A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.2.2 and EC 3.4.12.3.
A plant species of the family Moringaceae, order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae. It is a source of niaziminin and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides.
A plant genus of the family Moringaceae, order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (1/347)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals.  (+info)

N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the nicotinic enhancement of GABA release in chick brain. (2/347)

The role of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was investigated in chick brain slices. Whole cell recordings of neurons in the lateral spiriform (SpL) and ventral lateral geniculate (LGNv) nuclei showed that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) blocked the carbachol-induced increase of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs, indicating that VDCCs might be involved. To conclusively show a role for VDCCs, the presynaptic effect of carbachol on SpL and LGNv neurons was examined in the presence of selective blockers of VDCC subtypes. omega-Conotoxin GVIA, a selective antagonist of N-type channels, significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in the SpL by 78% compared with control responses. Nifedipine, an L-type channel blocker, and omega-Agatoxin-TK, a P/Q-type channel blocker, did not inhibit the enhancement of GABAergic IPSCs. In the LGNv, omega-Conotoxin GVIA also significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release by 71% from control values. Although omega-Agatoxin-TK did not block the nicotinic enhancement, L-type channel blockers showed complex effects on the nAChR-mediated enhancement. These results indicate that the nAChR-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs requires activation of N-type channels in both the SpL and LGNv.  (+info)

Cholinergic modulation of neostriatal output: a functional antagonism between different types of muscarinic receptors. (3/347)

It is demonstrated that acetylcholine released from cholinergic interneurons modulates the excitability of neostriatal projection neurons. Physostigmine and neostigmine increase input resistance (RN) and enhance evoked discharge of spiny projection neurons in a manner similar to muscarine. Muscarinic RN increase occurs in the whole subthreshold voltage range (-100 to -45 mV), remains in the presence of TTX and Cd2+, and can be blocked by the relatively selective M1,4 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine but not by M2 or M3 selective antagonists. Cs+ occludes muscarinic effects at potentials more negative than -80 mV. A Na+ reduction in the bath occludes muscarinic effects at potentials more positive than -70 mV. Thus, muscarinic effects involve different ionic conductances: inward rectifying and cationic. The relatively selective M2 receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 does not block muscarinic effects on the projection neuron but, surprisingly, has the ability to mimic agonistic actions increasing RN and firing. Both effects are blocked by pirenzepine. HPLC measurements of acetylcholine demonstrate that AF-DX 116 but not pirenzepine greatly increases endogenous acetylcholine release in brain slices. Therefore, the effects of the M2 antagonist on the projection neurons were attributable to autoreceptor block on cholinergic interneurons. These experiments show distinct opposite functions of muscarinic M1- and M2-type receptors in neostriatal output, i.e., the firing of projection neurons. The results suggest that the use of more selective antimuscarinics may be more profitable for the treatment of motor deficits.  (+info)

Extracellular heavy-metal ions stimulate Ca2+ mobilization in hepatocytes. (4/347)

Populations of hepatocytes in primary culture were loaded with fura 2 and the effects of extracellular heavy-metal ions were examined under conditions that allowed changes in fura 2 fluorescence (R340/360, the ratio of fluorescence recorded at 340 and 360 nm) to be directly attributed to changes in cytosolic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i). In Ca2+-free media, Ni2+ [EC50 (concentration causing 50% stimulation) approximately 24+/-9 microM] caused reversible increases in [Ca2+]i that resulted from mobilization of the same intracellular Ca2+ stores as were released by [Arg8]vasopressin. The effects of Ni2+ were not mimicked by increasing the extracellular [Mg2+], by addition of MnCl2, CoCl2 or CdCl2 or by decreasing the extracellular pH from 7.3 to 6.0; nor were they observed in cultures of smooth muscle, endothelial cells or pituitary cells. CuCl2 (80 microM), ZnCl2 (80 microM) and LaCl3 (5 mM) mimicked the ability of Ni2+ to evoke Ca2+ mobilization. The response to La3+ was sustained even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, probably because La3+ also inhibited Ca2+ extrusion. Although Ni2+ entered hepatocytes, from the extent to which it quenched fura 2 fluorescence the free cytosolic [Ni2+] ([Ni2+]i) was estimated to be <5 nM at the peak of the maximal Ni2+-evoked Ca2+ signals and there was no correlation between [Ni2+]i and the amplitude of the evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. We conclude that extracellular Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and La3+, but not all heavy-metal ions, evoke an increase in [Ca2+]i in hepatocytes by stimulating release of the hormone-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores and that they may do so by interacting with a specific cell-surface ion receptor. This putative ion receptor may be important in allowing hepatocytes to contribute to regulation of plasma heavy-metal ions and may mediate responses to Zn2+ released into the portal circulation with insulin.  (+info)

Receptor potentials and electrical properties of nonspiking stretch-receptive neurons in the sand crab Emerita analoga (Anomura, Hippidae). (5/347)

Receptor potentials and electrical properties of nonspiking stretch-receptive neurons in the sand crab Emerita analoga (Anomura, Hippidae). Four nonspiking, monopolar neurons with central somata and large peripheral dendrites constitute the sole innervation of the telson-uropod elastic strand stretch receptor in Emerita analoga. We characterized their responses to stretch and current injection, using two-electrode current clamp, in intact cells and in two types of isolated peripheral dendritic segments, one that included and one that excluded the dendritic termini (mechanosensory membrane). The membrane potentials of intact cells at rest (mean +/- SD: -57 +/- 4. 4 mV, n = 30), recorded in peripheral or neuropil processes, are similar to the membrane potentials of isolated dendritic segments and always less negative than membrane potentials of motoneurons and interneurons recorded in the same preparations. Ion substitution experiments indicate that the membrane potential is influenced strongly by Na+ conductance, probably localized in the mechanotransducing terminals within the elastic strand. The form of the receptor potential in response to ramp-hold-release stretch remains the same as stretch amplitude is varied and is not dependent on initial membrane potential (-70 to -30 mV) or recording site: initial depolarization (slope follows ramp of applied stretch), terminated by rapid, partial repolarization to a plateau (delayed depolarization) that is intermediate between the peak depolarization and the initial potential and sustained for the duration of the stretch. Responses to depolarizing current pulses are similar to stretch-evoked receptor potentials, except for small amplitude stimuli: an initial peak occurs only in response to stretch and probably reflects elastic recoil of the extracellular matrix surrounding the dendritic terminals. The rapid, partial repolarization depends on holding potential and is abolished by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 10 mM), implicating a fast-activating, fast-inactivating K+ conductance; TEA (60 mM) abolishes the remaining slow repolarization to the plateau. In intact cells, but not dendritic segments, regenerative depolarizations can arise in response to stretch or depolarizing current pulses; they are reduced by CdCl2 (10 microM) in the saline containing TEA and 4-AP and probably reflect current spread from Ca2+ influx at presynaptic terminals in the ganglion. We found no evidence for other voltage-activated conductances. Unlike morphologically similar "nonspiking" thoracic receptors of other species, E. analoga's nonspiking neurons are electrically compact and do not boost the analogue afferent signal by voltage-activated inward currents. The most prominent (only?) voltage-activated extra-ganglionic conductances are for potassium; by reducing the slope of the stretch-plateau depolarization curve, they extend each neuron's functional range to the full range of sensitivity of the receptor.  (+info)

Urea-associated oxidative stress and Gadd153/CHOP induction. (6/347)

Urea treatment (100-300 mM) increased expression of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, Gadd153/CHOP, at the mRNA and protein levels (at >/=4 h) in renal medullary mIMCD3 cells in culture, whereas other solutes did not. Expression of the related protein, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP-beta), was not affected, nor was expression of the sensor of endoplasmic reticulum stress, grp78. Urea modestly increased Gadd153 transcription by reporter gene analysis but failed to influence Gadd153 mRNA stability. Importantly, upregulation of Gadd153 mRNA and protein expression by urea was antioxidant sensitive. Accordingly, urea treatment was associated with oxidative stress, as quantitated by intracellular reduced glutathione content in mIMCD3 cells. In addition, antioxidant treatment partially inhibited the ability of urea to activate transcription of an Egr-1 luciferase reporter gene. Therefore oxidative stress represents a novel solute-signaling pathway in the kidney medulla and, potentially, in other tissues.  (+info)

Effect of melatonin on cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. (7/347)

Effect of melatonin on toxicity of cadmium (Cd) was studied in male SD rats co-administered daily Cd (1 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) with melatonin (10 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) for 15 days. Cd alone injection decreased GSH concentrations in the liver and RBC by 35% and 43% compared with those in saline-treatment group, but not in the kidney and whole brain. The activity of GSSG-reductase was significantly decreased in the liver of Cd alone injected rats, while melatonin given in combination with Cd failed to prevent the Cd-induced decreased activity of hepatic GSSG-reductase. However, the hepatic GSH concentration decreased by Cd alone was restored by melatonin treatment, and the melatonin also ameliorated Cd-induced histopathological changes in the liver. Therefore, data indicate that melatonin restores the reduction of hepatic GSH level induced with Cd regardless of GSSG-reductase activity, and suggests that melatonin may ameliorate Cd-induced hepatotoxicity.  (+info)

The electrical properties of auditory hair cells in the frog amphibian papilla. (8/347)

The amphibian papilla (AP) is the principal auditory organ of the frog. Anatomical and neurophysiological evidence suggests that this hearing organ utilizes both mechanical and electrical (hair cell-based) frequency tuning mechanisms, yet relatively little is known about the electrophysiology of AP hair cells. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have investigated the electrical properties and ionic currents of isolated hair cells along the rostrocaudal axis of the AP. Electrical resonances were observed in the voltage response of hair cells harvested from the rostral and medial, but not caudal, regions of the AP. Two ionic currents, ICa and IK(Ca), were observed in every hair cell; however, their amplitudes varied substantially along the epithelium. Only rostral hair cells exhibited an inactivating potassium current (IA), whereas an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IK1) was identified only in caudal AP hair cells. Electrically tuned hair cells exhibited resonant frequencies from 50 to 375 Hz, which correlated well with hair cell position and the tonotopic organization of the papilla. Variations in the kinetics of the outward current contribute substantially to the determination of resonant frequency. ICa and IK(Ca) amplitudes increased with resonant frequency, reducing the membrane time constant with increasing resonant frequency. We conclude that a tonotopically organized hair cell substrate exists to support electrical tuning in the rostromedial region of the frog amphibian papilla and that the cellular mechanisms for frequency determination are very similar to those reported for another electrically tuned auditory organ, the turtle basilar papilla.  (+info)

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Looking for online definition of Cadmium chloride in the Medical Dictionary? Cadmium chloride explanation free. What is Cadmium chloride? Meaning of Cadmium chloride medical term. What does Cadmium chloride mean?
Only limited data were available on the skin or respiratory sensitization potential of cadmium metal and cadmium compounds. Cadmium chloride did not show any skin sensitization effects at 0.5% in a GMPT test. Cadmium chloride and sulphate were patch-tested in human volunteers but, across several studies, the evidence remained inconclusive. If at all, significant exposure is expected to occur principally in occupational settings.Given the carcinogen properties of cadmium metal and some of the cadmium compounds, risk reduction measures are in place to prevent contact.Therefore, neither skin nor respiratory tract sensitization are expected to be an issue for human health and further testing is not considered necessary, in accordance withAnnex XI (3) of the REACH directive.This is in line with the conclusions of the EU RAR (ECB, 2007). At present, none of the cadmium substances covered in the present assessment is classified for sensitization in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC. ...
This report contains market size and forecasts of Cadmium Chloride in global, including the following market information: Global Cadmium Chloride Market Revenue, 2016-2021, 2022-2027, ($ millions) Glo...
Page contains details about cadmium chloride nanocrystals . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-202908, Cadmium chloride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
The action of the chemical compound - CdC12 on soft wheat varieties resulted in plant modifications on a number of qualitative and quantitative traits. Genetic analysis conducted on the basis of reciprocal crosses showed that the inheritance of altered traits in mutants is independent of the direction of crossing. Modification of habitus and phenotypes of mutant plants is accompanied by a violation of cell division in meiosis ...
In studies with mouse and rat, effects on development were observed after oral and inhalatory exposure to cadmium compounds. Neurobehavioural changes were reported in the absence of maternal toxicity but the robustness of these observations was not sufficient to derive an appropriate NOAEL. It is suggested that further studies are needed to better document the possible effects of cadmium on the developing brain (ECB, 2007). No clear evidence indicates that cadmium has adverse effects on the development of offprings from women exposed indirectly via the environment or occupationally. Effects on birth weight, motor and perceptual abilities of offsprings have been reported by some authors. However, these studies suffer from drawbacks either in the definition of the study postulation, the definition of the effects, or in the assessment of exposure. Moreover, it is not clear whether the effects on psychomotor development were related to cadmium or to a simultaneous exposure to other substances such ...
For metals, the transport and distribution over the different environmental compartments e.g. the water (dissolved fraction, fraction bound to suspended matter), soil (fraction bound or complexed to the soil particles, fraction in the soil pore water,...) is described and quantified by the metal partition coefficients between these different fractions. The information on these partition coefficients is given under 5.6. Partition coefficients for cadmium in freshwater have been reviewed in the EU risk assessment report (ECB 2008). Based on this experimental evidence, a partition coefficient for the distribution between solid particulate matter and water (Kpsusp) of 130 x 103 l/kg has been defined for EU waters and was used throughout the RAR.. The Kp for the distribution between sediment and water (Kpsed) was estimated in the RAR from the ratio of the average sediment (1.32mg/kgDW)to average water Cd concentrations (0.14µg/l). This best fit Kd yields 10000L/kgDW (ECB 2008). These partition ...
The CSV is a delimited data format that has fields/columns separated by the semicolon character and records/rows separated by newlines. Fields that may contain a special character (semicolon, newline, or double quote), are enclosed in double quotes. For an easier handling, the list of Pre-registered substances is available in four parts ordered by EC number. They contain the same information as the following full list.. ...
Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. provides the information contained herein in good faith but makes no representation as to its comprehensiveness or accuracy. This document is intended only as a guide to the appropriate precautionary handling of the material by a properly trained person using this product. Individuals receiving the information must exercise their independent judgment in determining its appropriateness for a particular purpose. MALLINCKRODT BAKER, INC. MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE WITH RESPECT TO THE INFORMATION SET FORTH HEREIN OR THE PRODUCT TO WHICH THE INFORMATION REFERS. ACCORDINGLY, MALLINCKRODT BAKER, INC. WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM USE OF OR RELIANCE UPON THIS INFORMATION. ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance and no text is automatically ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
In vivo effects of cadmium chloride on certain aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues of a freshwater field crab Barytelphusa gueriniREDDY, S. L. N; VENUGOPAL, N. B. R. K; RAMANA RAO, J. V et al.Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 1989, Vol 42, Num 6, pp 847-853, issn 0007-4861, 7 p.Article ...
Male rats received one injection of a subtoxic amount of Cd|sup|2+|/sup| (9.2 µmol/kg body weight) as cadmium chloride and the testes were removed 24 h later. Homogenate fractions of testes that had been freed of ribosomes were tested for their activity in cell-free protein-synthesizing systems using excess exogenous rat liver ribosomes and mRNA. A marked decrease in the incorporation of free [|sup|14|/sup|C]-phenylalanine into peptide was observed with the testes preparations from the cadmium-treated rats. The results indicated that about half of the effect of cadmium was due to decreased aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity and the other half was due to decreased binding of [|sup|14|/sup|C]-phenylalanyl-tRNA to ribosomes. The results are discussed relative to the contrasting results obtained in kidney and liver preparations.
Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) have been prepared by the reduction of mixed solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl2), sodium selenosulfate (Na2SeSO3) and diethanolamine ((CH2CH2OH)2NH) at temperatures of 80-200°C under Ar atmosphere. Characteristics of CdSe nanoparticles were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis absorption spectra. CdSe samples prepared at relatively low temperature of below 100°C showed cubic structure while samples synthesized at temperature above 100°C showed hexagonal phase. The increased reaction temperature caused the particle size increase as well as the agglomeration of particles to form a hollow sphere. UV-Vis absorption spectra also showed a red-shift as increasing reaction temperatures due to the gradual growth of CdSe nanoparticles in the solution. The relatively sharp absorption band from samples synthesized at 80 and 100°C can be attributed to homogeneous particle ...
Problem statement: Cadmium is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. It is found in drinking water, atmospheric air and even in food. Cadmium is reported to be very toxic to biological systems. Until now in treating intoxication with this metal, chelating Compounds have been used, burdened with numerous undesirable symptoms. For this reason, many researches are carried out in many countries to find natural-made compounds that help in the protection against cadmium induced toxicity with fewer or no side effects. This study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of daily oral Camels milk administration against Cadmium chloride induced toxicity in white albino rats. Approach: White albino rats of both sexes (230-250 g) were housed in standard metal cages (6 rats/cage). The experimental rats (6 in each group) distributed into two experimental groups with a shared control group received only normal saline orally (Group 1). In experimental first group a daily dose (10 mg ...
Ovariectomized (Ovx) sexually mature adult female rats were exposed to sub chronic treatment of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 6 mg/kg/ body we..
Cadmium, Inhibin, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Costs, Emotional Stress, Families, Health, Lip, Palate, Patients, Public Health, Risk, Affect, Annexin V, Anti-mullerian Hormone, Blood, Blood-testis Barrier, Cadmium Chloride, Cells
We recorded from pairs of cultured, synaptically connected thalamic neurons. Evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) reversed at +17 mV and were blocked reversibly by 1 mM kynurenic acid, a glutamate receptor antagonist. NMDA and non-NMDA receptors mediated excitatory post-synaptic responses, as shown by selective block of EPSC components with 50 microM (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid and 10 microM 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, respectively. Inhibitory postsynaptic responses were evoked less frequently and were blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist (-)-bicuculline methochloride. The pharmacological profiles of whole-cell calcium currents and evoked EPSCs were compared. With 50 microM cadmium chloride (Cd), whole-cell low voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents were reduced in amplitude and high voltage- activated (HVA) calcium currents and excitatory synaptic transmission were completely blocked. This suggests that the residual calcium influx through LVA channels into the ...
Title fatal reinstall of FM10 on osx10.5.8 Your post i found deinstalling FM10, then reinstalling same copy from same installer cd on osx10.5.8 (on
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
This study investigated the hepatoprotective role of ethanolic extract of Moringa oliefera (M.O) on liver function (Biomarkers) in cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity on the liver of albino Wistar rats. Sixty-six adult male albino wistar rats weighing between 130g - 180g were used. LD50 was determined for both CdCl2and MO using twenty-six (26) rats, while 40 rats were used for the experiment proper. The experimental rats were distributed into eight groups -A (control) and B, C, D, E, F, G and H, served as the treatment groups that received graded doses of CdCl2or MOor both simultaneously or at separate periods. The animals were then euthanized for sample collection and analysis using standard methods. The results showed significant increase (P,0.05) in the serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (430.50 ± 149.20), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (421.10 ± 8.34) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) (515.60 ± 21.78) of animals in group B, but some protective effect of MO in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of cadmium exposure on mouse sperm. AU - Oliveira, Helena. AU - Spanò, Marcello. AU - Santos, Conceição. AU - Pereira, Maria de Lourdes. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - The effects of cadmium chloride exposure on sperm functional parameters were evaluated on eight-week-old ICR-CD1 male mice administered with a single s.c. injection of 1, 2 and 3 mg CdCl2/kg bw. Groups of animals treated with each dose, as well as their respective controls, were sacrificed after 24 h to detect short-term (acute) effects and after 35 days. Sperm cells were collected from the epididymis and several parameters of sperm quality and function were evaluated, namely density, morphology, motility, viability, mitochondrial function, acrosome integrity, together with DNA fragmentation assessed by the TUNEL assay. The short-term effects of cadmium chloride resulted in an increased fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology, premature acrosome reaction and reduced motility. Late term ...
Cadmium at environmental concentrations is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, in which macrophages play an important role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cadmium at low environmental (nanomolar) concentrations on apoptotic processes in THP-1(acute monocytic leukemia cells line)-derived macrophages, with special focus on mitochondrial events involved. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM and 2 µM CdCl2. Cell viability was measured using flow cytometry. Flow cytometric measurement (annexin V/FITC (annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate) and PI (propidium iodide) double staining) was used to quantify the extent of apoptosis. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used for imaging of apoptosis process. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored using cytofluorimetry after cell staining with JC-1(5,5′,6,6′
Abstract: Background and Objective: Environmental stress such as heavy metal is a major factor affecting reduction in agricultural productivity. Heavy metals at toxic levels hamper normal plant functioning and act as an impediment of metabolic processes by the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Plant has evolved various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanism to cope against the ROS produced. This study investigated the biochemical response of S. stenocarpa to cadmium stress. Materials and Methods: S. stenocarpa (Fabaceae) seeds were sown in the control (0 ESV) and the different concentrations (2.5, 5 ESV) of cadmium chloride (CdCl2). The soil samples were collected from 10 different points at a depth of 0-30 cm using a soil auger, pooled together, air-dried and grind to pass through a 2 mm sieve before subjecting to physico-chemical analysis. The five accessions consisted of 3 blocks, 15 treatments per block, two plant per polythene bag arranged in a RBD. Enzymes such as superoxide ...
Cadmium is an element that occurs naturally in the earths crust.� Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal.� Cadmium is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).� Cadmium is most often present in nature as complex oxides, sulfides, and carbonates in zinc, lead, and copper ores. It is rarely present in large quantities as the chlorides and sulfates.� These different forms of cadmium compounds are solids that dissolve in water to varying degrees.� The chlorides and sulfates are the forms that most easily dissolve in water.� Cadmium may change forms, but the cadmium metal itself does not disappear from the environment.� Knowing the particular form of cadmium, however, is very important when determining the risk of potential adverse health effects.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death worldwide, including Qatar. Hypertension is one of the most common CVDs that contribute to this mortality. Cadmium is a well-known pollutant that has been suggested to be a risk factor for hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Very little is known about the effect of cadmium on the expression of vascular alpha- 1 adrenoceptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cadmium on the expression of vascular alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in vitro. Along with that, there are several phenotypic changes could modulate the VSMCs function and contribute to CVDs including hypertension. These changes include hypertrophy, migration and senescence. The second objective of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on VSMCs phenotype. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were incubated with different concentrations of cadmium chloride for varying
Cadmium (Cd) is frequently used in various industrial applications and is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, also present in tobacco smoke. An important route of exposure is the circulatory system whereas blood vessels are considered to be main stream organs of Cd toxicity. Our previous results indicate that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) affects mean arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that Cd alters the intracellular calcium transient mechanism, by cadmium-induced stimulation of MAPKs (ERK 1 & 2) which is mediated partially through calcium-dependent PKC mechanism. To investigate this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from wistar kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to increased concentrations of CdCl2 on cell viability, expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/ERK 1 & 2), and protein kinase C (PKC) which are activated by Cd in several cell types. The results from these studies indicate that CdCl2
The accumulation of cadmium in plants cause a variety of physiological, biochemical and structural changes, while selenium that is often used in the process of biofortification of plants can significantly change the plants response to cadmium treatment. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the roots and shoots of two varieties of wheat (Divana and Srpanjka) seedlings enriched with selenium. Enzymes that were observed in this study were glutathione S-transferase, Cu, Zn-Superoxid-Dismutase and catalase The effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme gene expression depended on the type of cultivar and the type of plant organ (root or shoot). Cadmium treatment affected the expression of glutathione S-transferase the most.The effect of cadmium on decrease in antioxidant enzyme gene expression was much more visible in the roots than in the shoots. Variety Divana was shown to be more sensitive to cadmium treatment than variety Srpanjka ...
0.005 M Cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate, 0.005 M Nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate, 0.005 M Cadmium chloride hydrate, 0.005 M Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 12% w/v Polyethylene glycol ...
1. The capacity of various primary (unmixed) fixatives to split lipids from lipo-protein complexes was investigated.. 2. The lipoproteins that formed the test-objects of the research were those contained in (a) the acroblast of the cricket (Acheta domesticus), and (b) the endoplasmic reticulum (ergastoplasm) of the acinar cell of the pancreas of the laboratory mouse. The two test-objects gave essentially the same results.. 3. Of the 16 compounds tried, cadmium chloride is the most powerful unmasker of lipids. Mercuric chloride is also a powerful unmasker, and gives much better fixation. Chloroplatinic acid and formaldehyde are moderately powerful unmaskers.. ...
Strochkova L. S. Ultrastructural Examinations of HeLa Cells Exposed to Cadmium Ions, Tsitol Genet., 1990, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 7-11 ...
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant of continuing public health concern worldwide, because total diet studies have shown that Cd is present in virtually all foodstuffs. Consequently, foods that are frequently consumed in large quantities, such as rice, potatoes, wheat, leafy salad vegetables, and other cereal crops, are the most significant dietary Cd sources. Moreover, Cd has chemical propensities that confer the potential to interfere with the physiological functions of calcium and zinc. Evidence of a wide range of diverse, toxic effects of Cd is increasingly apparent. In this collection, environmental Cd exposure is linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease that is known to be a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cd is also implicated in an early onset of menarche and deaths from cancer, especially in the uterus, kidney, and urinary tract. Moreover, Cd-induced kidney injury is replicated in Sprague Dawley rats, as is Cd-induced periodontal disease. Experimental ...
Shigemi 3 mm Symmetrical NMR microtube assembly matched with CDCl3, bottom L 10 mm; Synonyms: nmr sample tubes,nmr tubes,Shigemi nmr tubes; find -Z569720 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite. AU - Keyse, Stephen M.. AU - Tyrrell, Rex M.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may ...
Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were prepared using microemulsion method using cadmium chloride as cadmium source and sodium sulphide as sulphur source. The obtained nanoparticles structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) whereas optical characterization was done by Ultra Violet-Visible absorption. XRD result shows that CdS nanoparticles of hexagonal phase are formed. The TEM result indicates that the synthesized CdS nanoparticles are of variable morphology like spherical, cylindrical, nanorods and nanoneedles. Histograms help to evaluate size and aspect ratio of nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy reveals that as prepared CdS nanoparticles show a quantum confinement effect with shift in band gap. It is also found that water to surfactant molar ratio (wo) and co-surfactant are vital factors in the morphology and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles.
a as sulfates and chlorides. hydrophilic group. Patented Sept. 30, 1952 I UNITED STATES i 50F STABILIZED DIAZONlUM SALTS PROCESS OF EFFEC EING SAME William von =Glal1n, Loudonv ille and Herman A. Bergstrom, Albany, N.Y.; assignors to General Aniline & Film corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware 3 NorDraswing. iApplicationfDecember29, 1948, serial No. 68,073 8 Claims. (019260 142) 1 This invention relates to the preparation of stable diazonium compounds and refers particuv.la rly to the production of nondusting diazonium salts orFast Color --Sa1ts of abnormal grain or Yr-particle size which can be used effectively as dye-intermediate. t v W In lthe preparation of diazonium -salts, the .diazo compound, asv producedby diazotization of a primary amine, is generally stabilized by form- .ing (1) a complex double salt of the diazonium chloride with an inorganic. salt, such as zinc ch10- ride, tin chloride, cadmium chloride, manganese hloride -or sodium ...
Cadmium is an ubiquitous toxic metal to which everyone is exposed at low levels. It is toxic to almost every organ system of the body including the immune system. In this study, the effects of a relatively low dose of cadmium on the immune system of mice and the effects of a moderately large dose of zinc on cadmium-induced immunopathology were studied. Six-week old C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 50 ppm cadmium in drinking water for 3 weeks, and killed 0, 3 and 6 weeks after cessation of treatment. In some groups, 500 ppm zinc was added to the drinking water with or after cadmium treatment. The number of IgM and IgG antibody-forming cells in the spleen was higher in cadmium-treated mice as compared to non-treated controls at 0 week. Concurrent zinc administration prevented the enhancement of antibody-forming cell response. Proliferative response of spleen cells to the T cell mitogens phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A tended to be high in cadmium-treated mice and zinc administration after ...
Prevention is the key to managing cadmium exposure. No effective treatment for cadmium toxicity exists. For the general public, the primary source of exposure to cadmium is dietary. Smoking tobacco adds an additional burden of cadmium. Nutritional deficiencies can increase the risk of cadmium toxicity. Chronic cadmium exposure primarily affects the kidneys and secondarily the bones. Acute inhalation of fumes containing cadmium affects the lungs.
The effect of cadmium on protein expression in the aerial parts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Mandolina) seedlings was investigated by proteomic analysis of leaf apoplast proteins. Dramatic changes were observed in the protein pattern of intercellular washing fluid from Cd-treated (0-300 μM) barley leaves both by 1D- and 2D-PAGE. By mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF and/or LC-MS/MS) analysis of induced proteins PR1 proteins, certain 1-3-glucanases (PR2), chitinases (PR3), members of the chitin binding PR4 family, a rich set of thaumatin-like proteins (PR5) and two PR17 proteins were identified, indicating that a general plant defence response, inducing massive secretion of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR) into the extracellular space, is an important part of the Cd-induced stress reactions. Although systemic induction of PR proteins is probably important for an adequate plant response to cadmium stress, many of these proteins are known to have an allergenic potential and as such present a ...
Characterization of Chl a Fluorescence of Hydrophytes under Cadmium Stress - Chl a fluorescence;Hydrophytes;Cadmium stress;Fv/Fm;Lemna plants;
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Cadmium is a soft, malleable metal that, according to OSHA, can cause serious health problems for workers exposed to it. When using this metal, proper personal protective equipment must be worn because cadmium is highly toxic. Exposure to this metal is known to cause cancer and targets the bodys cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the administration states.. Cadmium is used today in batteries, alloys, plastic stabilizers and solar cells. OSHA estimates that 300,000 workers are exposed to the metal in the United States. Cadmium exposure can occur in all industry sectors, but construction and manufacturing have the highest exposure rates. The following workplace activities can lead to exposure:. ...
Our results suggest that functional actin is needed during SC differentiation not only for changes in cell shape but also for abundant expression of myelin-specific mRNAs. The initial step in morphological differentiation, elongation, was inhibited only when higher CD concentrations (0.75-1.0 μg/ml) known to remove stress fibers in other cell types were used (Yahara et al., 1982). At lower CD concentrations (0.25 μg/ml), SC elongation and segregation of axons away from each other occurred, but ensheathment of axons in a 1:1 relationship and spiralization did not occur. Phalloidin staining of CD-treated cultures revealed that actin became increasingly disrupted and aggregated as CD concentration increased. At the time experiments began, all cultures had equal SC densities and SCs displayed a rounded morphology characteristic of their behavior in ascorbate-free medium, which allows SC proliferation but not differentiation (Eldridge et al., 1987; Fernandez-Valle et al., 1993). Therefore, any ...
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Cadmium can come in the silver variety, Zinc and Cadmium are related somehow chemically, I believe the the Cad is a by product of zinc or something like that. The Muriatic acid is the hot tip for removing either, after the acid, drop in a solution of 1 lb baking soda per gal of water, that will neutralize and keep the bolt from rusting as it .. ...
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An introduction to cadmium plating, its uses, suitability and versatility for various processes and the environmental information you need to know.
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For around the last 9 months of my life, Ive struggled with depression. It was due to a lot of factors, wasnt fun at all. But luckily Im now out of it ...
Cadmium arsenide - Cd3As2. *Cadmium bromide - CdBr2. *Cadmium chloride - CdCl2 ...
Anhydrous NiBr2 adopts the cadmium chloride structure. The interatomic distance for Ni-Br is 2.52-2.58 Å. The structure of the ... The di- and hexahydrates adopt structures akin to those for the corresponding chlorides. The dihydrate consists of a linear ...
Cadmium chloride. Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kadmijum_hlorid&oldid=9296505" ...
Zahl, Harold A.date= September 1930 (1930). "Reflection of Cadmium and Zinc Atoms from Sodium Chloride Crystals". Physical ...
Zinc chloride Zinc fluoride Zinc iodide Cadmium bromide Patnaik, P. (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill ... It is a colourless salt that shares many properties with zinc chloride (ZnCl2), namely a high solubility in water forming ... Safety considerations are similar to those for zinc chloride, for which the toxic dose for humans is 3-5 g. ...
Nickel chloride NiCl2 is yellow, crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a hexahydrate, NiCl2·6H2O, a ... Nickel iodide NiI2 is black, also crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a green hexahydrate, NiI2·6H2O. ... Nickel bromide NiBr2 is yellow, also crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a hexahydrate, NiBr2·6H2O. ... Nickel hydroxides are used in nickel-cadmium and Nickel-metal hydride batteries. Nickel(II) hydroxide Ni(OH)2, the main ...
Voet, AR; Noguchi, H; Addy, C; Zhang, KY; Tame, JR (17 August 2015). "Biomineralization of a Cadmium Chloride Nanocrystal by a ...
This purple solid adopts a layered structure, akin to that of cadmium chloride. The material slowly hydrolyses in moist air. ... FeOCl is prepared by heating iron(III) oxide with ferric chloride at 370 °C over the course of several days: Fe2O3 + FeCl3 → 3 ...
Reines and Cowan used two targets containing a solution of cadmium chloride in water. Two scintillation detectors were placed ... The neutrons were captured by cadmium nuclei resulting in gamma rays of about 8 MeV that were detected a few microseconds after ... next to the cadmium targets. Antineutrinos with an energy above the threshold of 1.8 MeV caused charged current interactions ...
Cowan and Reines detected the neutrons by dissolving cadmium chloride, CdCl2, in the tank. Cadmium is a highly effective ... followed by the gamma ray from the neutron absorption by cadmium several microseconds later. The experiment that Cowan and ...
Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan used two targets containing a solution of cadmium chloride in water. Two scintillation ... The neutrons were captured by cadmium nuclei resulting in delayed gamma rays of about 8 MeV that were detected a few ...
An example is the group of fluxes containing zinc, tin or cadmium compounds, usually chlorides, sometimes fluorides or ... Another possibility is an inorganic flux composed of zinc chloride or tin(II) chloride,[16] ammonium chloride, and a fluoride ( ... The compounds used include metal halides (most often zinc chloride or ammonium chloride), hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ... Acid flux types (not used in electronics) may contain hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride or ammonium chloride, which are harmful ...
Each pondcrete block containing mixed-wastes (radioactive, cadmium, methylene chloride and acetone) weighed between 1,500 and ...
The difluorides of the transition metals often adopt the rutile structure whereas the dichlorides have cadmium chloride ... Sodium fluoride and sodium chloride adopt the same structure. For compounds containing more than one fluoride per cation, the ... In terms of its reactivity, fluoride differs significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more strongly solvated in ... Treatment may involve oral administration of dilute calcium hydroxide or calcium chloride to prevent further absorption, and ...
Carcinogens include benzene, 2-napthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl, chromium, cadmium, vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, arsenic, ...
MgCl2 crystallizes in the cadmium chloride motif, which features octahedral Mg centers. Several hydrates are known with the ... Beryllium chloride. Calcium chloride. Strontium chloride. Barium chloride. Radium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data ... Magnesium chloride is used in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Cuisine[edit]. Magnesium chloride (E511[13]) is an ... Calcium chloride damages concrete twice as fast as magnesium chloride.[11] It should be noticed that the amount of magnesium ...
... histochemical and biochemical effects of cadmium chloride in female koel (Eudynamys scolopacea). Acta Histochem. 57(2):205-11. ...
Bhat, G. & Maiti, B. (1993). "Effects of Nitrofurantoin and Cadmium Chloride on Spermatogenetic Activity in an Avian Pest, the ...
An example is the group of fluxes containing zinc, tin or cadmium compounds, usually chlorides, sometimes fluorides or ... alcohol Cryolite and barium chloride Oleic acid Lithium chloride Magnesium chloride Sodium chloride Potassium chloride Unslaked ... Zinc chloride and Ammonium chloride Olive oil and Ammonium chloride - for iron Rosin, tallow, olive oil, and zinc chloride - ... Another possibility is an inorganic flux composed of zinc chloride or tin(II) chloride, ammonium chloride, and a fluoride (e.g ...
The anode reaction is Cd → Cd2+ + 2 e− so that a cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solution is formed near the anode and moves toward ... because the chloride ions are able to move faster, i.e., chloride ions have higher mobility than sodium ions. The sum of the ... For example, in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride, less than half of the current is carried by the positively charged ... For example, the transport numbers of hydrochloric acid (HCl(aq)) may be determined by electrolysis between a cadmium anode and ...
... experiment the test solution is a mixture of agar and oxalic acid in the presence of an electrolyte called cadmium chloride and ...
... chloride and an organocadmium compound similar to the Gilman reagent made from an isoamyl Grignard reagent and cadmium chloride ... yield via the Stille reaction from a 3-furyl-organotin compound and isocaproyl chloride in tetrahydrofuran solvent. Perillene ...
... cadmium; calcium; chloride; chromium; iron; magnesium; manganese; nickel; nitrate; pH; phosphorus; potassium; sodium; and ...
... cadmium, chloride, chromium, color, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, nitrate, pH, selenium, TDS, ... Stormwater runoff from roadways has been observed to contain many metals including zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel ...
... vinyl chloride) chromium ethylbenzene iron lead manganese methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) nickel phenol toluene Trans-1,2 ... 2-Dichloroethane 2-Butanone 2-Hexanone 4-Methyl-2-pentanone 4-methylphenol acetone ammonia barium benzene benzoic acid cadmium ...
... cadmium chloride", Journal of Crystal Growth, 179 (3-4): 605-610, Bibcode:1997JCrGr.179..605V, doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(97)00137- ...
3-dithiane with 1-bromo-3-chloropropane followed by deprotection to the ketone with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and cadmium ...
... thionyl chloride treatment gave acyl chloride 34 and methyl cadmium the ketone 35. In the final stages reaction of 35 with ... Acid 19 was converted to lactone 20 (acetic anhydride, sodium acetate) and reaction with methylmagnesium chloride gave ...
For example, they undergo transmetallation with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) to give dialkylcadmium: 2 RMgX + CdCl2 → R2Cd + 2 Mg(X ... prepared by mixing lithium chloride (LiCl) and copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) in THF. The Kumada-Corriu coupling gives access to [ ... Two typical examples are methylmagnesium chloride Cl−Mg−CH 3 and phenylmagnesium bromide (C 6H 5)−Mg−Br. They are a subclass of ... For the coupling of aryl halides with aryl Grignard reagents, nickel chloride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) is also a good catalyst ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... chloride with potassium to form metallic yttrium and potassium chloride.[6][7] ...
Pacemaker neurons can further be subdivided into cadmium sensitive (CS) and cadmium insensitive (CI) pacemaker neurons. ... Other potassium channels like large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels and sodium chloride dependent potassium ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... which is comparable to the LD50 values of potassium chloride and sodium chloride.[244] Caesium chloride has been promoted as an ... The metal is produced electrolytically from a mixture of fused lithium chloride and potassium chloride.[183] ... potassium chloride).[30] Previously, potassium was generally made from the electrolysis of potassium chloride or potassium ...
"Cadmium Chloride - CdCl2". http://wwwchem.uwimona.edu.jm. Mona, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies. Retrieved 2014-06- ... Zinc chloride. Mercury(II) chloride. Calcium chloride Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... "cadmium chloride". http://chemister.ru. Retrieved 2014-06-25.. External link in ,website=. (help). .mw-parser-output cite. ... కాడ్మియం ఎల్లో("Cadmium Yellow") గా వ్యవహరింపబడుతున్న కాడ్మియం సల్ఫైడ్, ఒక స్థిరమైన ప్రకాశమైన పసుపు రంగును ఇచ్చు వర్ణరసాయన ...
Table salt (sodium chloride) is the main dietary source. hypochloremia hyperchloremia Sodium 01500.0001500 2300; NE Quantity A ... and cadmium have specialized biochemical uses in certain lower organisms, but these elements appear not to be utilized by ... Table salt (sodium chloride, the main source), sea vegetables, milk, and spinach. hyponatremia hypernatremia ...
... nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and, less commonly, zinc-air, and sodium nickel chloride ("zebra") batteries.[1] The ... The sodium nickel chloride or "Zebra" battery uses a molten sodium chloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) salt as the electrolyte. A ... Nickel-zinc battery are cheaper and lighter than Nickel-cadmium batteries. They are also cheaper than (but not as light as) ... Unlike earlier battery chemistries, notably nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion batteries can be discharged and recharged daily and at ...
Garrett, Donald E (5. april 2004). Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride. s. 99. ISBN 9780080472904.. ... Legeringer af metallet med aluminium, cadmium, kobber og mangan anvendes til at fremstille flydele.[107] ... Garrett, Donald E. (2004-04-05) (på en). Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride. Academic Press. s. 200. ISBN ...
This experiment was extended to other metals such as nickel, cadmium, and iron, all of which yielded similar results.[6] The ... it is used to etch copper on printed circuit boards as an alternative to ferric chloride solution.[5] This property was ...
response to cadmium ion. • negative regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade. • response to copper ion. • negative ... regulation of intracellular calcium activated chloride channel activity. • negative regulation of dendritic spine maintenance. ...
In some designs, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride. Molten salt. Molten salt batteries are primary or ... Environmental hazard due to Cadmium - use now virtually prohibited in Europe. Lead-acid. 2.1. 140. Moderately expensive. ... Zinc-chloride. 1.5. Also known as "heavy-duty", inexpensive.. Alkaline. (zinc-manganese dioxide). Zn. MnO2. 1.5. 1.15. 400-590 ... Nickel-cadmium chemistry.. Inexpensive. High-/low-drain, moderate energy density. Can withstand very high discharge rates with ...
The chemical reaction at the positive electrode is similar to that of the nickel-cadmium cell (NiCd), with both using nickel ... Devices that were designed to operate using primary alkaline chemistry (or zinc-carbon/chloride) cells may not function with ... This method is often used with nickel-cadmium cells, which display a large voltage drop at full charge. However, the voltage ... oxide hydroxide (NiOOH). However, the negative electrodes use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. A NiMH battery can ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... For example, ytterbium(III) chloride (YbCl3) is a Lewis acid and can be used as a catalyst in the Aldol[20] and Diels-Alder ... Gale, T.F. (1975). "The Embryotoxicity of Ytterbium Chloride in Golden Hamsters". Teratology. 11 (3): 289-95. doi:10.1002/tera. ... which crystallizes in the same structure as sodium chloride.[8] ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... This makes hydrogen sulfide and barium chloride. The barium chloride is melted and electrolyzed to get liquid barium metal. The ... The barium chloride is melted and electrolyzed, making barium metal. Uses[change , change source]. As a metal[change , change ... Barium carbonate, the other ore of barium, is dissolved in hydrochloric acid to make barium chloride and carbon dioxide. ...
Cadmium 1817 S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff 1817 S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff All three found ... Wöhler mistakenly thought he had isolated the metal in 1828 from a volatile chloride he supposed to be yttrium chloride,[62][63 ... "48 Cadmium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "34 Selenium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. ...
... chloride Mercury (element) Mercury (II) chloride mercury fulminate mercury-vapor lamp Metacinnabarite metal metal halide ... cadmium Calamine Calcite Calcium Calcium carbonate Calcium oxide Californium calomel Calorimeter Canfieldite Carbohydrate ... skeletal formula skin Smectite Smoky quartz Soapstone Soda niter sodium Sodium bicarbonate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride ... reaction Chemical series Chemical thermodynamics Cheminformatics chemist chemistry Chemistry basic topics Chirality Chloride ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... For example, germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas, respectively, that can be very irritating to the eyes ... Winkler was able to prepare several new compounds of germanium, including fluorides, chlorides, sulfides, dioxide, and ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... Manganese is an important cofactor, and calcium and chloride are also required for the reaction to occur. (Raven 2005) ...
Concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, commonly found in sewage sludge, which is also used as ... and inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, which are also part of the wastes excreted by the renal system. Over-fertilization ... Phosphate ores contain heavy metals such as cadmium and uranium, which can reach the food chain via mineral phosphate ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... Manganese is an important cofactor, and calcium and chloride are also required for the reaction to occur. (Raven 2005) ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... Bismuth(III) chloride reacts with hydrogen chloride in ether solution to produce the acid HBiCl. 4.[30] ... 18, which is prepared by reducing a mixture of hafnium(IV) chloride and bismuth chloride with elemental bismuth, having the ... It is also used to treat some other gastro-intestinal diseases like shigellosis[64] and cadmium poisoning.[5] The mechanism of ...
To date, the first ten of fifty-five contaminant SGVs have been published, for the following: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead ... vinyl chloride, 1,1,2,2 tetrachloroethane and 1,1,1,2 tetrachloroethane, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, carbon ...
Cadmium oxide (CdO). *Calcium oxide (CaO). *Carbon monoxide (CO). *Chromium(II) oxide (CrO) ... Hydrogen chloride. *Hydrogen fluoride. *Hydrogen (molecular). *Hydroxyl radical. *Iron(II) oxide. *Magnesium monohydride cation ...
It is one of the main precursors to other cadmium compounds. It crystallizes in a cubic rocksalt lattice like sodium chloride, ... A thin coat of cadmium oxide forms on the surface of cadmium in moist air at room temperature.[12] Cadmium will oxidize at room ... Cadmium oxide is used in cadmium plating baths, electrodes for storage batteries, cadmium salts, catalyst, ceramic glazes, ... Cadmium oxide can be found as a colorless amorphous powder or as brown or red crystals.[12] Cadmium oxide is an n-type ...
In the US, General Electric made a locomotive with sodium - nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) battery storage. They expect ≥10% fuel ... metal hydride batteries-the type currently used in hybrids-are much lower than batteries like lead acid or nickel cadmium ... such as nickel chloride and nickel oxide, have known carcinogenic effects in chick embryos and rats.[71][72][73] The main ...
The oxide also may be prepared specially for catalytic use by heating variously a mixture of palladium(II) chloride and ... Cadmium oxide (CdO). *Calcium oxide (CaO). *Carbon monoxide (CO). *Chromium(II) oxide (CrO) ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... Alkaline earth metal carbonates may be removed after reaction with hydrogen chloride; then follow thickening, filtration, and ... The chloride derivative [Th(C5H5)3Cl] is prepared by heating thorium tetrachloride with limiting K(C5H5) used (other univalent ... chlorides, and bromides.[50] For example, when treated with potassium fluoride and hydrofluoric acid, Th4+ forms the complex ...
Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium ... The fluoride, chloride, and bromide have the sodium chloride structure, but the iodide has three known stable forms at ... using silver ions to precipitate chloride as silver chloride. Silver is also used for its antibacterial properties for water ... For example, silver chloride dissolves readily in excess aqueous ammonia to form [Ag(NH3)2]+; silver salts are dissolved in ...
Synonyms: Cadmium dichloride; Cadmium chloride, hydrate (2:5); Cadmium chloride, hemipentahydrate CAS No.: 10108-64-2 Molecular ... Cadmium Chloride (10108-64-2) No No No Cadmium comp --------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 2 ... CADMIUM CHLORIDE. MSDS Number: C0099 --- Effective Date: 12/08/96. 1. Product Identification. ... Cadmium Chloride (10108-64-2) Yes Yes No Yes --------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 1\---------------- - ...
... or from cadmium oxide or cadmium carbonate. Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "Cadmium ... Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the action of anhydrous chlorine or hydrogen chloride gas on heated cadmium metal ... Cadmium chloride is also used for photocopying, dyeing and electroplating. Anatolievich, Kiper Ruslan. "cadmium chloride". ... Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2. This salt is a hygroscopic ...
Behavioural and functional neurotoxicological changes caused by cadmium in a three-generational study in rats. Author:. ...
Cadmium chloride. Regulatory process names 6 Translated names 18 IUPAC names 5 Other identifiers 3 ... This database contains use prohibitions of mercury and cadmium above certain thresholds in batteries and accumulators, with ... It also captures certain labeling requirements on such products containing mercury, cadmium and lead above specified quantities ...
Apart from cadmium sulphide, none of the insoluble cadmium compounds(e.g. cadmium sulfoselenide, cadmium zinc sulphide or ... Based on available data and read-across, cadmium chloride and sulphate are currently classified as Muta. Cat. 2; R46 (may cause ... the other highly soluble forms of cadmium (i.e. cadmium nitrate) warrant comparable classifications. ... If cadmium inhibits the repair of DNA damage induced by other agents, this could explain some of the differences in the results ...
Cadmium chloride. Regulatory process names 1 Translated names 18 CAS names 1 IUPAC names 6 Other identifiers 3 ...
Pulmonary changes resulting from subchronic exposure to cadmium chloride aerosol.. Kutzman RS, Drew RT, Shiotsuka RN, Cockrell ...
... doped into crystals of cesium cadmium chloride and a redetermination of the structure of cesium cadmium chloride". Inorganic ... Caesium cadmium chloride (CsCdCl3) is a synthetic crystalline material. It belongs to the AMX3 group (where A=alkali metal, M= ... It is formed when an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid containing an equimolar solution of caesium chloride and cadmium ... Electron paramagnetic spectrum of manganese(II)-manganese(II) pairs in single crystals of cesium cadmium chloride. Electronic ...
Cadmium chloride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ... Cadmium, Cadmium Salts, Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemical Synthesis, Crystal Grade Inorganics, Essential Chemicals, ... UN2570 - class 6.1 - PG 3 - EHS - Cadmium compounds, HI: all (not BR) ...
Next Generation Science Standards and NGSS are registered trademarks of Achieve. Neither Achieve nor the lead states and partners that developed the Next Generation Science Standards were involved in the production of this product, and do not endorse it.. ...
cadmium chloride, ultra dry, cdcl2.h2o, cadmium chloride hydrate, cadmium chloride 1-hydrate, cadmium chloride hydrate, ... cadmium chloride, ultra dry, cdcl2.h2o, cadmium chloride hydrate, cadmium chloride 1-hydrate, cadmium chloride hydrate, ... puratronic, cadmium chloride monohydrate, puriss, cadmium chloride hydrate trace metals basis. IUPAC Name. dichlorocadmium; ... DOTInformation : Transport Hazard Class: 6.1; Packing Group: II; Proper Shipping Name: CADMIUM COMPOUNDS ...
offers cobalt oxide, carbonates, chlorides and nickel oxide. more... EMAIL INQUIRY to 6 Cadmium Oxide/Carbonate/Nitrate/ ... Cadmium Oxide/Carbonate/Nitrate/Chloride Suppliers. Limit companies to: Worldwide USA China India ... is a manufacturer and supplier of cadmium carbonate, cadmium sulfide, cobalt oxide, copper oxide black, sodium silico fluoride ... Synonyms for Cadmium Oxide/Carbonate/Nitrate/Chloride ...
This report contains market size and forecasts of Cadmium Chloride in global, including the following market information: ... 3.3 Global Cadmium Chloride Revenue by Companies. 3.4 Global Cadmium Chloride Sales by Companies. 3.5 Global Cadmium Chloride ... 10 CADMIUM CHLORIDE SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS. 10.1 Cadmium Chloride Industry Value Chain. 10.2 Cadmium Chloride Upstream Market. ... Cadmium Chloride Market Restraints in Global Market. Table 101. Cadmium Chloride Raw Materials. Table 102. Cadmium Chloride Raw ...
Human thioredoxin C35S,C62S,C69S,C73S mutant showing cadmium chloride bound to the active site. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3KD0/pdb ... The 1.7 A resolution crystal structure of a cadmium chloride complex with the active site of a mutant human thioredoxin. Hall, ...
Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible). This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/Safety data sheets.. H301-H330-H340-H350-H360-H372-H400-H410: Toxic if swallowed. Fatal if inhaled. May cause genetic defects. May cause cancer. May damage fertility or the unborn child. Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure. Very toxic to aquatic life. Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.. DOTInformation : DOT Class: 6.1, Packaging Group: III. EINECSNumber : 233-296-7. ...
Yellow Pages Directory of Cadmium Chloride, Cadmium Chloride manufacturers, Traders, and Cadmium Chloride, Cadmium Chloride ... Find the list of best Cadmium Chloride suppliers & Manufacturers. ... Deals in Cadmium Chloride, N-butyl Bromide, Thionyl Chloride, iso propyl bromide ... Deals in Cadmium Chloride, Sodium Cyanide Tablet, Zinc Cyanide Powder, Zinc Sulphate ...
Cadmium chloride explanation free. What is Cadmium chloride? Meaning of Cadmium chloride medical term. What does Cadmium ... Looking for online definition of Cadmium chloride in the Medical Dictionary? ... cadmium. (redirected from Cadmium chloride). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. cadmium. (Cd) [kad´ ... Oncogenicity of rat prostate cells transformed in vitro with cadmium chloride.. Acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium- ...
Find out information about cadmium chloride. CdCl2 A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, ... methanol, and ethanol; used in photography, in dyeing and calico printing, and... Explanation of cadmium chloride ... cadmium chloride. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. cadmium chloride. [′kad·mē·əm ′klȯr‚īd] (inorganic ... The source of cadmium ions was aqueous cadmium chloride (Cd[Cl.. Impurity effects of cadmium ions on the fundamental absorption ...
Three high-resolution crystal structures of cadmium-substituted carboxypeptidase A provide insight into the enzymatic function ... CADMIUM-SUBSTITUTED BOVINE PACREATIC CARBOXYPEPTIDASE A (ALFA-FORM) AT PH 5.5 AND 2 MM CHLORIDE IN MONOCLINIC CRYSTAL FORM.. * ...
... hemipentahydrate ImageFile1 = Cadmium chloride 3D balls.png ImageName1 = Cadmium chloride ImageFile2 = Cadmium ... Cadmium chloride ImageFile = Cadmium chloride hemipentahydrate.jpg ImageName = ... Cadmium fluoride. Cadmium bromide. Cadmium iodide. OtherCations = Zinc chloride. Mercury(II) chloride. Cadmium chloride is a ... cadmium - A metal found in several compounds: cadmium oxide, cadmium carbonate, cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, and cadmium ...
... and poly aluminium chloride (PAC) was investigated for the first time, with the exploration of removal mechanism and efficacy. ... Cadmium is highly poisonous to mammals and related water pollution incidents are increasing world-widely. Here, the clean-up of ... A combined system of microwave-functionalized rice husk and poly-aluminium chloride for trace cadmium-contaminated source water ... A combined system of microwave-functionalized rice husk and poly-aluminium chloride for trace cadmium-contaminated source water ...
CAUTION: Cadmium and cadmium compounds are listed as known human carcinogens: Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition (PB2005- ... Synth. 5, 153 (1957). Book: Cadmium in the Environment, Part I: Ecological Cycling, J. O. Nriagu, Ed. (Wiley-Interscience, New ... Literature References: Prepn: Gmelins, Cadmium (8th ed.) 33, pp 82-83 (1925); supplement, pp 464-465 (1959); Pray, Inorg. ... Use: Photography; dyeing and calico printing; in the vacuum tube industry; manuf of cadmium yellow; galvanoplasty; manuf of ...
Hepatoprotective role of Moringa oleifera ethanolic leaf extract on Liver functions (Biomarker) in cadmium chloride induced ... in cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity on the liver of albino Wistar rats. Sixty-six adult male albino wistar rats ... Keywords: Liver Functions, Cadmium, Moringa oleifera, Hepatoprotective, Hepatotoxiciy Abstract. This study investigated the ...
Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) anhydrous was purchased from Sigma Chem. Co. (St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.). Tris/-HCl was obtained from ... Protective effects of Fragaria ananassa methanolic extract in a rat model of cadmium chloride-induced neurotoxicity. Manal F. ... 2018) Protective effects of Fragaria ananassa extract against cadmium chloride-induced acute renal toxicity in rats. Biol. ... The present study evaluated the protective effects of Fragaria ananassa methanolic extract (SME) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)- ...
The effects and treatment of inhalation of cadmium chloride aerosols in the dog. by Helena Harrison et al. ... The effects and treatment of inhalation of cadmium chloride aerosols in the dog.. *. Helena Harrison, Haley Bunting ... Nitrate and Chloride in the Illinois Waterway. Walt Kelly ISWS + 9 • Oct 21, 2017 ...
... after injection of cadmium chloride in the rat. by Brian P. Setchell et al. ... Changes in the permeability of the testicular capillaries and of the blood-testis barrier after injection of cadmium chloride ... Changes in the Peritubular Tissue of Rat Testis after Cadmium Treatment. *Elena Marettová, M. Maretta, J. Legáth ... FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, prevents cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice.. *Lisa Joy Martin, Haiyan Chen, +9 ...
Cadmium chloride did not show any skin sensitization effects at 0.5% in a GMPT test. Cadmium chloride and sulphate were patch- ... Cadmium chloride did not show any skin sensitization effects at 0.5% in a GMPT test. Cadmium chloride and sulphate were patch- ... Positive patch-test reactions to cadmium chloride and sulphate in human volunteers are summarised by Wahlberg (1977). The ... With regard to cadmium metal and cadmium oxide, the accumulated experience in occupational practice over decades does not ...
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  • These were once used in the synthesis of ketones from acyl chlorides: CdCl 2 + 2 RMgX → R 2Cd + MgCl 2 + MgX 2 R 2Cd + 2R'COCl → 2R'COR + CdCl 2 Such reagents have largely been supplanted by organocopper compounds, which are much less toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigated the hepatoprotective role of ethanolic extract of Moringa oliefera (M.O) on liver function (Biomarkers) in cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-induced hepatotoxicity on the liver of albino Wistar rats. (ajol.info)
  • The present study evaluated the protective effects of Fragaria ananassa methanolic extract (SME) on cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-induced neuronal toxicity in rats. (bioscirep.org)
  • A chronic inhalation exposure study with rats provides toxicological evidence that exposure to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) aerosol can cause a dose-dependent incidence of malignant lung tumors. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle cell line C(2)C(12) were investigated. (unicamp.br)
  • In this study we investigated the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) on Viability, morphology and bone Matrix Miniralization of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (rMSCs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Our previous results indicate that cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) affects mean arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies have been performed to determine if cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) can induce morphological cell transformation, DNA from CdCl(2)-induced transformed cells can transform other mammalian cells, and the transformed cells induced by CdCl(2) can form tumors in nude mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Apart from cadmium sulphide, none of the insoluble cadmium compounds (e.g. cadmium sulfoselenide, cadmium zinc sulphide or cadmium telluride) , not expected to penetrate easily into the organisms, are classified for mutagenicity. (europa.eu)
  • Only limited data were available on the skin sensitization potential of cadmium metal and cadmium compounds. (europa.eu)
  • Given the carcinogen properties of cadmium metal and some of the cadmium compounds, risk reduction measures are in place to prevent contact. (europa.eu)
  • No skin sensitization studies were located on cadmium metal or any of the other cadmium compounds. (europa.eu)
  • No further human information was located on cadmium metal or the other cadmium compounds. (europa.eu)
  • Also in view of the risk reduction measures which need to be taken as a result of the carcinogenicity of cadmium metal and some of the cadmium compounds, acute dermal toxicity is not likely to pose an issue for human health. (europa.eu)
  • Compounds of cadmium play an important role as precursors of quantum dot CdSe production. (aplmaterials.com)
  • Some cadmium compounds may also appear as a brown, yellow, or red powdery substance. (osha.gov)
  • It may be argued that the cadmium compounds used in artist paints would not be bioavailable due to its low solubility. (ecomole.com)
  • If you are exposed to cadmium or cadmium compounds, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium and its compounds may travel through soil, but its mobility depends on several factors such as pH and amount of organic matter, which will vary depending on the local environment. (cdc.gov)
  • various reports suggested that several plants and compounds possess antioxidant properties are exhibited nephroprotector activity against cadmium chloride induced renal damage. (ijddr.in)
  • Based on subsequent epidemiological and toxicological studies, NIOSH now recommends that cadmium and its compounds be regarded as potential occupational carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Based primarily on these data, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that cadmium and its compounds be regarded as potential occupational carcinogens and that appropriate controls be used to reduce worker exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The other compounds have network structures with CdCl₆ local units and chloride bridges. (mun.ca)
  • Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "Cadmium Yellow", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • NS Mathur & Co. is a manufacturer and supplier of cadmium carbonate, cadmium sulfide, cobalt oxide, copper oxide black, sodium silico fluoride, and potassium nitrate. (chemicalregister.com)
  • First, 2mM stock solutions of cadmium chloride and sodium sulfide in appropriate solvent (water) were prepared freshly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide , used as " Cadmium Yellow ", a brilliant-yellow pigment, which is stable to heat and sulfide fumes. (academic.ru)
  • Cadmium is found primarily as cadmium sulfide (less than 1%) in ores containing zinc, lead, and copper. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium is commercially available as an oxide, chloride, or sulfide. (cdc.gov)
  • By analogy, the other highly soluble forms of cadmium (i.e. cadmium nitrate) warrant comparable classifications. (europa.eu)
  • Cadmium nitrate, also highly water soluble, is at present not classified for acute oral toxicity but a similar classification should be considered. (europa.eu)
  • Based on comparable toxicity and/or solubility / bioavailability, all other highly and slightly soluble cadmium forms, i.e. cadmium nitrate, hydroxide and carbonate should carry a comparable classification. (europa.eu)
  • Cd + 2 HCl → CdCl2 + H2 Hydrochloric acid may be used to make hydrated CdCl2 from the metal, or from cadmium oxide or cadmium carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • At present, the slightly soluble cadmium metal and oxide are classified as Muta. (europa.eu)
  • Ltd. offers cobalt oxide, carbonates, chlorides and nickel oxide. (chemicalregister.com)
  • With regard to cadmium metal and cadmium oxide, the accumulated experience in occupational practice over decades does not indicate any sensitizing potential (ECB, 2007). (europa.eu)
  • Cadmium (as oxide, chloride, and sulfate) will exist in air as particles or vapors (from high temperature processes). (cdc.gov)
  • Most chlorides are salts that are formed either by direct union of chlorine with a metal or by reaction of hydrochloric acid with a metal, a metal oxide, or an inorganic base. (alfa.com)
  • A recent epidemiological study has demonstrated a statistically significant excess of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to cadmium oxide (CdO). (cdc.gov)
  • and for cadmium oxide production, an 8-hour TWA of 50 µg/m 3 (as Cd). (cdc.gov)
  • Because of its low boiling point (767°C) and a high vapor pressure relative to the metals with which it is found, cadmium volatilizes readily during smelting and then condenses to form fine airborne particles that react almost immediately with oxygen to form respirable cadmium oxide fume. (cdc.gov)
  • Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The highest cadmium uptake amount was resulted by consumption of 300 mg/Kg potassium chloride. (ac.ir)
  • Therefore, the canola plant is convenient for cadmium absorption plant in phytoremediation technology on basis of the laboratory analyses and pot test results and uptake of potassium chloride can also improve the phytoremediation efficiency of soil contaminated by cadmium. (ac.ir)
  • Chloride salts include sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride and ammonium chloride. (alfa.com)
  • They tested numerous alternative salts, including sodium chloride (table salt) and potassium chloride, and found that magnesium chloride yielded comparable efficiency. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Manufacturer And Exporters Of Chemicals Like Ammonium Chloride , Potassium Chloride , Sodium Carbonate, Speciality In Salts Of Bismuth, Cadmium , Iodine And Mercury. (indiayellowpagesonline.in)
  • A similar classification for cadmium hydroxide and carbonate may therefore be considered. (europa.eu)
  • Ingested cadmium salts may cause severe and sometimes fatal poisonings. (hazard.com)
  • Although as little as 10 - 20 mg of soluble cadmium salts have produced severe toxic symptoms when ingested, death probably requires several hundred mg by oral route. (hazard.com)
  • The salts of hydrochloric acid contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. (alfa.com)
  • Most chloride salts are readily soluble in water, but mercurous chloride (calomel) and silver chloride are insoluble, and lead chloride is only slightly soluble. (alfa.com)
  • Cadmium is a metal that can be found in the environment either in its elemental form or in a number of different salts. (canada.ca)
  • Cadmium metal is practically insoluble in water but some cadmium salts are water soluble. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium chloride bromide and iodide are also available as ultra high purity beads. (aplmaterials.com)
  • Subsequent assay of cell homogenates for MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, neutral red uptake and nucleic acid content showed that cadmium was toxic to C(2)C(12) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. (unicamp.br)
  • Activated by chloride and fluoride, but not bromide. (ucsc.edu)
  • Cadmium iodide, CdI2, has a very similar crystal structure to CdCl2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The individual layers in the two structures are identical, but in CdCl2 the chloride ions are arranged in a CCP lattice, whereas in CdI2 the iodide ions are arranged in an HCP lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure is based on the sodium chloride crystal structure, but with half of the metal ions removed (the "missing" ions are shown as hatched light-blue balls in the drawing) so that the resultant structure consists of a layered lattice. (academic.ru)
  • 1981. The effects of sodium chromate and carbon tetrachloride on the urinary excretion and tissue distribution of cadmium in cadmium-pretreated rats. (cdc.gov)
  • 5-fluorouracil, cadmium, cacodylic acid and sodium chloride. (epa.gov)
  • The only skin sensitization study that could be found was a guinea-pig maximization test (GMPT) conducted with water soluble cadmium chloride, which indicated no contact sensitisation following epicutaneous exposure at concentrations up to 0.5% after intradermal or topical sensitisation (Wahlberg and Boman, 1979). (europa.eu)
  • When administered orally, the water soluble cadmium chloride caused mortality at relatively low doses, with LD50s in mouse and rat ranging from 29 to 327 mg Cd/kg bw. (europa.eu)
  • It is hence likely that, within a time frame of a couple of years to several decades, cadmium from pigments has a similar solubility and bioavailability as an easily soluble cadmium salt such as cadmium chloride. (ecomole.com)
  • Cadmium chloride and sulphate were patch-tested in human volunteers but, across several studies, the evidence remained inconclusive. (europa.eu)
  • Positive patch-test reactions to cadmium chloride and sulphate in human volunteers are summarised by Wahlberg (1977). (europa.eu)
  • Sellers Of Zinc Chloride Solid, Liquied And Special Pharma Gr. 98% To 99% Zinc Chloride Anhydrous Free Flowing Powder And Zinc Sulphate Mono Hydrate . (indiayellowpagesonline.in)
  • Mfrs.of Zinc Chloride Powder, Liquid, Zinc Sulphate Hepta Hydrate , Monohydrate And Gal. (indiayellowpagesonline.in)
  • Effect of long term cadmium chloride exposure on testicular functions in male albino rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The rats administrated with P.daemia extract and cadmium chloride showed a significantly (p (rjppd.org)
  • The purpose of present study is to evaluate the nephroprotector activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fruits of Pedalium murex (300 and 600mg/kg body weight, p.o.) against cadmium chloride-induced (3mg/kg/d s.c.) renal toxicity in rats. (ijddr.in)
  • Modulation of tissue trace metal concentrations in weanling rats fed different levels of zinc and exposed to oral lead and cadmium. (cdc.gov)
  • therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)‑induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with cadmium chloride (40 mg/l) in drinking water for six weeks, and then the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs were carried out as a cellular backup for osteoblasts. (ac.ir)
  • In addition, it was revealed that the cadmium treatment of rats caused a significant reduction in nuclear diameter and cytoplasm area. (ac.ir)
  • Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the action of anhydrous chlorine or hydrogen chloride gas on heated cadmium metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anhydrous magnesium chloride is the principal precursor to magnesium metal, which is produced on a large scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Anhydrous MgCl 2 is produced industrially by heating the chloride salt of hexammine complex [Mg(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reports have shown the teratogenic effects of cadmium, thus the present study was carried out with the aim of determining the effects of cadmium chloride on cochlear development in male mouse fetus. (ac.ir)
  • Further studies regarding the effects of cadmium chloride on neural tube deformity and hearing dysfunction are strongly recommended. (ac.ir)
  • Pulmonary changes resulting from subchronic exposure to cadmium chloride aerosol. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in the permeability of the testicular capillaries and of the 'blood-testis barrier' after injection of cadmium chloride in the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sobhani M, Rouzbehi A, Mahmoodi R, Sobhani Z. The Protective Effect of Melatonin on Sperm Morphology and Histology of the Rat Testis Damage Induced by Cadmium Chloride. (ac.ir)
  • Niknafs B, Salehnia M, Kamkar M. Induction and Determination of Apoptotic and Necrotic Cell Death by Cadmium Chloride in Testis Tissue of Mouse. (jri.ir)
  • Resistant murine strains demonstrate a decreased cadmium concentration in the testis and also in the epididymis and seminal vesicle. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study we analyzed cadmium transport into tissues with a vascular barrier, the testis, epididymis, and brain, in an attempt to characterize the mechanisms of strain resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Studies with isolated tubules and analysis of testicular fluid compartments demonstrated no significant difference in cadmium uptake or efflux between the strains when corrected for the amount of 109 Cd entering the testis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • an increase in capillary permeability occurs within 1 to 2 h of cadmium exposure ( Aoki and Fawcett, 1975 ) and the distribution of injury parallels the anatomical distribution of the blood supply to the testis and epididymis ( Gunn and Gould, 1970 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2. (wikipedia.org)
  • when chlorine is the more electronegative element in the compound, the compound is called a chloride. (alfa.com)
  • The word chloride can also refer to a chemical compound in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded in the molecule. (alfa.com)
  • Most metal chlorides conduct electricity when fused or dissolved in water and can be decomposed by electrolysis to chlorine gas and the metal. (alfa.com)
  • 3D distributions of chlorine and sulphur impurities in a thin-film cadmium telluride solar cell. (nature.com)
  • The production of metallic magnesium at the cathode (reduction reaction) is accompanied by the oxidation of the chloride anions at the anode with release of gaseous chlorine . (wikipedia.org)
  • FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, prevents cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This research aimed to study the effect of different doses of cadmium on testicular tissues at acute stage by light and electron microscopy. (jri.ir)
  • Conclusion: Both apoptosis and necrosis occurred in testicular tissue by exposure to cadmium in a concentration-dependent manner. (jri.ir)
  • Some studies have also shown that cadmium can cause cell death by necrosis in testicular tissue (4-6). (jri.ir)
  • Cadmium causes necrosis and atrophy in testicular tissue by suppression of glutathione peroxidase activity (7). (jri.ir)
  • Although most animals with scrotal testes are susceptible to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity, strain-related differences are seen in mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, murine strain differences in testicular sensitivity to cadmium appear to be related to the variable presence of a transport system for cadmium in the testicular vasculature. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although the majority of cadmium enters the liver and the kidney, acute exposure to cadmium can result in a rapid testicular hemorrhagic necrosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The crystal structure of cadmium chloride (described below), composed of two-dimensional layers of ions, is a reference for describing other crystal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The source of cadmium ions was aqueous cadmium chloride (Cd[Cl. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cadmium chloride has a high solubility in water, and it dissociates into ions. (academic.ru)
  • Cadmium is a nonessential trace element, and its toxicity may be due to induced alterations in cellular homeostasis of essential metal ions, such as copper, zinc, and calcium. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Final Report: Multisite lead and cadmium exposure study with biological markers incorporated. (cdc.gov)
  • Nourmoradi H, Foroghi M, Farhadkhani M, Vahid Dastjerdi M. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran. (springer.com)
  • Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Cadmium Chloride-induced Oxidative Stress In Skeletal Muscle Cells In Vitro. (unicamp.br)
  • Cadmium Chloride-induced Oxidative Stress In Skeletal Muscle Cells In Vitro. (unicamp.br)
  • This same basic structure is found in many other salt s and mineral s, in particular those that display some degree of covalent bonding, such as in manganese(II) chloride , cobalt(II) chloride , or magnesium chloride . (academic.ru)
  • Magnesium chloride is also nontoxic, abundant and costs about 300 times less than cadmium chloride. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Using magnesium chloride, he says, "will reduce not only the health risks but also the production costs because the raw material is cheaper and much easier to dispose of. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl 2 and its various hydrates MgCl 2 (H 2 O) x . (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water . (wikipedia.org)
  • In North America, magnesium chloride is produced primarily from Great Salt Lake brine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium chloride, as the natural mineral bischofite , is also extracted (by solution mining) out of ancient seabeds, for example, the Zechstein seabed in northwest Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some magnesium chloride is made from solar evaporation of seawater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form most readily available. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general population in Europe is exposed to levels of cadmium that, already today, may cause effects on kidney and bone for a significant part of the population. (ecomole.com)
  • In general, leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach, potatoes and grains, peanuts, soybeans, and sunflower seeds contain high levels of cadmium, approximately 0.05- 0.12 mg cadmium/kg. (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco leaves accumulate high levels of cadmium from the soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Oral exposure to high levels of cadmium over a long period of time may result in adverse effects on the kidneys or on bones. (canada.ca)
  • This research was conducted to study the effect of chloride and potassium sulfate on cadmium uptake and its phytoremediation improvement by L. Brassica napus in vitro through The Mashhad Torogh research in crop year 1391-1392. (ac.ir)
  • Cadmium chloride and cadmium sulfate are soluble in water. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the literature, ammonium halides, mainly ammonium chloride, are most often used as activators in diffusion metallization [5-7]. (ijert.org)
  • Insoluble forms of cadmium are immobile and will deposit and absorb to sediments. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium metal and its oxides are insoluble in water. (cdc.gov)
  • The study was to investigate the acute toxicity effects of two heavy metals as potential dangerous substances by assessing the mortality effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) pollutants on a freshwater fish, P. pingi . (peertechz.com)
  • Cross-sectional electron beam-induced current maps show the difference in cadmium telluride solar cells before (pictured above) and after (below) cadmium chloride treatment. (oakridgetoday.com)
  • Kami khusus Bekalan Cadmium Chloride pengilang & pembekal / kilang dari China. (zgshenyu.com)
  • If involved in a fire, this material can emit very toxic fumes of cadmium. (hazard.com)
  • Inhalation of cadmium fumes causes pulmonary edema with proliferative interstitial pneumonia and various degrees of lung damage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • inhalation of cadmium fumes or dust causes pneumoconiosis, and ingestion of foods contaminated by cadmium-plated containers causes violent gastrointestinal symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Powdered cadmium will burn and can release corrosive fumes. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals and a common industrial pollutant present in the environment [ 1 , 2 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury are such heavy metals. (jri.ir)
  • Moreover, more recent research has pointed out osteoporosis as a serious effect of cadmium exposure which may occur at even lower exposure levels compared to the kidney effects. (ecomole.com)
  • The effect of cadmium chloride treatment on close-spaced sublimated cadmium telluride thin-film solar cells. (nature.com)
  • The amount of cadmium absorbed from smoking one pack of cigarettes per day is about 1- 3 µg/day. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects and treatment of inhalation of cadmium chloride aerosols in the dog. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These were once used in the synthesis of ketone s from acyl chloride s (see below), but nowadays they have largely been supplanted by organocopper compound s, which are much less toxic. (academic.ru)
  • This aim has resulted into, amongst others, the restriction entry 23 in REACH, Annex XVII for cadmium and its compound. (ecomole.com)
  • The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Cadmium compound. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this bulletin is to disseminate recent information concerning the potential carcinogenic hazard to workers of cadmium (Cd). (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium enters the body through different routes of uptake, for example, through gastrointestinal tract by eating contaminated crops and meat. (jri.ir)
  • The other route of cadmium uptake is through respiration of contaminated air via the respiratory system. (jri.ir)
  • In addition, the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in smokers and nonsmokers is different and the concentration of cadmium in smokers is higher (1). (jri.ir)
  • Experiments were performed in control and metallothionein-null mice, injected subcutaneously with a wide range of cadmium chloride doses, six times per week for up to 10 wk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Cadmium sulphoricum, in reducing genotoxic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methods: Cadmium chloride was injected into mature Balb/c mice intraperitoneally in 7 doses. (jri.ir)
  • The toxic effects of cadmium on testes have been reported to range from apoptosis to necrosis, with different effects on fertility. (jri.ir)
  • The analysis of variance results showed that cadmium levels and different amounts of potassium fertilizers had a significant effect on the aerial organ and root dry weight and potassium concentration and soil properties such as pH and electrical conductivity. (ac.ir)
  • The toxicity of cadmium as an industrial pollutant, a food contaminant and as one of the major components in cigarette smoke has been well established. (ijddr.in)
  • Cadmium is an environmental pollutant that is used in manufacturing accessories such as batteries, paints and plastics (1). (jri.ir)
  • Cadmium (Cd) is the most widespread environmental pollutant, which exerts diverse toxic effects in various tissues and organs of humans and animals ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cadmium an environmental pollutant , exert several risks to human health . (bvsalud.org)
  • It is formed when an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid containing an equimolar solution of caesium chloride and cadmium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to examine the inhibitory effect of the Pergularia daemia on cadmium chloride induced hepatoprotective activity in liver. (rjppd.org)
  • Furthermore, the International Agency of Research on Cancer has introduced carcinogenic effects of cadmium on various tissues, including kidneys, prostate, liver, and pancreas (3). (jri.ir)
  • Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted as a byproduct during the production of other metals such as zinc, lead, or copper. (cdc.gov)
  • The absence of homeostatic mechanisms for toxic metals such as cadmium also suggests the absence of selective, mediated transport processes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To traverse plasma membranes, cadmium must therefore utilize transport systems that normally carry endogenous metals or gain entry via nonselective pathways ( Ballatori, 1991 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chronic exposure to cadmium, even at relatively low concentrations, may result in kidney damage, anemia, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, perforation of the nasal septum, loss of smell, male reproductive effects, and an increased risk of cancer of the lung and of the prostate. (hazard.com)
  • Such treatment is likely to translocate cadmium from pulmonary or other tissue to renal tissue. (osha.gov)
  • OSHA, NIOSH, and ACGIH have aimed their standards or recommendations for permissible occupational exposures to cadmium toward prevention of such critical health effects as chronic renal damage and acute pulmonary toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • We examined the relationship between smoking, urinary cadmium levels, and pulmonary function in a nationally representative population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). (bmj.com)
  • In the United States, for nonsmokers the primary source of cadmium exposure is from the food supply. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium sulfoselenide and cadmium zinc sulphide are used as bright yellow to deep red pigments in artists paint. (ecomole.com)
  • Treating cadmium-telluride (CdTe) solar cell materials with cadmium-chloride improves their efficiency, but researchers have not fully understood why. (oakridgetoday.com)
  • Electricity produced by cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic modules is the lowest-cost electricity in the solar industry, and now undercuts fossil fuel-based sources in many regions of the world. (nature.com)
  • The simplest example of an inorganic covalently bonded chloride is hydrogen chloride, HCl. (alfa.com)
  • Electron paramagnetic spectrum of manganese(II)-manganese(II) pairs in single crystals of cesium cadmium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • manganese(II) chloride. (mcw.edu)
  • Borong Bekalan Cadmium Chloride dengan kualiti tinggi sebagai harga rendah / murah, salah satu daripada Bekalan Cadmium Chloride jenama terkemuka dari China, Shenyu Energy (Shandong) Development Co. Ltd. (zgshenyu.com)
  • Mercury chloride and cadmium chloride were of analytical reagent grade and it purchased from Chengdu Kelong Chemical Reagent Factory (Sichuan, China). (peertechz.com)