Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Cadmium Poisoning: Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cadmium Chloride: A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Strontium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Krypton Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.Cyclotrons: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Metallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Silver Proteins: Compounds of silver and proteins used as topical anti-infective agents.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Frostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Tellurium: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.

Differences in cadmium transport to the testis, epididymis, and brain in cadmium-sensitive and -resistant murine strains 129/J and A/J. (1/26)

Although most animals with scrotal testes are susceptible to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity, strain-related differences are seen in mice. Resistant murine strains demonstrate a decreased cadmium concentration in the testis and also in the epididymis and seminal vesicle. In this study we analyzed cadmium transport into tissues with a vascular barrier, the testis, epididymis, and brain, in an attempt to characterize the mechanisms of strain resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. In the resistant murine strain A/J, 109Cd transport (administered as 109CdCl2) was significantly attenuated in the testis, epididymis, and brain, when compared to the sensitive murine strain 129/J. The unidirectional influx constant (Ki, in microliter g-1 min-1) for 109Cd was 0.01929 in the A/J testis as compared with 1.174 in the 129/J testis (P <.0001). The percentage of a 109Cd dose that reached the A/J testis by 60 min was over 10 times less than that which reached the 129/J testis. The transport system used by cadmium in the 129/J testis was saturable, with 20 microM unlabeled cadmium chloride inhibiting transport by over 60%. The transporter was competitively inhibited by zinc (P =. 00017), but not by calcium, indicating a specificity in ion transport. Studies with isolated tubules and analysis of testicular fluid compartments demonstrated no significant difference in cadmium uptake or efflux between the strains when corrected for the amount of 109Cd entering the testis. Therefore, murine strain differences in testicular sensitivity to cadmium appear to be related to the variable presence of a transport system for cadmium in the testicular vasculature.  (+info)

Calculating bone-lead measurement variance. (2/26)

The technique of (109)Cd-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of lead in bone is well established. A paper by some XRF researchers [Gordon CL, et al. The Reproducibility of (109)Cd-based X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Bone Lead. Environ Health Perspect 102:690-694 (1994)] presented the currently practiced method for calculating the variance of an in vivo measurement once a calibration line has been established. This paper corrects typographical errors in the method published by those authors; presents a crude estimate of the measurement error that can be acquired without computational peak fitting programs; and draws attention to the measurement error attributable to covariance, an important feature in the construct of the currently accepted method that is flawed under certain circumstances.  (+info)

109Cd K x ray fluorescence measurements of tibial lead content in young adults exposed to lead in early childhood. (3/26)

OBJECTIVES: Tibia lead measurements were performed in a population of 19-29 year old people who had been highly exposed to lead in childhood to find whether lead had persisted in the bone matrix until adulthood. METHODS: (109)Cd K x ray fluorescence was used to measure the tibia lead concentrations of 262 exposed subjects and 268 age and sex matched controls. Questionnaire data allowed a years of residence index to be calculated for exposed subjects. A cumulative blood lead index was calculated from the time weighted integration of available data of blood lead. RESULTS: The mean (SEM) difference between exposed and control men was 4.51 (0.35) micrograms Pb/g bone mineral, and between exposed and control women was 3.94 (0. 61) micrograms Pb/g bone mineral. Grouped mean bone lead concentrations of exposed subjects were predicted best by age. When exposed and control subjects' data were combined, grouped mean bone lead concentrations were predicted best by cumulative blood lead index. The years of residence index was neither a good predictor of bone lead concentrations for exposed subjects nor for exposed and control subjects combined. Finally, exposed subjects had increased current blood lead concentrations that correlated significantly with bone lead values. CONCLUSION: Bone lead concentrations of exposed subjects were significantly increased compared with those of control subjects. Lead from exposure in early childhood had persisted in the bone matrix until adulthood. Exposed subjects had increased blood lead concentrations compared with controls. Some of this exposure could be related to ongoing exposure. However, some of the increase in blood lead concentration in adult exposed subjects seemed to be a result of endogenous exposure from increased bone lead stores. The endogenous exposure relation found for men was consistent with reported data, but the relation found for women was significantly lower. Further research is needed to find whether the observed differences are due to sex, or pregnancy and lactation.  (+info)

Remobilization of cadmium in maturing shoots of near isogenic lines of durum wheat that differ in grain cadmium accumulation. (4/26)

Cadmium accumulation in grain of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) represents a concern to consumers. In an effort to understand the regulation of Cd accumulation in maturing grain, the remobilization of 109Cd applied to stem and flag leaves was examined in two near-isogenic lines that differ in grain Cd accumulation. Absorbed 109Cd was primarily retained in the labelling flap (50-54% and 65-80% for stem and flag leaves, respectively). Cadmium exported from the stem flap initially (3 d) accumulated in the stem in a declining gradient towards the head. Subsequent remobilization of Cd deposited in the stem was associated with Cd accumulation in the grain. Cadmium exported from the flag leaf flap was primarily directed to the grain. Little (<1%) Cd accumulated in the glumes or rachis, and transport of Cd to shoot tissues below the flag leaf node was low (<1%). On average, 9% and 17% of absorbed 109Cd accumulated in the grain 14 d after labelling the stem and flag leaf, respectively. Irrespective of labelling position, the low Cd-accumulating isoline averaged 1.5-2-fold lower Cd accumulation per grain and Cd concentration in the grain than the high Cd-accumulating isoline. Cadmium accumulation in the grain was inversely correlated with Cd retention in the stem (stem labelled) and labelling flap (flag leaf labelled) for both isolines. Cadmium translocation to the grain was not inhibited by Zn when both were applied simultaneously (50 pM 109Cd; 0.5 microM 65Zn) to the flag leaf. These results show that elevated remobilization of Cd from the leaves and stem to the maturing grain may be partially responsible for the high accumulation of Cd in durum wheat grain.  (+info)

Influence of prior Cd(2+) exposure on the uptake of Cd(2+) and other elements in the phytochelatin-deficient mutant, cad1-3, of Arabidopsis thaliana. (5/26)

In order to test the potential effect of prior exposure to different Cd concentrations on Cd uptake and accumulation, plants of Arabidopsis thaliana, including a phytochelatin-deficient mutant, cad1-3, and the wild type, were compared. For Cd uptake experiments, plants were grown for 1 week in nutrient solution containing different Cd concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 microM Cd(NO(3))(2)). Thereafter they were subjected to 0.5 microM Cd labelled with (109)Cd for 2 h. Uptake experiments with (109)Cd showed that the phytochelatin-deficient mutant cad1-3, accumulated less Cd than the wild type. Both a lower proportion and lower total amount of absorbed Cd were translocated to the shoot in cad1-3 plants compared to wild-type plants. Cadmium exposure also influenced the amounts of nutrients found, whereby after exposure to high Cd concentrations (0.5, 1.0 microM) during growth, cad1-3 roots contained less Fe, K, Mg, P, and S compared to roots of the wild type. In cad1-3 these elements decreased with increasing Cd concentration. The total Cd content in roots and shoots increased significantly with increasing Cd concentration during growth, although the increase was much less in cad1-3 plants. In time-dependent experiments of Cd uptake carried out between 15 and 120 min on plants not previously exposed to Cd, no significant difference in Cd accumulation between the mutant and wild type were found, although a smaller amount of Cd was translocated to the shoot in cad1-3 plants. The possibility that the differences in Cd accumulation in mutant and wild-type lines may be due to the cytosolic Cd regulation, which is inhibited by the complexation of Cd by phytochelatins, is discussed.  (+info)

Characteristics of cadmium uptake in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. (6/26)

Uptake of Cd and Zn by intact seedlings of two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens was characterized using radioactive tracers. Uptake of Cd and Zn at 2 degrees C was assumed to represent mainly apoplastic binding in the roots, whereas the difference in uptake between 22 degrees C and 2 degrees C represented metabolically dependent influx. There was no significant difference between the two ecotypes in the apoplastic binding of Cd or Zn. Metabolically dependent uptake of Cd was 4.5-fold higher in the high Cd-accumulating ecotype, Ganges, than in the low Cd-accumulating ecotype, Prayon. By contrast, there was only a 1.5-fold difference in the Zn uptake between the two ecotypes. For the Ganges ecotype, Cd uptake could be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a V(max) of 143 nmol g(-1) root FW h(-1) and a K(m) of 0.45 microM. Uptake of Cd by the Ganges ecotype was not inhibited by La, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni or Fe(II), and neither by increasing the Ca concentration. By contrast, addition of La, Zn or Mn, or increasing the Ca concentration in the uptake solution decreased Cd uptake by Prayon. Uptake of Ca was larger in Prayon than in Ganges. The results suggest that Cd uptake by the low Cd-accumulating ecotype (Prayon) may be mediated partly via Ca channels or transporters for Zn and Mn. By contrast, there may exist a highly selective Cd transport system in the root cell membranes of the high Cd-accumulating ecotype (Ganges) of T. caerulescens.  (+info)

Influence of iron status on cadmium and zinc uptake by different ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. (7/26)

We have previously identified an ecotype of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges), which is far superior to other ecotypes (including Prayon) in Cd uptake. In this study, we investigated the effect of Fe status on the uptake of Cd and Zn in the Ganges and Prayon ecotypes, and the kinetics of Cd and Zn influx using radioisotopes. Furthermore, the T. caerulescens ZIP (Zn-regulated transporter/Fe-regulated transporter-like protein) genes TcZNT1-G and TcIRT1-G were cloned from the Ganges ecotype and their expression under Fe-sufficient and -deficient conditions was analyzed. Both short- and long-term studies revealed that Cd uptake was significantly enhanced by Fe deficiency only in the Ganges ecotype. The concentration-dependent kinetics of Cd influx showed that the V(max) of Cd was 3 times greater in Fe-deficient Ganges plants compared with Fe-sufficient plants. In Prayon, Fe deficiency did not induce a significant increase in V(max) for Cd. Zn uptake was not influenced by the Fe status of the plants in either of the ecotypes. These results are in agreement with the gene expression study. The abundance of ZNT1-G mRNA was similar between the Fe treatments and between the two ecotypes. In contrast, abundance of the TcIRT1-G mRNA was greatly increased only in Ganges root tissue under Fe-deficient conditions. The present results indicate that the stimulatory effect of Fe deficiency on Cd uptake in Ganges may be related to an up-regulation in the expression of genes encoding for Fe(2+) uptake, possibly TcIRT1-G.  (+info)

Cadmium-metallothionein interactions in the olfactory pathways of rats and pikes. (8/26)

Deposition of cadmium onto the olfactory epithelium results in transport of the metal along the primary olfactory neurons to the olfactory bulbs of the brain. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the intracellular ligand binding of cadmium during this process. (109)Cd(2+) was applied on the olfactory epithelium of rats and pikes, and the subcellular distribution of the metal in the olfactory pathways was then examined. Two groups of rats were used: one pretreated with intranasal instillations of nonlabeled cadmium and the other given physiological saline (controls). Cellular fractionations showed that the (109)Cd(2+) was predominantly present in the cytosol of all samples, both in the rats and the pikes. Gel filtrations of the olfactory epithelium of control rats killed 2 h after the (109)Cd(2+) instillation showed that the metal was recovered in two peaks with elution volumes corresponding to metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH)-the latter peak being the predominant one. However, in the epithelium of the cadmium-pretreated rats killed at 2 h, (109)Cd(2+) was recovered in one peak corresponding to MT. In the olfactory epithelium and bulbs of both groups of rats killed at 48 h, as well as in the olfactory epithelium, nerves, and bulbs of pikes killed at this interval, (109)Cd(2+) was recovered in one peak corresponding to MT. Immunohistochemistry of the olfactory system of rats given cadmium in the right nasal cavity showed induction of MT in the neuronal, sustentacular, and basal cells of the right olfactory epithelium, in the nerve fascicles in the lamina propria of the right olfactory mucosa, and in the olfactory nerve layer of the right olfactory bulb. On the left side, the immunoreactivity was low in these structures. MT immunoreactivity was observed in the glomeruli of both the right and the left olfactory bulbs. However, the staining was homogeneously distributed within the entire glomeruli of the right bulb, whereas it showed a mesh-like pattern corresponding to the localization of astrocytes in the glomeruli of the left bulb. We conclude that exposure of the olfactory epithelium to cadmium results in induction of MT in the primary olfactory neurons and a transport of the metal in these neurons as a cadmium-metallothionein (CdMT) complex. Our results further indicate that GSH is a ligand that can interact with cadmium before the metal binds to MT.  (+info)

Cadmium Radioisotopes definition. define Cadmium Radioisotopes. Explain Cadmium Radioisotopes. What is Cadmium Radioisotopes? Cadmium Radioisotopes FAQ.
Breadsticks are pencil-sized sticks of dry bread widely consumed as a pre-meal appetiser. They are basically wheat-based snacks, which makes them a good matrix to evaluate mycotoxin contamination, since wheat is very susceptible to fungal attack. In this sense, the fast, selective and sensitive gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GCQqQ- MS/MS) method proposed here allows simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, nivalenol, neosolaniol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin in breadsticks after QuEChERS extraction and clean-up. The performance of the method was assessed with respect to European Commission Regulations by studying the selectivity and specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), linearity, matrix effect, accuracy, precision and trueness. Satisfactory results in terms of validation parameters were obtained for all selected mycotoxins (recovery range of 70,br,110%, RSD , 10%, LOQ ,40 μg ...
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most frequently detected mycotoxin in cereal and cereal-based products, and a continuous monitoring of this toxin in foodstuffs is highly desirable. In this sense,a QuEChERS based extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection is proposed to determine DON in an appetizer largely consumed, the wheat-based snacks. In this study, a total of 40 samples were analyzed. The samples were divided into two groups based on the composition. Extraction was carried out with acetonitrile followed by a dispersive solid phase extraction and analyzed for DON content by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) method. The overall occurrence of samples with DON was 67.5%, with maximum content of 61μg/kg. In spite of its high incidence, DON concentrations found in samples were much lower than the maximum limit established in the current European legislation (500 μg/kg) for the foodstuff evaluated. Data obtained indicated a low exposure to DON ...
IFN-gamma plays an important role in host defense against microbial disease. Here, we studied the role of IFN-gamma in lethal and nonlethal murine malaria. Administration of recombinant murine IFN-gamma resulted in a dose-dependent protection of SW, BALB/cByJ, and CBA/J mice from the lethal variant of Plasmodium yoelii 17x (PyL) but had little effect on the course of the nonlethal variant of this parasite (PyNL). Administration of recombinant IFN-gamma also resulted in the activation of peritoneal macrophages for increased phagocytosis of malaria-infected erythrocytes and release of H2O2, as measured in vitro. The ability of spleen cells from infected mice to produce endogenous IFN-gamma and release H2O2 during the course of malaria was also studied. In BALB/cByJ mice, which are relatively susceptible to PyL and PyNL, there was an initial burst of IFN-gamma only in response to PyNL whereas in CBA/J mice, which are relatively resistant to these parasites, there was an initial burst of IFN-gamma ...
A set of styryl- and bis-styryl dyes, varying in length, aromatic surface, net positive charge and steric positioning or bulkiness of substituents, was tested for interactions with various ds-DNA or ds-RNA. Most of the compounds showed strong affinity toward ds-DNA/RNA, directly correlated to the synergistic
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River of Life, River of Death: The Ganges and Indias Future, a new Oxford University Press book on the Ganges by Victor Mallet, highlights the dangers of antibiotic-resistant superbugs in south Asias waterways.
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In February 2015, I reviewed Esoterics Grandioso P1 SACD/CD transport, D1 mono digital-to-analog converters, and G-01 master clock generator. At a total cost of $91,000 USD, these state-of-the-art components in five hefty cases of aircraft-grade aluminum are not for the faint of checkbook or rack space. Those with shallower pockets, fewer racks, and only one spare audiophile power cord might be more interested in the Grandioso K1 ($27,000), an all-in-one SACD and CD player, and DAC.
CY7C1329H 2-Mbit (64 K × 32) Pipelined Sync SRAM 2-Mbit (64 K × 32) Pipelined Sync SRAM Features for internal burst operation. All synchronous inputs are gated by registers controlled by a positive-edge-triggered Clock Input (CLK). The synchronous inputs include all addresses, all data inputs, address-pipelining Chip Enable (CE1), depth-expansion Chip Enables (CE2 and CE3), Burst Control inputs (ADSC, ADSP, and ADV), Write Enables (BW[A:D] and BWE), and Global Write (GW). Asynchronous inputs include the Output Enable (OE) and the ZZ pin. ■ Registered inputs and outputs for pipelined operation ■ 64 K × 32 common I/O architecture ■ 3.3 V core power supply ■ 2.5 V/3.3 V I/O operation ■ Fast clock-to-output times ❐ 4.0 ns (for 133-MHz device) ■ Provide high-performance 3-1-1-1 access rate ■ User-selectable burst counter supporting Intel Pentium® interleaved or linear burst sequences ■ Separate processor and controller address strobes ■ Synchronous self-timed write ■ ...
Rice stem cell serum made from the best of Thai rice varieties is rich in antioxidants and essential amino acids that stimulate the growth of skin cells and slow the aging process.
According to early studies on the transport of cadmium (Cd), it was suggested that iron (Fe) or calcium (Ca) transport system is important in Cd incorporation into cells based on the evidence that dietary Fe or Ca deficiency enhanced intestinal Cd absorption. Transporter of Fe, divalent metal transporter, was shown to be capable of permeating other divalent metals including Cd. On the other hand, L-type Ca channel was also shown to be responsible at least in part, for cellular Cd uptake. In addition to Ca and Fe, it was suggested that the transporter for cellular incorporation of manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) may also be involved in Cd uptake by using Cd-resistant metallothionein null cells. Recently, two members of ZIP family, ZIP8 (Slc39a8) and ZIP14 (Slc39a14) have been suggested as the candidates for Cd transporter. ZIP8 was found to be the determinant for the sensitivity to Cd-induced testicular hemorrhage. ZIP14 was down-regulated in Cd-resistant metallothionein null cells. Further ...
We use five general approaches to create genetically diverse plants:. (1) Directed Transformation. Directed transformation of plants based on known gene sequence. We have hundreds of transgenic potato, tomato, tobacco, and Arabidopsis plant lines on hand and the transformation of rice and Lotus is established and routinely applied.. (2) Creation of Mutant Collections. Generation of large Arabidopsis mutant collections using T-DNA random insertion/activation lines or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. We currently have about 67,000 T-DNA-tagged lines and large stocks of EMS mutagenised Arabidopsis seed. These collections are used for forward screening.. (3) RILs and NILs. Generation of recombinant inbred lines and near isogenic lines. We have recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and near isogenic inbred lines (NILs) from about 350 homogenised naturally-occurring Arabidopsis accessions (ecotypes) and are currently generating four RIL and one NIL population(s). Tomato introgression lines are also ...
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M. Cd concentration was expressed as mg?g21 wet weight tissue.Determination of H2O2 contentFrozen gill segments (0.1 g) were homogenized in a 1:9 (w/v) 50 mM pH
Our results suggest that functional actin is needed during SC differentiation not only for changes in cell shape but also for abundant expression of myelin-specific mRNAs. The initial step in morphological differentiation, elongation, was inhibited only when higher CD concentrations (0.75-1.0 μg/ml) known to remove stress fibers in other cell types were used (Yahara et al., 1982). At lower CD concentrations (0.25 μg/ml), SC elongation and segregation of axons away from each other occurred, but ensheathment of axons in a 1:1 relationship and spiralization did not occur. Phalloidin staining of CD-treated cultures revealed that actin became increasingly disrupted and aggregated as CD concentration increased. At the time experiments began, all cultures had equal SC densities and SCs displayed a rounded morphology characteristic of their behavior in ascorbate-free medium, which allows SC proliferation but not differentiation (Eldridge et al., 1987; Fernandez-Valle et al., 1993). Therefore, any ...
View Notes - multreg5 from ECON 20 at Dartmouth. Economics 20 - Prof. Anderson 1 Multiple Regression Analysis y = β + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x 2 + . . . β k x k + u 5. Dummy Variables Economics 20 - Prof.
7 Day Trek to Ganges Glacier, Gaumukh Tapovan, a 7 day tour from Dehradun to Uttarkashi, Gangotri and 7 destinations. No Booking Fees - Best Price Guarantee - 24/7 Customer Support & Unbiased Advice!
India, Day 21 - Varanasi Im now a resident of the Hotel Ajaya on Kabir Chaura Road, Varanasi. Its fine. In fact, its the closest in style and standard to a bog standard western hotel of any Ive been in in India. Also the cheapest at 300 rupees (at least, thats what I was told…
Begusarai: Begusarai, city, central Bihar state, northeastern India. It is situated in the Middle Ganges Plain, just north of the Ganges (Ganga) River. The name Begusarai is derived
What you really want is to align all your sequences together and create a huge distance matrix (100k x 100k). Then you can use this matrix to do a clustering analysis to see how many groups you have at a defined level of similarity. Alternatively you can use a greedy algorithm such as cd-hit that wi ...
Recently, there has been considerable interest in the use of terrestrial plants as a green technology for the remediation of surface soils contaminated with toxic heavy metals. This technology, termed phytoremediation, uses plants to extract heavy metals from the soil and to concentrate them in the harvestable shoot tissue (1, 2). A major factor behind the interest in phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils has been the growing awareness of the existence of a number of metal-accumulating plant species. These plant species, called hyperaccumulators, are endemic to metalliferous soils and can accumulate and tolerate high levels of heavy metals in the shoot (3, 4). Among the best known hyperaccumulators is Thlaspi caerulescens. This member of the Brassicaceae family has attracted the interest of plant biologists for over a century because of its ability to colonize calamine and serpentine soils containing naturally elevated levels of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Co. Certain ...
Hyperaccumulator plants are able to accumulate unusually high levels of heavy metals because they can store them in cell vacuoles where they cannot harm metabolic processes in the cell cytoplasm. The plant cell vacuole has been termed the "cellular trashbag." One yeast that accumulates high levels of cadmium has small peptides called phytochelatins that bond with cadmium ions. This allows transport of the cadmium ions across cell membranes and into the vacuole. References X-ray Imaging of Zinc Uptake and Accumulation in Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens Re: How does biomining for heavy metals work? Yeast Gene and Cadmium ...
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Yan, J., Wang, P., Wang, P., Yang, M., Lian, X., Tang, Z., Huang, C. -F., Salt, D. E., and Zhao, F. J. (2016) A loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 associated with high cadmium accumulation in shoots and grain of Japonica rice cultivars. Plant, Cell & Environment, 39: 1941-1954., which has been published in final form at doi: 10.1111/pce.12747.. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving ...
An intravascular catheter system and method of manufacture for implanting a radially expandable stent within a body vessel. The catheter system includes a shaft defining an inflation lumen in fluid communication with a balloon on the distal end of the shaft. A stent is mounted coaxially upon a balloon. The balloon has ridges impressed in the outline of the stent for at least a portion of the stent. The ridges are sized to receive the stent so as to cause the balloon to expand evenly and the stent to deploy uniformly. In an alternative embodiment the balloon may additionally have a polymeric surface layer exhibiting a higher coefficient of friction than the underlying material against the stent material. The surface layer may be provided as a high friction polymeric coating on a formed balloon or as a coaxial extrusion of a high friction polymeric material over the underlying balloon tubing material. In a further embodiment the balloon may have the polymeric surface layer exhibiting a higher coefficient
A novel and efficient oxidation of salicyl alcohols to the corresponding salicylaldehydes catalyzed by lipase is reported for the first time. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the method exhibited high yields (81-95%) and selectivities for salicylaldehydes. Moreover, this study expands the application of enzyme catalytic promiscuity in organic synthesis.
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Rodr guez Rocha, Alejandra Citlalli; Hern ndez Padr n, Genoveva; Garc a Gardu o, Margarita V.; Garc a Aranda, Ra l Luis. - An lisis fisicoqu mico del MTA Angelus y Biodentine mediante difracci n de rayos X, espectrometr a de energ a dispersiva, fluorescencia de rayos X, microscopio electr nico de barrido y espectroscop a de rayos infrarrojos - Physicochemical analysis of MTA Angelus and Biodentine conducted with X ray difraction, dispersive energy spectrometry, X ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscope and infra red spectroscopy. Rev. odontol. mex; 19(3):174-180jul.-sep. 2015.tab, graf. ...
L Institut fédéral de recherches WSL étudie la forêt, le paysage, la biodiversité, les dangers naturels ainsi que la neige et de la glace. Il fait partie du Domaine des EPF.
which comes to 0.435. -- generalization to $k$ letters:. To find the probability that $k$ letters selected from the population are all identical:. If $L_1$ is the first letter, $L_2$ is the second letter, ..., and $L_k$ is the $k^\mathrm{th}$ then the probability is $\sum_x P(L_1=x) \times P(L_2=x,L_1=x)\times P(L_3=x,L_1=x,L2=x)\times ... \times P(L_k=x,L_1=x,L2=x, ...,L_k=x)$. If you assume independence (which would be the case if you were selecting from the whole population at random for each letter, for example), thats. $\sum_x P(L_1=x) \times P(L_2=x)\times ... \times P(L_k=x)$.. But of course then all the probability distributions will be the same. Lets call the probability that a random letter has the value $x$ "$p_x$".. That is, the overall probability = $\sum_x p_x^k$. ...
Because high resolution and low-noise play such a crucial role in scientific imaging, the Fairchild Imaging CMOS and CCD products continue to be the pre-eminent sensors used for extremely demanding applications from the x-ray through theNIR.. Our product architecture spans a range including the small format 0.9cm x 0.7cm (1280x1024) sCMOS sensor to the larger format 1.7cm x 1.4cm (2560x2160) sCMOS sensor to our wafer scale 6cm x 6cm (4k x 4k) CCD devices to our largest area array to date, the 8cm x 8cm (9,216 x 9,216) devices. All of these sensors have been designed to provide the highest performance available in the scientific application areas where they are employed.. For pricing on any of our products or for more complete information on these products please contact the factory at the following email address:. [email protected] We trust that you will find the Fairchild Imaging product that is perfectly suited to your scientific imaging application.. ...
... jazz article by AJS, published on January 13, 2011 at All About Jazz. Find more Jazz That Scratches, Swings and Pops articles
Data from a survey of Western Australian grain growers are used to characterise the use and perceptions of durum wheat. The main objective was to identify opportunities for extension to increase the level of durum wheat adoption throughout the grain growing regions of WA. Perceptions of durum wheat characteristics were elicited along with other variables used to model the economic value of durum wheat in the local cropping system. Logistic regression analysis found that perceptions of the yield potential were most influential, with almost half of respondents believing current durum wheat varieties were unsuitable for Western Australian conditions. Perceptions of durum rust resistance were also significant in the adoption decision. Informational variables were shown to be of influence; however, critically, past use was not a significant predictor of future use. Before broad extension and promotion of the trialing of durum can be successful, efforts in Western Australia will need to focus on research to
The proposed research integrates molecular, biochemical, and whole-plant approaches to better characterize the network of wheat genes actively involved in wheat root response to N and Cd. Based on ongoing field studies, two pairs of winter wheat genotypes will be selected: 1) one pair that differs for NUE; 2) one pair that differs for grain Cd accumulation. The differential gene expression in roots of these pairs of genotypes in response to N limitation or Cd supplementation, respectively, in hydroponic conditions will be measured. IV.c.1. Project details/sequence Phase I: Determine appropriate level of N limitation and Cd supplementation in hydroponically grown plants. A range of N concentrations will be applied to the NUE+ and NUE- genotypes with the objective of identifying a minimum stress condition. Similarly, to determine a sub-toxic level of Cd, a range of Cd concentrations will be applied to the Cd+ and Cd- genotypes. A follow-up experiment will integrate the four winter wheat genotypes ...
The expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity in animals has been inhibited by a variety of anticoagulants, but direct evidence for activation of clotting in the evolution of these reactions has been lacking. Using the fluorescent antibody technique we here demonstrate that fibrin deposition is a prominent and consistent feature of both allergic contact dermatitis and classic delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions in man. Fib was detected in 55 of 58 delayed reactions studied at the peak of their intensity. The characteristic distribution of Fib-principally in the intervascular portions of the reticular dermis with sparing of vessels and their associated cuffs of mononuclear cells-is unusual and quite different from that described in antibody-mediated lesions in animals or man. Fib was found in vessel walls in only 2 of 94 biopsies studied. With a single exception, deposition of immunoglobulins and complement was not observed.. The pathogensis and significance of Fib deposition in these ...
Thlaspi caerulescens (formerly known as Thlaspi alpestre, until that name was shown to be illegitimate) is a plant with a puzzling distribution. In the UK it occurs in a few widely separated upland localities from Mendip to Rhum. In most cases (but not all) its associated with high levels of heavy metal pollution; for example, lead or zinc spoil-heaps. How a plant with such apparently limited seed-dispersal techniques ever arrived in these remote places is a mystery. Anyway, its generally supposed to be native. Elsewhere the main native populations are in mountainous central Europe: - the Alps and Carpathians. In Scandinavia its history is totally different. Here its accepted as an introduced plant, first noticed in 1840. It has since spread widely and now grows all over Scandinavia in all sorts of environments (e.g. here on a calcareous slope in open woodland). The contrast between the unfussy vigorously-spreading alien population in Sweden and the tiny, vulnerable pockets in the UK could ...
... : identification pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; taxonomy, etymology, synonyms, similar species
Stacked Multi-chip Package (MCP) 32 Mbit (4 M x 8 bit/2 M x 16-bit) Flash Memory and 4 Mbit (512K x 8-Bit/256 K x 16-Bit) Static RAM ...
Soma Technology, Inc. offers GE OEC 9800 Plus C-Arm Multi-Purpose Mobile X-Ray Imaging System featuring a 1k x 1k high resolution CCD Camera.
Rishikesh and Shimla are both very interesting places to visit - apart from the trek angle. Rishikesh is said to be the yoga capital of the world, with almost every third or fourth place a yoga centre of sorts - but its also a great place to relax and contemplate, especially a bit higher up on the hills, with a view to the Ganges, and a great place for rafting too. Shimla is the quintessential colonial relic in Northern India, though a bit crowded these days, and a nice town to base oneself in for exploring the region.. Last edited by Apurva_N (3-3-2017 11:09 AM). ...
Loss of soil resource capacity can be defined as points at which one or more of these outcomes are realised. In terms of the first and second outcomes, the most readily quantifiable point for soil resource loss is 1 mg/kg for total soil cadmium. This is both the current recommended limit for cadmium in agricultural soils, and a default human health protection limit for Waikato properties being subdivided to residential or rural-residential land. The recommended agricultural soil cadmium limit is set partly with respect to current and anticipated expectations of New Zealands international trading partners. The third outcome, non-compliance with food standards, relates mainly to particular types of horticultural and arable crops. The exact point at which soil cadmium has become high enough to cause food standards to be exceeded can be difficult to predetermine, as it depends on crop and soil conditions. However, this outcome has been observed to occur at soil cadmium concentrations below the ...
This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte dIvoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19-5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07-1.32 and 0.12-1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination.
679 m3 s−1 by the 2090s, an increase of between 23% and 39% relative to the baseline period, depending on the specific climate model run.. In terms of future sediment fluxes, Fig. 6c shows that under the Q0 run sediment loads on the Ganges are projected to significantly increase relative to the 1981-2000 baseline of 521 Mt per year, to 613 Mt per year by the 2050s and then 696 Mt per year by the end of the century, the latter representing an overall increase of 175 Mt per year (34%) relative to the baseline period. Under the Q8 run a similar increase in sediment load with time is also evident, with projected values of 609 Mt per year by the 2050s (a 16% increase relative to the Q8 baseline) and 714 Mt per year by the 2090s, an end of century value which is around 191 Mt per year (37%) greater than the baseline. For the Ganges, sediment loads for the Q16 run are less than both the Q0 and Q8 runs, reflecting the lower precipitation in this catchment for the Q16 run (see Fig. 3). Thus, a mean ...
South Asian River Dolphin - the Ganges and Indus or also called the blind dolphin is having a tough time with overpopulation and pollution.
Therefore, even if the inputs decrease, the accumulation (although at a lower rate) will continue. Calculation performed for cadmium accumulation in the agricultural soil in western Europe shows a continuous increase with some levelling off for later years (Stigliani et al. 1993). Soils, at least in western Europe, Canada and the United States, are also subject to acid inputs from the atmosphere. In interpreting Long-term Strategies for Handling Contaminated Sites and Large-scale Areas 23 these kind of predictions on metal accumulations and their impact on the environment, one should also consider the effects of acidification. The interlinkage between the major biogeochemical cycles, master variables and capacity controlling parameters (CCP) the mobility of micro-pollutants and the possibilities for manipulating (geochemical engineering) these interlinked processes and cycles 28 W. Salomons possibilities for manipulating (geochemical engineering) these interlinked processes and cycles release ...
Varanasi [http://www.varanasi.nic.in], once known as Benares or Banaras and Kashi, is a historical city in northern India. The city is sacred to Hindus and also one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. In many ways Varanasi epitomizes the very best and worst aspects of India, and it can be a little overwhelming. However, the scene of pilgrims doing their devotions in the River Ganges at sunrise set against the backdrop of the centuries old temples is probably one of the most impressive sights in the world. Some people believe that Varanasi is a must see destination on any trip to northern India. Others do not find it particularly interesting to see Hindus bathing themselves in the Ganges, and are turned off by the feces that floods the Ganges and covers the alleys of Varanasi.
Varanasi [http://www.varanasi.nic.in], once known as Benares or Banaras and Kashi, is a historical city in northern India. The city is sacred to Hindus and also one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. In many ways Varanasi epitomizes the very best and worst aspects of India, and it can be a little overwhelming. However, the scene of pilgrims doing their devotions in the River Ganges at sunrise set against the backdrop of the centuries old temples is probably one of the most impressive sights in the world. Some people believe that Varanasi is a must see destination on any trip to northern India. Others do not find it particularly interesting to see Hindus bathing themselves in the Ganges, and are turned off by the feces that floods the Ganges and covers the alleys of Varanasi.
Looking for online definition of circulus venosus halleri in the Medical Dictionary? circulus venosus halleri explanation free. What is circulus venosus halleri? Meaning of circulus venosus halleri medical term. What does circulus venosus halleri mean?
Abstract Aerius Photonics has developed large InGaAs arrays (1K x 1K and greater) with low dark currents for use in night vision… Expand ...
Ghazipur: Ghazipur, city, southeastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is located on the Ganges (Ganga) River near the border with Bihar state, about 40 miles (65 km) northeast of Varanasi (Benares). Its ancient name of Gadhipur was changed to Ghazipur about 1330, reputedly in honour of Ghāzī Malik,
RESEARCH ARTICLES. Soto S, Alba A, Ganges L, Vidal E, Raga JA, Alegre F, González B, Medina P, Zorrilla I, Martínez J, Marco A, Pérez M, Pérez B, Mesas APdV, Valverde RM, Domingo M ...
ecotype: A subdivision of an ecospecies consisting of a population that is adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions.
A pot experiment was conducted to study the influences of four phosphorus on yield,cadmium(Cd) absorption and accumulation in leaf vegetables(spinach,pakchoi,willow leaf and round leaf amaranth) and the Cd availability in soil.Results showed that phosphate treatments could significantly promote vegetables growth,reduce the Cd concentrations in vegetable shoots and roots and increase Cd accumulation in four vegetables shoots compared with the control treatment.However,the Cd accumulation in the shoots didnt varied significantly with the phosphate treatments.A significantly negative linear relationship was found between soil pH and the available Cd.The capability of four phosphates in acidifying soil varied in following order:SSP(superphosphate)MAP(monoammonium phosphate),DAP(diammonium phosphate)DCP(dicalcium phosphate).The DCP treatment exhibited the highest yield,the lowest content of Cd in vegetable,the highest pH and the lowest soil available Cd.
Cadmium is a non-essential microelement that can accumulate in seeds of edible plants at levels that exceed acceptable limits for human consumption (Gerritse et al., 1983; Hocking and McLaughlin, 2000). The daily adult human limit for Cd intake has been set at 70 ,ig by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Department of Health (Chaney et al., 1993). Increasing international concerns about the risks associated with long-term consumption of crops containing elevated Cd levels (McLaughlin et al., 1994) has led the international food standards organization, Codex Alimentarius Commission, to propose a 200 g Cd kg-1 limit for cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and legumes and 400 g Cd kg-1 for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Europe (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2000). Vegetables contribute more than 70% of the Cd intake in human diets. Dietary intake of Cd depends on both the amount of food consumed and the Cd concentration in the consumed food (Wagner, 1993). High Cd intake by humans has been associated ...
Looking for online definition of salicyl aldehyde in the Medical Dictionary? salicyl aldehyde explanation free. What is salicyl aldehyde? Meaning of salicyl aldehyde medical term. What does salicyl aldehyde mean?
The photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate, Hill reaction activity of seedlings and photosynthetic parameter, Pn-Ci curve and some source-sink metabolism-related enzyme activities, and substance content of flag leaves were measured by using two wheat near isogenic lines with significant differences in the photosynthetic rate of the 154 (high photosynthetic rate) and 212 (low photosynthetic rate) lines as materials. The results showed that the maximal carboxylation efficiency (Vcmax) and Hill reaction activity were higher in line 154 than that of line 212. The Pn in flag leaves of line 154 was significantly higher than that of line 212 during the anthesis to grain-filling stage. Higher leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity, grain sucrose synthase activity, and grain ADPG pyrophosphorylase activity ensured that the photosynthate of line 154 could be transported to grains and translated into starch in a timely and effective manner, which also contributed to the maintenance of its high ...
Aphanomyces euteiches is an oomycete pathogen with a broad host-range on legumes that causes devastating root rot disease in many pea-growing countries and especially in France. Genetic resistance is a promising way to manage the disease since consistent QTL controlling partial resistance have been identified in near isogenic lines of pea. However, there are still no resistant pea varieties cultivated in France. This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic and genetic diversity of A. euteiches populations from the major pea-growing regions in France. A collection of 205 isolates, from soil samples collected in infested pea fields located in five French regions, was established and genotyped using 20 SSR markers. Thirteen multilocus genotypes were found among the 205 isolates which displayed a low genotypic richness (ranged from 0 to 0.333). Two main clusters of isolates were identified using PCoA and STRUCTURE, including a predominant group comprising 88% of isolates and another group representing 12% of
In this study, we demonstrate that the high-affinity component of the manganese transport system in mammalian cells is also used for cadmium uptake. Previously, we have established cadmium-resistant cell lines from MT-null mouse cells that exhibited a marked decrease in the uptake of cadmium (Yanagiya et al., 1999). The application of multitracer technique in this study revealed that the uptake of ultra-trace amount of manganese in Cd-rB5 cells was reduced to approximately 10% of that in parental cells, whereas no change in the incorporation of zinc, copper, or iron was observed. Because cadmium accumulation in the Cd-rB5 cells was also reduced to 10% of that in parental cells, the same mechanism may be responsible for the reduction of the incorporation of both cadmium and manganese into Cd-rB5 cells.. The results of time- and dose-dependent uptake of Mn2+ in Cd-rB5 and parental cells (Fig. 2, A and C) suggest that there are at least two components, having high and low affinity to Mn2+, for ...
The term Radiation therapy (radiotherapy) as it applies to the area of nuclear science can be defined as The therapeutic use of ionizing radiation to treat disease in patients. Although most radiotherapy procedures are intended to kill cancerous tissue or reduce the size of a tumor, therapeutic doses may also be used to reduce pain or treat benign conditions. For example, intervascular brachytherapy uses radiation to treat clogged blood vessels. Other common radiotherapy procedures include gamma stereotactic radiosurgery (gamma knife), teletherapy, and iodine treatment to correct an overactive thyroid gland. These procedures use radiation sources, regulated by the NRC and its Agreement States, that may be applied either inside or outside the body. In either case, the goal of radiotherapy is to deliver the required therapeutic or pain-relieving dose of radiation with high precision and for the required length of time, while preserving the surrounding healthy tissue. . ...
Experimental strategy of the normalized process. The main objective of this study was to construct a normalized library with approximately equal representation of all the mRNA sequences in order to increase the chances of identifying rare genes in embryoid tissues. The normalized cDNA library denoted EON was constructed based on the reassociation kinetics reaction. Effectiveness of the normalization process was confirmed through direct sequencing and dot blot analysis. Direct sequencing of 1,007 randomly picked ESTs demonstrated changes in the redundancy level of certain genes in EON library compared to the standard EO library. Frequency of genes, such as ribosomal protein, metallothionein-like protein, lipid transfer protein homolog and cys-peroxiredoxin, which were reported to be highly abundant in the standard EO library were reduced in the EON library. The frequency of low abundance genes like pectinesterase, early nodulin, PBS lyase HEAT-like repeat-containing protein and crumpled leaf were ...
Experimental strategy of the normalized process. The main objective of this study was to construct a normalized library with approximately equal representation of all the mRNA sequences in order to increase the chances of identifying rare genes in embryoid tissues. The normalized cDNA library denoted EON was constructed based on the reassociation kinetics reaction. Effectiveness of the normalization process was confirmed through direct sequencing and dot blot analysis. Direct sequencing of 1,007 randomly picked ESTs demonstrated changes in the redundancy level of certain genes in EON library compared to the standard EO library. Frequency of genes, such as ribosomal protein, metallothionein-like protein, lipid transfer protein homolog and cys-peroxiredoxin, which were reported to be highly abundant in the standard EO library were reduced in the EON library. The frequency of low abundance genes like pectinesterase, early nodulin, PBS lyase HEAT-like repeat-containing protein and crumpled leaf were ...
Container shipping line Maersk will move 16 containers on river Ganges (National Waterway-1) from Varanasi to Kolkata in India on February 12, marking the entry of commercial shipping players in Indias nascent inland water transport network.
Press Release issued Dec 4, 2017: Market Research Future (MRFR) recognizes the following companies as the key players in the Global Sodium Tripolyphosphate Market: Innophos Holding Inc., Tata Chemicals Ltd., ICL Performance Ltd., Aditya Birla Chemicals, Sumitomo Chemicals Co. Ltd, Merck group, Hubei Xingfa Chemicals Group, Prayon S.A., Haifa Group, and TongVo Chemicals Limited
The "log-likelihood function" is a probabilistic function. ,MATH, \sum_{i=1}^{N}(1-X_i^i)log(1-Pr[1,B_1^1,B_2^2,\dots,B_k^k])+X_i^i.log(Pr[1,B_1^1,B_2^2,\dots,B_k^k]) ,/MATH, The "log-likelihood function" is also referred to as the cross-entropy ...
Purchase your copy of ISO 11051:1994 as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards available online in electronic and print formats.
An introduction to cadmium plating, its uses, suitability and versatility for various processes and the environmental information you need to know.
An excellent specimen of the rare variety Cadimium rich Willemite, from the Tsumeb Mine, Namibia. The specimen displays two areas of rare elongated parallel yellow habit prismatic crystals of Cadmium Willemite measuring to 2.7cm.
For around the last 9 months of my life, Ive struggled with depression. It was due to a lot of factors, wasnt fun at all. But luckily Im now out of it ...
Recently, the wheat disease resistance gene Lr34 was cloned. Lr34 is a putative ABC transporter and provides non-specific, adult plant resistance to Puccinia triticina Eriks. (Krattinger et al, 2009. Science 323:1360). There is strong evidence that Lr34 enhances single resistance gene effects in wheat seedlings, and now that Lr34 has been cloned, this can be verified genetically. A cross between the isogenic wheat lines Thatcher Lr16 X Thatcher Lr16,34 was made, and 98 F2:6 near isogenic lines were evaluated for their response to Race 1 (BBBDB) of P. triticina in both seedlings and adult plants. Lines were scored for the presence or absence of Lr34 enhancement in seedlings and evaluated for adult plant resistance and leaf tip necrosis. Lr16 only lines had infection types of 2C while Lr16,34 lines had infection types of ;, 1. There are three known alleles of Lr34 and polymerase chain reaction primers are available for each. PCR reactions on the 98 NILs are in process, and the results will be ...
Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), remains a major production constraint in rice cultivation especially in irrigated and rainfed lowland ecosystems in India. The pathogen is highly dynamic in nature and knowledge on pathotype composition among the Xoo population is imperative for designing a scientific resistance breeding program. In this study, four hundred isolates of Xoo collected from diverse rice growing regions of India were analyzed for their virulence and genetic composition. Virulence profiling was carried out on a set of differentials consisting of 22 near isogenic lines (NILs) of IR24 possessing different BB resistance genes and their combinations along with the checks. It was observed that different NILs possessing single BB resistance gene were susceptible to about 59-94% of the Xoo isolates except IRBB 13 (containing BB resistance gene xa13), which showed susceptibility to about 35% of the isolates. Based on the reaction of the Xoo isolates on the
The Ganges and Indus River Dolphins are essentially identical in appearance. They have the long, pointed snout characteristic of all river dolphins. Both the upper and lower jaw sets of teeth are visible even when the mouth is closed. The snout thickens towards its end. The species does not have crystalline eye lens, rendering it effectively blind, although it may still be able to detect the intensity and direction of light. Navigation and the hunt for food is carried out using echo-location. The body is a brownish colour and stocky at the middle. The species has only a small triangular lump in the place of a dorsal fin. The flippers and tail are thin and large in relation to the body size, which is about 2-2.2m in males and 2.4-2.6m in females. The life span and other life history data is unknown.. The species feeds on shrimp and small fish that prefer the waters close to the river bed. Dolphins are usually encountered on their own but have travelled in groups more often historically, when ...
Read "Over-expression of tobacco UBC1 encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme increases cadmium tolerance by activating the 20S/26S proteasome and by decreasing Cd accumulation and oxidative stress in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The effects of cadmium on performance, antioxidant defense system, liver and kidney functions, and cadmium accumulation in selected tissues of broiler chickens were studied. Whether the possible adverse effects of cadmium would reverse with the antio
Cadmium is an element that occurs naturally in the earths crust.� Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal.� Cadmium is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).� Cadmium is most often present in nature as complex oxides, sulfides, and carbonates in zinc, lead, and copper ores. It is rarely present in large quantities as the chlorides and sulfates.� These different forms of cadmium compounds are solids that dissolve in water to varying degrees.� The chlorides and sulfates are the forms that most easily dissolve in water.� Cadmium may change forms, but the cadmium metal itself does not disappear from the environment.� Knowing the particular form of cadmium, however, is very important when determining the risk of potential adverse health effects.
After a series of experiments Ive come to a partial conclusion that rye and durum wheat both create high acidity starters that impart the sour tang to the finished bread. Wholewheat, AP, Hard Red Winter and Spring do not produce high acidity from my refrigerated low hydration starter. Starter conditions:
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
In the spring mass system, F=ma is a kinematic description of what transpires. F=-kx is a dynamic description of whats happening. Put the two together and you get a second order differential equation, ##m\frac{d^2x(t)}{dt^2} = -k x(t)##. The same happens with rotational motion. τ=r×F is a dynamic description of torque. τ=Iα is a kinematic description. Put the two together and you get a second order differential equation that describes whats happening rotationally ...
In the context of total UK payroll expense, your figure of £32m is an insignificant number. It appears to have been calculated by assuming that 16% of the workforce are not just under-performers, but are complete non-performers, so their entire salary is wasted. But it is based on a sample size of only 9,000 employees (£32m = £22k x 9,000 x 16%). In fact, using the same assumptions that 16% of the workforce are complete non-performers, and that the average wage is £22k pa, the cost to UK employers as a whole - assuming an employed workforce of about 20 million - is around £70bn.. Malcolm ...
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Dont worry, it wont smell like urine and will be tasty too," he told The Times from his headquarters in Hardwar, one of four holy cities on the River Ganges. "Its USP will be that its going to be very healthy. It wont be like carbonated drinks and would be devoid of any toxins ...
Cadmium Sulfide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Cadmium Sulfide is available on the Drugs.com website.
Page 3 - Custom nickel cadmium battery packs and assemblies. Find spec sheets and get quotes for custom nickel cadmium battery packs and assemblies.
Page 3 - Custom nickel cadmium battery packs and assemblies. Find spec sheets and get quotes for custom nickel cadmium battery packs and assemblies.
Cadmium borotungstate/ACM1306269 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Watch this video to gain insight into PIKE Technologies MIRacle single reflection ATRs innovative optical design and learn about its unique features and options that make sampling easier.
Hästi ujuv isegi madalaimatel kiirustel, erinevate jigi peadega hästi sobib pea kuju ning teaduslikult patenteeritud lõhna- ja maitseaine.
Synonyms: Acanthias acanthias, Acanthias americanus, Acanthias lebruni, Flakeus tasmaniensis, Koinga kirki, Koinga lebruni, Koinga whitleyi, Spinax acanthias, Spinax fernandinus, Spinax mediterraneus, Squalus acanthias acanthias, Squalus acanthias africana, Squalus acanthias chilensis, Squalus acanthias ponticus, Squalus acanthius, Squalus aff. acanthias, Squalus barbouri, Squalus cf. acanthias, Squalus cf. fernandinus, Squalus fernandinus, Squalus kirki, Squalus lebruni, Squalus tasmaniensis, Squalus wakiyae, Squalus whitleyi, Squalus (Spinax) ...
Cadmium has proatherogenic effects as shown in experimental and clinical studies.7, 8, 11, 20, 21 Atherosclerotic plaque is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke, and inflammation in the plaque is a critical mechanism for plaque rupture.7, 8, 22 Previous studies from the MDC and other cohorts have reported relationships between cadmium in blood and cardiovascular disease, including carotid plaque.4, 5, 6, 8 The present results show that cadmium and carotid plaque were associated with risk of future ischemic stroke in a synergistic manner. Since the whole population is exposed to cadmium through the diet and cadmium is eliminated very slowly from the human body, this observation could have important implications for public health.. The blood vessels have been identified as a target organ for cadmium accumulation.9 Cadmium has been associated with pro‐inflammatory effects, both in experimental and human studies.23 An in vitro study showed increased necrosis and apoptosis in macrophages exposed ...
A study was conducted to control thermoresponsivity with supramolecular self-assembly of pseudo-block copolymer based on star-shaped poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with a β-cyclodextrin core and guest-bearing PEG. The study used a star polymer, synthesized with a β-CD core as molecular recognition moiety and multiple PNIPAAm arms as actuation moieties. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the degree of substitution (DS) of the purified macroinitiator. The study found that β-CD-core star polymer was obtained by synthesis of a β-CD-based macroinitiator. The study synthesized the macromolecular guests by coupling the molecular recognition moiety, adamantane with biocompatible hydrophilic poly(ehtylene glycol) (PEG ...
Citation: Grant, C.A., Clarke, J.M., Duguid, S., Chaney, R.L. 2003. Use of genetic variability in reducing cadmium uptake by plants. Proceedings of the SCOPE Workshop on Risk Assessment and Management of Environmental Cadmium (Ghent, Belgium, September 3-5, 2003) UNEP-SCOPE, Paris. Interpretive Summary: All crops accumulate some cadmium from soils, but some crops accumulate soil cadmium more effectively that others, and some soils are geochemically enriched in cadmium or contaminated with cadmium. Excessive lifetime cadmium consumption can cause renal tubular dysfunction in susceptible individuals, especially subsistence rice consumers. One method to minimize the possibility that consumers will ingest excessive cadmium in foods is to breed crop cultivars which accumulate lower levels of cadmium in the edible plant tissue (e.g., grain). Major or staple foods are of greater importance if breeding for low cadmium is needed, but minor foods which accumulate higher levels of cadmium than most other ...
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) is the main irrigated winter crop in northwestern Mexico. Historically, leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, had not induced significant losses to durum production in the area until 2001. That year, a new race, designated as BBG/BN, was detected that caused the most widely grown cultivar, Altar C84, which had remained resistant for 16 years, to become susceptible. Other recommended cultivars also became either moderately susceptible or susceptible. Detailed characterization of avirulence/virulence characteristics on Lr genes indicated that this race possibly did not evolve from the older races, but may have been introduced. Rust epidemics during the 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003 crop seasons have caused estimated losses of at least US$32 million. Although a majority of cultivars from 31 different countries, including the United States and Canada, and most of CIMMYTs durum wheat germ plasm were highly susceptible, diversity for both ...
Photo/image Piked dogfish (Squalus acanthias), Family: Squalidae. Location Nordsømuseet Hirtshals. Photographer: JC Schou, Photoid 53397
Where arsenopyrite is present in sulphide ores associated with sediment-hosted gold deposits, it tends to be the earliest-formed mineral, derived from hydrothermal solutions and formed at temperatures typically of 100 C or more. Such deposit is unknown in Bengal Basin.. The Ganges alluvial tract upstream of Rajmahal, in the state of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh does not suffer arsenic contamination on a large scale. The relatively low values of dissolved iron (0 - 0.7 mg per litre) upstream of the Ganges delta (Utter Pradesh and Bihar) indicate that the environment may not be sufficiently reducing iron and arsenic. Datta and Subramanian (1997) found concentrations in sediments from the River Ganges averaging 2.0 mg kg 1 (range 1.2 2.6 mg kg 1), from the Brahmaputra River averaging 2.8 mg kg 1 (range 1.4 5.9 mg kg 1) and from the Meghna River averaging 3.5 mg kg 1 (range 1.3 5.6 mg kg 1). The copper belt of Bihar (India) contains small amounts of arseopyrite and the coal basins of the Damodar valley ...
Food Science & Nutrition. ORIGINAL RESEARCH. Chemical and functional properties of cassava starch, durum wheat semolina flour, and their blends. Olufunmilola O. Oladunmoye1, Ogugua C. Aworh2, Bussie Maziya-Dixon3, Ochuko L. Erukainure1 & Gloria N. Elemo1. 1Food Technology Department, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria. department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 3Crop Utilization Unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. Keywords. Cassava starch, durum wheat semolina, flour blends, functional properties. Correspondence. Olufunmilola O. Oladunmoye, Food Technology Department, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos, Nigeria. Tel: +234 802 354 0666; E-mail: [email protected] Funding Information. Analyses made in this study were partially supported by the Crop Utilization Unit of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan and Quality Control Laboratory of Flour ...
Referent for BS course standard quality (2013). Selected Publications. N. M. Ordoñez, C. Marondedze, L. Thomas, S. Pasqualini, L. Shabala, S. Shabala, C. Gehring (2014) Cyclic mononucleotides modulate potassium and calcium flux responses to H2O2 in Arabidopsis roots. In press FEBBS LETTERS.. L. Thomas, C. Marondedze, L. Ederli, S. Pasqualini, C. Gehring (2013). Proteomic signatures implicate cAMP in light and temperature responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. JOURNAL OF PROTEOMICS, vol. 83, p 47-59.. D. Di Baccio, L. Ederli, R. Marabottini, M. Badiani, A. Francini, C. Nali, M. Antonelli, E. Santangelo, L. Sebastiani, S. Pasqualini. (2012). Similar foliar lesions but opposite hormonal patterns in a tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception and its near isogenic wild type challenged with ozone. ENVIRONMENTAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY, vol. 75, p. 286-297.. S. Pasqualini, L. Reale, O. Calderini, R. Pagiotti, L. Ederli (2012). Involvement of protein kinases and calcium in the NO-signalling cascade ...
Cadmium (Cd) Physical character: Atomic Weight: 112.41 Electronegative: 1.4-1.69 Density: ρ=2.0 g/cm3 Melting Point: mp: 320.9 ℃ Boiling Point: bp: 765 ℃ Specification: High Purity Cadmium: Cd-05 Grade 99.999. The content of Cadmium is above...
CADMIUM METALLICUM(Cadmium)MENTAL SYMPTOMS OR CADMIUM pathogenesis METALLICUM1 - () Hypersensitive, irritable. 0 indifferent, and does not want to see anyone.2 Memory weakened.
Agilent Technologies has enhanced its line of scientific instruments with two new models of the companys 7000 Series triple quadrupole gas chromatographymass spectrometry GC-MS systems. Increasingly, laboratories that test the safety of our food and water are turning to triple quadrupole GC-MS systems because their selectivity makes them better...
Background and Aims: Root hairs increase the contact area of roots with soil and thereby enhance the capacity for solute uptake. The strict hair/non-hair pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana can change with nutrient deficiency or exposure to toxic elements, which modify root hair density. The effects of root hair density on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in shoots of arabidopsis genotypes with altered root hair development and patterning were studied. Methods: Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to develop root hairs (rhd6-1 and cpc/try) or produce hairy roots (wer/myb23) were compared with the ecotype Columbia (Col-0 ...
Cadmium Carbonate in India, Cadmium Carbonate Products, Cadmium Carbonate Suppliers in India, Cadmium Carbonate Manufacturers in India - India Yellow Pages Online. Looking for Cadmium Carbonate in India, Cadmium Carbonate Products, Cadmium Carbonate Suppliers in India, Cadmium Carbonate Manufacturers in India - India Yellow Pages Online? Get Suppliers / Manufacturers / Retailers Company List in India, India
Cadmium, tellurium, neodymium, samarium and uranium each have two primordial radioisotopes (113 Cd , 116 Cd ; 128 Te , 130 Te ... These 33 primordial nuclides represent radioisotopes of 28 distinct chemical elements (cadmium, neodymium, samarium, tellurium ... and uranium each have two primordial radioisotopes). The radionuclides are listed in order of stability, with the longest half- ...
... fourteen is also Cadmium-114m is a radioisotope and nuclear isomer with a halflife of 14.1 years The atomic number of flerovium ...
... the atomic number of the element Nihonium Cadmium-113m, a radioisotope and nuclear isomer with a halflife of 14.1 years 113 is ...
This creates artificial radioisotopes of the elements present. Following irradiation, the artificial radioisotopes decay with ... if epithermal neutrons are required for the irradiation then cadmium can be used to filter out the thermal neutrons. A ... As different radioisotopes have different half-lives, counting can be delayed to allow interfering species to decay eliminating ... DGNAA is applicable to the vast majority of elements that form artificial radioisotopes. DG analyses are often performed over ...
Antimony-124, cadmium-109, and cadmium-113m are also mentioned as tracers. The most significant radiation sources are the ... Longer-life radioisotopes, typically caesium-137 and strontium-90, present a long-term hazard. Intense beta radiation from the ... The bomb casing can be a significant sources of neutron-activated radioisotopes. The neutron flux in the bombs, especially ... The primary fallout hazard is gamma radiation from short-lived radioisotopes, which represent the bulk of activity. Within 24 ...
Cadmium-113m is a cadmium radioisotope and nuclear isomer with a half-life of 14.1 years. In a normal thermal reactor, it has a ... Naturally occurring cadmium (48Cd) is composed of 8 isotopes. For two of them, natural radioactivity was observed, and three ... Among the isotopes absent in the natural cadmium, the most long-lived are 109Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, and 115Cd with ... The known isotopes of cadmium range in atomic mass from 94.950 u (95Cd) to 131.946 u (132Cd). The primary decay mode before the ...
... barium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.090 --- bromine radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.108 --- cadmium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496 ... calcium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.123.328 --- carbon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.156.300 --- cerium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... cobalt radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.360.400 --- gallium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.381.550 --- gold radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.532.500 --- mercury radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.586.520 --- nitrogen radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ...
Power was also stored in two nickel-cadmium 30-A·h batteries. The combined area of the four panels was 15 square meters (160 ... Power was provided by two radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) units containing plutonium-238 affixed to opposite sides ... Two 30-amp-hour, nickel-cadmium, rechargeable batteries provided power when the spacecraft was not facing the Sun, and during ... Four wet cell sealed nickel-cadmium 8 ampere-hours (28,800 coulombs), 28 volts rechargeable batteries were also on board to ...
used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heater units as an energy source for spacecraft ... Cadmium-109 96200 TBq/kg (2600 Ci/g) 453 days 88.0 Cobalt-57 312280 TBq/kg (8440 Ci/g) 270 days 122.1 ... "Radioisotopes in Industry". World Nuclear Association.. *. Martin, James (2006). Physics for Radiation Protection: A Handbook. ... most commonly used medical radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer Iodine-129 53. 76. 15,700,000 y. β−. 194 Cosmogenic. ...
Battery recycling has helped bring down both the nickel and cadmium prices. About 86% of all cadmium production was used in ... TV screens and in radio isotopes. Demand for these metals appeared to be increasing as computers and mobile phones became more ... Battery recycling has helped bring down both the nickel and cadmium prices. It was also noticed that a copper price bubble was ... Battery recycling has helped bring down both the nickel and cadmium prices. Sulfuric acid (an important chemical commodity used ...
Lead and cadmium: lead and cadmium poisoning can lead to gastrointestinal, kidney, and neurological dysfunction. The use of ... 99mTc is the most commonly used radioisotope agent for imaging purposes. It has a short half-life, emits only gamma ray photons ... Zinc, cadmium, magnesium, chromium: metal fume fever can be caused by ingestion of the fumes of these metals and leads to fume ... Nickel, chromium, and cadmium: via metal-DNA interactions, these metals can be carcinogenic. Nickel: allergies to nickel, ...
The primary decay products before 107Ag are palladium (element 46) isotopes and the primary products after are cadmium (element ... Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized with the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with ...
Apart from 126Sn, with a half-life of 230,000 years, all the radioisotopes have a half-life of less than a year. The ... Alloying elements such as copper, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and silver increase its hardness. Tin tends rather easily to form ... ISBN 1-56676-661-3. Dehaas, W.; Deboer, J.; Vandenberg, G. (1935). "The electrical resistance of cadmium, thallium and tin at ...
Tin was the plant's main product, other metals produced included with silver, cadmium, lead, copper, antimony, bismuth, indium ... a radioisotope with a half life of about 140 days), thought to be produced via radioactive decay of naturally occurring ...
The average thermal neutron flux in the rotating rack position is approximately 2x1012 n/cm2/s with a cadmium ratio of 6.0 at ... It is used primarily for neutron activation to produce radioisotopes or analyze composition of material samples. The RRR ... making this method of irradiating samples particularly useful for experiments involving radioisotopes with short half-lives. ...
Radioisotopes undergoing alpha decay are a concern due to their tendency to cause soft errors. Polonium-210 is especially ... Cadmium - causes sluggishness of solder, forms oxides and tarnishes. *Copper - most common contaminant, forms needle-shaped ... The alloys used for these purposes contain a high proportion of silver (up to 40%), and may also contain cadmium. ... Lead, and to some degree tin, as used in solder contains small but significant amounts of radioisotope impurities. ...
Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a semiconductive alloy that can be divided into an array of small sensing devices. These ... 65 Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72 Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours ... n 30Zn + e− → n 29Cu The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with mass number higher than 66 is beta decay (β−), ... The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 66 is electron capture. The decay product ...
Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day. 199 Hg and 201 Hg are the most often studied NMR- ... Unlike its lighter neighbors, cadmium and zinc, mercury usually forms simple stable compounds with metal-metal bonds. Most ... There are seven stable isotopes of mercury with 202 Hg being the most abundant (29.86%). The longest-lived radioisotopes are ... hexavalent chromium and cadmium) and batteries (the limit is 5 ppm). In July 2007, the European Union also banned mercury in ...
Cadmium was the choice for most of the tests. The first shot was performed with an iron mockup of the plutonium pit. The ... Other radioisotopes, present as impurities, have a long enough half-life to present a potential problem even decades after the ... The worst affected zones are fenced off; detectable levels of radioisotopes are present in the soil, insects and trees in the ... Depleted uranium was used but was not optimal because of its opacity for radiation; iron, copper, or cadmium were other choices ...
... -cadmium chalcogenides are sources of infrared radiation, which is useful for studying chemical reactions. Because ... Twenty-nine radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 138 to 173. The most stable of these is 154Dy ...
Once copernicium is ionized, its chemistry may present several differences from those of zinc, cadmium, and mercury. Due to the ... Experiments were performed with the simultaneous formation of mercury and radon radioisotopes, allowing a comparison of ... Copernicium is calculated to have several properties that differ from its lighter homologues in group 12, zinc, cadmium and ... cadmium and mercury. It is predicted to differ significantly from the lighter group 12 elements. The valence s-subshells of the ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72. Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours.[ ... Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a semiconductive alloy that can be divided into an array of small sensing devices.[124] These ... The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 66 is electron capture. The decay product ...
The use of these facilities has been primarily for the production of radioisotopes. The neutron poison content limits and the ... large as possible samples and still fit inside the cadmium post of the spent fuel loading station positions. The interior ... Uses for the RB* facilities have included the production of radioisotopes; High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel ... Samples are bombarded with neutrons and the emissions from the radioisotopes produced are analyzed to determine both their ...
... radioisotope Radium Radon Radon fluoride Raman spectroscopy Raoult's law Redox Reduction Reflux Reversible reaction Rhazes ... cadmium Calamine Calcite Calcium Calcium carbonate Calcium oxide Californium calomel Calorimeter Canfieldite Carbohydrate ... Svante Arrhenius Syenite Sylvite synthetic radioisotope systematic element name Tabun Talc Talcum Tantalite Tantalum Tanzanite ...
Nevertheless, it is more abundant than such elements as antimony, cadmium, tin, and tungsten, and two orders of magnitude more ... Caesium-137 is a radioisotope commonly used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications. Its advantages include a half-life ... The double salt with antimony (such as CsSbCl 4), bismuth, cadmium, copper, iron, and lead are also poorly soluble. Caesium ... Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from ...
Eighteen radioisotopes have been isolated and described, ranging in atomic weight from 46 u (46Mn) to 65 u (65Mn). The most ... Until the development batteries with nickel-cadmium and lithium, most batteries contained manganese. The zinc-carbon battery ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... All of the alkali metals except lithium and caesium have at least one naturally occurring radioisotope: sodium-22 and sodium-24 ... Radioisotope Brief: Cesium-137 (Cs-137). U.S. National Center for Environmental Health ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... Hg being the most abundant (29.86%). The longest-lived radioisotopes are 194. Hg with a half-life of 444 years, and 203. Hg ... Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day. 199. Hg and 201. Hg are the most often studied ... Unlike its lighter neighbors, cadmium and zinc, mercury usually forms simple stable compounds with metal-metal bonds. Most ...
But a considerable number are medium to long-lived radioisotopes such as 90Sr, 137Cs, 99Tc and 129I. Research has been ... Tc ruthenium,Ru rhodium,Rh palladium,Pd silver,Ag cadmium,Cd indium,In antimony,Sb. -. Yes. -. -. ... Many of the fission products are either non-radioactive or only short-lived radioisotopes. ...
In most cases the carrier-free radioisotopes were prepared for use in biological systems and the final preparations were in the ... produced by bombarding cadmium with 38 Mev alpha-particles. At this energy, Sn{sup 113} and In{sup 114} are produced in a thick ... The shorter-lived tin and indium activities together with the possible radioisotopes of silver produced by (n,p) reactions, ... The cyclotron is the only practical source of many carrier-free radioisotopes. The preparation and radiochemical isolation of a ...
define Cadmium Radioisotopes. Explain Cadmium Radioisotopes. What is Cadmium Radioisotopes? Cadmium Radioisotopes FAQ. ... Cadmium Radioisotopes. Medical Dictionary -> Cadmium Radioisotopes. Search: Cadmium Radioisotopes. Unstable isotopes of cadmium ... Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.. © MedicalDictionaryweb.com ...
The persistent contaminants: lead, mercury, cadmium; The packaging metals: aluminium and tin; Transition metals: chromium, ... Radioisotopes; The catalytic metals; The electronic metals; Germanium; Tantalum; Caesium; Barium, beryllium, thallium and the ...
used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heater units as an energy source for spacecraft ... Cadmium-109 96200 TBq/kg (2600 Ci/g) 453 days 88.0 Cobalt-57 312280 TBq/kg (8440 Ci/g) 270 days 122.1 ... "Radioisotopes in Industry". World Nuclear Association.. *. Martin, James (2006). Physics for Radiation Protection: A Handbook. ... most commonly used medical radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer Iodine-129 53. 76. 15,700,000 y. β−. 194 Cosmogenic. ...
We do most of our x-ray fluorescence excitation with radioisotope. sources. The only requirement is that the source have photon ... for excitation are Iron-5b, Cadmium-109 and Samarium-145. Wi th these ...
Cadmium, tellurium, neodymium, samarium and uranium each have two primordial radioisotopes (113 Cd , 116 Cd ; 128 Te , 130 Te ... These 33 primordial nuclides represent radioisotopes of 28 distinct chemical elements (cadmium, neodymium, samarium, tellurium ... and uranium each have two primordial radioisotopes). The radionuclides are listed in order of stability, with the longest half- ...
Cadmium-113m is a cadmium radioisotope and nuclear isomer with a half-life of 14.1 years. In a normal thermal reactor, it has a ... Naturally occurring cadmium (48Cd) is composed of 8 isotopes. For two of them, natural radioactivity was observed, and three ... Among the isotopes absent in the natural cadmium, the most long-lived are 109Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, and 115Cd with ... The known isotopes of cadmium range in atomic mass from 94.950 u (95Cd) to 131.946 u (132Cd). The primary decay mode before the ...
... leaving multitracer radioisotopes in carrier- and salt-free states. The solution was evaporated to dryness under reduced ... The cadmium-resistant MT-null cells exhibited a marked decrease in cadmium uptake and an increase in cadmium release compared ... Cadmium is an environmental pollutant that causes adverse effects in various organs. Chronic exposure to cadmium in animals and ... Cadmium is a hazardous heavy metal existing ubiquitously in the environment, but the mechanism of cadmium transport into ...
However, the cadmium tungstate scintillations are brighter than the BGO scintillations. Thus, the cadmium tungstate generates a ... Radio-isotope cameras using an array of optically separate scintillation elements permitting direct location of scintillations ... Cadmium tungstate produces essentially the same number of scintillations as BGO from a given number of photons of x-rays. ... Thus, to photodiodes light from cadmium tungstate has the effect of light with a greater intensity than a like intensity of ...
25 Natural sources of gamma rays on Earth come from natural radioisotopes, and from interactions with cosmic ray particles. The ... Cadmium 113, Europium 155, Krypton 85, Tin 121 (Sn), Samarium 90; noble gases - Xenon and Iodine 131. As the weight or chemical ...
... cadmium, the rare earths, mercury, lead, americium and neptunium. ... When longer lived radioisotopes are employed, resins are used which are more radiation resistant. Such materials are known to ... Radioisotope-containing microspheres. US3663685 *. Apr 1, 1968. May 16, 1972. Minnesota Mining & Mfg. Biodegradable radioactive ... Particularly useful radioisotopes are the short-lived isotopes such as yttrium-90, ytterbium-169, scandium-46, chromium-51 and ...
Duursma, E. K. andD. Eisma (1973): Theoretical experimental and field studies concerning reactions of radioisotopes with ... Influence of soluble sewage material on adsorption and desorption behavior of cadmium, cobalt, silver and zinc in sediment- ...
Major Uses of Radioisotopes in the United States - Ohio University Dept of Laboratory and Radiatio Safety. ... Cadmium-109 Used to analyze metal alloys for checking stock and scrap sorting. Calcium-47 Important aid to biomedical ...
... cadmium, and radioactive strontium (one of the most hazardous pollutants). 80 to 90 percent of radioisotopes of Strontium 90 ... Abraham noted that in some patients the excretion of lead, cadmium and mercury increased several fold after only one day of ... The heavy metals most often implicated in human poisoning are lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium but uranium is playing catch ... Kenezy Gyula Korhaz states that iodine chelates heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminum and halogens such as ...
Short- (6 h) and long-term (7 to 14 days) exposures to the radioisotope in solutions of 0.56 μg Cd/L were followed by ... The gills did not become saturated with cadmium after 14 days of exposure and demonstrated a greater rate of cadmium uptake ... Cadmium concentrations decreased rapidly during depuration from both gills and hepatopancreas after short exposures but slowly ... The uptake, depuration, and organ distribution of the radioisotope 109Cd were used to explore the internal kinetics of this ...
In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes ... The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry ... cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low ... 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope ...
Hagino et al.: Effect of chlorella on fecal and urinary cadmium excretion in ... Radioisotopes 28: 485-488, 1979. Volesky, B.: Biosorption of heavy metals. CRC Press, Florida: Boca Raton, ... Carr, H.P., Carino, F.A., et al.: Characterization of the cadmium-binding ...
All XRF data were collected with a NITON XL equipped with a 10 mCi cadmium-109 radioisotope source, silicon PIN diode detector ...
1) with a significant reduction in imaging time and radioisotopes doses. Recently, Sharir et al, (4) compared a high-speed ... Nevertheless, the recent introduction of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors have enhanced the diagnostic spectrum of SPECT ... SPECT which uses a bank of independently controlled detectors with large-hole tungsten collimators and multiple cadmium zinc ...
Recent advances in cadmium telluride (CdTe) energy-discriminating pixelated detectors have enabled the possibility of Multi- ... Energy calibration is examined using the end-point energy of a bremsstrahlung spectrum and radioisotope spectral lines. When ...
48, Cd, Cadmium, group=12, period=5, block=d, series=8, mass=112.411, eleneg=1.69, eleaffin=0.0, covrad=1.48, atmrad=1.71 ... Five other radioisotopes exist. Discovered in 1863 by Reich and Richter.) e[Sn].description = ( Silvery malleable ... Some of the radioisotopes are even more toxic.) e[Ba].description = ( Silvery-white reactive element, belonging to group 2 ... Eighteen radioisotopes have been produced, but all have very short half-lives. Found only in nuclear decay waste. Pm-147 ...
... using modified pulse-chase methods with the gamma-emitting radioisotope 109Cd. Cd AE was significantly greater from NC-Si than ... Dietary assimilation of cadmium associated with bacterial exopolymer sediment coatings by the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus ... Dietary assimilation of cadmium associated with bacterial exopolymer sediment coatings by the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus ... using modified pulse-chase methods with the gamma-emitting radioisotope 109Cd. Cd AE was significantly greater from NC-Si than ...
Cadmium radioisotope (substance) {68929009 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Cadmium-107 (substance) {72305003 , ... Cadmium-113m (substance) {55535002 , SNOMED-CT } Cadmium-115 (substance) {23571000 , SNOMED-CT } Cadmium-115m (substance) { ... 64868008 , SNOMED-CT } Cadmium-117 (substance) {39932007 , SNOMED-CT } Cadmium-117m (substance) {66178006 , SNOMED-CT } ... Cadmium isotope (substance) {29043006 , SNOMED-CT } Radioactive isotope (substance) {89457008 , SNOMED-CT } ...
Radioisotopes (1) * Barium Radioisotopes (0) * Bromine Radioisotopes (0) * Cadmium Radioisotopes (0) * Calcium Radioisotopes (0 ...
  • Recent advances in cadmium telluride (CdTe) energy-discriminating pixelated detectors have enabled the possibility of Multi-Spectral X-ray Computed Tomography (MSXCT) to incorporate spectroscopic information into CT. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • To develop a silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) imaging Compton camera for biomedical application on the basis of technologies used for astrophysical observation and to test its capacity to perform three-dimensional (3D) imaging. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The study demonstrates the complex behavior of cadmium accumulated by M. australiense and improves our understanding of how exposure duration will influence the internal location and potential toxicity of metals. (nih.gov)
  • A German design of a Nickel-Cadmium battery supported the need for lightweight, high-energy batteries, and that design is nearly identical to those used on jet aircraft today. (esa.int)
  • Because cadmium is not an essential trace element, transporters for metals such as calcium, zinc, copper, or iron may also be used for cadmium incorporation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Scientists have known for a long time that alginates, which are the main component of Seaweedblend, have en amazing ability to assist the elimination of harmful heavy metals from the body. (swerlander.com)
  • Thlaspi can be used even for cleaning up radioisotopes says Dr Kochian at the US Plant, Soil and Nutrtion Lab,New York, an expert on plant responses to stress and use of plants to clean up or remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals It can accumulate about 20,000 ppm uranium, 100 times higher than the control. (island.lk)
  • Radiotracers, or radioisotopes, are an effective tool as their gamma-emitting properties allow us to follow the behaviour of particular metals over time in live organisms. (edu.au)
  • Standard spectroscopy tests using radioisotope sources at various temperatures, X-ray irradiations can be performed using a variety of standard X-ray tubes up to 160 kVp. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • This suggests that the duration of cadmium exposure influences the depuration rate for this organism. (nih.gov)
  • It has been proposed heretofore to incorporate radioisotopes into the structure of synthetic resins, and articles containing tritium or carbon 14 incorporated into the structure of synthetic resins or plastics have been produced. (google.com)
  • Flourine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), iodine 131 ((131)I) methylnorcholestenol, and gallium 67 ((67)Ga) citrate, separately compacted into micro tubes, were inserted subcutaneously into a Wistar rat, and the distribution of the radioisotope compounds was determined with 3D imaging by using the Compton camera after the rat was sacrificed (ex vivo model). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The objective of the laboratory is to carter the application of radioisotopes and molecular endocrinological tools for various research projects taken up at the institute. (nianp.res.in)
  • Abuse of halogenated volatile anesthetics fatal or life-threateningplications occur when dry ice sublimation bleach plus ammonia water disinfection, pulp and paper production 139 cadmium analyze metal alloys for more than one soft, formed stool 9. (biointegrity.org)
  • In fact, it's more like an evolved version of the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which NASA has used to power everything from the Voyager missions to the Curiosity rover. (hackaday.com)
  • Can chemical treatments to displace radioisotopes influence soil fertility? (environmental-expert.com)
  • Rorippa globosa is another plant species that can accumulate high levels of cadmium, 107 mg /kg by stem and 150 mg/kg by leaves when the soil cadmium level is 25 mg/kg. (island.lk)
  • Dr Poniedzia et al of Agricultural University of Krakow, Poland have reported a10.3% reduction in cadmium in soil by red beet. (island.lk)
  • Depending on the nature of the sample, cadmium lining is also available for fast neutron irradiations. (mcmaster.ca)
  • An enterily new technology has been developed for high-speed SPECT which uses a bank of independently controlled detectors with large-hole tungsten collimators and multiple cadmium zinc telluride crystal arrays. (escardio.org)
  • Metal Transfer among Organs Following Short- and Long-Term Exposures Using Autoradiography: Cadmium Bioaccumulation by the Freshwater Prawn Macrobr. (nih.gov)
  • Short- (6 h) and long-term (7 to 14 days) exposures to the radioisotope in solutions of 0.56 μg Cd/L were followed by depuration in metal- and isotope-free water for up to 21 days. (nih.gov)
  • Pragmatically, as an open source project, using readily available radioisotope check sources is also much more repeatable than found radiography parts. (tricorderproject.org)
  • Although detrimental effects of cadmium have been well documented, the mechanism of cadmium transport, especially in mammalian cells, remains poorly understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Schematic representation of neutron capture event and direct production of radioisotopes. (mcmaster.ca)
  • IntegraLab combines products and services for the production of radiopharmaceuticals, including among others, building design according to cGMP and the selection, integration, supply and installation of equipment to match customer's radioisotope production goals. (healthimaging.com)
  • The present paper reports the radiochemical isolation of carrier-free Sn{sup 113} and In{sup 114} produced by bombarding cadmium with 38 Mev alpha-particles. (unt.edu)
  • Duursma, E. K. and D. Eisma (1973): Theoretical experimental and field studies concerning reactions of radioisotopes with sediments and suspended particles of the sea. (springer.com)
  • Compared to the standard gamma camera, this system provides an 8-fold increase in count rates, thereby reducing imaging times significantly, while achieving a 2-fold increase in spatial resolution as well(3), thus enabling high quality scans (Fig. 1) with a significant reduction in imaging time and radioisotopes doses. (escardio.org)
  • For pre-clinical imaging, GE is showing its new eXplore speCZT, a full-ring, solid-state detector small animal SPECT that utilizes a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector, and allows for 360-degree coverage around the animal and high-energy resolution to enable dual or triple radio-nuclide imaging. (healthimaging.com)
  • The Radioisotope & Endocrinology Laboratory was established in 1998 and certified RIA Type II Laboratory and licensed by AERB(BARC), , Mumbai to handle radioisotopes up to 2 millicurie activity. (nianp.res.in)
  • Dr Subashini and Swamy of Nagarjuna University, India have reported that Physalis minima can remove 63.11 mg/kg cadmium in 60 days. (island.lk)
  • Li et al of China have reported that red beet has removed 14.46 mg/m2 cadmium in one growing season. (island.lk)