role for CDC-48 UFD−1/NPL−4 in DNA replication, which is important for cell cycle progression and genome stability. (pnas.org)
  • Together, these findings provide a link between DNA replication and the chaperone-like CDC-48 UFD−1/NPL−4 complex, which is important for cell cycle progression and genome stability. (pnas.org)
  • Genome stability is essential for cell proliferation and survival. (escholarship.org)
  • Here we show that the DDR and SAC function together throughout the cell cycle to ensure genome integrity in C. elegans germ cells. (escholarship.org)
  • Only two direct targets of the sex determination pathway that influence cell fate specification to produce hermaphrodite-specific cell fates have been identified. (wormbook.org)
  • 1 In the hermaphrodite worm Caenorhabditis elegans , the invasive anchor cell breaks down the basal lamina and fuses with neighboring vulva cells to form the uterine-seam cell that connects the vulva to the uterus. (asnjournals.org)
  • Genetic and embryological experiments have established the Caenorhabditis elegans adult hermaphrodite gonad as a paradigm for studying the control of germline development and the role of soma-germline interactions. (elsevier.com)
  • C. elegans normally reproduces as a self-fertilizing hermaphrodite, which has two X chromosomes per cell, plus five pairs of autosomes. (damasgate.com)
  • Proper communication between neurons relies on the regulated fusion of synaptic vesicles with the active zone, a specialized region of the plasma membrane, and the subsequent release of neurotransmitter. (genetics.org)
  • observed the development of extensively arborized neurite trees-menorahs-in two highly branched mechanosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans . (sciencemag.org)
  • The B lineage also generates the support cells (and neurons) of the spicules. (wormbook.org)
  • The rectal epithelial cell Y produces the support cells (and neurons) of the PCS, which lies posterior to the hook. (wormbook.org)
  • Rather, cil-1 specifically controls TRPP complex trafficking in male-specific sensory neurons and does so in a cell autonomous fashion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The adult has 816 somatic cells, of which 302 are neurons. (damasgate.com)
  • In this study, we used a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify six regulators of lysosome biology. (g3journal.org)
  • Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, Program in Microbial Pathogenesis and Host Defense, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. (nih.gov)
  • Our studies identify the CIL-1 5-phosphatase as key regulator of PI metabolism in cell types that are important in several aspects of male reproductive biology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Qualifying exam committee for UCHC Cell Biology PhD student Rachael Norris. (uchc.edu)
  • [5] To reproduce, true multicellular organisms must solve the problem of regenerating a whole organism from germ cells (i.e. sperm and egg cells), an issue that is studied in evolutionary developmental biology . (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding the in vivo redox biology of cells is a complex albeit important biological problem. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Kennedy, B. and Malicki, J. (2009), What drives cell morphogenesis: A look inside the vertebrate photoreceptor. (wiley.com)
  • Orientation of cell division is a vital aspect of tissue morphogenesis and growth. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Epithelial morphogenesis relies on a variety of cellular behaviors, for example, spindle orientation, cell shape changes, and cell intercalation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The researchers discovered this process by studying a tiny worm called Caenorhabditis elegans. (nytimes.com)
  • Following either ATP depletion or cisplatin treatment of rat renal tubular cells, mitochondrial fragmentation was observed prior to cytochrome c release and apoptosis. (jci.org)
  • Notably, both tubular cell apoptosis and acute kidney injury were attenuated by mdivi-1, a newly identified pharmacological inhibitor of Drp1. (jci.org)
  • Tubular cell necrosis may involve disruption of respiration complexes, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition, while apoptosis is precipitated by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and consequent release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c . (jci.org)
  • Despite these findings, the mechanism underlying mitochondrial damage during tubular cell apoptosis remains elusive. (jci.org)
  • Apoptosis initiation through the cell-extrinsic pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The vulva of Caenorhabditis elegans has been long used as an experimental model of cell differentiation and organogenesis. (ginsim.org)
  • The adult vulva is formed by the progeny of three out of six vulval precursor cells (VPCs) that acquire 1° and 2° fates in a 2°-1°-2° pattern, and undergo three rounds of cell divisions ( Sulston and Horvitz, 1977 ) ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. (wikipathways.org)
  • For example, certain P cells divide to generate the vulva in hermaphrodites, while other P cells divide to generate portions of the mating apparatus of the male tail ( Figure 2 ). (wormbook.org)
  • In addition, the M cell divides in hermaphrodites to generate the vulval muscles that control the movements of the vulva. (wormbook.org)
  • A model of the regulatory network involved in the control of the cell cycle and cell differentiation in the Caenorhabditis elegans vulva. (unam.mx)
  • The systems work well in cultured mammalian cells, a variety of model organisms (e.g., flies, worms, frogs) and in living mice and rats. (stanford.edu)
  • Cell-cell fusion is essential for development and physiology. (biologists.org)
  • We have further ordered these candidates, which include the GTPases RAB-5 and RAB-7 and the HOPS complex, into a coherent linear pathway for the maturation of apoptotic cells within phagosomes. (nih.gov)
  • bah-1 is expressed in seam cells, which are among the hypodermal cells that synthesize the cuticle, and is regulated by a TGF-beta signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , the initiation of axon regeneration is positively regulated by the JNK-MAPK pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our findings thus reveal that the molecular machinery used for engulfment of apoptotic cells also promotes axon regeneration through activation of the JNK pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Fermentation was the first metabolic pathway to be fully known, thanks to the key findings of many researchers such as Louis Pasteur, who defined the biological nature of the process and Eduard Buchner, who showed that cell-free extracts could carry out fermentation. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, adhesion of the flagella of two Chlamydomonas gametes activates an IFT-dependent signaling pathway, resulting in cell fusion ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, loss of distal cell identity, which we induced by activating the Notch pathway, prevented luminal interconnection. (asnjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the NMD pathway affects the rate of senescence in telomerase-deficient cells by altering the stoichiometry of telomere cap components. (asm.org)
  • Notch receptors participate in a conserved signaling pathway that controls the development of diverse tissues and cell types, including lymphoid cells. (asm.org)
  • Pseudosynapsis and decreased stringency of meiotic repair pathway choice on the hemizygous sex chromosome of Caenorhabditis elegans males. (escholarship.org)
  • Much of the material taken into cells by endocytosis is rapidly returned to the plasma membrane by the endocytic recycling pathway. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomes, the major membrane-bound degradative organelles, have a multitude of functions in eukaryotic cells. (g3journal.org)
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that serve as the major degradative compartments for endocytic, phagocytic, and autophagic materials targeted for destruction in eukaryotic cells. (g3journal.org)
  • Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are cell surface projections familiar to school-children everywhere for the elegant swath they cut as they propel protozoa through pond water. (sciencemag.org)
  • Also, the inner membrane has structural characteristics of a prokaryotic cell membrane, while the outer membrane is similar to the host eukaryotic membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • The matrix is also known to house tRNA and ribosomes , which further solidifies the theory that the mitochondria entered the ancestral eukaryotic cell as single celled organism. (wikibooks.org)
  • GEORGE RETSECK M itochondria power eukaryotic cells, but they do more than produce energy. (the-scientist.com)
  • The eukaryotic cell membrane possesses numerous complex functions, which are essential for life. (jove.com)
  • The term lipophagy is used to describe the autophagic degradation of lipid droplets, the main lipid storage organelles of eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The fusion of somatic cells to form syncytial tissues is an essential part of human development, and cell fusion is an ancient process, shared in evolution by all eukaryotic phyla. (grantome.com)
  • This work highlights the diversity of EV biogenesis and trafficking pathways used by F . hepatica and sheds light on the molecular interaction between parasite EVs and host cells. (plos.org)
  • Cells rely on two major pathways to repair DSBs. (prolekare.cz)
  • Class II virus-cell fusogens are β-sheet-rich prefusion homo- or heterodimers that insert FLs into membranes, ending in postfusion trimers. (nih.gov)
  • Class III virus-cell fusogens are trimers with both α-helices and β-sheets that dissociate into monomers, insert FLs into membranes, and oligomerize into postfusion trimers. (nih.gov)
  • Class I cell-cell fusogens (Syncytins) were captured by mammals from retroviruses, and class II cell-cell fusogens (EFF-1/AFF-1) fuse membranes via homotypic zippering. (nih.gov)
  • We found that SIRT1 was highly expressed beneath the cellular membranes of muscle cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Because SIRT1 was dominantly localized beneath Received: January 25, 2019 the membranes of muscular cells, SIRT1 may have a new role in the membranes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cell fractionation analysis reveals that Munc13-4 is mainly cytosolic and is recruited rapidly to membranes following stimulation with fMLF ( N -formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell-cell fusogens are glycoproteins that facilitate the fusion of cell to cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be considered a fusogen, it must be required for fusion, fuse unfamiliar membranes, and be present on the fusing membrane when need be. (wikipedia.org)
  • VRK-1 regulates anchor cell polarity and the timing of anchor cell invasion through the basement membranes separating vulval and somatic gonadal cells during the L3 larval stage. (csic.es)
  • However, the mechanisms promoting fusion of four pronuclear membranes into two and subsequent pronuclear fusion have not yet been fully explored. (rupress.org)
  • Before fusion, curving of the outer membranes is promoted by the phospholipase D-dependent hydrolysis of cardiolipin. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • Biological membranes separate cells from the environment. (jove.com)
  • From a single cell to multicellular plants and animals, glycerolipids, such as phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, form bilayer membranes which act as both boundaries and interfaces for chemical exchange between cells and their surroundings. (jove.com)
  • The long-term goal of this proposal is to understand the mechanisms by which cell membranes become fusion competent in normal animal development. (grantome.com)
  • Our results indicate that cell-cell fusions rely on distinct mechanisms at different developmental stages in the formation of a single epithelium syncytium. (biologists.org)
  • These cells include but are not limited too: gametes, trophoblasts, epithelial, and other developmental cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • GFP distributions were determined, and then summarized with reference to developmental stage and cell type. (harvard.edu)
  • Developmental Cell. (nyu.edu)
  • Pharmacogenetic analysis reveals a post-developmental role for Rac GTPases in Caenorhabditis elegans GABAergic neurotransmission. (uniprot.org)
  • Our results will increase understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying developmental cell fusion, a crucial and under-explored component of animal reproduction, development, and health. (grantome.com)
  • During this striking conversion, membranous organelles fuse with the plasma membrane and a pseudopod extends from the cell body. (genetics.org)
  • Plasma membrane disruption is Innovative Areas - Platforms for Advanced rapidly resealed by membrane repair mechanisms for cell survival [1]. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our results provide direct support for the hypothesis that plasma membrane penetration, specifically by the C 2 B domain of synaptotagmin, is the critical effector interaction for coupling Ca 2+ binding with vesicle fusion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recombinant TRP-ML1 was characterized in the plasma membrane, where it is targeted under overexpression conditions ( 19 , 24 ), and in artificial lipid bilayers using TRP-ML1 purified from overexpressing cells or synthesized in a cell-free system ( 25 , 26 ). (rupress.org)
  • For example, upon plasma membrane wounding a cell might release factors that signal other cells to compensate for the impairment or loss of the wounded cell. (biologists.org)
  • Through GFP, all major cell organelles such as plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, and endoplasmic reticulum are targeted. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, we found a relation between the number of bis-allyl-methylene positions of the PUFA added and the unsaturation index of plasma membrane as well as membrane rafts of supplemented cells. (jove.com)
  • Finding the molecules that drive plasma membrane fusion is therefore a major priority in understanding human health. (grantome.com)
  • Within proximal sheath cells, actin/myosin bundles are anchored to the plasma membrane at plaque-like structures we have termed hemi-adherens junctions, which in turn are closely associated with the gonadal basal lamina. (elsevier.com)
  • Human somatic cells have finite replicative lifespans and can enter an irreversible cell-cycle arrest, termed senescence, in response to various stresses. (g3journal.org)
  • Yet when considering asexual reproduction, somatic cells can also undergo cell-cell fusion or self-fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most somatic cells, telomerase is inactive and telomere sequences erode at variable rates, depending upon the organism and cell type ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, expression of the catalytic subunit of telomerase is sufficient to immortalize several different cell types in culture ( 2 , 26 , 51 , 52 ), indicating that the lack of telomerase activity in somatic cells limits the proliferative potential of those cells. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that in transgenic strains carrying heat shock promoter-lacZ fusions, single cell expression of beta-galactosidase in a variety of cell types of endodermal, mesodermal, or ectodermal origin can be achieved after pulsing with a laser. (nih.gov)
  • A transgenic approach allows researchers to collect the organelles from specific cells in nematodes with unprecedented efficiency. (the-scientist.com)
  • Virus and cell fusion mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanisms and fusogens for most cell fusion events are unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, such cells offer unique settings to explore engulfment programme mechanisms and specificity. (nature.com)
  • Our studies suggest universal mechanisms for dismantling morphologically complex cells and uncover a phagosome-sealing component that promotes cell process clearance. (nature.com)
  • 4 Interestingly, subsequent studies showed that the genetic removal of monocytes also protected mice from severe hypertension, in part, through the natural killer cell-dependent mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, we need to identify the exact mechanisms of immune cell involvement in hypertension and should develop specific inhibitors of these mechanisms, possibly without affecting the antimicrobial immune defenses. (ahajournals.org)
  • A driving force behind stem cell research is the identification of broadly conserved regulatory mechanisms that may facilitate development of therapies to ease human disease. (pnas.org)
  • Most fusogen mechanisms begin with hemifusion, but the mechanism for cell-cell fusogens consists of four separate steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • When considering cell-cell fusogens as a potential answer, researchers divided these fusogens into two groups based on fusion mechanisms: cell aggregation and membrane modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both cell lineage-based and cell-signaling mechanisms of cell fate specification will be discussed. (wormbook.org)
  • The mechanisms promoting nuclear envelope fusion and the subsequent joining of two parental pronuclei in the first mitosis of the embryo are poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • Although recycling is vital for the correct localization of cell membrane receptors and lipids, the molecular mechanisms that regulate recycling are only partially understood. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we report that dismantling and clearance of a morphologically complex Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial cell requires separate cell soma, proximal and distal process programmes. (nature.com)
  • We examined the fate of vulval cells in lin-11 mutant animals using five cellular markers and found that lin-11 is necessary for the patterning of both 1° and 2° lineage cells. (biologists.org)
  • Funding: This study was supported in part by the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/ja/ Introduction index/) Numbers 15K08312 (YH), 17K08600 (AK), 17K15582 (RH), 18K06965 (YH) and JP16H06280 Cycles of contraction and relaxation in skeletal muscles and cardiac cells induce cellular mem- (YH) (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on brane friction and strain that could cause membrane rupture. (deepdyve.com)
  • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) are the most abundant white cells found in peripheral blood and form the first line of cellular defense against infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus FFs comprise an ancient family of cellular fusogens that can promote fusion when expressed on a viral particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the utilization of oxygen by cells, albeit the advantages of oxidative phosphorylation, is not without consequence, since partially reduced oxygen intermediates, the so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in cellular redox homeostasis [ 3 ] that may have a role in tumorigenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • In the context of cancer, when cells that use glucose as the main substrate to drive ATP synthesis are subjected to hypoxia, as happens to the cells located in the center of the tumor mass, glucose uptake and metabolism increase significantly in order to maintain cellular ATP levels. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of the mitochondria in the eukaryote is to provide cellular respiration to the cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • Mitochondrial fusion and fission are fundamental processes underlying cellular dynamics [1]. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • Fertilization-the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism-is the culmination of a multitude of intricately regulated cellular processes. (springer.com)
  • This chapter will review the nature and regulation of the various cellular processes of fertilization, including the development of fertilization competence, gamete signaling, sperm-oocyte fusion, the oocyte to embryo transition, and production of an eggshell to protect the developing embryo. (springer.com)
  • Tetraspanins play diverse roles in cell adhesion, migration and fusion processes, cellular activation and signaling (reviewed in refs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both telomeres and telomerase are important determinants of a mitotic clock that regulates the proliferative potential of cells ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The "biogenesis" model for MLIV progression suggests that TRP-ML1 regulates lipid trafficking by mediating specific fission and/or fusion events between late endosomes and lysosomes that occur during the process of lysosome biogenesis, a Ca 2+ -dependent process ( 29 - 34 ). (rupress.org)
  • Our model is the largest reconstruction to date of the molecular network controlling the specification of vulval precursor cells and cell fusion control in C. elegans. (ginsim.org)
  • Circulating hemoglobin and heme represent erythrocytic danger-associated molecular pattern (eDAMP) molecules, which activate the innate immune system and endothelium to an inflammatory, proadhesive state that promotes sickle vaso-occlusion and acute lung injury in murine models of sickle cell disease. (jci.org)
  • While the molecular cargo of EVs have been characterised in many parasites, little is known about the surface-exposed molecules that participate in ligand-receptor interactions with the host cell surface to initiate vesicle docking and subsequent internalisation. (plos.org)
  • Yet the molecular mechanism of cell fusion is essentially unknown in all species. (grantome.com)
  • We propose to determine the molecular function of EFF-1 in membrane fusion, and to further dissect the full mechanism of cell fusion via the following lines of inquiry: 1. (grantome.com)
  • Recent studies are providing new insights into the molecular basis of this fusion process. (springer.com)
  • Removal of apoptotic cells is critical for the physiological well-being of the organism and defects in corpse removal have been linked to disease states. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the fact that the mitochondria contain their own DNA and ribosomes lends further support to endosymbiosis, since these cell features would be a necessary part of any free-living organism. (wikibooks.org)
  • A third hypothesis is that as a unicellular organism divided, the daughter cells failed to separate, resulting in a conglomeration of identical cells in one organism, which could later develop specialized tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cdc48 mutants were isolated by the first genetic screens for cell division cycle (cdc) mutants in yeast, the requirement of the chaperone-like ATPase Cdc48/p97 during cell division has remained unclear. (pnas.org)
  • For some amino acids the genetic code of the mitochondria differ slightly from that of the nucleus (and the rest of the cell). (wikibooks.org)
  • Interestingly enough the matrix of the mitochondria are one of the few locations outside of the nucleus where genetic information can be found in the cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • The use of GFP in labeling multi-components within a single cell and for monitoring genetic material persist to make this approach a valuable tool to address the complicated uncertainties related to bacteria. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we analyzed the genetic requirements for meiotic DSB repair on the completely hemizygous X chromosome of Caenorhabditis elegans males. (escholarship.org)
  • This module is also known to regulate the engulfment of apoptotic cells during development. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we show that integrin, Rac-GTPase, and several other molecules, all of which are known to regulate engulfment of apoptotic cells during development, also regulate axon regeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • How to Analyze Mitochondrial Morphology in Healthy Cells and Apoptotic Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These are events leading to phagosome maturation which is a step in apoptotic cell corpse clearance. (uniprot.org)
  • Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy for four-dimensional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic development. (osapublishing.org)
  • William A. Mohler and John G. White, "Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy for four-dimensional analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic development. (osapublishing.org)
  • Inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM) enables coupled cell identity lineaging and neurodevelopmental imaging in Caenorhabditis elegans . (nature.com)
  • 7 ) used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes, to study pronuclear fusion. (rupress.org)
  • Scanning electron microscopy was used to directly visualize the distal tip cell which extends tentacle-like processes that directly contact distal germ cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy also revealed thin filopodia extending from the distal sheath cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Divided into two convenient parts, the volume begins with nine overviews which describe different cell fusion events in models from yeast to mammals, and it continues with thirteen chapters illustrating commonly used methods to assay cell fusion in particular systems. (springer.com)
  • Similarly, mitochondrial defects were observed in mammalian and yeast cells. (embopress.org)
  • As with fibroblast cultures, continued subculturing of telomerase-deficient yeast gives rise to rare survivor cells that ultimately overtake cultures of primarily senescing and dying cells ( 29 , 35 , 44 , 49 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • COMMON sets of signal transduction molecules direct cell differentiation events in diverse tissues and organisms. (genetics.org)
  • Telomeres are composed of simple TTAGGG repeats in vertebrates and related sequences in other organisms, such as TTAGGC repeats in Caenorhabditis elegans . (g3journal.org)
  • Cell-cell fusion is critical for the merging of gamete genomes and the development of organs in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary cilia are highly structured and are found in many organisms and on many cell types. (sciencemag.org)
  • In summary, the initiation of cytokinesis depends on the central spindle in some but not in all organisms, whereas there appears to be a general requirement for the central spindle for the completion of cytokinesis in animal cells. (rupress.org)
  • Many organisms of single cell and multi cell have been studied using BiFC assay. (news-medical.net)
  • It's also possible to sort cells based on specific markers and then isolate mitochondria, but this is time-consuming, requires large amounts of material, and in some organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans , is technically challenging. (the-scientist.com)
  • Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell , in contrast to unicellular organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] [16] In other groups, generally parasites, a reduction of multicellularity occurred, in number or types of cells (e.g. the myxozoans , multicellular organisms, earlier thought to be unicellular, are probably extremely reduced cnidarians ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicellular organisms, especially long-living animals, face the challenge of cancer , which occurs when cells fail to regulate their growth within the normal program of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merging both the fusion order and evolutionary origin, organisms end up having fused UMPS where one of its catalytic domains comes from bacteria and the other from eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphoinositides (PIs) and their phosphatases and kinases play pivotal roles in receptor trafficking as well as in membrane organelle biogenesis/transport, endocytosis, cytoskeleton dynamics, signal transduction, cell motility, and channel activity modulation [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A network model for the specification of vulval precursor cells and cell fusion control in Caenorhabditis elegans. (ginsim.org)
  • According to our model, the process of fate determination in the vulval precursor cells is reversible, at least until either the cells fuse with the ventral hypoderm or divide, and therefore the cell fates must be maintained by the presence of extracellular signals. (ginsim.org)
  • Precursor cells of the distal nephron in the interconnection zone exhibit a characteristic morphology consisting of ill-defined epithelial junctional complexes but without expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and Snai2. (asnjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data support a model in which establishing the distal identity of nephron precursor cells closest to the nascent collecting duct epithelium leads to an active cell invasion, which in turn contributes to a patent tubular interconnection between the nephron and collecting duct epithelia. (asnjournals.org)
  • In a variety of secretory cells, the formation of SNARE complexes is a major event preceding membrane fusion and mediator release ( 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201909137 ) found that membrane fusion between pronuclear envelopes, followed by fenestration, promotes pronuclear fusion. (rupress.org)
  • Nonetheless, nuclear membrane fusion before NEBD appears to be conserved. (rupress.org)
  • Ñeurotransmitter release requires the direct coupling of the calcium sensor with the machinery for membrane fusion. (rupress.org)
  • To test the effect of synaptotagmin I on membrane fusion, we incorporated it into a SNARE-mediated liposome fusion assay. (rupress.org)
  • Synaptotagmin I dramatically stimulated membrane fusion by facilitating SNAREpin zippering. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that synaptotagmin I can directly accelerate SNARE-mediated membrane fusion and raise the possibility that additional components might be required to ensure tight calcium coupling. (rupress.org)
  • The absence of functional EFF-1 in mutant cells blocks cell membrane fusion at the earliest step in the process. (grantome.com)
  • Loss of function of ARF‐1 or GBF‐1 impaired mitochondrial morphology and activity in Caenorhabditis elegans . (embopress.org)
  • This unpredictability is thought to stem from the differing ratios of mutant and wildtype mitochondria that can occur in different cell types, says Steven Zuryn of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, adding that even genetically identical mitochondria can behave differently in terms of morphology and activity in different cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Cultured muscle cells lack innervation, which is required for proper muscle development and to prevent muscle atrophy in vivo ( Szewczyk and Jacobson, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • Further in vivo analysis revealed that mitochondrial fragmentation also occurred in proximal tubular cells in mice during renal ischemia/reperfusion and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. (jci.org)
  • The leukemogenic potential of Notch1 was formally proven in our previous studies in which lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with bone marrow (BM) cells transduced ex vivo by retroviruses encoding activated forms of Notch1. (asm.org)
  • Utilizing redox-sensitive GFP fusions to detect in vivo redox changes in a genetically engineered prokaryote. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In developing Caenorhabditis elegans during neuronal arborization, excess neurite branches are retracted and fuse. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition to their role in stem cell regulation, PUFs can also control embryonic polarity and neuronal functions (e.g., refs. (pnas.org)
  • This genetically tractable system allows the assessment of the relative contributions that coordinated changes in cell shape, adhesion, orientation, and migration make to basic epithelial tubulogenesis. (sdbonline.org)
  • cadherins glycoproteins composed of amino acids that function as cell-cell adhesion mole- cules. (damasgate.com)
  • They are present in many types of epithelial cells and are usually concentrated in the adhesion belts that hold the cells together. (damasgate.com)
  • See cell-cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). (damasgate.com)
  • Best known are the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog, which head a transcriptional network to regulate pluripotency in human embryonic stem (ES) cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Use of the translational fusion vector yielded up to six times more b-glucuronidase activity than the transcriptional fusion vector in these strains after induction by nisin. (psu.edu)
  • These experiments define a minimal transforming region for Notch1 in T-cell progenitors and suggest that leukemogenic signaling involves recruitment of transcriptional coactivators to ICN1 nuclear complexes. (asm.org)
  • Our analysis of the CDC-48 UFD−1/NPL−4 complex identified a general role in S phase progression of mitotic cells essential for embryonic cell division and germline development of adult worms. (pnas.org)
  • At the heart of the basal body is a centriole ( Fig. 1B ), an important component of the mitotic spindle apparatus in dividing cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pronuclear fusion and the first mitotic event are complicated by the double membrane surrounding each pronucleus and the fact that in metazoans, nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) must occur for microtubules to access chromosomes ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • During cytokinesis of animal cells, the mitotic spindle plays at least two roles. (rupress.org)
  • The newly formed lysosomes undergo cycles of homotypic fusion and fission reactions to form mature lysosomes. (g3journal.org)
  • Mitochondria constantly undergo fusion and fission events. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A proper balance of fusion and fission is essential in healthy cells, as disrupting this balance is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. (centrodinoferrari.com)
  • In some multicellular groups, which are called Weismannists , a separation between a sterile somatic cell line and a germ cell line evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we show that Munc13-4 is expressed in human neutrophils, and that its expression is increased during granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 and PLB-985 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • A Network Model to Describe the Terminal Differentiation of B Cells. (unam.mx)
  • A Minimal Regulatory Network of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Recovers Observed Patterns of CD4+ T Cell Differentiation and Plasticity. (unam.mx)
  • A robust model to describe the differentiation of T-helper cells. (unam.mx)
  • Total cell lysates of the two strains were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. (psu.edu)
  • Cancer cells also carry out oxidative metabolism and generally conform to the orthodox model of ATP production maintaining as well an intact electron transport system. (hindawi.com)
  • hard rediscovered these organelles within the inter- phase nuclei of mammalian liver cells and named them coiled bodies on the basis of their appearance in electron micrographs. (damasgate.com)
  • The technique, called cell-specific mitochondrial affinity purification (CS-MAP), allowed for the collection of mitochondria that were intact and functional-and it revealed unexpected differences in the mutation loads of different cells, such as high numbers of mtDNA mutations in germline cells, says Zuryn. (the-scientist.com)
  • The lineage of cells that joins one generation to the next - called the germline - is, in a sense, immortal. (nytimes.com)
  • These distal tip cell processes are likely to play a critical role in promoting germline mitosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results show that the inhibition of WASP-Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization delays cell-cell fusions. (biologists.org)
  • EFF-1 is primarily distributed in intracellular vesicles in embryonic fusing cells, and we find that the perturbation of actin polymerization reduces the number of EFF-1-postive vesicles. (biologists.org)
  • For example, Rac activation induces actin polymerization and integrin focal complex assembly at the cell periphery, leading to formation of lamellipodia. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, in kinesin-1 depleted cells virus particles exhibited movements characteristic of either free diffusion in the cytosol or actin-mediated movement. (nih.gov)
  • A tissue-general, inducible promoter can therefore be converted into one of single cell specificity which can be induced rapidly at any point in development, offering unique opportunities to study cell-cell interactions in C. elegans. (nih.gov)
  • We have analyzed the effects of a 10-day spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans muscle development. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, studies of muscle development or atrophy in whole animals are required to confirm results obtained with cultured cells. (biologists.org)
  • LIM homeobox family members regulate a variety of cell fate choices during animal development. (biologists.org)
  • Vulval development thus provides opportunities to study cell fate specification and pattern formation. (biologists.org)
  • 4 Similarly, myclophenolate mofetil, which primarily targets T and B cells, prevents the development of hypertension and urinary excretion of tumor necrosis factor-α in patients with psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the article published in the current issue of Hypertension , Li et al demonstrate that a specific subset of T cells, carrying the γδ T-cell receptor is a major source of interleukin-17 (IL-17), which not only participates in the development of long-term hypertension but is a key regulator of cardiac fibrosis associated with hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stem cells are essential for tissue generation during the development of multicellular creatures, and for tissue homeostasis in adults. (pnas.org)
  • Stem cells govern tissue generation during metazoan development, and tissue maintenance during adulthood. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, almost all of these sexually dimorphic structures are made during larval development by the sex-specific divisions of just 16 blast cells ( Figure 4 ). (wormbook.org)
  • Studies on the development and organisation of the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans (PhD thesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our study provides a better understanding of how parasite-derived EVs interact with host cells which is important for future development of therapeutics/vaccines that target this interface. (plos.org)
  • With regard to the proposed significance of lipid microdomains for disease development and treatment our study will help to achieve a targeted dietary modulation of immune cell lipid bilayers. (jove.com)
  • High levels of zinc were also found in the secretory cells in the male gonad, suggesting that zinc might be secreted from these cells during copulation and become a component of seminal fluid, to modulate sperm activation post-copulation. (biologists.org)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , both males and hermaphrodites produce sperm, but their sperm are activated in a sex-specific manner. (biologists.org)
  • Thus to understand cell fate specification in hermaphrodites, one must consider how the body plan, which is specified during embryogenesis, influences the fates individual cells. (wormbook.org)
  • Since most of the cell fate specifications that occur in hermaphrodites also occur in males, the focus of this chapter will be on those that only occur in hermaphrodites. (wormbook.org)
  • In fact, about 650 cells seem to be the same in both sexes, out of a total of 959 somatic nuclei in hermaphrodites, and 1031 somatic nuclei in males. (wormbook.org)
  • In hermaphrodites, P cells in the mid-body make the vulval epithelium. (wormbook.org)
  • Other male specific blast cells that do not divide in hermaphrodites generate additional mating structures in the tail. (wormbook.org)
  • In this study, we show that the spatiotemporal expression of lin-11 confers distinct cell fates. (biologists.org)
  • Our experiments reveal at least two distinct functions of lin-11 in vulval cells. (biologists.org)
  • Dynamin is require for distinct aspects of DA tubulogenesis: DA-tube closure, DA-tube-cell intercalation, and biased apical-luminal cell expansion. (sdbonline.org)
  • VRK-1 is also required for proper specification and proliferation of uterine cells and sex myoblasts. (csic.es)
  • A) Expression of promoter-GFP fusion (Experimental Methods) in L2, L4 and early adult. (nih.gov)