Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Aldicarb: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Trans-Splicing: The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Haemonchus: A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Ethyl Methanesulfonate: An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Rhabditida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.TailDrosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Gene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Rhabditoidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA. Characteristics include an open tube stoma and an excretory system with lateral canals.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.

A neomorphic syntaxin mutation blocks volatile-anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans. (1/594)

The molecular mechanisms underlying general anesthesia are unknown. For volatile general anesthetics (VAs), indirect evidence for both lipid and protein targets has been found. However, no in vivo data have implicated clearly any particular lipid or protein in the control of sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs. Genetics provides one approach toward identifying these mechanisms, but genes strongly regulating sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs have not been identified. By screening existing mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that a mutation in the neuronal syntaxin gene dominantly conferred resistance to the VAs isoflurane and halothane. By contrast, other mutations in syntaxin and in the syntaxin-binding proteins synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 produced VA hypersensitivity. The syntaxin allelic variation was striking, particularly for isoflurane, where a 33-fold range of sensitivities was seen. Both the resistant and hypersensitive mutations decrease synaptic transmission; thus, the indirect effect of reducing neurotransmission does not explain the VA resistance. As assessed by pharmacological criteria, halothane and isoflurane themselves reduced cholinergic transmission, and the presynaptic anesthetic effect was blocked by the resistant syntaxin mutation. A single gene mutation conferring high-level resistance to VAs is inconsistent with nonspecific membrane-perturbation theories of anesthesia. The genetic and pharmacological data suggest that the resistant syntaxin mutant directly blocks VA binding to or efficacy against presynaptic targets that mediate anesthetic behavioral effects. Syntaxin and syntaxin-binding proteins are candidate anesthetic targets.  (+info)

Evolution of sperm size in nematodes: sperm competition favours larger sperm. (2/594)

In the free-living rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm size is a determinant of sperm competitiveness. Larger sperm crawl faster and physically displace smaller sperm to take fertilization priority, but not without a cost: larger sperm are produced at a slower rate. Here, we investigate the evolution of sperm size in the family Rhabditidae by comparing sperm among 19 species, seven of which are hermaphroditic (self-fertile hermaphrodites and males), the rest being gonochoristic (females and males). We found that sperm size differed significantly with reproductive mode: males of gonochoristic species had significantly larger sperm than did males of the hermaphroditic species. Because males compose 50% of the populations of gonochoristic species but are rare in hermaphroditic species, the risk of male-male sperm competition is greater in gonochoristic species. Larger sperm have thus evolved in species with a greater risk of sperm competition. Our results support recent studies contending that sperm size may increase in response to sperm competition.  (+info)

Crystal structure of human p32, a doughnut-shaped acidic mitochondrial matrix protein. (3/594)

Human p32 (also known as SF2-associated p32, p32/TAP, and gC1qR) is a conserved eukaryotic protein that localizes predominantly in the mitochondrial matrix. It is thought to be involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and in nucleus-mitochondrion interactions. We report the crystal structure of p32 determined at 2.25 A resolution. The structure reveals that p32 adopts a novel fold with seven consecutive antiparallel beta-strands flanked by one N-terminal and two C-terminal alpha-helices. Three monomers form a doughnut-shaped quaternary structure with an unusually asymmetric charge distribution on the surface. The implications of the structure on previously proposed functions of p32 are discussed and new specific functional properties are suggested.  (+info)

ELT-3: A Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor expressed in the embryonic epidermis during morphogenesis. (4/594)

We have identified a gene encoding a new member of the Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor family, elt-3. The predicted ELT-3 polypeptide contains a single GATA-type zinc finger (C-X2-C-X17-C-X2-C) along with a conserved adjacent basic region. elt-3 mRNA is present in all stages of C. elegans development but is most abundant in embryos. Reporter gene analysis and antibody staining show that elt-3 is first expressed in the dorsal and ventral hypodermal cells, and in hypodermal cells of the head and tail, immediately after the final embryonic cell division that gives rise to these cells. No expression is seen in the lateral hypodermal (seam) cells. elt-3 expression is maintained at a constant level in the epidermis until the 2(1/2)-fold stage of development, after which reporter gene expression declines to a low level and endogenous protein can no longer be detected by specific antibody. A second phase of elt-3 expression in cells immediately anterior and posterior to the gut begins in pretzel-stage embryos. elt-1 and lin-26 are two genes known to be important in specification and maintenance of hypodermal cell fates. We have found that elt-1 is required for the formation of most, but not all, elt-3-expressing cells. In contrast, lin-26 function does not appear necessary for elt-3 expression. Finally, we have characterised the candidate homologue of elt-3 in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae. Many features of the elt-3 genomic and transcript structure are conserved between the two species, suggesting that elt-3 is likely to perform an evolutionarily significant function during development.  (+info)

Functional genomics in Caenorhabditis elegans: An approach involving comparisons of sequences from related nematodes. (5/594)

Comparative genomic analysis was used to investigate the gene structure of the bli-4 locus from two related Caenorhabditis species, C. elegans and C. briggsae. In C. elegans, bli-4 is a complex gene encoding a member of the kex2/subtilisin-like family of proprotein convertases. Genomic sequence comparisons coupled with RT-PCR analysis identified five additional coding exons that had not been identified previously using standard recombinant DNA techniques. The C. briggsae gene was able to rescue both viable blistered and developmentally arrested mutants of C. elegans bli-4, demonstrating functional conservation. In addition, deletion analysis of conserved sequences outside of coding regions, combined with phenotypic rescue experiments, identified regulatory elements that alter the expression of the bli-4 gene. These results demonstrate the utility of genomic sequence comparisons of homologous genes in related species as an effective tool with which to dissect the functional information of complex genes.  (+info)

lir-2, lir-1 and lin-26 encode a new class of zinc-finger proteins and are organized in two overlapping operons both in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Caenorhabditis briggsae. (6/594)

lin-26, which encodes a unique Zn-finger protein, is required for differentiation of nonneuronal ectodermal cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we show that the two genes located immediately upstream of lin-26 encode LIN-26-like Zn-finger proteins; hence their names are lir-1 and lir-2 (lin-26 related). lir-2, lir-1, and lin-26 generate several isoforms by alternative splicing and/or trans-splicing at different positions. On the basis of their trans-splicing pattern, their intergenic distances, and their expression, we suggest that lir-2, lir-1, and lin-26 form two overlapping transcriptional operons. The first operon, which is expressed in virtually all cells, includes lir-2 and long lir-1 isoforms. The second operon, which is expressed in the nonneuronal ectoderm, includes short lir-1 isoforms, starting at exon 2 and lin-26. This unusual genomic organization has been conserved in C. briggsae, as shown by cloning the C. briggsae lir-2, lir-1, and lin-26 homologs. Particularly striking is the sequence conservation throughout the first lir-1 intron, which is very long in both species. Structural conservation is functionally meaningful as C. briggsae lin-26 is also expressed in the nonneuronal ectoderm and can complement a C. elegans lin-26 null mutation.  (+info)

Homologs of the Caenorhabditis elegans masculinizing gene her-1 in C. briggsae and the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. (7/594)

The masculinizing gene her-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-her-1) encodes a novel protein, HER-1A, which is required for male development. To identify conserved elements in her-1 we have cloned and characterized two homologous nematode genes: one by synteny from the closely related free-living species C. briggsae (Cb-her-1) and the other, starting with a fortuitously identified expressed sequence tag, from the distantly related parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-her-1). The overall sequence identities of the predicted gene products with Ce-HER-1A are only 57% for Cb-HER-1, which is considerably lower than has been found for most homologous briggsae genes, and 35% for Bm-HER-1. However, conserved residues are found throughout both proteins, and like Ce-HER-1A, both have putative N-terminal signal sequences. Ce-her-1 produces a larger masculinizing transcript (her-1a) and a smaller transcript of unknown function (her-1b); both are present essentially only in males. By contrast, Cb-her-1 appears to produce only one transcript, corresponding to her-1a; it is enriched in males but present also in hermaphrodites. Injection of dsRNA transcribed from Cb-her-1 into C. briggsae hermaphrodites (RNA interference) caused XO animals to develop into partially fertile hermaphrodites. Introducing a Cb-her-1 construct as a transgene under control of the C. elegans unc-54 myosin heavy chain promoter caused strong masculinization of both C. briggsae and C. elegans hermaphrodites. Introduction of a similar Bm-her-1 construct into C. elegans caused only very weak, if any, masculinization. We conclude that in spite of considerable divergence the Cb gene is likely to be a functional ortholog of Ce-her-1, while the function of the distantly related Bm gene remains uncertain.  (+info)

Functional genomics. (8/594)

Complete genome sequences are providing a framework to allow the investigation of biological processes by the use of comprehensive approaches. Genome analysis also is having a dramatic impact on medicine through its identification of genes and mutations involved in disease and the elucidation of entire microbial gene sets. Studies of the sequences of model organisms, such as that of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, are providing extraordinary insights into development and differentiation that aid the study of these processes in humans. The field of functional genomics seeks to devise and apply technologies that take advantage of the growing body of sequence information to analyze the full complement of genes and proteins encoded by an organism.  (+info)

Pathogenic host-microbe interactions can result from continuous evolution of a hosts ability to resist infection and a pathogens ability to survive and replicate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile and opportunistic pathogen, ubiquitous in soil, and capable of damaging plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates. Previous studies in nematodes suggest that the pathogenic effects of P. aeruginosa can result from multiple distinct pathways: a toxin-based effect that kills within a few hours and a generalized virulence that kills over the course of multiple days. Using experimental evolution in the highly polymorphic nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, I show that nematode resistance to the two modes of pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa evolves through genetically independent pathways. These results demonstrate that multiple virulence factors in a pathogen can result in multiple responses in the host, and the genetic lines established here create resources for further exploration of the genetic basis for ...
In stark contrast to the wealth of detail about C. elegans developmental biology and molecular genetics, biologists lack basic data for understanding the abundance and distribution of Caenorhabditis species in natural areas that are unperturbed by human influence. Here we report the analysis of dense sampling from a small, remote site in the Amazonian rain forest of the Nouragues Natural Reserve in French Guiana. Sampling of rotting fruits and flowers revealed proliferating populations of Caenorhabditis, with up to three different species co-occurring within a single substrate sample, indicating remarkable overlap of local microhabitats. We isolated six species, representing the highest local species richness for Caenorhabditis encountered to date, including both tropically cosmopolitan and geographically restricted species not previously isolated elsewhere. We also documented the structure of within-species molecular diversity at multiple spatial scales, focusing on 57 C. briggsae isolates from French
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
With the Caenorhabditis briggsae genome now in hand, C. elegans biologists have a powerful new research tool to refine their knowledge of gene function in C. elegans and to study the path of genome evolution.
Despite the prominence of Caenorhabditis elegans as a major developmental and genetic model system, its phylogenetic relationship to its closest relatives has not been resolved. Resolution of these relationships is necessary for studying the steps that underlie life history, genomic, and morphological evolution of this important system. By using data from five different nuclear genes from 10 Caenorhabditis species currently in culture, we find a well resolved phylogeny that reveals three striking patterns in the evolution of this animal group: (i) Hermaphroditism has evolved independently in C. elegans and its close relative Caenorhabditis briggsae; (ii) there is a large degree of intron turnover within Caenorhabditis, and intron losses are much more frequent than intron gains; and (iii) despite the lack of marked morphological diversity, more genetic disparity is present within this one genus than has occurred within all vertebrates. ...
01 Sep 2016 The Blaxter lab website has moved to http://caenorhabditis.org/ 01 July 2015: The Blaxter lab, with support from Edinburgh Genomics, has sequenced 18 further species and launched the Caenorhabditis Genomes Project, see http://caenorhabditis.bio.ed.ac.uk/ There is a BLAST server for the new genome data in Edinburgh and the new raw and preliminary assemblies can be downloaded from the Blaxter lab FTP site ...
A fundamental goal of population genetics is to understand the forces maintaining genetic variation in natural populations. Since different evolutionary processes are expected to have different effects on the genetic variation found within a species, it is possible to use trends in patterns of DNA sequence variation to identify the forces that drive evolution at the molecular level (see Kimura 1983; Li 1997).. For example, studies of Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that genes situated in regions of the genome with greatly reduced rates of recombination (crossing over) are much less variable than genes in regions with normal rates of recombination (Aguadéet al. 1989; Berryet al. 1991; Begun and Aquadro 1991, 1992; Langleyet al. 1993). Subsequent work has shown that this positive correlation between recombination and variation is a characteristic shared by a wide range of taxa, including humans (Nachman 1997, 2001; Dvoráket al. 1998; Kraftet al. 1998; Nachmanet al. 1998; Stephan and ...
Pseudomonas brenneri ATCC ® 49642™ Designation: P17 TypeStrain=False Application: Assay of assimilable organic carbon AOC
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The Genome Sequence of Caenorhabditis briggsae: A Platform for Comparative Genomics. Lincoln D Stein, Zhirong Bao, Darin Blasiar, Thomas Blumenthal, Michael R Brent, Nansheng Chen, Asif Chinwalla, Laura Clarke, Chris Clee, Avril Coghlan, Alan Coulson, Peter DEustachio, David H. A Fitch, Lucinda A Fulton, Robert E Fulton, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Todd W Harris, LaDeana W Hillier, Ravi Kamath, Patricia E Kuwabara, Elaine R Mardis, Marco A Marra, Tracie L Miner, Patrick Minx, James C Mullikin, Robert W Plumb, Jane Rogers, Jacqueline E Schein, Marc Sohrmann, John Spieth, Jason E Stajich, Chaochun Wei, David Willey, Richard K Wilson, Richard Durbin, Robert H Waterston. Journal article , Research Article , Published 17 Nov 2003 , PLOS Biology ...
WormBase is an online biological database about the biology and genome of the nematode model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and contains information about other related nematodes. WormBase is used by the C. elegans research community both as an information resource and as a place to publish and distribute their results. The database is regularly updated with new versions being released every two months. WormBase is one of the organizations participating in the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. WormBase comprises the following main data sets: The annotated genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis remanei, Caenorhabditis brenneri, Caenorhabditis angaria, Pristionchus pacificus, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus; Hand-curated annotations describing the function of ~20,500 C. elegans protein-coding genes and ~16,000 C. elegans non-coding genes; Gene families; Orthologies; Genomic ...
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to an organisms ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression seems to be present in most groups of organisms, but varies across mating systems. Hermaphroditic species often exhibit lower degrees of inbreeding depression than outcrossing species, as repeated generations of selfing is thought to purge deleterious alleles from populations. For example, the outcrossing nematode (roundworm) Caenorhabditis remanei has been demonstrated to suffer severely from inbreeding depression, unlike its hermaphroditic relative C. elegans, which experiences outbreeding depression. Inbreeding ...
The TALEN approach works in C. briggsae Lo et al. 2013,Wood et al. 2011, Wei et al. 2013. The CRISPR/Cas9 method is now implemented in C. briggsae and other species. Using the same plasmids as in C. elegans is possible, at least in C. briggsae: see Culp et al. in biorxiv. Using Cas9 protein and synthetic guide RNA may overcome problems of germ line silencing and of inadequate promoters or 3UTR in other species. See Witte et al. 2015 in Pristionchus pacificus. This method has been successfully used in several Caenorhabditis species (Marie Delattre). ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
The wormbase gene report ( http://www.wormbase.org/db/gene/allele?name=e996;class=Allele ) suggests there are several other alleles for this gene with Jonathon Hodgkin as the contact see http://www.wormbase.org/db/misc/etree?name=CB;class=Laboratory Anthony m.larsen wrote: , I am working on sup-1 and was wondering if anyone has other alleles ,than e995. , In particular I would be interested in the x-ray induced e995xri. The , reference allele e995 is the only allele available from the CGC, so if anyone , would be able to provide me with additional sup-1 alleles I would be very , greatful. , , Thank you , , Morten K. Larsen , University of Southern Denmark , DK , m.larsen at bmb.sdu.dk , , --- ...
OpenLink Virtuoso version 07.20.3215 as of Jan 18 2016, on Linux (x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu), Single-Server Edition (15 GB total memory ...
Directory. Start here to access encyclopedic information about the worm genome and its genes, proteins, and other encoded features… Find out more. ...
Visit our Bristol store located on the historical Corn Street, near to the Floating Harbour, in the heart of Bristols market centre. The branch was our first to launch outside of London and the doors were opened in 1997 by the great travel writer Eric Newby. When youre in store, look out for our impressive map of Bristol at 1:5,000 scale, covering the entire staircase wall from the ground floor to the basement. ...
On 17 November join TEDxBristol for Reflect. Rethink. Reboot - a day of live inspirational talks and activities focused on not just surviving, but thriving in
Cambria: Cambria, county, central Pennsylvania, U.S. It consists of a mountainous region on the Allegheny Plateau, with the Allegheny Mountains along the eastern edge. The principal waterways are the Conemaugh and Little Conemaugh rivers, Glendale Lake, and Beaverdam Run, in addition to Clearfield, Stony,
Mouse mAb M38 was used in indirect immunofluorescence experiments to detect a stage-specific antigen on the surface of the first larval stage (L1) of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and to detect alterations in the apparent expression of this antigen in two distinct classes of C. elegans mutants. In previously described srf-2 and srf-3 mutants (Politz S. M., M. T. Philipp, M. Estevez, P.J. OBrien, and K. J. Chin. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:2901-2905), the antigen is not detected on the surface of any stage. Conversely, in srf-(yj43) and other similar mutants, the antigen is expressed on the surface of the first through the fourth (L4) larval stages. To understand the molecular basis of these alterations, the antigen was characterized in gel immunoblotting experiments. After SDS-PAGE separation and transfer to nitrocellulose, M38 detected a protein antigen in extracts of wild-type L1 populations. The antigen was sensitive to digestion by Pronase and O-glycanase ...
Defining a behavior that requires the function of specific neurons in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can allow one to screen for mutations that disrupt the specification or function of those neurons. We identified serotonin-immunoreactive neurons required for tail curling or turnin …
Lysosomes are one of the major degradative organelles in eukaryotic cells that carry out diverse cellular functions. Lysosomes show highly dynamic behaviors, including homotypic and heterotypic fusions, fission, and formation/reformation, which itself involves budding, extension, and scission. We carried out an unbiased forward mutational screen to identify novel regulators of lysosome dynamics and/or function; this screen is based on the degradation of a substrate, GFP, that is endocytosed by scavenger cells in worms. We identified cup-5 and six additional proteins that have lysosomal functions in C. elegans coelomocytes. CUP-16 is only conserved in the genus Caenorhabditis, and likely functions in endocytic uptake at the plasma membrane and in lysosomal degradation. Besides CUP-16, five of the mammalian homologs of the other CUP proteins, CIC-7, OSTM1, PLEKHM1, Cystinosin, and TRPML1, had been previously implicated in lysosome biology, thus validating this approach (Bach 2001; Lange et al. ...
Independent reversions of mutations affecting three different Caenorhabditis elegans genes have each yielded representatives of the same set of extragenic suppressors. Mutations at any one of six loci act as allele-specific recessive suppressors of certain allels of unc-54 (a myosin heavy chain gene), lin-29 (a heterochronic gene), and tra-2 (a sex determination gene). The same mutations also suppress certain alleles of another sex determination gene, tra-1, and of a morphogenetic gene, dpy-5. In addition to their suppression phenotype, the suppressor mutations cause abnormal morphogenesis of the male bursa and the hermaphrodite vulva. We name these genes smg-1 through smg-6 (suppressor with morphogenetic effect on genitalia), in order to distinguish them from mab (male abnormal) genes that can mutate to produce abnormal genitalia but which do not act as suppressors (smg-1 and smg-2 are new names for two previously described genes, mab-1 and mab-11). The patterns of suppression, and the ...
We describe a new type of collective behavior in C. elegans nematodes, aggregation of starved L1 larvae. Shortly after hatching in the absence of food, L1 larvae arrest their development and disperse in search for food. In contrast, after two or more days without food, the worms change their behavior-they start to aggregate. The aggregation requires a small amount of ethanol or acetate in the environment. In the case of ethanol, it has to be metabolized, which requires functional alcohol dehydrogenase sodh-1. The resulting acetate is used in de novo fatty acid synthesis, and some of the newly made fatty acids are then derivatized to glycerophosphoethanolamides and released into the surrounding medium. We examined several other Caenorhabditis species and found an apparent correlation between propensity of starved L1s to aggregate and density dependence of their survival in starvation. Aggregation locally concentrates worms and may help the larvae to survive long starvation. This work demonstrates how
During the course of normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, 131 cells in a Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite undergo programmed cell death. Loss of function mutations in either of the genes ced-3 or ced-4 abolish cell deaths, enabling these undead cells to survive and be incorporated into the adult with no obvious deleterious consequences. Ultrastructural reconstructions have shown that undead cells exhibit many differentiated characteristics. Most of the reconstructed cells appeared to be neurons with all the characteristic features associated with such cells, such as processes, synaptic vesicles and presynaptic specializations. However, clear morphological differences were seen among the undead neurons, suggesting a diversity of cell type. One of the reconstructed cells was a rectal epithelial cell, which had displaced its lineal sister that normally functions in this role. Removal of the ability to undergo programmed cell death by mutation therefore reveals a diversity of ...
A specific behavioural response of Caenorhabditis elegans, the rapid increase of locomotion in response to anoxia/reoxygenation called the O2-ON response, has been used to model key aspects of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. A genetic suppressor screen demonstrated a direct causal role of CYP (cytochrome P450)-13A12 in this response and suggested that CYP-eicosanoids, which in mammals influence the contractility of cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, might function in C. elegans as specific regulators of the body muscle cell activity. In the present study we show that co-expression of CYP-13A12 with the NADPH-CYP-reductase EMB-8 in insect cells resulted in the reconstitution of an active microsomal mono-oxygenase system that metabolized EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and also AA (arachidonic acid) to specific sets of regioisomeric epoxy and hydroxy derivatives. The main products included 17,18-EEQ (17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid) from EPA and 14,15-EET (14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid) ...
New release of WormBase WS223, Wormpep223 and Wormrna223 Mon Jan 24 12:12:08 GMT 2011 WS223 was built by Paul Davis -===================================================================================- The WS223 build directory includes: genomes DIR - contains a sub dir for each WormBase species with sequence, gff, and agp data genomes/b_malayi: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/c_brenneri: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/c_briggsae: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/c_elegans: - annotation/ genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/c_japonica: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/c_remanei: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/h_bacteriophora: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/h_contortus: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/m_hapla: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ genomes/m_incognita: - sequences/ genomes/p_pacificus: - genome_feature_tables/ sequences/ *annotation/ - contains additional annotations i) confirmed_genes.WS223.gz ...
We think we have a good candidate in the form of a small nematode worm, Caenorhabditis briggsae, which has the following properties. It is a self-fertilizing hermaphrodite, and sexual propagation is therefore independent of population size. Males are also found (0.1%), which can fertilize the hermaphrodites, allowing stocks to be constructed by genetic crosses. Each worm lays up to 200 eggs which hatch in buffer in twelve hours, producing larvae 80 microns in length. These larvae grow to a length of 1 mm in three and a half days, and reach sexual maturity. However, there is no increase in cell number, only in cell mass. The number of nuclei becomes constant at a late stage in development, and divisions occur only in the germ line. Although the total number of cells is only about a thousand, the organism is differentiated and has an epidermis, intestine, excretory system, nerve and muscle cells. Reports in the literature describe the approximate number of cells as follows: 200 cells in the gut, ...
Caenorhabditis elegans MIG-13 protein: required for positioning of Q neuroblasts and their descendents along the anteroposterior axis; isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBAnk AF150958
Fig. 27 - Longitudinal section taken near the midline showing a sagittal view of the ventral muscle plate (region enclosed by arrows, MP). The most obvious deviation from a purely commisural nature of the ring occurs in its participation in the integration of sensory input and cephalic muscle motor output. Primary input is effected by synapses formed by the posterior processes of the bipolar papillary neurons whose cell hody locations have been described. The entry of these fibers into the ring is shown in the three parts of figure 28. In figure 28A the subdorsal papillary fibers are grouped as a bundle outside of the circumferential fibers of the nerve ring, but nonetheless within the thin glial sheath formed by the four LSM pocket cell bodies. In figure 28B at the posterior edge of the ring they are seen to turn from a longitudinal to a radial dIrection and plunge into the center of the circumferential fibers. At the level of figure 28C, taken anterior to figure 28A, all fibers except for ...
Pun, P.B.L., Gruber, J., Tang, S.Y., Ng, L.F., Cheah, I., Halliwell, B., Ong, R.L.S., Fong, S. (2010). Ageing in nematodes: Do antioxidants extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans?. Biogerontology 11 (1) : 17-30. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-009-9223- ...
Abstract. Studies of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in stress responses (environmental or physiological) have long been used to make links to disease states in humans. The nematode model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, undergoes a state of hypometabolism called the dauer stage. This period of developmental arrest is characterized by a significant reduction in metabolic rate, triggered by ambient temperature increase and restricted oxygen/ nutrients. C. elegans employs a number of signal transduction cascades in order to adapt to these unfavourable conditions and survive for long times with severely reduced energy production. The suppression of cellular metabolism, providing energetic homeostasis, is critical to the survival of nematodes through the dauer period. This transition displays molecular mechanisms that are fundamental to control of hypometabolism across the animal kingdom. In general, mammalian systems are highly inelastic to environmental stresses (such as extreme ...
gi,17559712,ref,NP_506256.1, CaDHerin family member (cdh-6) [Caenorhabditis elegans] gi,7499172,pir,,T20968 hypothetical protein F15B9.7 - Caenorhabditis elegans gi,3875964,emb,CAB01427.1, Hypothetical protein F15B9.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] gi,3880568,emb,CAB01449.1, C. elegans CDH-6 protein (corresponding sequence F15B9.7) [Caenorhabditis elegans ...
I am not one to give in to the insolence of those brutes. I think the planets are worlds revolving around the sun and that the fixed stars are also suns that have planets revolving around them. We cant see those worlds from here because they are so small and because the light they reflect cannot reach us. How can one honestly think that such spacious globes are only large, deserted fields? And that our world was made to lord it over all of them just because a dozen or so vain wretches like us happen to be crawling around on it? Do people really think that because the sun gives us light every day and year, it was made only to keep us from bumping into walls? No, no, this visible god gives light to man by accident, as a kings torch accidentally shines upon a working man or burglar passing in the street. ...
Directed by Fernand Rivers. With Claude Dauphin, Ellen Bernsen, Pierre Bertin, Christian Bertola. Long-nosed Cyrano de Begerac helps an army officer woo Roxanne, the woman he loves.
A mutation in the let-653 gene of Caenorhabditis elegansresults in larval death. The lethal arrest is concurrent with the appearance of a vacuole anterior to the lower pharyngeal bulb. The position...
Working with starved L1 larvae of C. elegans and C. briggsae we noticed that these two species behave quite differently in starvation. First, C. elegans adults stop laying eggs after exhausting bacterial food, which eventually leads to internal hatching and bagging. C. briggsae do not show this behavior. This difference has been observed before (McCulloch and Gems, 2003). Second, at high enough density of worms, arrested C. elegans L1s aggregate on agar plates after several days of starvation (Fig. 1a). C. briggsae L1s do not form aggregates (Fig. 1b). Aggregation may serve several purposes ranging from decrease of surface to volume ratio and use of diffusible "public goods" to sharing information about quality of the environment. Third, survival of starved C. elegans L1s strongly depends on their density - the higher the worm density, the longer they survive (Fig. 1c) (Artyukhin et al., 2013). This holds true for starvation on plates as well as in suspension. Survival of C. briggsae L1s is ...
The main focus of our research is the study of neuronal function and dysfunction, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Among...
The let-7 miRNA was originally discovered in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where it regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, but subsequent work has shown that both its sequence and its function are highly conserved in mammals ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from nck-1 NCK (Non-Catalytic region of tyrosine Kinase) adaptor protein family available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
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Nematocida parisii ATCC ® PRA-289™ Designation: ERTm1 Isolation: Wild-caught Caenorhabditis elegans isolated from a compost pit, Franconville, France ref
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1. Baldwin, J.G., Nadler, S.A., and Wall, D.H. 1997. Nematodes: Pervading the Earth and Linking all Life. Pp. 176-191. In: Raven, P.H. (ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 625 pp.. 2. Bargmann, C. I. 1998. Neurobiology of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. Science 282:2028-2033.. 3. Bargmann, C. I. And Mori, I. 1997. Chemotaxis and Thermotaxis. Pp. 717-737. In: Riddle, D.L., Blumenthal, T., Meyer, B.J. and Priess, J.R. (eds). C. elegans II. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, NY 1222 pp.. 4. Bird, D.M. and Opperman, C. H. 1998. Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Nematol. 30:299-308.. 5. Bird, D.M., Opperman, C.H., Jones S.J.M., and Baillie, D.L. 1999. The Caenorhabditis elegans gemome: a guide in the post genomics age. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 37:247-265.. 6. Blaxter, M. 1998. Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode. Science 282:2041-2046.. 7. Blaxter, M. and Bird, D. 1997. Parasitic nematodes. Pp. 851-878. In: Riddle, D.L., Blumenthal, T., Meyer, B.J. and Priess, J.R. (eds). C. ...
Normal locomotion of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans requires transmission of contractile force through a series of mechanical linkages from the myofibrillar lattice of the body wall muscles, across an intervening extracellular matrix and epithel
Gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription and translation, as well as mRNA and protein stability. Although systems-level functions of transcription factors and microRNAs are rapidly being characterized, few studies have focused on the posttranscriptional gene regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs). RBPs are important to many aspects of gene regulation. Thus, it is essential to know which genes encode RBPs, which RBPs regulate which gene(s), and how RBP genes are themselves regulated. Here we provide a comprehensive compendium of RBPs from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (wRBP1.0). We predict that as many as 887 (4.4%) of C. elegans genes may encode RBPs ~250 of which likely function in a gene-specific manner. In addition, we find that RBPs, and most notably gene-specific RBPs, are themselves enriched for binding and modification by regulatory proteins, indicating the potential for extensive regulation of RBPs at many different levels. wRBP1.0 will provide a
Cell invasion is a tightly controlled process occurring during development and tumor progression. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a genetic model to study cell invasion during normal development. In the third larval stage, the anchor ce
The above wasnt a population genomic paper. They didnt have large sample sizes, nor were they focusing on questions that applied to the microevolutionary scale (within species level lineages). Rather, they were comparing the genomes of Caenorhabditis lineages which diverged on the order of ~30 million years ago. The effective population size difference between selfing and outcrossing lineages is huge, with the authors reporting N e , 10,000 for C. elegans N e , 1,000,000 for C. remanei. This is a big deal because variation in effective population size has been argued by many, foremost Mike Lynch, as one of the drivers of the phenomenon of huge genome size differences. Lynch is a fertile mind with many ideas, and if you are curious about them Id recommend a purchase and read through of The Origins of Genome Architecture. But the upshot from this paper seems to be that the broader thesis of Lynch and his supporters is not favored by these specific results utilizing comparative genomics. Every ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Tcl transposable elements in Caenorhabditis elegans.. AU - Emmons, S. W.. AU - Ruan, K. S.. AU - Levitt, A.. AU - Yesner, L.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - C. elegans strains contain variable numbers of a 1.6-kb transposable genetic element. Activity of this element, which is denoted Tcl, shows regulation at at least two levels. At one level, excision of Tcl elements occurs in somatic cells at a frequency several orders of magnitude higher than in germ cells. Evidence is presented suggesting that this results from regulation at the level of trans-acting functions that are required for excision or that repress excision. At the second level, germ line transposition of Tcl occurs at greater frequency in some strains than in others. The hypothesis is proposed that this is because Tcl is one component of a two-element system, the second element of which differs between strains. Evidence for a second putative transposable element family in C. elegans is presented. This ...
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This paper presents a simple yet biologicallygrounded model for the neural control of Caenorhabditis elegans forward locomotion. We identify a minimal circuit within the C. elegans ventral cord that is likely to be sufficient to generate and sustain forward locomotion in vivo. This limited subcircuit appears to contain no obvious central pattern generated control. For that subcircuit, we present a model that relies on a chain of oscillators along the body which are driven by local and proximate mechano-sensory input. Computer simulations were used to study the model under a variety of conditions and to test whether it is behaviourally plausible. Within our model, we find that a minimal circuit of AVB interneurons and B-class motoneurons is sufficient to generate and sustain fictive forward locomotion patterns that are robust to significant environmental perturbations. The model predicts speed and amplitude modulation by the AVB command interneurons. An extended model including D-class ...
gi,17539078,ref,NP_502507.1, COLlagen structural gene (col-131) [Caenorhabditis elegans] gi,7497221,pir,,T19846 hypothetical protein C39E9.3 - Caenorhabditis elegans gi,3874838,emb,CAA94329.1, Hypothetical protein C39E9.3 [Caenorhabditis elegans ...
Department of Biology. Cover Photo: Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has revolutionized molecular biology by allowing scientists to label individual proteins in a cell or, as in this photo, entire organisms. Here, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a common model organism in the study of developmental biology and genetics, is labeled with GFP to provide a clear view of its body plan. The photograph was taken in the Fall 2014 semester in Gilmer Hall at Hampden-Sydney. Note the unborn C. elegans that can be seen developing inside the adult nematodes. (From Grayland W. Godfrey 15). ...
The main focus of our research is the study of neuronal function and dysfunction, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Among the specific interests of our lab are the molecular mechanisms of.... ...
Micronutrients are required in small proportions in a diet to carry out key metabolic roles for biomass and energy production. Humans receive micronutrients either directly from their diet or from gut microbiota that metabolize other nutrients. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans … Continue reading →. ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Directory. Start here to access encyclopedic information about the worm genome and its genes, proteins, and other encoded features… Find out more. ...
Background: Ferlins are membrane proteins with multiple C2 domains and proposed functions in Ca2+ mediated membrane-membrane interactions in animals. Caenorhabditis elegans has two ferlin genes, one of which is required ...
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Neuropeptides regulate all aspects of behavior in multicellular organisms. Because of their ability to act at long distances, neuropeptides can exert their effects beyond the conventional synaptic connections, thereby adding an intricate layer of complexity to the activity of neural networks. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system have been identified.The actions of these peptides supplement the synaptic connections of the 302 neurons, allowing for fine tuning of neural networks and increasing the ways in which behaviors can be regulated. In this review, we focus on a large family of genes encoding FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These genes, the flp genes, have been used as a starting point to identifying flp genes throughout Nematoda. Nematodes have the largest family of FaRPs described thus far. The challenges in the future are the elucidation of their functions and the identification of the receptors and
The role of lipids in the process of embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans is still poorly understood. Cytochrome P450s, a class of lipid-modifying enzymes, are good candidates to be involved in the production or degradation of lipids essential for development. We investigated two highly similar cytochrome P450s in C. elegans, cyp-31A2 and cyp-31A3, that are homologs of the gene responsible for Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy in humans. Depletion of both cytochromes either by RNAi or using a double deletion mutant, led to the failure of establishing the correct polarity of the embryo and to complete the extrusion of the polar bodies during meiosis. In addition, the egg became osmotic sensitive and permeable to dyes. The phenotype of cyp-31A2 or cyp-31A3 is very similar to a class of mutants that have polarization and osmotic defects (POD), thus the genes were renamed to pod-7 and pod-8, respectively. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the activity of pod-7/pod-8 ...
Benzimidazole anti-microtubule drugs, such as benomyl, induce paralysis and slow the growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We have identified 28 mutations in C. elegans that confer resistance to benzimidazoles. All resistant mutations map to a single locus, ben-1. Virtually all these mutations are genetically dominant. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis established that ben-1 encodes a beta-tubulin. Some resistant mutants are completely deleted for the ben-1 gene. Since the deletion strains appear to be fully resistant to the drugs, the ben-1 product appears to be the only benzimidazole-sensitive beta-tubulin in C. elegans. Furthermore, since animals lacking ben-1 are viable and coordinated, the ben-1 beta-tubulin appears to be nonessential for growth and movement. The ben-1 function is likely to be redundant in the nematode genome. ...
The overall strategy is to employ a well-characterized soil organism to probe the regulation of a key gene in metal detoxification and homeostasis. The aim of the research is to identify metal regulatory elements (MREs) within the promoters of two C. elegans MT genes, and isolate and characterize proteins that interact with the candidate MREs. Candidate MREs will be identified by site-directed mutagenesis and deletion experiments. The functional significance of each modification will be determined in vivo (inside the organism) by creating transgenic nematodes containing a ß-galactosidase reporter gene. Changes in the level of pattern of reporter gene activity in cadmium-exposed nematodes will be used to identity functional promoter elements. Metal-dependent interaction of crude extract proteins with candidate MREs will be evaluated by gel mobility shift assay and DNaseI footprinting. Regulatory proteins that interact with candidate MREs will be isolated from extracts prepared from control and ...
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Many crucial events in metazoan development and physiology are governed by diffusible signals that trigger specific responses in highly restricted subsets of cells. This exquisite specificity of intercellular signaling requires precisely controlled expression of receptors and downstream signaling components that effect appropriate responses. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven a valuable model for the study of signaling specificity, notably for mechanisms of signaling through the Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (for a review, see Moghal and Sternberg, 2003). The sole EGF-like ligand and EGF receptor in the C. elegans genome are encoded by the genes lin-3 and let-23, respectively (Hill and Sternberg, 1992; Aroian et al., 1990) (Wormbase WS210). Recently we described a role for LET-23 in the regulation of C. elegans behavior (Van Buskirk and Sternberg, 2007). Caenorhabditis elegans develops through four larval stages before adulthood, and each larval molt is preceded by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stochastic and genetic factors influence tissue-specific decline in ageing C. Elegans. AU - Herndon, Laura A.. AU - Schmeissner, Peter J.. AU - Dudaronek, Justyna M.. AU - Brown, Paula A.. AU - Listner, Kristin M.. AU - Sakano, Yuko. AU - Paupard, Marie C.. AU - Hall, David H.. AU - Driscoll, Monica. PY - 2002/10/24. Y1 - 2002/10/24. N2 - The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model for studying the genetics of ageing, with over 50 life-extension mutations known so far. However, little is known about the pathobiology of ageing in this species, limiting attempts to connect genotype with senescent phenotype. Using ultrastructural analysis and visualization of specific cell types with green fluorescent protein, we examined cell integrity in different tissues as the animal ages. We report remarkable preservation of the nervous system, even in advanced old age, in contrast to a gradual, progressive deterioration of muscle, resembling human sarcopenia. The age-1(hx546) ...
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans may hold the key to brain-like computational architectures: Si elegans will provide the scientific community with a reconfigurable, scalable and modular neuromimetic open-access computational platform to explore neural principles that give rise to complex behaviour and to derive a neuro-inspired technological blueprint for a new era of brain-like computational architectures.The Si elegans project started on April 1st 2013. ...
Sedimentation and interactions with the bottom surface (figure 1a,b) were imaged in a cuvette with a square cross section (12.5 mm W × 12.5 mm D × 49 mm L). A glass slide was placed in the cuvette to form the floor. Animals (wild-type N2, Bristol variety) were placed in M9 buffer. The cuvette was then capped, placed horizontally and flipped upside down prior to imaging. As we were not able to confine the nematodes to a narrow slit, we were restricted to a relatively large depth of field and low magnification. A Theta system (Biolin Scientific; http://www.biolinscientific.com/product/theta/), normally used to measure contact angles, monitored the nematodes motion in the vertical plane. Images were processed with the worm tracker ImageJ plugin. The software determined the animals body orientations in individual frames. The data were then combined to form a vector, and processed to produce the histogram of the animals body orientation (electronic supplementary material, figure S1, N = ...
unc-51(e369) mutation reduces mean but extends maximum lifespan. unc-51(e369) mutation reduces lifespan of eat-2 mutants to that of wild-type [2387]. ...
Soil nematode about 1mm long that lives in temperate regions. Doesnt really have a common name... except maybe tiny worm or something generic like th...
Forward genetic analysis using chemical mutagenesis in model organisms is a powerful tool for investigation of molecular mechanisms in biological systems
The C. elegans grinder is an intricately designed, macromolecular structure located in the terminal bulb of the pharynx. It acts as the teeth of C. elegans, crushing bacteria before they are passed to the intestine. The ...
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MiRNAs were first described more than a decade ago by scientists working with Caenorhabditis elegans, a species of nematode worm favored by researchers because of the simplicity of its genome. During their normal life cycle, these worms go through four stages of development. But a particular group of worms were observed getting stuck in the first stage. The larvae kept growing larger but not maturing into adults. A team of researchers at Harvard University isolated the gene that caused this malfunction but found that instead of coding for a protein as most genes do, it coded for a particular molecule of RNA ...
Mullen, G.P., K.M. Grundahl, M. Gu, S. Watanabe, R.J. Hobson, J.A. Crowell, J.R. McManus, E.A. Mathews, E.M. Jorgensen, and J.B. Rand. 2012. UNC-41/Stonin functions with AP2 to recycle synaptic vesicles in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE 7:e40095. ...
Harvard research examining the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans -- tiny, transparent worms -- suggest a path for investigations that may shed light on disorders such as schizophrenia.
The role of the PHB complex in mitochondrial biogenesis: Functional and structural studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans" ...
Fertilization-the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism-is the culmination of a multitude of intricately regulated cellular processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, fertilization is highly...
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Brenner, S. (1974). The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 77, 71-94.. Chitwood, B. G., and Chitwood, M. B. (1974). Introduction to Nematology. University Park Press, Baltimore.. Hodgkin, J. A. (1974). Genetic and Anatomical Aspects of the Caenorhabditis elegans Male, Ph.D. thesis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.. Hodgkin, J. A., and Brenner, S. (1977). Mutations causing transformation of sexual phenotype in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 86, 275-287.. Kimble, J., and Hirsh, D. (1979). The Postembryonic cell lineages of the hermaphrodite and male gonads in Caenorhabditis elegans. Develop. Biol. 70, 396-417.. Klass, M., Wolf, N., and Hirsh, D. (1976). Development of the male reproductive system and sexual transformation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Develop. Biol. 52, 1-18.. Seligman, I. M., Filshie, B. K., Doy, F. A., and Crossley, A. C. (1975). Hormonal control of mor-phogenetic cell death of the wing hypodermis in Lucilia cuprina. Tissue Cell ...
The high cost of soluble enzymes can limit their use for commercial and industrial purposes. Immobilization can enhance enzyme reusability, thereby reducing product isolation costs and overcoming this economic barrier. In the current study, two novel, purified lipases from Pseudomonas sp. (Pseudomonas reinekei and Pseudomonas brenneri) were entrapped in a calcium alginate matrix, with the aim of simultaneously enhancing enzyme reusability and stability. Following entrapment, the retained activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by an enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of a p-nitrophenol palmitate substrate. The effect of the enzyme-alginate entrapment against various physiochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, metal ions, and solvents were subsequently examined. The entrapment was found to have minimal beneficial stability gains. However, enhanced enzyme reusability (up to 3 cycles) and stability (up to 18 days at 4°C) of the calcium alginate entrapped lipase, as indicated by
The pace of technical developments allowing the direct manipulation of genome sequences has seen a marked acceleration in recent years with the emergence of RNA-targeted nucleases derived from bacterial immune systems (Doudna and Charpentier 2014; Zetsche et al. 2015). In particular, the binary system relying on the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease targeted by CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat) RNAs has been successfully used to generate point mutations, deletion, or DNA insertions in an ever-growing number of experimental systems. S. pyogenes CRISPR/Cas9 has been adapted early on in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Friedland et al. 2013; Dickinson et al. 2013; Chen et al. 2013; Frøkjær-Jensen 2013; Dickinson and Goldstein 2016). Previously, heritable genome engineering could only be achieved in C. elegans by remobilizing a Drosophila Mos1 transposon, which could be inserted and excised in the germline (Robert and Bessereau 2007; ...
Microsporidia comprise a phylum of obligate intracellular pathogens related to fungi that infect virtually all animals. Recently, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed as a convenient model for studying microsporidia infection in a whole-animal host through the identification and characterization of a natural microsporidian pathogen of this commonly studied laboratory organism. The C. elegans natural microsporidian pathogen is named Nematocida parisii, and it causes a lethal intestinal infection in C. elegans. Comparison of the genomes of N. parisii and its closely related species Nematocida sp. 1, together with the genomes of other microsporidian species, has provided insight into the evolutionary events that led to the emergence of the large, specialized microsporidia phylum. Cell biology studies of N. parisii infection in C. elegans have shown how N. parisii restructures host intestinal cells and, in particular, how it hijacks host exocytosis for nonlytic exit to facilitate
Approximately 10% of Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system synapses are electrical, that is, gap junctions composed of innexins. The locomotory nervous system consists of several pairs of interneurons and three major classes of motor neurons, all with stereotypical patterns of connectivity that include gap junctions. Mutations in the two innexin genes unc-7 and unc-9 result in identical uncoordinated movement phenotypes, and their respective gene products were investigated for their contribution to electrical synapse connectivity. unc-7 encodes three innexin isoforms. Two of these, UNC-7S and UNC-7SR, are functionally equivalent and play an essential role in coordinated locomotion. UNC-7S and UNC-7SR are widely expressed and co-localize extensively with green fluorescent protein-tagged innexin UNC-9 in the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. A subset of UNC-7S/SR expression visualizes gap junctions formed between the AVB forward command interneurons and their B class motor neuron partners. Experiments
Durbin, Richard Michael (1987). Studies on the development and organisation of the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans ( ... Caenorhabditis elegans. Wall chart". Science. 270 (5235): 415-430. doi:10.1126/science.270.5235.410. PMID 7569996.. ... White, John (1975). Computer aided reconstruction of the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans (PhD thesis). University of ... Kimble, J. E.; White, J. G. (1981). "On the control of germ cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans". Developmental Biology ...
"The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans". www.wormbook.org.. *^ Kavlie, RG; Kernan, MJ; Eberl, DF (May 2010). "Hearing in ... Most nematode species are dioecious, with separate male and female individuals, though some, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, ... White JG, Southgate E, Thomson JN, Brenner S (August 1976). "The structure of the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans ... "Caenorhabditis elegans Survives Atmospheric Breakup of STS-107, Space Shuttle Columbia". Astrobiology. 5 (6): 690-705. Bibcode: ...
Nematode: Caenorhabditis elegans.[40] Good embryo supply. Well developed genetics. Low cost. ...
Caenorhabditis elegans (Strain:Bristol N2), model organism (1998[185]). *Caenorhabditis remanei, a gonochoristic (male-female ... Caenorhabditis angaria (Strain:PS1010) (2010[181]). *Caenorhabditis brenneri, a gonochoristic (male-female obligate) species ... "GSC: Caenorhabditis n. sp. PB2801". Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2007.. ... "GSC: Caenorhabditis remanei". Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2007.. ...
Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans,[47] the fruit fly Drosophila ... "The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 71-94. PMC 1213120 . PMID 4366476 ...
Caenorhabditis elegans. 秀麗隱杆線蟲 97,000,000 18,250 Arabidopsis thaliana. 阿拉伯芥(擬南芥) 125,000,000 25,500 ...
"In Joel H. Rothman; Andrew Singson (eds.). Caenorhabditis Elegans: Cell Biology and Physiology. Academic Press. pp. 353-81. ... "Glucose Restriction Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span by Inducing Mitochondrial Respiration and Increasing Oxidative ...
可獨立生活的線蟲秀麗隱杆線蟲(Caenorhabditis elegans)和果蠅一樣,都因為遺傳學上的重要性被深入研究。[25]在1970年代早期,西德尼·布倫納將其選為研究基因控制發育的模式生物。使用這種生物做實驗的好處是,它的結構非常的單一:雌雄同 ... Hodgkin, J. Caenorhabditis elegans. (編) Brenner S, Miller JH. Encyclopedia of Genetics. Elsevier. 2001: 251-256. ISBN 978-0-12- ... An elegant mind: learning and memory
Caenorhabditis elegans is the most primitive organism in which sleep-like states have been observed. ... January 2008). "Lethargus is a Caenorhabditis elegans sleep-like state". Nature. 451 (7178): 569-72. doi:10.1038/nature06535. ...
Caenorhabditis elegans: Organisme model penting yang sering digunakan untuk mempelajari diferensiasi seluler, kadang hanya ... White JG, Southgate E, Thomson JN, Brenner S (August 1976). "The structure of the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans ... "Caenorhabditis elegans Survives Atmospheric Breakup of STS - 107, Space Shuttle Columbia". Astrobiology. 5 (6): 690-705. doi ...
"Aging and resistance to oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... evidence to support the role of oxidative stress in aging in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis ...
doi:10.1016/0012-1606(80)90352-8. Sulston2, JE (1983). "The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans". ... doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00050-1. Sulston, JE (1980). "The Caenorhabditis elegans male: postembryonic development of ...
A proposal to base the glycome project on Caenorhabditis elegans, a microscopic worm, whose entire genome is already sequenced ... strategy and preliminary application to Caenorhabditis elegans". Proteomics. 1 (2): 295-303. doi:10.1002/1615-9861(200102)1:2. ...
Caenorhabditis Elegans: Development as Indiv. Cell", U.S. NIH, V. 21. Caenorhabditis. Alberts et al. (2002), "3. Mendelian ...
The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, like Drosophila, has been studied largely because of its importance in genetics.[25] ... Hodgkin, J (2001). "Caenorhabditis elegans". In Brenner S, Miller JH. Encyclopedia of Genetics. Elsevier. pp. 251-256. ISBN 978 ... White, JG; Southgate, E; Thomson, JN; Brenner, S (1986). "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis ... "An elegant mind: learning and memory in Caenorhabditis elegans". Learning and Memory. 17 (4): 191-201. doi:10.1101/lm.960510 ...
Larsen P (1993). «Aging and resistance to oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans». Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 90 (19): 8905-9 ... Schulz TJ, Zarse K, Voigt A, Urban N, Birringer M, Ristow M (2007). «Glucose restriction extends Caenorhabditis elegans life ... Schulz TJ, Zarse K, Voigt A, Urban N, Birringer M, Ristow M (2007). «Glucose Restriction Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life ... mostrando que a indução da produção de radicais livres endógenos aumenta a esperança de vida da Caenorhabditis elegans.[103] ...
The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, like Drosophila, has been studied largely because of its importance in genetics. In ... Hodgkin, J (2001). "Caenorhabditis elegans". In Brenner S, Miller JH. Encyclopedia of Genetics. Elsevier. pp. 251-256. ISBN 978 ... White, JG; Southgate, E; Thomson, JN; Brenner, S (1986). "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis ... Ardiel, EL; Rankin, CH (2010). "An elegant mind: learning and memory in Caenorhabditis elegans". Learning and Memory. 17 (4): ...
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied because of its importance in genetics. In the early 1970s, Sydney Brenner ... Hodgkin, J (2001). "Caenorhabditis elegans". In Brenner S, Miller JH. Encyclopedia of Genetics. Elsevier. pp. 251-256. ISBN 978 ... White, JG; Southgate, E; Thomson, JN; Brenner, S (1986). "The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis ...
Caenorhabditis Genetics Center. Organism supplier, Biospecimen repository, Standard specification, Cell repository Brede ...
Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 7106-13. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.11.7106. PMID ...
Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans, in Nature, via University of ... "Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 391 (6669): 806-811. ...
In 2011, Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode that is also one of the best-studied model organisms, was shown to undergo ... "Trehalose renders the dauer larva of Caenorhabditis elegans resistant to extreme desiccation". Current Biology. 21 (15): 1331- ... "Molecular strategies of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva to survive extreme desiccation". PLoS ONE. 8 (12): e82473. doi ...
"Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 391 (6669): 806-11. Bibcode ...
Staining of a Caenorhabditis elegans which highlights the nuclei of its cells. ...
cerevisiae, and Caenorhabditis. elegans. BAALC and its protein are expressed highly in neural tissues such as the Central ...
Caenorhabditis elegans) • Large roundworm (Ascaris suum) Mollusca • Owl limpet (Lottia gigantea) • Pacific oyster (Crassostrea ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor elt-1 is essential for differentiation and maintenance of hypodermal seam cells and for ... The Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor elt-1 has previously been shown to have a central role in the ... The Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor elt-1 is essential for differentiation and maintenance of hypodermal seam cells and for ... The Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor elt-1 is essential for differentiation and maintenance of hypodermal seam cells and for ...
BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size ...
... many studies focused initially on Caenorhabditis elegans, since this model organism has a relatively small genome amenable to ... Other articles where Caenorhabditis elegans is discussed: aging: Genetics and life span: … ... studies centred on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a near-microscopic soil worm that had been identified by Brenner as an ... cell lineage for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a minute soil worm that had been identified by Brenner as an ideal ...
Source for information on Roundworms: Caenorhabditis Elegans: Encyclopedia of Aging dictionary. ... CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS Aging is a complex deteriorative process affecting the survival of both living and nonliving things. ... Brenner, S. The Genetics of Caenorhabditis Elegans. Genetics 77 (1974): 71-94. ... Johnson, T. E., and Wood, W. B. Genetic Analysis of the Life-Span of Caenorhabditis Elegans. Proceedings of the National ...
... For the first days, we will introduce students to the nematode C. elegans. Students will work ... You are here: Home / About NS&B / Caenorhabditis elegans Module. ...
Soil nematode about 1mm long that lives in temperate regions. Doesnt really have a common name... except maybe tiny worm or something generic like th...
Caenorhabditis elegans News and Research. RSS Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm), about ... The microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, or C. elegans, is known to spend up to 20 minutes seeking out snacks in its ... and Technology Graduate Universit used microscopy techniques to piece together the brain of the millimeter-long Caenorhabditis ... a combination of pharmaceutical drugs that not only increases healthy lifespan in the microscopic worm Caenorhabditis elegans ( ...
The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans.. Brenner S.. Abstract. Methods are described for the isolation, complementation and ... mapping of mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans, a small free-living nematode worm. About 300 EMS-induced mutants affecting ...
Role of autophagy in Caenorhabditis elegans.. Kovacs AL1, Zhang H.. Author information. 1. Department of Anatomy, Cell and ... During Caenorhabditis elegans development, autophagy plays an important role in many physiological processes, including ...
A circuit for navigation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Jesse M. Gray, Joseph J. Hill, and Cornelia I. Bargmann ... Caenorhabditis elegans explores its environment by interrupting its forward movement with occasional turns and reversals. Turns ... In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the escape circuit was defined by using a complete synaptic wiring diagram of the 302 ... and Takeshi Ishihara and the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center for strains. This work was supported by funding from the Howard ...
Methods are described for the isolation, complementation and mapping of mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans, a small free-living ...
Caenorhabditis elegans News and Research. RSS Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living, transparent nematode (roundworm), about ... The effect of spaceflight on a microscopic worm - Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) - could help it to live longer. ... Removal of germ cells - the sperm and egg producing cells - increases longevity of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. ...
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tr,K7I676,K7I676_CAEJA Uncharacterized protein OS=Caenorhabditis japonica OX=281687 PE=4 SV=1 ...
tr,H2WLH9,H2WLH9_CAEJA Uncharacterized protein OS=Caenorhabditis japonica OX=281687 PE=4 SV=2 ...
Forces drive basement membrane invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans. Rodrigo Cáceres, Nagagireesh Bojanala, Laura C. Kelley, Jes ... Forces drive basement membrane invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans. Rodrigo Cáceres, Nagagireesh Bojanala, Laura C. Kelley, Jes ... Forces drive basement membrane invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans. Rodrigo Cáceres, Nagagireesh Bojanala, Laura C. Kelley, Jes ... 2018) Invading, leading and navigating cells in Caenorhabditis elegans: Insights into cell movement in vivo. Genetics 208:53-78 ...
"Caenorhabditis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.. *^ Wood, WB (1988). The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Cold Spring Harbor ... Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bergerac[2] (for instance strain BO)[3]. *Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bristol[4] (for instance ... Caenorhabditis elegans (/ˌsiːnoʊræbˈdaɪtəs ˈɛləɡænz/[6]) is a free-living, transparent nematode, about 1 mm in length,[7] that ... The Orsay virus is a virus that affects C. elegans, as well as the Caenorhabditis elegans Cer1 virus[50] and the Caenorhabditis ...
... Patricia Back, Bart P. Braeckman, and Filip Matthijssens ... Patricia Back, Bart P. Braeckman, and Filip Matthijssens, "ROS in Aging Caenorhabditis elegans: Damage or Signaling?," ...
Caenorhabditis elegans,/i, (,i,C. elegans,/i,) is studied. The complexity of these sequences is compared with some random ... The Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a 1 mm length transparent nematode. Thanks to its simple organic structure, it was ... Sequence Complexity of Chromosome 3 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Gaetano Pierro. 1. 1System Biology, PhD School, University of ... The nucleotide sequences complexity in chromosome 3 of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is studied. The complexity of these ...
We describe methods to use Caenorhabditis elegansas an alternative model for studying mitochondrial... ... 2005) Genetic analysis oflysosomal trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 3273-3288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Wood, W. B. (ed.) (1988) The Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY. ... Jonassen, T., Marbois, B. N., Faull, K. F., Clarke, C. F., and Larsen, P. L. (2002) Development and fertility in Caenorhabditis ...
Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple organism that is an small free living nematode. It is found in various parts of the world. A ... The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1988. 2. Wood William Barry; ed. The Nematode ... The Caenorhabditis elegans offers potential for the design of a biological dosimeter. 5. C. elegans also has many ... Caenorhabditis Elegans.New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1988. 3.Riddle Donald, Blumenthal Thomas, Meyer Barbara, Priess ...
13 Caenorhabditis sp. 8 basal Caenorhabditis monodelphis - Prior to 2017 referred to as Caenorhabditis sp. 1 Caenorhabditis ... 16 Caenorhabditis latens - Prior to 2014 referred to as C. sp. 23 Caenorhabditis sp. 5 Japonica group Caenorhabditis japonica ... Caenorhabditis castelli - Prior to 2014 referred to as C. sp. 12 Caenorhabditis drosophilae Caenorhabditis guadeloupensis - ... Caenorhabditis nigoni - Prior to 2014 referred to as C. sp. 9 Caenorhabditis doughertyi - Prior to 2014 referred to as C. sp. ...
Germ Cell Polar Body Germ Plasm Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans Immunofluorescence Image These keywords were added by machine ... Wolf, N., Priess, J., and Hirsh, D. (1983). Segregation of germ-line granules in early embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans: an ... Edgar, L. (1982). Control of spermatogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado. ... Ward, S. and Carrel, J.S. (1979). Fertilization and sperm competition in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Biol. 73:304 ...
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-known model organism used to investigate fundamental questions in biology. ... Caenorhabditis elegans Is the Subject Area "Caenorhabditis elegans" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Hobert, Oliver (2010). «Neurogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans». Worm Book. doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.12.2.. ... Caenorhabditis elegans er ein gjennomsiktig 1-2 millimeter lang rundmakk. Han finst i ròtnande frukter og stenglar og er ein ... Tuck, Simon (2014). «The control of cell growth and body size in Caenorhabditis elegans». Experimental Cell Research 321 (1): ... Félix, Marie-Anne; Braendle, Christian (2010). «The natural history of Caenorhabditis elegans». Current Biology 20 (22): R965. ...
  • During Caenorhabditis elegans development, autophagy plays an important role in many physiological processes, including survival under starvation conditions, modulation of life span, and regulation of necrotic cell death caused by toxic ion-channel variants. (nih.gov)
  • Here we characterize how starvation modulates Caenorhabditis elegans vulval cell fate patterning - an environmentally sensitive process, with a nevertheless robust output. (g3journal.org)
  • With the extensive development of serial-section electron microscopy of Caenorhabditis elegans , and experimental studies of its development, it has been possible to analyse in more detail the structure of the buccal capsule and its formation during moulting. (wormatlas.org)
  • The plot shows the evolution over years (x-axis) of the fraction of Caenorhabditis elegans reference proteome residues (y-axis) for which structural information is available. (expasy.org)
  • Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. (rice.edu)
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans , suppressors of phenotypes associated with constitutively active LIN-12 /Notch have identified many conserved core components and direct or indirect modulators. (g3journal.org)
  • JNK regulates lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating nuclear translocation of forkhead transcription factor/DAF-16. (wikipathways.org)
  • Ultimately, this work in Caenorhabditis could be extended to help us to understand how other animals regulate their lifespan and maintain an optimum ratio of the sexes. (elifesciences.org)