Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)
Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (1/347)Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals. (+info)
N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the nicotinic enhancement of GABA release in chick brain. (2/347)The role of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was investigated in chick brain slices. Whole cell recordings of neurons in the lateral spiriform (SpL) and ventral lateral geniculate (LGNv) nuclei showed that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) blocked the carbachol-induced increase of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs, indicating that VDCCs might be involved. To conclusively show a role for VDCCs, the presynaptic effect of carbachol on SpL and LGNv neurons was examined in the presence of selective blockers of VDCC subtypes. omega-Conotoxin GVIA, a selective antagonist of N-type channels, significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in the SpL by 78% compared with control responses. Nifedipine, an L-type channel blocker, and omega-Agatoxin-TK, a P/Q-type channel blocker, did not inhibit the enhancement of GABAergic IPSCs. In the LGNv, omega-Conotoxin GVIA also significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release by 71% from control values. Although omega-Agatoxin-TK did not block the nicotinic enhancement, L-type channel blockers showed complex effects on the nAChR-mediated enhancement. These results indicate that the nAChR-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs requires activation of N-type channels in both the SpL and LGNv. (+info)
Cholinergic modulation of neostriatal output: a functional antagonism between different types of muscarinic receptors. (3/347)It is demonstrated that acetylcholine released from cholinergic interneurons modulates the excitability of neostriatal projection neurons. Physostigmine and neostigmine increase input resistance (RN) and enhance evoked discharge of spiny projection neurons in a manner similar to muscarine. Muscarinic RN increase occurs in the whole subthreshold voltage range (-100 to -45 mV), remains in the presence of TTX and Cd2+, and can be blocked by the relatively selective M1,4 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine but not by M2 or M3 selective antagonists. Cs+ occludes muscarinic effects at potentials more negative than -80 mV. A Na+ reduction in the bath occludes muscarinic effects at potentials more positive than -70 mV. Thus, muscarinic effects involve different ionic conductances: inward rectifying and cationic. The relatively selective M2 receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 does not block muscarinic effects on the projection neuron but, surprisingly, has the ability to mimic agonistic actions increasing RN and firing. Both effects are blocked by pirenzepine. HPLC measurements of acetylcholine demonstrate that AF-DX 116 but not pirenzepine greatly increases endogenous acetylcholine release in brain slices. Therefore, the effects of the M2 antagonist on the projection neurons were attributable to autoreceptor block on cholinergic interneurons. These experiments show distinct opposite functions of muscarinic M1- and M2-type receptors in neostriatal output, i.e., the firing of projection neurons. The results suggest that the use of more selective antimuscarinics may be more profitable for the treatment of motor deficits. (+info)
Extracellular heavy-metal ions stimulate Ca2+ mobilization in hepatocytes. (4/347)Populations of hepatocytes in primary culture were loaded with fura 2 and the effects of extracellular heavy-metal ions were examined under conditions that allowed changes in fura 2 fluorescence (R340/360, the ratio of fluorescence recorded at 340 and 360 nm) to be directly attributed to changes in cytosolic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i). In Ca2+-free media, Ni2+ [EC50 (concentration causing 50% stimulation) approximately 24+/-9 microM] caused reversible increases in [Ca2+]i that resulted from mobilization of the same intracellular Ca2+ stores as were released by [Arg8]vasopressin. The effects of Ni2+ were not mimicked by increasing the extracellular [Mg2+], by addition of MnCl2, CoCl2 or CdCl2 or by decreasing the extracellular pH from 7.3 to 6.0; nor were they observed in cultures of smooth muscle, endothelial cells or pituitary cells. CuCl2 (80 microM), ZnCl2 (80 microM) and LaCl3 (5 mM) mimicked the ability of Ni2+ to evoke Ca2+ mobilization. The response to La3+ was sustained even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, probably because La3+ also inhibited Ca2+ extrusion. Although Ni2+ entered hepatocytes, from the extent to which it quenched fura 2 fluorescence the free cytosolic [Ni2+] ([Ni2+]i) was estimated to be <5 nM at the peak of the maximal Ni2+-evoked Ca2+ signals and there was no correlation between [Ni2+]i and the amplitude of the evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. We conclude that extracellular Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and La3+, but not all heavy-metal ions, evoke an increase in [Ca2+]i in hepatocytes by stimulating release of the hormone-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores and that they may do so by interacting with a specific cell-surface ion receptor. This putative ion receptor may be important in allowing hepatocytes to contribute to regulation of plasma heavy-metal ions and may mediate responses to Zn2+ released into the portal circulation with insulin. (+info)
Receptor potentials and electrical properties of nonspiking stretch-receptive neurons in the sand crab Emerita analoga (Anomura, Hippidae). (5/347)Receptor potentials and electrical properties of nonspiking stretch-receptive neurons in the sand crab Emerita analoga (Anomura, Hippidae). Four nonspiking, monopolar neurons with central somata and large peripheral dendrites constitute the sole innervation of the telson-uropod elastic strand stretch receptor in Emerita analoga. We characterized their responses to stretch and current injection, using two-electrode current clamp, in intact cells and in two types of isolated peripheral dendritic segments, one that included and one that excluded the dendritic termini (mechanosensory membrane). The membrane potentials of intact cells at rest (mean +/- SD: -57 +/- 4. 4 mV, n = 30), recorded in peripheral or neuropil processes, are similar to the membrane potentials of isolated dendritic segments and always less negative than membrane potentials of motoneurons and interneurons recorded in the same preparations. Ion substitution experiments indicate that the membrane potential is influenced strongly by Na+ conductance, probably localized in the mechanotransducing terminals within the elastic strand. The form of the receptor potential in response to ramp-hold-release stretch remains the same as stretch amplitude is varied and is not dependent on initial membrane potential (-70 to -30 mV) or recording site: initial depolarization (slope follows ramp of applied stretch), terminated by rapid, partial repolarization to a plateau (delayed depolarization) that is intermediate between the peak depolarization and the initial potential and sustained for the duration of the stretch. Responses to depolarizing current pulses are similar to stretch-evoked receptor potentials, except for small amplitude stimuli: an initial peak occurs only in response to stretch and probably reflects elastic recoil of the extracellular matrix surrounding the dendritic terminals. The rapid, partial repolarization depends on holding potential and is abolished by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 10 mM), implicating a fast-activating, fast-inactivating K+ conductance; TEA (60 mM) abolishes the remaining slow repolarization to the plateau. In intact cells, but not dendritic segments, regenerative depolarizations can arise in response to stretch or depolarizing current pulses; they are reduced by CdCl2 (10 microM) in the saline containing TEA and 4-AP and probably reflect current spread from Ca2+ influx at presynaptic terminals in the ganglion. We found no evidence for other voltage-activated conductances. Unlike morphologically similar "nonspiking" thoracic receptors of other species, E. analoga's nonspiking neurons are electrically compact and do not boost the analogue afferent signal by voltage-activated inward currents. The most prominent (only?) voltage-activated extra-ganglionic conductances are for potassium; by reducing the slope of the stretch-plateau depolarization curve, they extend each neuron's functional range to the full range of sensitivity of the receptor. (+info)
Urea-associated oxidative stress and Gadd153/CHOP induction. (6/347)Urea treatment (100-300 mM) increased expression of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, Gadd153/CHOP, at the mRNA and protein levels (at >/=4 h) in renal medullary mIMCD3 cells in culture, whereas other solutes did not. Expression of the related protein, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP-beta), was not affected, nor was expression of the sensor of endoplasmic reticulum stress, grp78. Urea modestly increased Gadd153 transcription by reporter gene analysis but failed to influence Gadd153 mRNA stability. Importantly, upregulation of Gadd153 mRNA and protein expression by urea was antioxidant sensitive. Accordingly, urea treatment was associated with oxidative stress, as quantitated by intracellular reduced glutathione content in mIMCD3 cells. In addition, antioxidant treatment partially inhibited the ability of urea to activate transcription of an Egr-1 luciferase reporter gene. Therefore oxidative stress represents a novel solute-signaling pathway in the kidney medulla and, potentially, in other tissues. (+info)
Effect of melatonin on cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. (7/347)Effect of melatonin on toxicity of cadmium (Cd) was studied in male SD rats co-administered daily Cd (1 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) with melatonin (10 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) for 15 days. Cd alone injection decreased GSH concentrations in the liver and RBC by 35% and 43% compared with those in saline-treatment group, but not in the kidney and whole brain. The activity of GSSG-reductase was significantly decreased in the liver of Cd alone injected rats, while melatonin given in combination with Cd failed to prevent the Cd-induced decreased activity of hepatic GSSG-reductase. However, the hepatic GSH concentration decreased by Cd alone was restored by melatonin treatment, and the melatonin also ameliorated Cd-induced histopathological changes in the liver. Therefore, data indicate that melatonin restores the reduction of hepatic GSH level induced with Cd regardless of GSSG-reductase activity, and suggests that melatonin may ameliorate Cd-induced hepatotoxicity. (+info)
The electrical properties of auditory hair cells in the frog amphibian papilla. (8/347)The amphibian papilla (AP) is the principal auditory organ of the frog. Anatomical and neurophysiological evidence suggests that this hearing organ utilizes both mechanical and electrical (hair cell-based) frequency tuning mechanisms, yet relatively little is known about the electrophysiology of AP hair cells. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have investigated the electrical properties and ionic currents of isolated hair cells along the rostrocaudal axis of the AP. Electrical resonances were observed in the voltage response of hair cells harvested from the rostral and medial, but not caudal, regions of the AP. Two ionic currents, ICa and IK(Ca), were observed in every hair cell; however, their amplitudes varied substantially along the epithelium. Only rostral hair cells exhibited an inactivating potassium current (IA), whereas an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IK1) was identified only in caudal AP hair cells. Electrically tuned hair cells exhibited resonant frequencies from 50 to 375 Hz, which correlated well with hair cell position and the tonotopic organization of the papilla. Variations in the kinetics of the outward current contribute substantially to the determination of resonant frequency. ICa and IK(Ca) amplitudes increased with resonant frequency, reducing the membrane time constant with increasing resonant frequency. We conclude that a tonotopically organized hair cell substrate exists to support electrical tuning in the rostromedial region of the frog amphibian papilla and that the cellular mechanisms for frequency determination are very similar to those reported for another electrically tuned auditory organ, the turtle basilar papilla. (+info)
Cadmium Chloride Hydrate in India, Cadmium Chloride Hydrate Products, Cadmium Chloride Hydrate Suppliers in India, Cadmium...
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Cadmium chloride | definition of Cadmium chloride by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of Cadmium chloride in the Medical Dictionary? Cadmium chloride explanation free. What is Cadmium chloride? Meaning of Cadmium chloride medical term. What does Cadmium chloride mean?
Cadmium chloride - Registration Dossier - ECHA
Only limited data were available on the skin or respiratory sensitization potential of cadmium metal and cadmium compounds. Cadmium chloride did not show any skin sensitization effects at 0.5% in a GMPT test. Cadmium chloride and sulphate were patch-tested in human volunteers but, across several studies, the evidence remained inconclusive. If at all, significant exposure is expected to occur principally in occupational settings.Given the carcinogen properties of cadmium metal and some of the cadmium compounds, risk reduction measures are in place to prevent contact.Therefore, neither skin nor respiratory tract sensitization are expected to be an issue for human health and further testing is not considered necessary, in accordance withAnnex XI (3) of the REACH directive.This is in line with the conclusions of the EU RAR (ECB, 2007). At present, none of the cadmium substances covered in the present assessment is classified for sensitization in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC. ...
Cadmium Chloride Market - Global Outlook and Forecast 2021-2027
This report contains market size and forecasts of Cadmium Chloride in global, including the following market information: Global Cadmium Chloride Market Revenue, 2016-2021, 2022-2027, ($ millions) Glo...
cadmium chloride nanocrystals
Page contains details about cadmium chloride nanocrystals . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Cadmium chloride 99.99% trace metals basis | Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-202908, Cadmium chloride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Mutagenic activity of cadmium chloride on the genetic variability of soft wheat | International Journal of Biology and...
The action of the chemical compound - CdC12 on soft wheat varieties resulted in plant modifications on a number of qualitative and quantitative traits. Genetic analysis conducted on the basis of reciprocal crosses showed that the inheritance of altered traits in mutants is independent of the direction of crossing. Modification of habitus and phenotypes of mutant plants is accompanied by a violation of cell division in meiosis ...
Cadmium chloride - Registration Dossier - ECHA
In studies with mouse and rat, effects on development were observed after oral and inhalatory exposure to cadmium compounds. Neurobehavioural changes were reported in the absence of maternal toxicity but the robustness of these observations was not sufficient to derive an appropriate NOAEL. It is suggested that further studies are needed to better document the possible effects of cadmium on the developing brain (ECB, 2007). No clear evidence indicates that cadmium has adverse effects on the development of offprings from women exposed indirectly via the environment or occupationally. Effects on birth weight, motor and perceptual abilities of offsprings have been reported by some authors. However, these studies suffer from drawbacks either in the definition of the study postulation, the definition of the effects, or in the assessment of exposure. Moreover, it is not clear whether the effects on psychomotor development were related to cadmium or to a simultaneous exposure to other substances such ...
Cadmium chloride - Registration Dossier - ECHA
For metals, the transport and distribution over the different environmental compartments e.g. the water (dissolved fraction, fraction bound to suspended matter), soil (fraction bound or complexed to the soil particles, fraction in the soil pore water,...) is described and quantified by the metal partition coefficients between these different fractions. The information on these partition coefficients is given under 5.6. Partition coefficients for cadmium in freshwater have been reviewed in the EU risk assessment report (ECB 2008). Based on this experimental evidence, a partition coefficient for the distribution between solid particulate matter and water (Kpsusp) of 130 x 103 l/kg has been defined for EU waters and was used throughout the RAR.. The Kp for the distribution between sediment and water (Kpsed) was estimated in the RAR from the ratio of the average sediment (1.32mg/kgDW)to average water Cd concentrations (0.14µg/l). This best fit Kd yields 10000L/kgDW (ECB 2008). These partition ...
Cadmium chloride phosphate (Cd5Cl(PO4)3),... - Pre-registered substances - ECHA
The CSV is a delimited data format that has fields/columns separated by the semicolon character and records/rows separated by newlines. Fields that may contain a special character (semicolon, newline, or double quote), are enclosed in double quotes. For an easier handling, the list of Pre-registered substances is available in four parts ordered by EC number. They contain the same information as the following full list.. ...
Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. provides the information contained herein in good faith but makes no representation as to its comprehensiveness or accuracy. This document is intended only as a guide to the appropriate precautionary handling of the material by a properly trained person using this product. Individuals receiving the information must exercise their independent judgment in determining its appropriateness for a particular purpose. MALLINCKRODT BAKER, INC. MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE WITH RESPECT TO THE INFORMATION SET FORTH HEREIN OR THE PRODUCT TO WHICH THE INFORMATION REFERS. ACCORDINGLY, MALLINCKRODT BAKER, INC. WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM USE OF OR RELIANCE UPON THIS INFORMATION. ...
cadmium chloride, hydrate(2:5) - Substance Information - ECHA
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance and no text is automatically ...
Cadmium chloride - Registration Dossier - ECHA
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Search results - Pascal and Francis Bibliographic Databases
In vivo effects of cadmium chloride on certain aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues of a freshwater field crab Barytelphusa gueriniREDDY, S. L. N; VENUGOPAL, N. B. R. K; RAMANA RAO, J. V et al.Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 1989, Vol 42, Num 6, pp 847-853, issn 0007-4861, 7 p.Article ...
Testicular Protein Synthesis during the Response to Subtoxic Levels of Cadmium - ScienceOpen
Male rats received one injection of a subtoxic amount of Cd|sup|2+|/sup| (9.2 µmol/kg body weight) as cadmium chloride and the testes were removed 24 h later. Homogenate fractions of testes that had been freed of ribosomes were tested for their activity in cell-free protein-synthesizing systems using excess exogenous rat liver ribosomes and mRNA. A marked decrease in the incorporation of free [|sup|14|/sup|C]-phenylalanine into peptide was observed with the testes preparations from the cadmium-treated rats. The results indicated that about half of the effect of cadmium was due to decreased aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity and the other half was due to decreased binding of [|sup|14|/sup|C]-phenylalanyl-tRNA to ribosomes. The results are discussed relative to the contrasting results obtained in kidney and liver preparations.
Scientific.Net: Materials Science
Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) have been prepared by the reduction of mixed solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl2), sodium selenosulfate (Na2SeSO3) and diethanolamine ((CH2CH2OH)2NH) at temperatures of 80-200°C under Ar atmosphere. Characteristics of CdSe nanoparticles were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis absorption spectra. CdSe samples prepared at relatively low temperature of below 100°C showed cubic structure while samples synthesized at temperature above 100°C showed hexagonal phase. The increased reaction temperature caused the particle size increase as well as the agglomeration of particles to form a hollow sphere. UV-Vis absorption spectra also showed a red-shift as increasing reaction temperatures due to the gradual growth of CdSe nanoparticles in the solution. The relatively sharp absorption band from samples synthesized at 80 and 100°C can be attributed to homogeneous particle ...
Asian Science Citation Index - Articles written by Nabil Bashir
Problem statement: Cadmium is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. It is found in drinking water, atmospheric air and even in food. Cadmium is reported to be very toxic to biological systems. Until now in treating intoxication with this metal, chelating Compounds have been used, burdened with numerous undesirable symptoms. For this reason, many researches are carried out in many countries to find natural-made compounds that help in the protection against cadmium induced toxicity with fewer or no side effects. This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of daily oral Camels milk administration against Cadmium chloride induced toxicity in white albino rats. Approach: White albino rats of both sexes (230-250 g) were housed in standard metal cages (6 rats/cage). The experimental rats (6 in each group) distributed into two experimental groups with a shared control group received only normal saline orally (Group 1). In experimental first group a daily dose (10 mg ...
Protective Effect of Selenium against Oxidative Stress during Ovariectomy and Ovariectomy-Cadmium Exposure on Blood Parameters...
Ovariectomized (Ovx) sexually mature adult female rats were exposed to sub chronic treatment of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 6 mg/kg/ body we..
JoVE Author Search: Bodo M
Cadmium, Inhibin, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Costs, Emotional Stress, Families, Health, Lip, Palate, Patients, Public Health, Risk, Affect, Annexin V, Anti-mullerian Hormone, Blood, Blood-testis Barrier, Cadmium Chloride, Cells
We recorded from pairs of cultured, synaptically connected thalamic neurons. Evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) reversed at +17 mV and were blocked reversibly by 1 mM kynurenic acid, a glutamate receptor antagonist. NMDA and non-NMDA receptors mediated excitatory post-synaptic responses, as shown by selective block of EPSC components with 50 microM (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid and 10 microM 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, respectively. Inhibitory postsynaptic responses were evoked less frequently and were blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist (-)-bicuculline methochloride. The pharmacological profiles of whole-cell calcium currents and evoked EPSCs were compared. With 50 microM cadmium chloride (Cd), whole-cell low voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents were reduced in amplitude and high voltage- activated (HVA) calcium currents and excitatory synaptic transmission were completely blocked. This suggests that the residual calcium influx through LVA channels into the ...
fatal reinstall of FM10 on osx10.5.8 | FileMaker Community
Title fatal reinstall of FM10 on osx10.5.8 Your post i found deinstalling FM10, then reinstalling same copy from same installer cd on osx10.5.8 (on
Andrew Tyler Putnam, MD > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of...
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
Hepatoprotective role of Moringa oleifera ethanolic leaf extract on Liver functions (Biomarker) in cadmium chloride induced...
This study investigated the hepatoprotective role of ethanolic extract of Moringa oliefera (M.O) on liver function (Biomarkers) in cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity on the liver of albino Wistar rats. Sixty-six adult male albino wistar rats weighing between 130g - 180g were used. LD50 was determined for both CdCl2and MO using twenty-six (26) rats, while 40 rats were used for the experiment proper. The experimental rats were distributed into eight groups -A (control) and B, C, D, E, F, G and H, served as the treatment groups that received graded doses of CdCl2or MOor both simultaneously or at separate periods. The animals were then euthanized for sample collection and analysis using standard methods. The results showed significant increase (P,0.05) in the serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (430.50 ± 149.20), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (421.10 ± 8.34) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (515.60 ± 21.78) of animals in group B, but some protective effect of MO in the ...
Adverse effects of cadmium exposure on mouse sperm<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of cadmium exposure on mouse sperm. AU - Oliveira, Helena. AU - Spanò, Marcello. AU - Santos, Conceição. AU - Pereira, Maria de Lourdes. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - The effects of cadmium chloride exposure on sperm functional parameters were evaluated on eight-week-old ICR-CD1 male mice administered with a single s.c. injection of 1, 2 and 3 mg CdCl2/kg bw. Groups of animals treated with each dose, as well as their respective controls, were sacrificed after 24 h to detect short-term (acute) effects and after 35 days. Sperm cells were collected from the epididymis and several parameters of sperm quality and function were evaluated, namely density, morphology, motility, viability, mitochondrial function, acrosome integrity, together with DNA fragmentation assessed by the TUNEL assay. The short-term effects of cadmium chloride resulted in an increased fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology, premature acrosome reaction and reduced motility. Late term ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | The Effects of Cadmium at Low Environmental Concentrations on THP-1 Macrophage Apoptosis
Cadmium at environmental concentrations is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, in which macrophages play an important role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cadmium at low environmental (nanomolar) concentrations on apoptotic processes in THP-1(acute monocytic leukemia cells line)-derived macrophages, with special focus on mitochondrial events involved. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM and 2 µM CdCl2. Cell viability was measured using flow cytometry. Flow cytometric measurement (annexin V/FITC (annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate) and PI (propidium iodide) double staining) was used to quantify the extent of apoptosis. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used for imaging of apoptosis process. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored using cytofluorimetry after cell staining with JC-1(5,5′,6,6′
Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Response of Sphenostylis stenocarpa to Cadmium Stress
Abstract: Background and Objective: Environmental stress such as heavy metal is a major factor affecting reduction in agricultural productivity. Heavy metals at toxic levels hamper normal plant functioning and act as an impediment of metabolic processes by the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Plant has evolved various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanism to cope against the ROS produced. This study investigated the biochemical response of S. stenocarpa to cadmium stress. Materials and Methods: S. stenocarpa (Fabaceae) seeds were sown in the control (0 ESV) and the different concentrations (2.5, 5 ESV) of cadmium chloride (CdCl2). The soil samples were collected from 10 different points at a depth of 0-30 cm using a soil auger, pooled together, air-dried and grind to pass through a 2 mm sieve before subjecting to physico-chemical analysis. The five accessions consisted of 3 blocks, 15 treatments per block, two plant per polythene bag arranged in a RBD. Enzymes such as superoxide ...
ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Cadmium
Cadmium is an element that occurs naturally in the earths crust.ï¿½ Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal.ï¿½ Cadmium is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).ï¿½ Cadmium is most often present in nature as complex oxides, sulfides, and carbonates in zinc, lead, and copper ores. It is rarely present in large quantities as the chlorides and sulfates.ï¿½ These different forms of cadmium compounds are solids that dissolve in water to varying degrees.ï¿½ The chlorides and sulfates are the forms that most easily dissolve in water.ï¿½ Cadmium may change forms, but the cadmium metal itself does not disappear from the environment.ï¿½ Knowing the particular form of cadmium, however, is very important when determining the risk of potential adverse health effects.
Cadmium Modulates Expression Of Vascular Alpha Adrenoceptors And Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Phenotype | QScience.com
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death worldwide, including Qatar. Hypertension is one of the most common CVDs that contribute to this mortality. Cadmium is a well-known pollutant that has been suggested to be a risk factor for hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Very little is known about the effect of cadmium on the expression of vascular alpha- 1 adrenoceptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cadmium on the expression of vascular alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in vitro. Along with that, there are several phenotypic changes could modulate the VSMCs function and contribute to CVDs including hypertension. These changes include hypertrophy, migration and senescence. The second objective of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on VSMCs phenotype. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were incubated with different concentrations of cadmium chloride for varying
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Cadmium Toxicity on Arterioles Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Cadmium (Cd) is frequently used in various industrial applications and is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, also present in tobacco smoke. An important route of exposure is the circulatory system whereas blood vessels are considered to be main stream organs of Cd toxicity. Our previous results indicate that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) affects mean arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that Cd alters the intracellular calcium transient mechanism, by cadmium-induced stimulation of MAPKs (ERK 1 & 2) which is mediated partially through calcium-dependent PKC mechanism. To investigate this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from wistar kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to increased concentrations of CdCl2 on cell viability, expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/ERK 1 & 2), and protein kinase C (PKC) which are activated by Cd in several cell types. The results from these studies indicate that CdCl2
Učinak kadmija na ekspresiju gena antioksidativnih enzima | Nacionalni repozitorij završnih i diplomskih radova ZIR
The accumulation of cadmium in plants cause a variety of physiological, biochemical and structural changes, while selenium that is often used in the process of biofortification of plants can significantly change the plants response to cadmium treatment. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the roots and shoots of two varieties of wheat (Divana and Srpanjka) seedlings enriched with selenium. Enzymes that were observed in this study were glutathione S-transferase, Cu, Zn-Superoxid-Dismutase and catalase The effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme gene expression depended on the type of cultivar and the type of plant organ (root or shoot). Cadmium treatment affected the expression of glutathione S-transferase the most.The effect of cadmium on decrease in antioxidant enzyme gene expression was much more visible in the roots than in the shoots. Variety Divana was shown to be more sensitive to cadmium treatment than variety Srpanjka ...
0.005 M Cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate, 0.005 M Nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate, 0.005 M Cadmium chloride hydrate, 0.005 M Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 12% w/v Polyethylene glycol ...
The Action of Fixatives on the Unmasking of Lipid | Journal of Cell Science
1. The capacity of various primary (unmixed) fixatives to split lipids from lipo-protein complexes was investigated.. 2. The lipoproteins that formed the test-objects of the research were those contained in (a) the acroblast of the cricket (Acheta domesticus), and (b) the endoplasmic reticulum (ergastoplasm) of the acinar cell of the pancreas of the laboratory mouse. The two test-objects gave essentially the same results.. 3. Of the 16 compounds tried, cadmium chloride is the most powerful unmasker of lipids. Mercuric chloride is also a powerful unmasker, and gives much better fixation. Chloroplatinic acid and formaldehyde are moderately powerful unmaskers.. ...
Ultrastructural Examinations of HeLa Cells Exposed to Cadmium Ions
Strochkova L. S. Ultrastructural Examinations of HeLa Cells Exposed to Cadmium Ions, Tsitol Genet., 1990, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 7-11 ...
Cadmium Sources and Toxicity
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant of continuing public health concern worldwide, because total diet studies have shown that Cd is present in virtually all foodstuffs. Consequently, foods that are frequently consumed in large quantities, such as rice, potatoes, wheat, leafy salad vegetables, and other cereal crops, are the most significant dietary Cd sources. Moreover, Cd has chemical propensities that confer the potential to interfere with the physiological functions of calcium and zinc. Evidence of a wide range of diverse, toxic effects of Cd is increasingly apparent. In this collection, environmental Cd exposure is linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease that is known to be a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cd is also implicated in an early onset of menarche and deaths from cancer, especially in the uterus, kidney, and urinary tract. Moreover, Cd-induced kidney injury is replicated in Sprague Dawley rats, as is Cd-induced periodontal disease. Experimental ...
Shigemi 3 mm Symmetrical NMR microtube assembly matched with CDCl3, bottom L 10 mm
Shigemi 3 mm Symmetrical NMR microtube assembly matched with CDCl3, bottom L 10 mm; Synonyms: nmr sample tubes,nmr tubes,Shigemi nmr tubes; find -Z569720 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Brian Melick Diverse Elements Duplicated CD on DeepDiscount
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Courtesy of my pal Chris, heres a long-tail band from the CBGB golden era in New York circa 1976-80 called COME ON. Barely documented before their recent CD on Heliocentric (one 45 and thats it), Come On musically straddled the Talking Heads-era NYC, the no-wave scene and the you-cant-get-funky late 70s/early 80s rhythms of the…
Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite. AU - Keyse, Stephen M.. AU - Tyrrell, Rex M.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may ...
Formation of CdS Nanoparticles in Microemulsion Using Different Co-surfactant and Water to Surfactant Molar Ratio
Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were prepared using microemulsion method using cadmium chloride as cadmium source and sodium sulphide as sulphur source. The obtained nanoparticles structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) whereas optical characterization was done by Ultra Violet-Visible absorption. XRD result shows that CdS nanoparticles of hexagonal phase are formed. The TEM result indicates that the synthesized CdS nanoparticles are of variable morphology like spherical, cylindrical, nanorods and nanoneedles. Histograms help to evaluate size and aspect ratio of nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy reveals that as prepared CdS nanoparticles show a quantum confinement effect with shift in band gap. It is also found that water to surfactant molar ratio (wo) and co-surfactant are vital factors in the morphology and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles.
Patent US2612495 - Process of effecting same - Google Patents
a as sulfates and chlorides. hydrophilic group. Patented Sept. 30, 1952 I UNITED STATES i 50F STABILIZED DIAZONlUM SALTS PROCESS OF EFFEC EING SAME William von =Glal1n, Loudonv ille and Herman A. Bergstrom, Albany, N.Y.; assignors to General Aniline & Film corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware 3 NorDraswing. iApplicationfDecember29, 1948, serial No. 68,073 8 Claims. (019260 142) 1 This invention relates to the preparation of stable diazonium compounds and refers particuv.la rly to the production of nondusting diazonium salts orFast Color --Sa1ts of abnormal grain or Yr-particle size which can be used effectively as dye-intermediate. t v W In lthe preparation of diazonium -salts, the .diazo compound, asv producedby diazotization of a primary amine, is generally stabilized by form- .ing (1) a complex double salt of the diazonium chloride with an inorganic. salt, such as zinc ch10- ride, tin chloride, cadmium chloride, manganese hloride -or sodium ...
Prevention of cadmium induced immunopathology by zinc in mice - Memorial University Research Repository
Cadmium is an ubiquitous toxic metal to which everyone is exposed at low levels. It is toxic to almost every organ system of the body including the immune system. In this study, the effects of a relatively low dose of cadmium on the immune system of mice and the effects of a moderately large dose of zinc on cadmium-induced immunopathology were studied. Six-week old C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 50 ppm cadmium in drinking water for 3 weeks, and killed 0, 3 and 6 weeks after cessation of treatment. In some groups, 500 ppm zinc was added to the drinking water with or after cadmium treatment. The number of IgM and IgG antibody-forming cells in the spleen was higher in cadmium-treated mice as compared to non-treated controls at 0 week. Concurrent zinc administration prevented the enhancement of antibody-forming cell response. Proliferative response of spleen cells to the T cell mitogens phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A tended to be high in cadmium-treated mice and zinc administration after ...
ATSDR - Cadmium Toxicity - REDIRECT
Prevention is the key to managing cadmium exposure. No effective treatment for cadmium toxicity exists. For the general public, the primary source of exposure to cadmium is dietary. Smoking tobacco adds an additional burden of cadmium. Nutritional deficiencies can increase the risk of cadmium toxicity. Chronic cadmium exposure primarily affects the kidneys and secondarily the bones. Acute inhalation of fumes containing cadmium affects the lungs.
Induction of pathogenesis-related proteins in intercellular fluid by cadmium stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) - A...
The effect of cadmium on protein expression in the aerial parts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Mandolina) seedlings was investigated by proteomic analysis of leaf apoplast proteins. Dramatic changes were observed in the protein pattern of intercellular washing fluid from Cd-treated (0-300 μM) barley leaves both by 1D- and 2D-PAGE. By mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF and/or LC-MS/MS) analysis of induced proteins PR1 proteins, certain 1-3-glucanases (PR2), chitinases (PR3), members of the chitin binding PR4 family, a rich set of thaumatin-like proteins (PR5) and two PR17 proteins were identified, indicating that a general plant defence response, inducing massive secretion of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR) into the extracellular space, is an important part of the Cd-induced stress reactions. Although systemic induction of PR proteins is probably important for an adequate plant response to cadmium stress, many of these proteins are known to have an allergenic potential and as such present a ...
Characterization of Chl a Fluorescence of Hydrophytes under Cadmium Stress | Korea Science
Characterization of Chl a Fluorescence of Hydrophytes under Cadmium Stress - Chl a fluorescence;Hydrophytes;Cadmium stress;Fv/Fm;Lemna plants;
Enhancement of immunoreactivity for endothelin-1 and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in the cadmium-treated rat thoracic aorta. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Cadmium exposure safety and training
Cadmium is a soft, malleable metal that, according to OSHA, can cause serious health problems for workers exposed to it. When using this metal, proper personal protective equipment must be worn because cadmium is highly toxic. Exposure to this metal is known to cause cancer and targets the bodys cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the administration states.. Cadmium is used today in batteries, alloys, plastic stabilizers and solar cells. OSHA estimates that 300,000 workers are exposed to the metal in the United States. Cadmium exposure can occur in all industry sectors, but construction and manufacturing have the highest exposure rates. The following workplace activities can lead to exposure:. ...
Our results suggest that functional actin is needed during SC differentiation not only for changes in cell shape but also for abundant expression of myelin-specific mRNAs. The initial step in morphological differentiation, elongation, was inhibited only when higher CD concentrations (0.75-1.0 μg/ml) known to remove stress fibers in other cell types were used (Yahara et al., 1982). At lower CD concentrations (0.25 μg/ml), SC elongation and segregation of axons away from each other occurred, but ensheathment of axons in a 1:1 relationship and spiralization did not occur. Phalloidin staining of CD-treated cultures revealed that actin became increasingly disrupted and aggregated as CD concentration increased. At the time experiments began, all cultures had equal SC densities and SCs displayed a rounded morphology characteristic of their behavior in ascorbate-free medium, which allows SC proliferation but not differentiation (Eldridge et al., 1987; Fernandez-Valle et al., 1993). Therefore, any ...
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Cadmium Signs, Cadmium Safety & Hazard Signs
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Can Cadmium Be Machined
Cadmium can come in the silver variety, Zinc and Cadmium are related somehow chemically, I believe the the Cad is a by product of zinc or something like that. The Muriatic acid is the hot tip for removing either, after the acid, drop in a solution of 1 lb baking soda per gal of water, that will neutralize and keep the bolt from rusting as it .. ...
Mirror for the NetBSD Cobalt Restore CD
Hello everyone, I have an possiblty to host/mirror the NetBSD Restore CD on my Server ( http://www.batland.de ). I am using the Qube for several years now and Ive benefited from the work so much, therefore I would be glad to help. Do you wish me to do that? If so you tell me which isos to host (where can I find the newest current and where is the latest stable build?). Bye, Dennis ...
Cadmium borotungstate - Alfa Chemistry
Cadmium borotungstate/ACM1306269 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Cadmium plating - an introduction
An introduction to cadmium plating, its uses, suitability and versatility for various processes and the environmental information you need to know.
An Analysis of the Occurrence of Cadmium in the Environment | Kibin
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the wheezy waiter: Ode to Cadmium
For around the last 9 months of my life, Ive struggled with depression. It was due to a lot of factors, wasnt fun at all. But luckily Im now out of it ...
... is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chloride, with the formula CdCl2. This salt is a hygroscopic ... Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "cadmium yellow", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic ... Cadmium chloride forms a layered structure consisting of octahedral Cd2+ centers linked with chloride ligands. Cadmium iodide, ... CdCl2 + 2 Cl− → [CdCl4]2− Solutions of equimolar cadmium chloride and potassium chloride give potassium cadmium trichloride. ...
Caesium cadmium chloride
... doped into crystals of cesium cadmium chloride and a redetermination of the structure of cesium cadmium chloride". Inorganic ... Caesium cadmium chloride (CsCdCl3) is a synthetic crystalline material. It belongs to the AMX3 group (where A=alkali metal, M= ... It is formed when an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid containing an equimolar solution of caesium chloride and cadmium ... Electron paramagnetic spectrum of manganese(II)-manganese(II) pairs in single crystals of cesium cadmium chloride. Electronic ...
Anhydrous NiBr2 adopts the cadmium chloride structure. The interatomic distance for Ni-Br is 2.52-2.58 Å. The structure of the ... The di- and hexahydrates adopt structures akin to those for the corresponding chlorides. The dihydrate consists of a linear ...
Harold A. Zahl
Zahl, Harold A.date= September 1930 (1930). "Reflection of Cadmium and Zinc Atoms from Sodium Chloride Crystals". Physical ...
Zinc chloride Zinc fluoride Zinc iodide Cadmium bromide F. Wagenknecht; R. Juza (1963). "Zinc bromide". In G. Brauer (ed.). ... It is a colourless salt that shares many properties with zinc chloride (ZnCl2), namely a high solubility in water forming ... Safety considerations are similar to those for zinc chloride, for which the toxic dose for humans is 3-5 g. ...
Nickel chloride NiCl2 is yellow, crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a hexahydrate, NiCl2·6H2O, a ... Nickel iodide NiI2 is black, also crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a green hexahydrate, NiI2·6H2O. ... Nickel bromide NiBr2 is yellow, also crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a hexahydrate, NiBr2·6H2O. ... Nickel hydroxides are used in nickel-cadmium and Nickel-metal hydride batteries. Nickel(II) hydroxide Ni(OH)2, the main ...
Voet, AR; Noguchi, H; Addy, C; Zhang, KY; Tame, JR (17 August 2015). "Biomineralization of a Cadmium Chloride Nanocrystal by a ...
Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form most readily available. MgCl2 crystallizes in the cadmium chloride CdCl2 motif, which ... Calcium chloride damages concrete twice as fast as magnesium chloride. The amount of magnesium chloride is supposed to be ... Magnesium Chloride as a De-Icing Agent MSDS file for Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, All ... The magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water. In North America, magnesium chloride is produced primarily ...
This purple solid adopts a layered structure, akin to that of cadmium chloride. The material slowly hydrolyses in moist air. ... FeOCl is prepared by heating iron(III) oxide with ferric chloride at 370 °C (698 °F) over the course of several days: Fe2O3 + ... Chen, C.; Yu, T.; Yang, M.; Zhao, X.; Shen, X. (2019). "An All-Solid-State Rechargeable Chloride Ion Battery". Advanced Science ... Chlorides, Iron(III) compounds, Metal halides, Oxychlorides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
Reines and Cowan used two targets containing a solution of cadmium chloride in water. Two scintillation detectors were placed ... The neutrons were captured by cadmium nuclei resulting in gamma rays of about 8 MeV that were detected a few microseconds after ... next to the cadmium targets. Antineutrinos with an energy above the threshold of 1.8 MeV caused charged current interactions ...
Cowan-Reines neutrino experiment
Cowan and Reines detected the neutrons by dissolving cadmium chloride, CdCl2, in the tank. Cadmium is a highly effective ... followed by the gamma ray from the neutron absorption by cadmium several microseconds later. The experiment that Cowan and ...
... can be prepared by the reaction of curium nitride with cadmium chloride. Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. ( ... Curium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula CmCl3. Curium(III) chloride has a 9 coordinate tricapped ... Chlorides, Actinide halides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
"Magnesium taurate attenuates progression of hypertension and cardiotoxicity against cadmium chloride-induced hypertensive ...
Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan used two targets containing a solution of cadmium chloride in water. Two scintillation ... The neutrons were captured by cadmium nuclei, resulting in delayed gamma rays of about 8 MeV that were detected a few ...
Each pondcrete block containing mixed-wastes (radioactive, cadmium, methylene chloride and acetone) weighed between 1,500 and ...
Cadmium telluride photovoltaics
In 2014 research discovered that abundant and harmless magnesium chloride (MgCl 2) performs as well as cadmium chloride. This ... Cadmium chloride is toxic, relatively expensive and highly soluble in water, posing a potential environmental threat during ... The manufacture of a CdTe cell includes a thin coating with cadmium chloride (CdCl 2) to increase the cell's overall efficiency ... Cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics is a photovoltaic (PV) technology based on the use of cadmium telluride in a thin ...
The difluorides of the transition metals often adopt the rutile structure whereas the dichlorides have cadmium chloride ... Sodium fluoride and sodium chloride adopt the same structure. For compounds containing more than one fluoride per cation, the ... In terms of its reactivity, fluoride differs significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more strongly solvated in ... Treatment may involve oral administration of dilute calcium hydroxide or calcium chloride to prevent further absorption, and ...
Lung cancer in Australia
Carcinogens include benzene, 2-napthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl, chromium, cadmium, vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, arsenic, ...
... histochemical and biochemical effects of cadmium chloride in female koel (Eudynamys scolopacea). Acta Histochem. 57(2):205-11. ...
Bhat, G. & Maiti, B. (1993). "Effects of Nitrofurantoin and Cadmium Chloride on Spermatogenetic Activity in an Avian Pest, the ...
It is produced by the reaction of cadmium chloride with sodium stearate or heating stearic acid and cadmium oxide or hydroxide ... The use of cadmium stearate is being phased out because of its toxicity. Like other cadmium compounds, cadmium stearate is ... Cadmium stearate is a salt with the formula Cd(O2CC17H35)2. Classified as a metallic soap, this a white solid is used as a ... Cadmium stearate is also carcinogen. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0087". National Institute for Occupational ...
Transition metal chloride complex
Chen, Chun-Long; Beatty, Alicia M. (2007). "From Crystal Engineering to Cluster Engineering: How to Transform Cadmium Chloride ... chloride, copper(II) chloride, iron(II) chloride, and cobalt(II) chloride are coordination polymers. Metal chlorides form ... Hexamminecobalt(III) chloride and Cisplatin (cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2) are prominent examples of metal-ammine-chlorides. As indicated in ... These compounds are often important commercial sources of transition metal chlorides. Several hydrated metal chlorides are not ...
An example is the group of fluxes containing zinc, tin or cadmium compounds, usually chlorides, sometimes fluorides or ... alcohol Cryolite and barium chloride Oleic acid Lithium chloride Magnesium chloride Sodium chloride Potassium chloride Unslaked ... Zinc chloride and Ammonium chloride Olive oil and Ammonium chloride - for iron Rosin, tallow, olive oil, and zinc chloride - ... Another possibility is an inorganic flux composed of zinc chloride or tin(II) chloride, ammonium chloride, and a fluoride (e.g ...
At room temperature, anhydrous cobalt chloride has the cadmium chloride structure (CdCl 2) (R3m) in which the cobalt(II) ions ... Cobalt chloride is a banned substance under the Australian Thoroughbred Racing Board. Cobalt chloride is one method used to ... chlorides can be obtained if the cobalt is bound also to other ligands of greater Lewis basicity than chloride, such as amines ... "Solvated and Unsolvated Anhydrous Metal Chlorides from Metal Chloride Hydrates". Inorganic Syntheses. Inorg. Synth. Inorganic ...
... and nitric acid dissolve cadmium by forming cadmium chloride (CdCl2), cadmium sulfate (CdSO4), or cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2). ... Cadmium is an element in some semiconductor materials. Cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, and cadmium telluride are used in ... The oxidation state +1 can be produced by dissolving cadmium in a mixture of cadmium chloride and aluminium chloride, forming ... Cadmium selenide is a red pigment, commonly called cadmium red. To painters who work with the pigment, cadmium provides the ...
Rather than adopting a close-packed structure typical of metal dihalides, e.g., cadmium chloride, molybdenum(II) chloride forms ... The other molybdenum(II) chloride is potassium octachlorodimolybdate. ...
... the products are cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, and cadmium nitrate, respectively. It is generated in storage battery ... 2 NaNO3 Preparation has been achieved from some other cadmium salts, Cd(OH)2 and cadmium oxide react equivalently. Cadmium ... Cadmium hydroxide loses water on heating, producing cadmium oxide. Decomposition commences at 130 °C and is complete at 300 °C ... in nickel-cadmium and silver-cadmium storage batteries in its discharge: 2 NiO(OH) + 2 H2O + Cd → Cd(OH)2 + Ni(OH)2 John Rumble ...
... the cadmium chloride structure and the spinel structure. Praseodymium diiodide with the cadmium chloride structure belongs to ...
Ion transport number
The anode reaction is Cd → Cd2+ + 2 e− so that a cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solution is formed near the anode and moves toward ... because the chloride ions are able to move faster, i.e., chloride ions have higher mobility than sodium ions. The sum of the ... For example, in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride, less than half of the current is carried by the positively charged ... For example, the transport numbers of hydrochloric acid (HCl(aq)) may be determined by electrolysis between a cadmium anode and ...
... experiment the test solution is a mixture of agar and oxalic acid in the presence of an electrolyte called cadmium chloride and ...
Pacemaker neurons can further be subdivided into cadmium sensitive (CS) and cadmium insensitive (CI) pacemaker neurons. ... Other potassium channels like large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels and sodium chloride dependent potassium ...
... reacts slowly with water but is rapidly hydrolysed by acid such as hydrogen chloride to form beryllium ... Cadmium, Beryllium, Magnesium and Lithium by the Use of Lithium Aluminum Hydride". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 73 ... chloride. BeH2 + 2 H2O → Be(OH)2 + 2 H2 BeH2 + 2 HCl → BeCl2 + 2 H2 Beryllium hydride reacts with trimethylamine, N(CH3)3 to ...
List of inorganic compounds
CdBr2 Cadmium chloride - CdCl2 Cadmium fluoride - CdF2 Cadmium iodide - CdI2 Cadmium nitrate - Cd(NO3)2 Cadmium oxide - CdO ... chloride - CoCl2 Copper(I) chloride - CuCl Copper(II) chloride - CuCl2 Curium(III) chloride - CmCl3 Cyanogen chloride - ClCN ... chloride - IrCl3 Iron(II) chloride - FeCl2 Iron(III) chloride - FeCl3 Lanthanum chloride - LaCl3 Lead(II) chloride - PbCl2 ... chloride - AmCl3 Ammonium chloride - [NH4]Cl Antimony(III) chloride - SbCl3 Antimony(V) chloride - SbCl5 Arsenic(III) chloride ...
Practices of Apple Inc.
In 1994, there was also a phase-out of nickel-cadmium batteries, while in 1995, PVC in packaging materials was phased out as ... speed up the phase-out of toxic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and adopt a ... in which lead and cadmium in cables were restricted. Shortly after, in 2000, all of Apple's manufacturing sites became ISO ...
In Britain the BPO (later Post Office Telecommunications) used cadmium copper aerial lines with 1% cadmium for extra strength; ... However, any corrosion oxides, chlorides, and sulfides that do form on copper are somewhat conductive. Under many application ... An example of a copper alloy conductor is cadmium copper wire, which is used for railroad electrification in North America. ...
Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program
Chemicals tested include Nitrates, Perchlorate, Sulfate, Chloride, Coliform, Volatile Organic Compounds, Aluminum, Arsenic, ... Cadmium, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Thallium, Vanadium, Zinc, Radium, and Uranium. Most owners received information by ...
List of International Organization for Standardization standards, 1-1999
... vinyl chloride) (PVC-U), chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets ... Determination of cadmium content - Polarographic method [Withdrawn without replacement] ISO 1055:1975 Zinc and zinc alloys - ... Vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers - Determination of chlorine content ISO 1159:1978 Plastics - Vinyl chloride-vinyl ... of the tendency of compounds and products based on vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers to evolve hydrogen chloride and ...
The IFR pyroprocessing system uses molten cadmium cathodes and electrorefiners to reprocess metallic fuel directly on-site at ... in the salt carrier with heavier metal chlorides (e.g., KCl, RbCl, ZrCl4). Several prototype FBRs have been built, ranging in ...
There is still cadmium, copper, arsenic, antimony, cobalt, germanium, nickel, and thallium in the leach product. Therefore, it ... where zinc and chlorine were co-produced by electrolysis of an aqueous zinc chloride solution. The Anaconda Copper Company, at ... The carbon in the combustion gases react with some impurities, such as lead, cadmium, and halides. These impurities are driven ... It uses zinc dust and steam to remove copper, cadmium, cobalt, and nickel, which would interfere with the electrolysis process ...
This experiment was extended to other metals such as nickel, cadmium, and iron, all of which yielded similar results. The ... ammonium persulfate is used to etch copper on printed circuit boards as an alternative to ferric chloride solution. This ...
Period 2 element
... containing some sodium chloride as beryllium chloride is a poor conductor of electricity. Due to its stiffness, light weight, ... Lithium is also used in batteries as an anode and its alloys with aluminium, cadmium, copper and manganese are used to make ... of it involves the reduction of beryllium fluoride with magnesium metal or the electrolysis of molten beryllium chloride, ...
Cadmium arsenide Cd3As2, at about 1 K, is a Dirac-semimetal - a bulk electronic analogue of graphene - in which electrons ... The halides are hydrolysed by water but these reactions, particularly those of the chloride, are reversible with the addition ... Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is used in solar modules for its high conversion efficiency, low manufacturing costs, and large band ... Sources mentioning germanium cations include: Powell & Brewer who state that the cadmium iodide CdI2 structure of germanous ...
... metal is produced through electrolysis applied to a mixture of fused 55% lithium chloride and 45% potassium chloride at ... Alloys of the metal with aluminium, cadmium, copper and manganese are used to make high-performance, low density aircraft parts ... Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride. The nucleus of the ... which performed an electrolysis of a liquid mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride. Australian psychiatrist John ...
Low valent magnesium compounds
... chloride) and Cd22+ ions (present in cadmium(I) tetrachloroaluminate). Since then a variety of stable Mg(I) compounds have been ... chloride complexes: synthesis of a [small beta]-diketiminato tin(i) dimer". Chemical Communications. 48 (19): 2504-2506. doi: ...
Mercury regulation in the United States
For example, emissions of inorganic mercuric compounds (such as mercuric chloride) are captured reasonably well by some control ... cadmium, lead and mercury. According to one of the basic obligations, Parties will have to reduce their emissions for these ... The different forms mercury exists in (such as elemental mercury vapour, methylmercury, or mercuric chloride) are commonly ... 1967). "Placental Transfer of Mercuric Chloride, Phenyl Mercury Acetate and Methyl Mercury Acetate in Mice". Ind. Health. 5 (2 ...
Similarly, diphenylmercury (m.p. 121-123 °C) can be prepared by reaction of mercury chloride and phenylmagnesium bromide. A ... 1996). Synthetic Methods of Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry Volume 5, Copper, Silver, Gold, Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury. ... The toxicity is useful in antiseptics such as thiomersal and merbromin, and fungicides such as ethylmercury chloride and ... Diethylmercury results from the reaction of mercury chloride with two equivalents of ethylmagnesium bromide, a conversion that ...
Samples collected from the reservoir showed the higher concentration of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) that exceeded regulatory ... where its low permeability and greater resistance to chlorides and sulfates can help to reduce corrosive action and ...
For example, the electron binding energy for removing a 3p3/2 electron from the chloride ion is the minimum amount of energy ... Group 12: The elements here, zinc ( 30Zn : 9.4 eV), cadmium ( 48Cd : 9.0 eV) and mercury ( 80Hg : 10.4 eV) all record sudden ...
Index of chemistry articles
... chloride Mercury (element) Mercury (II) chloride mercury fulminate mercury-vapor lamp Metacinnabarite metal metal halide ... Buffer solution Bunsen burner Burette Burmite Butane n-Butyllithium tert-Butyllithium sec-Butyllithium Bytownite cadmium ... skeletal formula skin Smectite Smoky quartz Soapstone Soda niter sodium Sodium bicarbonate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride ... reaction Chemical series Chemical thermodynamics Cheminformatics chemist chemistry Chemistry basic topics Chirality Chloride ...
Cadmium and zinc, using alpine pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens), a hyperaccumulator of these metals at levels that would be ... Salt-tolerant (moderately halophytic) barley and/or sugar beets are commonly used for the extraction of sodium chloride (common ... This technology has been increasingly investigated and employed at sites with soils contaminated heavy metals like with cadmium ... M.B.Kirkham (2006). "Review:Cadmium in Plants on Polluted Soils: Effects of Soil Factors, Hyperaccumulation, and Amendments". ...
Colorado River Watch
Twice a year volunteers collect nutrient samples for analysis of total phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite, ammonia, chloride, ... This includes aluminum, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, lead, sodium, potassium, selenium, and ...
The ground water also contains nickel and selenium, while the tap water has high concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium. ... Plus the water had high concentration of COD and BOD (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand), ammonia, phosphate, chloride, ...
The heavy metals of greatest concern are copper, lead, mercury, cadmium and zinc which may be bio-accumulated by marine ... The most abundant solid dissolved in seawater is sodium chloride. The water also contains salts of magnesium, calcium, ... sodium and chloride) make up about 85 percent of the solids in solution, there are also other metal ions such as magnesium and ...
Its levels of several common limiting factors - oxalic acid, nitrate, cadmium and lead - were also found to be within ... sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, gypsum). And while it seems to do fine on weakly acidic soil (around pH 5), but once your ...
Olfactory toxicity in fish
Copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc are common metals that cause olfactory toxicity in fish. Copper is a metal looked at in more ... Where they found that solutions of mercury chloride (HgCl2) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) depressed olfactory response during ... Williams C., Gallagher E. (2013). Effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and molecular biomarkers in coho salmon ( ... Williams and Gallager from the University of Washington studied effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and ...
Cadmium chloride 10828-Y
CdCl2 - Cadmium chloride: Interactive 3D Structure
On the double chlorides, bromides and iodides of caesium and cadmium | American Journal of Science
On the double chlorides, bromides and iodides of caesium and cadmium Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... On the double chlorides, bromides and iodides of caesium and cadmium. H. L. Wells and P. T. Walden ... On the caesium-cobalt and caesium-nickel double chlorides, bromides and iodides ...
OBM Neurobiology | Neuroprotective (Antioxidant, Antiamyloidogenic, and Antiexcitatory) Effects of TrévoTM against Cadmium...
In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of Trévo against the neurotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ... Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that is deleterious to brain development as it increases brain aging. Trévo is a multi-herbal ... B: The activity of AchE in the rat brain following the administration of Trévo and cadmium chloride (CdCl2). The results are ... Cadmium chloride (CdCl2), 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 5,5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), reduced glutathione ( ...
... is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2. It is a ... Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the action of anhydrous chlorine or hydrogen chloride gas on heated cadmium metal ... Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "Cadmium Yellow", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic ... Cadmium chloride is also used for photocopying, dyeing and electroplating.. References. * Anatolievich, Kiper Ruslan. "cadmium ...
Cadmium chloride hemipentahydrate - Cfm Oskar Tropitzsch GmbH
Cd Cadmium chloride bromide beads APL Engineered Materials
Cd Cadmium available elemental form ultra pellets chloride bromide and iodide are also available as ultra high purity beads APL ... Cadmium chloride bromide and iodide are also available as ultra high purity beads. Compounds of cadmium play an important role ... Cadmium is available in elemental form as ultra high purity (99.999%) pellets. ...
Substance Information - ECHA
CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON RAT EMBRYOGENESIS. | Georgian Med News;(335): 54-59, 2023 Feb. | MEDLINE
CHRONIC EFFECTS OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON RAT EMBRYOGENESIS. Kozyk, M; Wahl, A; Strubchevska, K; Kolosova, I; Shatorna, V. ... Rats were allocated at random into groups receiving either cadmium chloride alone or additional zinc citrate, cerium citrate, ... In this experimental study, cadmium chloride was administered to experimental pregnant female Wistar rats at a daily dose of ... Experimental groups which received cadmium chloride with zinc citrate, cerium citrate, or nanocomposite had an increased number ...
IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of cadmium chloride on liver, spleen and kidney melano macrophage centres in Tilapia mossambica.
Effect of cadmium chloride on liver, spleen and kidney melano macrophage centres in Tilapia mossambica.. en_US. ... Suresh N. Effect of cadmium chloride on liver, spleen and kidney melano macrophage centres in Tilapia mossambica. Journal of ... Tilapia mossambica were exposed to median lethal concentration of cadmium chloride for 120 hours. Routine histological method ...
The different reactions of soybean to cadmium chloride in presence of Arbuscular mycorrhiza and vermicompost fertilizer
Citation :- Effect of cadmium chloride on soybean in presence ofarbuscular mycorrhiza and vermicompost .Legume Research.2017.( ... Effect of cadmium chloride on soybean in presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza and vermicompost ... Application of vermicompost and mycorrhiza decreased the toxic effects of cadmium chloride. Application of vermicompost ... and cadmium chloride in five levels (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg kg-1 of soil). The result showed that increasing concentrations ...
NIOSH Bibliography of Communication & Research Products 1999 | NIOSH | CDC
Tle6 (TLE family member 6, subcortical maternal complex member) - Rat Genome Database
Induction of Testicular Degeneration syndrome via Cadmium Chloride in male Albino rats | Kufa Journal For Veterinary...
Induction of Testicular Degeneration syndrome via Cadmium Chloride in male Albino rats Authors. * Nabeel M. N. Al-Sharafi ... cadmium chloride, testicular, degeneration Abstract. This study was designed to induction of testicular degeneration syndrome ( ... The effective dose of cadmium chloride (CdCl₂) was determined by used fifteen males rats and where divided into three equal ... M. N. Al-Sharafi, N., & Mazin Radhi Alobaidy , S. . (2022). Induction of Testicular Degeneration syndrome via Cadmium Chloride ...
Water Research Institute - University of Barcelona
The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. cell suspension cultures | Biological...
Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) to enhance ... In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell ... secondary metabolite contents were increased by cadmium chloride application and sampling time, while dry cell weights was ... Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total ...
Unique Journals Communication » PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA L. WILCZEK) TO VARYING...
Search Results (4) | Profiles RNS
Cadmium | Public Health Statement | ATSDR
... cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).ï¿½ Cadmium is most often present in ... ½ The chlorides and sulfates are the forms that most easily dissolve in water.ï¿½ Cadmium may change forms, but the cadmium ... It is rarely present in large quantities as the chlorides and sulfates.ï¿½ These different forms of cadmium compounds are ... ½ Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal.ï¿½ Cadmium is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but as a ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Studies have been performed to determine if cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) can induce morphological cell transformation, DNA from ... Transforming and carcinogenic potential of cadmium chloride in BALB/c-3T3 cells. ... A large number of workers are potentially exposed to cadmium during mining and processing. Therefore, there is a concern ... Carcinogens; Carcinogenicity; Carcinogenesis; Cadmium compounds; Occupational exposure; Worker health; Work environment; Mining ...
Asian Science Citation Index - Articles written by Arvind Kumar
Bath-salt chemical promises safer solar cells | Nature
Handling cadmium chloride to make thin-film solar cells requires wearing protective equipment. Credit: Courtesy of Jon Major ... "Were getting cells as good as anything weve ever made with cadmium chloride," says Major. "And we can use the salt on an open ... is that the cell must be coated with a solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) to boost its efficiency. Among other benefits, ... including wearing protective suits and filtering dissolved cadmium out of a lab or factorys waste. (The cadmium in the CdTe ...
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Find Research outputs - San Luis Gonzaga National University of Ica
IUCr) Automated identification of elemental ions in macromolecular crystal structures
b) Cadmium (tan) and chloride (green) ions in 3bob (Xu et al., 2008. ).. ... b). Owing to the accuracy of the valence calculations at high resolution, phenix.refine was able to identify the cadmium ions ... The heavy metal cadmium is uncommon in native biological contexts, having only been observed as an essential cofactor in ... In the carbonic anhydrase structures (PDB entries 3bob, 3boe and 3boh), a single cadmium is bound by each domain in ...
Worms Turn Metal Into Semiconductors | Live Science
In the experiment the scientists spiked soil with cadmium chloride and sodium tellurite (sodium, telluride and oxygen). The ... Since the cadmium - and thus the nanoscale dots - would end up there, it would be relatively easy to get them out of the worm. ... Cadmium telluride dots, for example, glow green when hit with blue light. The researchers tested the dots on animal cells and ... He heard a lecturer note that animals use certain proteins to get rid of toxic metals such as cadmium. Green realized he was ...
Ubac1 (UBA domain containing 1) - Rat Genome Database
Renal Cell Carcinoma: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
CdClARSENICVinyl chlorideMagnesium chlorideTellurideExposure to CadmiumCompoundsCdCl2IodideRatsOxideFound in the earth's crustInsolubleConcentrationsMercuric chlorideSoilAmount of cadmiumBromideHeavy metalsSodiumIonsHydrogenZincSolubleInorganicCarcinogenicSulfideMetalsStabilizersGenotoxicityLeadStrainsApoptosisPreventing the toxic effectsKidneySubstancesPolyvinylEnters the environment2017NickelEffectsResistanceConcentrationSubstanceAsbestosElementalAntioxidantBrilliant-yellowSolar cells
- In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of Trévo against the neurotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ). (lidsen.com)
- Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine , with the formula CdCl 2 . (orange.com)
- Cadmium iodide , CdI 2 , has a very similar crystal structure to CdCl 2 . (orange.com)
- The individual layers in the two structures are identical, but in CdCl 2 the chloride ions are arranged in a CCP lattice, whereas in CdI 2 the iodide ions are arranged in an HCP lattice. (orange.com)
- Hydrochloric acid may be used to make hydrated CdCl 2 from the metal, or from cadmium oxide or cadmium carbonate. (orange.com)
- Studies have been performed to determine if cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) can induce morphological cell transformation, DNA from CdCl(2)-induced transformed cells can transform other mammalian cells, and the transformed cells induced by CdCl(2) can form tumors in nude mice. (cdc.gov)
- One of the problems with CdTe, says Jon Major, a physicist at the University of Liverpool, UK, is that the cell must be coated with a solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) to boost its efficiency. (nature.com)
- At last, they hit on magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ), a commonly found chemical that produced a cell almost as efficient as CdCl 2 . (nature.com)
- This mini review summarizes the current knowledge available on the protective role of varied natural products isolated from different herbs/plants in imparting protection against heavy metals (cadmium, lead, arsenic, and mercury) mediated neurotoxicity. (hindawi.com)
- Among many heavy metals listed into the d-orbital elements of modern periodic table, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead have got prime importance because of their pathophysiological significance as their bioaccumulation in living systems may cause severe damage to the vital organs, namely, nervous system and reproductive systems, gastrointestinal tract, and mucous tissues. (hindawi.com)
- 2004. Interaction profile for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead. (cdc.gov)
- States are pushing the cannabis industry to provide accurate, quantifiable results for heavy metals, specifically arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury for cannabis inhalation products and cannabis goods (i.e. edibles). (spex.com)
- Vinyl chloride and bischloromethyl ether are examples of associations between single agents and rare histologic types of cancer. (cdc.gov)
- Most didn't work, but magnesium chloride, which is completely safe, available by the bucket load for a few Dollars a kilo and even used in the food industry to coagulate tofu, worked a treat. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Now, a University of Liverpool researcher has found that it can be replaced with magnesium chloride, which is extracted from seawater and is already used in products such as tofu, bath salts and for de-icing roads. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- Liverpool research, however, has shown that magnesium chloride can achieve the same boost to efficiency. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- The reverse transcription (RT) reaction mixture contained 2.5 µg of total RNA, 1X TaqMan RT buffer, 5.5 mM magnesium chloride, 500 µM of each dNTP, 2.5 µM olig-dT, 0.4 U µL-1 RNase inhibitor, and 1.25 U µL-1 MultiScribe reverse transcriptase in a total reaction volume of 100 µL. (docsbay.net)
- Although not all experts agree, the authors of the study say that their surprising discovery could make cadmium-telluride cells - a breed of ultra-thin photovoltaics that have only a 5% share of the world solar market - not only safer to make but also substantially cheaper. (nature.com)
- When they were first proposed, thin-film cells - and in particular those based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) - promised to be cheaper than silicon and only slightly less efficient. (nature.com)
- In the experiment the scientists spiked soil with cadmium chloride and sodium tellurite (sodium, telluride and oxygen). (livescience.com)
- The worms ended up making tiny particles of cadmium telluride, a crystalline compound that is also a semiconductor. (livescience.com)
- Cadmium telluride dots, for example, glow green when hit with blue light. (livescience.com)
- Green realized he was doing something similar to make cadmium telluride quantum dots in the lab, sans worms. (livescience.com)
- He wondered if some extra chemical might spur worms to make their own cadmium telluride quantum dots. (livescience.com)
- The most promising of these are made using a material called cadmium telluride. (thenakedscientists.com)
- But for the cadmium telluride to be able to work, developers had been adding a substance called cadmium chloride. (thenakedscientists.com)
- The cheapest solar cells being manufactured today are based on a thin film of insoluble cadmium telluride. (liverpool.ac.uk)
Exposure to Cadmium3
- 2003) Drinking Water Exposure to Cadmium, an Environmental Contaminant, Results in the Exacerbation of Autoimmune Disease in the Murine Model. (nih.gov)
- Data provide evidence that suggests that the gluconeogenic potential of liver is markedly enhanced following chronic exposure to cadmium and that the cadmium-induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism may be associated with an enhanced synthesis of cAMP. (aku.edu)
- Potential worker exposure to cadmium, however, is well-regulated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Compounds of cadmium play an important role as precursors of quantum dot CdSe production. (aplmaterials.com)
- If you are exposed to cadmium or cadmium compounds, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. (cdc.gov)
- Cadmium and its compounds may travel through soil, but its mobility depends on several factors such as pH and amount of organic matter, which will vary depending on the local environment. (cdc.gov)
- Cadmium and its compounds are part of the NPRI's Substance Overview Series. (canada.ca)
- It also summarizes the impacts that cadmium and its compounds can have on environmental and human health, as well as the measures taken by reporting facilities to mitigate them. (canada.ca)
- some of these compounds are insoluble in water (e.g., elemental or unwrought cadmium) and others can be dissolved under conditions of oxidation or high acidity. (canada.ca)
- In this overview, we will discuss cadmium and its compounds as most of these compounds are obtained as a by-product of zinc refining and are present in lead and copper ores. (canada.ca)
- Cadmium compounds are mainly found in the form of chloride, oxide, sulfate or sulphide. (canada.ca)
- Consult the priority substances list Assessment Report for more information on cadmium and its compounds. (canada.ca)
- In general, Canadians can be exposed to cadmium and its compounds in the environment from several sources. (canada.ca)
- Some of the cadmium compounds can be absorbed through inhalation and ingestion. (canada.ca)
- Environment and Climate Change Canada, as well as Health Canada, have classified cadmium and its compounds in the group of substances probably carcinogenic to humans by inhalation (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 1994). (canada.ca)
- In 2012, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (only available in French), cadmium and its compounds were classified as carcinogenic to humans. (canada.ca)
- Although cadmium and its compounds are carcinogenic, only a small proportion of the population is exposed to cadmium in the workplace. (canada.ca)
- It is challenging to interpret the results of these studies because workers are simultaneously exposed to other types of heavy metals, such as lead, zinc and nickel, which are associated with the same cancers as cadmium and its compounds, particularly lung cancer. (canada.ca)
- For example, the smelting of metals with properties similar to those of cadmium and its compounds and the burning of fossil fuels are two key contributors to cadmium releases into the atmosphere. (canada.ca)
- According to Health Canada studies, inorganic cadmium compounds are not entering the environment in a quantity, concentration, or under conditions that constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends. (canada.ca)
- In 2020, 373 facilities reported the use of cadmium and its compounds to the NPRI. (canada.ca)
- In addition, in a study of CD1 beryllium compounds, cadmium senic is now drinking-water, where mice with "whole-life" exposure to and cadmium compounds, chromi- it is found primarily as the inorgan- multiple levels of sodium arsenite in um(VI) compounds, and nickel and ic forms of arsenite and arsenate. (who.int)
- In comparative studies, we also examined GRP78, HSP72/73, and cJun expression in RLE cells exposed to equitoxic concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). (cdc.gov)
- Cadmium chloride bromide and iodide are also available as ultra high purity beads. (aplmaterials.com)
- This study was designed to induction of testicular degeneration syndrome (TDS) in male rats by cadmium chloride and identified the best concentration of induction for this syndrome. (edu.iq)
- The effective dose of cadmium chloride (CdCl₂) was determined by used fifteen males rats and where divided into three equal groups treated with CdCl₂ in a concentration (1, 2 and 3)mg/kg B.W. I.P. one /week for two weeks. (edu.iq)
- According to this result the lowest observed adverse effective dose (LOAEL) of cadmium chloride that induced testicular degeneration in male rats was found to be 1mg/kg B.W. I.p. one /week for two weeks. (edu.iq)
- Modulation of tissue trace metal concentrations in weanling rats fed different levels of zinc and exposed to oral lead and cadmium. (cdc.gov)
- 1981. The effects of sodium chromate and carbon tetrachloride on the urinary excretion and tissue distribution of cadmium in cadmium-pretreated rats. (cdc.gov)
- Daily intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride (0.25 or 1 mg/kg) for 21 or 45 days into rats significantly stimulated the activities of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, increased the concentrations of glucose and urea in the blood, and decreased the levels of glycogen in the liver. (aku.edu)
- Discontinuation of cadmium administration for 14 days in rats previously injected with cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg per day) for 21 days, failed to reverse the observed changes in hepatic cAMP or carbohydrate metabolism. (aku.edu)
- A similar persistence of metabolic alterations was noted in rats treated with cadmium (1 mg/kg per day) for 45 days and subsequently maintained without additional treatment for 28 days. (aku.edu)
Found in the earth's crust1
- Cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal found in the earth's crust and throughout the environment. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Insoluble forms of cadmium are immobile and will deposit and absorb to sediments. (cdc.gov)
- Derivation: Acids are used on crushed minerals that transform insoluble rare-earth oxides into chlorides or sulfates. (espimetals.com)
- The result showed that increasing concentrations of cadmium chloride significantly increased electrolyte leakage and leaf transpiration, and decreased photosynthetic rate, Fv/Fm, root weight, pod number per plant and grain weight per plant. (arccjournals.com)
- Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dix cultivars de tomate ont été soumis à différentes concentrations en cadmium (Cd 2+ ) afin de déterminer leur degré de tolérance vis-à-vis de ces ions métalliques durant l'ontogénèse de la tomate. (ac.be)
- Ten cultivars of tomato were subjected to different cadmium (Cd 2+ ) concentrations, to find out their degree of tolerance towards these metal ions during the tomato ontogeny. (ac.be)
- 2006). Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is a non-essential and highly toxic metal ion that at higher concentrations inhibits growth and cell division (Liu et al. (ac.be)
- Total and protein associated nitrite content was quantitated using Griess reagent following cadmium reduction and mercuric chloride treatment respectively. (nih.gov)
- Mechanism of mercuric chloride resistance in microorganisms. (wikidata.org)
- I. Vaporization of a mercury compound from mercuric chloride by multiple drug resistant strains of Escherichia coli. (wikidata.org)
- The treatments included arbuscular mycorrhiza in two levels (inoculation and non- inoculation in soil), vermicompost in two levels (application @ 5 % of soil weight and non-application) and cadmium chloride in five levels (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg kg-1 of soil). (arccjournals.com)
- Cadmium is emitted to soil, water, and air by non-ferrous metal mining and refining, manufacture and application of phosphate fertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, and waste incineration and disposal. (cdc.gov)
- Generally, cadmium binds strongly to organic matter where it will be immobile in soil and be taken up by plant life, eventually, entering the food supply. (cdc.gov)
- Tobacco leaves accumulate high levels of cadmium from the soil. (cdc.gov)
- Natural processes contributing to the presence of cadmium in the atmosphere are primarily wind transport of soil particles, forest fires, volcanic emissions and bedrock weathering. (canada.ca)
- 2002). Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metal pollutant in the environment, soil and water, and the sources of its contamination are fossil fuel, mining, waste water, household waste, municipal and industrial waste, use of metal containing pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural soil (Radotic et al. (ac.be)
- Most soil and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain cadmium. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
Amount of cadmium2
- The amount of cadmium absorbed from smoking one pack of cigarettes per day is about 1- 3 µg/day. (cdc.gov)
- Analyzing dietary exposure to the heavy metal, researchers found the greatest amount of cadmium came from potatoes, bread and rolls, and "fine bakery wares. (naturalsociety.com)
- Here, a finite element solution is presented first for cadmium, chloride, and bromide transport in a one-dimensional column where complexation and sorption are considered. (epa.gov)
- Keep in mind the importance of cadmium, cobalt and nickel ions as environmentally and economically strategic heavy metals, the application of two acidic extractants, named bis(2-diethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA), was assessed for the extraction-recovery of these ions from leached solution of spent rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries. (ac.ir)
- The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission prohibits the sale of toys in the United States that contain heavy metals, including cadmium, above certain levels. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- To protect children from harmful exposures to cadmium, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) prohibits the sale of toys in the United States that contain heavy metals, including cadmium, above certain levels. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- In recent years, cadmium was found in some imported children's jewelry and cups, prompting new voluntary industry standards - including more stringent limits for heavy metals. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- They tried several different salts - including table salt, or sodium chloride - but these failed because ions such as sodium fouled up the device's electronic structure. (nature.com)
- The ability of worms to process cadmium is well known, but it wasn't clear what they would do with the tellurium in the sodium tellurite. (livescience.com)
- UN transport and packaging obligations apply to lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride and sodium-nickel chloride batteries, too. (rechargebatteries.org)
- La teneur faible en ions calcium et magnésium et élevée en ions sodium de l'eau douce affecte négativement les résultats de la coloration de routine à l'hématoxyline-éosine. (who.int)
- The crystal structure of cadmium chloride (described below), composed of two-dimensional layers of ions, is a reference for describing other crystal structures. (orange.com)
- Among other benefits, chloride ions dissolve into the CdTe layer and set up a semiconductor junction that makes it possible for electrons to flow easily across the device. (nature.com)
- But the chemical is "horrendous" because its cadmium ions are soluble in water, says Major. (nature.com)
- The researchers think the salt works because magnesium ions have a double positive charge, just like cadmium ions, so they do not disrupt the electron flow. (nature.com)
- Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the action of anhydrous chlorine or hydrogen chloride gas on heated cadmium metal. (orange.com)
- Chlorine and hydrogen chloride / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization. (who.int)
- WHO Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride. (who.int)
- Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted as a byproduct during the production of other metals such as zinc, lead, or copper. (cdc.gov)
- The effect of cadmium toxicity on growth, soluble sugars, photosynthetic pigments and some of enzymes in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Iranian J Biol. (arccjournals.com)
- Cadmium chloride and cadmium sulfate are soluble in water. (cdc.gov)
- The cadmium in the CdTe layer is not soluble, so the finished modules do not pose a health hazard, says Major. (nature.com)
- A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. (bvsalud.org)
- Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide , used as " Cadmium Yellow ", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic pigment . (orange.com)
- Cadmium exists as the hydrated ion or as ionic complexes with other inorganic or organic substances. (cdc.gov)
- In this research, both micron-sized tubular mesoporous silica (mSiO 2 ) and double-tube tubular diatomite particles with cadmium sulfide quantum dots are prepared by chemical deposition method. (researchsquare.com)
- He heard a lecturer note that animals use certain proteins to get rid of toxic metals such as cadmium . (livescience.com)
- Uses of cadmium are restricted in materials and products intended for young children because they are more likely to bite plastic or metals in toys or cups. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Cadmium is often present in industrial settings in metals and welding operations. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Cadmium is used to make batteries, metallic coatings, solar cells and plastic stabilizers. (canada.ca)
- Cadmium containing stabilizers may be used in the PVC used to make window and door frames, water pipes and drainpipes, hoses and electrical insulation, to help prevent materials from degrading from exposure to heat and sunlight. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Cadmium-containing stabilizers are not used in US manufacturing of food-contact plastics. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Some PVC in building and construction and electronics uses cadmium stabilizers. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- 31. Celik A, Comelekoglu U, Yalin S. A study on the investigation of cadmium chloride genotoxicity in rat bone marrow using micronucleus test and chromosome aberration analysis. (bvsalud.org)
- Final Report: Multisite lead and cadmium exposure study with biological markers incorporated. (cdc.gov)
- 1991. Epidemiological study of cadmium and lead in the hair of ceramists and dental personnel. (cdc.gov)
- Assessment of human exposure to lead and cadmium through biological monitoring / edited by Marie Vahter. (who.int)
- Modulation of quorum sensing activity by copper sulfate, potassium dichromate, and cadmium chloride in biosensor strains. (bvsalud.org)
- The researchers also observed that cadmium led to higher levels of sperm cell death (apoptosis) by increasing the expression of the proteins BAX and caspase-3 while decreasing expression of the protein Bcl-xl. (naturalsociety.com)
Preventing the toxic effects1
- Our results supported the reported health benefits of Trévo as a good dietary supplement in preventing the toxic effects of poisonous substances, such as cadmium. (lidsen.com)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of cadmium chloride on liver, spleen and kidney melano macrophage centres in Tilapia mossambica. (who.int)
- Oral ingestion of high doses of cadmium can cause severe gastrointestinal irritation and kidney damage. (canada.ca)
- Linked to lung, kidney, and bone damage, cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that has also been connected to cancer and impaired brain function. (naturalsociety.com)
- Il s'agit d'une source d'informations unique sur les substances chimiques fabriquées et importées en Europe. (europa.eu)
- Writing in Nature , Major and his colleagues tested a range of different substances as alternatives to cadmium chloride. (thenakedscientists.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention list cadmium as number 7 in the 275 most hazardous substances. (naturalsociety.com)
- They may be used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used to make products such as window and door frames, water and drain pipes, hoses and electrical insulation. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Examples of such plastics used in cars are polypropylene, polyurethane, polyamides, and polyvinyl chlorides. (articlequarter.com)
Enters the environment2
- Citation :- Effect of cadmium chloride on soybean in presence ofarbuscular mycorrhiza and vermicompost .Legume Research.2017. (arccjournals.com)
- 2] Putois F., Market for Nickel-Cadmium Batteries , J. Power Sources , 57 , p. 67 (1995). (ac.ir)
- 6] Nogueira C.A., Delmas F., New Flowsheet for the Recovery of Cadmium, Cobalt and Nickel from Spent Ni-Cd Batteries by Solvent Extraction , Hydrometallurgy , 52 , p. 267 (1999). (ac.ir)
- 8] Reddy B.R., Priya D.N., Chloride Leaching and Solvent Extraction of Cadmium, Cobalt and Nickel from Spent Nickel-Cadmium, Batteries Using Cyanex 923 and 272, J. Power Sources , 161 , p. 1428 (2006). (ac.ir)
- 9] Rudnik E., Nikiel M., Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Cadmium and Nickel from Spent Ni-Cd Batteries, Hydrometallurgy , 89 , p. 61 (2007). (ac.ir)
- Cadmium metal helps produce rechargeable nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries that help to power cordless power tools, cell phones, camcorders, portable computers and household appliances. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Cadmium metal helps produce batteries, particularly rechargeable nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- In everyday applications, nickel-cadmium batteries help power products such as cordless power tools, cell phones, camcorders, portable computers, portable household appliances and toys. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of cadmium toxicity, application of vermicompost and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza on soybean. (arccjournals.com)
- Application of vermicompost and mycorrhiza decreased the toxic effects of cadmium chloride. (arccjournals.com)
- Effects of cadmium stress on leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis of Elsholtzia argyi-A cadmium accumulating plant. (arccjournals.com)
- This public health statement tells you about cadmium and the effects of exposure to it. (cdc.gov)
- Effects of dietary cadmium on circulatory function plasma cholesterol and triglyceride. (cdc.gov)
- The effects of cadmium chloride on secondary metabolite production in Vitis vinifera cv. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. (biomedcentral.com)
- Published in Anatomical Record in 2010, a study from Zhejiang University in China indicated orally administered cadmium had detrimental effects on sperm health, but supplementing the mice's diets with quercetin led to a promising decrease in sperm cell death. (naturalsociety.com)
- Analyses of crosses and backcrosses between the lines suggested that the evolved cadmium resistance was due to a single sex-linked gene. (reading.ac.uk)
- Tilapia mossambica were exposed to median lethal concentration of cadmium chloride for 120 hours. (who.int)
- Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans -resveratrol, and α-, β-, γ- δ-tocopherols) production. (biomedcentral.com)
- Malgré des différences variétales évidentes, une augmentation de la concentration en Cd 2+ et de la durée de trempage provoquent une décroissance linéaire de la croissance et de l'activité catalase et peroxydase chez toutes les variétés. (ac.be)
- À l'inverse, les semences de 'S-22' ne germent pas du tout en présence de Cd 2+ , même à faible concentration. (ac.be)
- In a replicated, laboratory, natural selection experiment Drosophila melanogaster populations were maintained for 20 generations either on unpolluted medium or on polluted medium containing cadmium chloride at a concentration of 80 μg/ml. (reading.ac.uk)
- Although the total number of NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known, the possibility exists that the number of sites at which cadmium is found may increase in the future as more sites are evaluated. (cdc.gov)
- GRP78, HSP72/73, and cJun stress protein levels in lung epithelial cells exposed to asbestos , cadmium, or H2O2. (cdc.gov)
- Cadmium is available in elemental form as ultra high purity (99.999%) pellets. (aplmaterials.com)
- If quercetin can truly protect against cadmium exposure, it may be time to up your apple and onion consumption-two foods with high levels of this important antioxidant. (naturalsociety.com)
- Growth, nitrate reductase activity and antioxidant system in cadmium stressed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (ac.be)
- Cadmium pigments help create brilliant yellow, orange and maroon pigments in paints and coatings. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Cadmium pigments help create brilliant yellow, orange, red and maroon pigments in paints and coatings, and are added to plastics to give them color. (chemicalsafetyfacts.org)
- Handling cadmium chloride to make thin-film solar cells requires wearing protective equipment. (nature.com)
- Dr Major said: "We have to apply cadmium chloride in a fume cupboard in the lab, but we created solar cells using the new method on a bench with a spray gun bought from a model shop. (liverpool.ac.uk)