A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (1/347)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals.  (+info)

N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the nicotinic enhancement of GABA release in chick brain. (2/347)

The role of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was investigated in chick brain slices. Whole cell recordings of neurons in the lateral spiriform (SpL) and ventral lateral geniculate (LGNv) nuclei showed that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) blocked the carbachol-induced increase of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs, indicating that VDCCs might be involved. To conclusively show a role for VDCCs, the presynaptic effect of carbachol on SpL and LGNv neurons was examined in the presence of selective blockers of VDCC subtypes. omega-Conotoxin GVIA, a selective antagonist of N-type channels, significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in the SpL by 78% compared with control responses. Nifedipine, an L-type channel blocker, and omega-Agatoxin-TK, a P/Q-type channel blocker, did not inhibit the enhancement of GABAergic IPSCs. In the LGNv, omega-Conotoxin GVIA also significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release by 71% from control values. Although omega-Agatoxin-TK did not block the nicotinic enhancement, L-type channel blockers showed complex effects on the nAChR-mediated enhancement. These results indicate that the nAChR-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs requires activation of N-type channels in both the SpL and LGNv.  (+info)

Cholinergic modulation of neostriatal output: a functional antagonism between different types of muscarinic receptors. (3/347)

It is demonstrated that acetylcholine released from cholinergic interneurons modulates the excitability of neostriatal projection neurons. Physostigmine and neostigmine increase input resistance (RN) and enhance evoked discharge of spiny projection neurons in a manner similar to muscarine. Muscarinic RN increase occurs in the whole subthreshold voltage range (-100 to -45 mV), remains in the presence of TTX and Cd2+, and can be blocked by the relatively selective M1,4 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine but not by M2 or M3 selective antagonists. Cs+ occludes muscarinic effects at potentials more negative than -80 mV. A Na+ reduction in the bath occludes muscarinic effects at potentials more positive than -70 mV. Thus, muscarinic effects involve different ionic conductances: inward rectifying and cationic. The relatively selective M2 receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 does not block muscarinic effects on the projection neuron but, surprisingly, has the ability to mimic agonistic actions increasing RN and firing. Both effects are blocked by pirenzepine. HPLC measurements of acetylcholine demonstrate that AF-DX 116 but not pirenzepine greatly increases endogenous acetylcholine release in brain slices. Therefore, the effects of the M2 antagonist on the projection neurons were attributable to autoreceptor block on cholinergic interneurons. These experiments show distinct opposite functions of muscarinic M1- and M2-type receptors in neostriatal output, i.e., the firing of projection neurons. The results suggest that the use of more selective antimuscarinics may be more profitable for the treatment of motor deficits.  (+info)

Extracellular heavy-metal ions stimulate Ca2+ mobilization in hepatocytes. (4/347)

Populations of hepatocytes in primary culture were loaded with fura 2 and the effects of extracellular heavy-metal ions were examined under conditions that allowed changes in fura 2 fluorescence (R340/360, the ratio of fluorescence recorded at 340 and 360 nm) to be directly attributed to changes in cytosolic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i). In Ca2+-free media, Ni2+ [EC50 (concentration causing 50% stimulation) approximately 24+/-9 microM] caused reversible increases in [Ca2+]i that resulted from mobilization of the same intracellular Ca2+ stores as were released by [Arg8]vasopressin. The effects of Ni2+ were not mimicked by increasing the extracellular [Mg2+], by addition of MnCl2, CoCl2 or CdCl2 or by decreasing the extracellular pH from 7.3 to 6.0; nor were they observed in cultures of smooth muscle, endothelial cells or pituitary cells. CuCl2 (80 microM), ZnCl2 (80 microM) and LaCl3 (5 mM) mimicked the ability of Ni2+ to evoke Ca2+ mobilization. The response to La3+ was sustained even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, probably because La3+ also inhibited Ca2+ extrusion. Although Ni2+ entered hepatocytes, from the extent to which it quenched fura 2 fluorescence the free cytosolic [Ni2+] ([Ni2+]i) was estimated to be <5 nM at the peak of the maximal Ni2+-evoked Ca2+ signals and there was no correlation between [Ni2+]i and the amplitude of the evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. We conclude that extracellular Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and La3+, but not all heavy-metal ions, evoke an increase in [Ca2+]i in hepatocytes by stimulating release of the hormone-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores and that they may do so by interacting with a specific cell-surface ion receptor. This putative ion receptor may be important in allowing hepatocytes to contribute to regulation of plasma heavy-metal ions and may mediate responses to Zn2+ released into the portal circulation with insulin.  (+info)

Receptor potentials and electrical properties of nonspiking stretch-receptive neurons in the sand crab Emerita analoga (Anomura, Hippidae). (5/347)

Receptor potentials and electrical properties of nonspiking stretch-receptive neurons in the sand crab Emerita analoga (Anomura, Hippidae). Four nonspiking, monopolar neurons with central somata and large peripheral dendrites constitute the sole innervation of the telson-uropod elastic strand stretch receptor in Emerita analoga. We characterized their responses to stretch and current injection, using two-electrode current clamp, in intact cells and in two types of isolated peripheral dendritic segments, one that included and one that excluded the dendritic termini (mechanosensory membrane). The membrane potentials of intact cells at rest (mean +/- SD: -57 +/- 4. 4 mV, n = 30), recorded in peripheral or neuropil processes, are similar to the membrane potentials of isolated dendritic segments and always less negative than membrane potentials of motoneurons and interneurons recorded in the same preparations. Ion substitution experiments indicate that the membrane potential is influenced strongly by Na+ conductance, probably localized in the mechanotransducing terminals within the elastic strand. The form of the receptor potential in response to ramp-hold-release stretch remains the same as stretch amplitude is varied and is not dependent on initial membrane potential (-70 to -30 mV) or recording site: initial depolarization (slope follows ramp of applied stretch), terminated by rapid, partial repolarization to a plateau (delayed depolarization) that is intermediate between the peak depolarization and the initial potential and sustained for the duration of the stretch. Responses to depolarizing current pulses are similar to stretch-evoked receptor potentials, except for small amplitude stimuli: an initial peak occurs only in response to stretch and probably reflects elastic recoil of the extracellular matrix surrounding the dendritic terminals. The rapid, partial repolarization depends on holding potential and is abolished by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 10 mM), implicating a fast-activating, fast-inactivating K+ conductance; TEA (60 mM) abolishes the remaining slow repolarization to the plateau. In intact cells, but not dendritic segments, regenerative depolarizations can arise in response to stretch or depolarizing current pulses; they are reduced by CdCl2 (10 microM) in the saline containing TEA and 4-AP and probably reflect current spread from Ca2+ influx at presynaptic terminals in the ganglion. We found no evidence for other voltage-activated conductances. Unlike morphologically similar "nonspiking" thoracic receptors of other species, E. analoga's nonspiking neurons are electrically compact and do not boost the analogue afferent signal by voltage-activated inward currents. The most prominent (only?) voltage-activated extra-ganglionic conductances are for potassium; by reducing the slope of the stretch-plateau depolarization curve, they extend each neuron's functional range to the full range of sensitivity of the receptor.  (+info)

Urea-associated oxidative stress and Gadd153/CHOP induction. (6/347)

Urea treatment (100-300 mM) increased expression of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, Gadd153/CHOP, at the mRNA and protein levels (at >/=4 h) in renal medullary mIMCD3 cells in culture, whereas other solutes did not. Expression of the related protein, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP-beta), was not affected, nor was expression of the sensor of endoplasmic reticulum stress, grp78. Urea modestly increased Gadd153 transcription by reporter gene analysis but failed to influence Gadd153 mRNA stability. Importantly, upregulation of Gadd153 mRNA and protein expression by urea was antioxidant sensitive. Accordingly, urea treatment was associated with oxidative stress, as quantitated by intracellular reduced glutathione content in mIMCD3 cells. In addition, antioxidant treatment partially inhibited the ability of urea to activate transcription of an Egr-1 luciferase reporter gene. Therefore oxidative stress represents a novel solute-signaling pathway in the kidney medulla and, potentially, in other tissues.  (+info)

Effect of melatonin on cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. (7/347)

Effect of melatonin on toxicity of cadmium (Cd) was studied in male SD rats co-administered daily Cd (1 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) with melatonin (10 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) for 15 days. Cd alone injection decreased GSH concentrations in the liver and RBC by 35% and 43% compared with those in saline-treatment group, but not in the kidney and whole brain. The activity of GSSG-reductase was significantly decreased in the liver of Cd alone injected rats, while melatonin given in combination with Cd failed to prevent the Cd-induced decreased activity of hepatic GSSG-reductase. However, the hepatic GSH concentration decreased by Cd alone was restored by melatonin treatment, and the melatonin also ameliorated Cd-induced histopathological changes in the liver. Therefore, data indicate that melatonin restores the reduction of hepatic GSH level induced with Cd regardless of GSSG-reductase activity, and suggests that melatonin may ameliorate Cd-induced hepatotoxicity.  (+info)

The electrical properties of auditory hair cells in the frog amphibian papilla. (8/347)

The amphibian papilla (AP) is the principal auditory organ of the frog. Anatomical and neurophysiological evidence suggests that this hearing organ utilizes both mechanical and electrical (hair cell-based) frequency tuning mechanisms, yet relatively little is known about the electrophysiology of AP hair cells. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have investigated the electrical properties and ionic currents of isolated hair cells along the rostrocaudal axis of the AP. Electrical resonances were observed in the voltage response of hair cells harvested from the rostral and medial, but not caudal, regions of the AP. Two ionic currents, ICa and IK(Ca), were observed in every hair cell; however, their amplitudes varied substantially along the epithelium. Only rostral hair cells exhibited an inactivating potassium current (IA), whereas an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IK1) was identified only in caudal AP hair cells. Electrically tuned hair cells exhibited resonant frequencies from 50 to 375 Hz, which correlated well with hair cell position and the tonotopic organization of the papilla. Variations in the kinetics of the outward current contribute substantially to the determination of resonant frequency. ICa and IK(Ca) amplitudes increased with resonant frequency, reducing the membrane time constant with increasing resonant frequency. We conclude that a tonotopically organized hair cell substrate exists to support electrical tuning in the rostromedial region of the frog amphibian papilla and that the cellular mechanisms for frequency determination are very similar to those reported for another electrically tuned auditory organ, the turtle basilar papilla.  (+info)

Cadmium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CdCl2. It is a white crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and has a bitter, metallic taste. Cadmium chloride is a toxic compound that can cause serious health effects, including kidney damage, respiratory problems, and bone degeneration. It is classified as a hazardous substance and should be handled with care.

Cadmium chloride is used in various industrial applications, such as electroplating, soldering, and as a stabilizer in plastics. It is also used in some research settings as a reagent in chemical reactions.

It's important to note that exposure to cadmium chloride should be avoided, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this compound. This includes wearing protective clothing, such as gloves and lab coats, and working in a well-ventilated area or under a fume hood. In case of accidental ingestion or inhalation, seek medical attention immediately.

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that is a byproduct of the mining and smelting of zinc, lead, and copper. It has no taste or smell and can be found in small amounts in air, water, and soil. Cadmium can also be found in some foods, such as kidneys, liver, and shellfish.

Exposure to cadmium can cause a range of health effects, including kidney damage, lung disease, fragile bones, and cancer. Cadmium is classified as a known human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP).

Occupational exposure to cadmium can occur in industries that produce or use cadmium, such as battery manufacturing, metal plating, and pigment production. Workers in these industries may be exposed to cadmium through inhalation of cadmium-containing dusts or fumes, or through skin contact with cadmium-containing materials.

The general population can also be exposed to cadmium through the environment, such as by eating contaminated food or breathing secondhand smoke. Smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure for smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke.

Prevention measures include reducing occupational exposure to cadmium, controlling emissions from industrial sources, and reducing the use of cadmium in consumer products. Regular monitoring of air, water, and soil for cadmium levels can also help identify potential sources of exposure and prevent health effects.

Cadmium poisoning is a condition that results from the exposure to cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. This can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. Cadmium is found in some industrial workplaces, such as battery manufacturing, metal smelting, and phosphate fertilizer production. It can also be found in contaminated food, water, and cigarette smoke.

Acute cadmium poisoning is rare but can cause severe symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle cramps. Chronic exposure to cadmium can lead to a range of health problems, including kidney damage, bone disease, lung damage, and anemia. It has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer.

The treatment for cadmium poisoning typically involves removing the source of exposure, providing supportive care, and in some cases, chelation therapy to remove cadmium from the body. Prevention measures include reducing exposure to cadmium in the workplace, avoiding contaminated food and water, and not smoking.

Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of small, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins found in the cells of many organisms, including humans. They play important roles in various biological processes such as:

1. Metal homeostasis and detoxification: MTs can bind to various heavy metals like zinc, copper, cadmium, and mercury with high affinity. This binding helps regulate the concentration of these metals within cells and protects against metal toxicity.
2. Oxidative stress protection: Due to their high cysteine content, MTs act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, thus protecting cells from oxidative damage.
3. Immune response regulation: MTs are involved in the modulation of immune cell function and inflammatory responses. They can influence the activation and proliferation of immune cells, as well as the production of cytokines and chemokines.
4. Development and differentiation: MTs have been implicated in cell growth, differentiation, and embryonic development, particularly in tissues with high rates of metal turnover, such as the liver and kidneys.
5. Neuroprotection: In the brain, MTs play a role in protecting neurons from oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and heavy metal toxicity. They have been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

There are four main isoforms of metallothioneins (MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4) in humans, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Cadmium metal is soluble in molten cadmium chloride, produced by heating cadmium chloride above 568 °C. Upon cooling, the metal ... Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chloride, with the formula CdCl2. This salt is a hygroscopic ... Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and cadmium metal or cadmium oxide. Cd + 2 HCl ... Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "cadmium yellow", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic ...
... doped into crystals of cesium cadmium chloride and a redetermination of the structure of cesium cadmium chloride". Inorganic ... Caesium cadmium chloride (CsCdCl3) is a synthetic crystalline material. It belongs to the AMX3 group (where A=alkali metal, M= ... It is formed when an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid containing an equimolar solution of caesium chloride and cadmium ... Electron paramagnetic spectrum of manganese(II)-manganese(II) pairs in single crystals of cesium cadmium chloride. Electronic ...
Anhydrous NiBr2 adopts the hexagonal cadmium chloride structure. The interatomic distance for Ni-Br is 2.52-2.58 Å. Anhydrous ... The di- and hexahydrates adopt structures akin to those for the corresponding chlorides. The dihydrate consists of a linear ...
Anhydrous copper(II) chloride adopts a distorted cadmium iodide structure. In this structure, the copper centers are octahedral ... chloride of 498 °C (928 °F) is a melt of a mixture of copper(I) chloride and copper(II) chloride. The true melting point of 630 ... chloride (CuCl) with oxidation of the other metal. To convert copper(II) chloride to copper(I) chloride, it can be convenient ... chloride. Copper(II) chloride is used in pyrotechnics as a blue/green coloring agent. In a flame test, copper chlorides, like ...
Zahl, Harold A.date= September 1930 (1930). "Reflection of Cadmium and Zinc Atoms from Sodium Chloride Crystals". Physical ...
Zinc chloride Zinc fluoride Zinc iodide Cadmium bromide F. Wagenknecht; R. Juza (1963). "Zinc bromide". In G. Brauer (ed.). ... It is a colourless salt that shares many properties with zinc chloride (ZnCl2), namely a high solubility in water forming ... Safety considerations are similar to those for zinc chloride, for which the toxic dose for humans is 3-5 g. ...
Nickel chloride NiCl2 is yellow, crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a hexahydrate, NiCl2·6H2O, a ... Nickel iodide NiI2 is black, also crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a green hexahydrate, NiI2·6H2O. ... Nickel bromide NiBr2 is yellow, also crystallising in the cadmium chloride structure. It can form a hexahydrate, NiBr2·6H2O. ... Nickel hydroxides are used in nickel-cadmium and Nickel-metal hydride batteries. Nickel(II) hydroxide Ni(OH)2, the main ...
Voet, AR; Noguchi, H; Addy, C; Zhang, KY; Tame, JR (17 August 2015). "Biomineralization of a Cadmium Chloride Nanocrystal by a ...
MgCl2 crystallizes in the cadmium chloride CdCl2 motif, which features octahedral Mg centers. Several hydrates are known with ... Calcium chloride damages concrete twice as fast as magnesium chloride. The amount of magnesium chloride is supposed to be ... Magnesium chloride is also a Lewis acid catalyst in aldol reactions. Magnesium chloride is used for low-temperature de-icing of ... Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form most readily available. Magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water. In ...
This purple solid adopts a layered structure, akin to that of cadmium chloride. The material slowly hydrolyses in moist air. ... FeOCl is prepared by heating iron(III) oxide with ferric chloride at 370 °C (698 °F) over the course of several days: Fe2O3 + ... Chen, C.; Yu, T.; Yang, M.; Zhao, X.; Shen, X. (2019). "An All-Solid-State Rechargeable Chloride Ion Battery". Advanced Science ... Chlorides, Iron(III) compounds, Metal halides, Oxychlorides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
Reines and Cowan used two targets containing a solution of cadmium chloride in water. Two scintillation detectors were placed ... The neutrons were captured by cadmium nuclei resulting in gamma rays of about 8 MeV that were detected a few microseconds after ... next to the cadmium targets. Antineutrinos with an energy above the threshold of 1.8 MeV caused charged current interactions ...
Cowan and Reines detected the neutrons by dissolving cadmium chloride, CdCl2, in the tank. Cadmium is a highly effective ... followed by the gamma ray from the neutron absorption by cadmium several microseconds later. The experiment that Cowan and ...
... can be prepared by the reaction of curium nitride with cadmium chloride. Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. ( ... Curium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula CmCl3. Curium(III) chloride has a 9 coordinate tricapped ... A reaction of hydrogen chloride gas with curium dioxide, curium(III) oxide, or curium(III) oxychloride at a temperature of 400- ... Chlorides, Actinide halides, All stub articles, Nuclear technology stubs, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
"Magnesium taurate attenuates progression of hypertension and cardiotoxicity against cadmium chloride-induced hypertensive ...
Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan used two targets containing a solution of cadmium chloride in water. Two scintillation ... The neutrons were captured by cadmium nuclei, resulting in delayed gamma rays of about 8 MeV that were detected a few ...
Each pondcrete block containing mixed-wastes (radioactive, cadmium, methylene chloride and acetone) weighed between 1,500 and ...
In 2014 research discovered that abundant and harmless magnesium chloride (MgCl 2) performs as well as cadmium chloride. This ... Cadmium chloride is toxic, relatively expensive and highly soluble in water, posing a potential environmental threat during ... The manufacture of a CdTe cell includes a thin coating with cadmium chloride (CdCl 2) to increase the cell's overall efficiency ... Cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics is a photovoltaic (PV) technology based on the use of cadmium telluride in a thin ...
The difluorides of the transition metals often adopt the rutile structure whereas the dichlorides have cadmium chloride ... Sodium fluoride and sodium chloride adopt the same structure. For compounds containing more than one fluoride per cation, the ... In terms of its reactivity, fluoride differs significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more strongly solvated in ... Treatment may involve oral administration of dilute calcium hydroxide or calcium chloride to prevent further absorption, and ...
Carcinogens include benzene, 2-napthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl, chromium, cadmium, vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, arsenic, ...
The antineutrinos would enter a tank of water doped with cadmium chloride and interact with a water molecule's proton. This ... While this interaction occurs, the neutron product from the original reaction follows a random walk through the cadmium-doped ... water until it is absorbed in a cadmium atom. This process then produces more gamma rays, which are subsequently detected. The ...
... histochemical and biochemical effects of cadmium chloride in female koel (Eudynamys scolopacea). Acta Histochem. 57(2):205-11. ...
Bhat, G. & Maiti, B. (1993). "Effects of Nitrofurantoin and Cadmium Chloride on Spermatogenetic Activity in an Avian Pest, the ...
Chen, Chun-Long; Beatty, Alicia M. (2007). "From Crystal Engineering to Cluster Engineering: How to Transform Cadmium Chloride ... chloride, copper(II) chloride, iron(II) chloride, and cobalt(II) chloride are coordination polymers. Metal chlorides form ... Hexamminecobalt(III) chloride and Cisplatin (cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2) are prominent examples of metal-ammine-chlorides. As indicated in ... These compounds are often important commercial sources of transition metal chlorides. Several hydrated metal chlorides are not ...
The compound is produced by the reaction of cadmium chloride with sodium stearate or heating stearic acid and cadmium oxide or ... Like other cadmium compounds, cadmium stearate is toxic. Cadmium stearate is also carcinogen. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical ... and light-stabilizer in polyvinyl chloride. The use of cadmium stearate is being phased out because of its toxicity. ... Cadmium stearate is a salt with the formula Cd(O2CC17H35)2. Classified as a metallic soap, this a white solid is used as a ...
An example is the group of fluxes containing zinc, tin or cadmium compounds, usually chlorides, sometimes fluorides or ... acid and alcohol Cryolite and barium chloride Oleic acid Lithium chloride Magnesium chloride Sodium chloride Potassium chloride ... Zinc chloride and ammonium chloride Olive oil and ammonium chloride - for iron Rosin, tallow, olive oil, and zinc chloride - ... Another possibility is an inorganic flux composed of zinc chloride or tin(II) chloride, ammonium chloride, and a fluoride (e.g ...
At room temperature, anhydrous cobalt chloride has the cadmium chloride structure (CdCl 2) (R3m) in which the cobalt(II) ions ... Cobalt chloride is a banned substance under the Australian Thoroughbred Racing Board. Cobalt chloride is one method used to ... chlorides can be obtained if the cobalt is bound also to other ligands of greater Lewis basicity than chloride, such as amines ... "Solvated and Unsolvated Anhydrous Metal Chlorides from Metal Chloride Hydrates". Inorganic Syntheses. pp. 108-111. doi:10.1002/ ...
... and nitric acid dissolve cadmium by forming cadmium chloride (CdCl2), cadmium sulfate (CdSO4), or cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2). ... Cadmium is an element in some semiconductor materials. Cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, and cadmium telluride are used in ... The oxidation state +1 can be produced by dissolving cadmium in a mixture of cadmium chloride and aluminium chloride, forming ... Cadmium selenide is a red pigment, commonly called cadmium red. To painters who work with the pigment, cadmium provides the ...
Rather than adopting a close-packed structure typical of metal dihalides, e.g., cadmium chloride, molybdenum(II) chloride forms ... The other molybdenum(II) chloride is potassium octachlorodimolybdate. ...
... the cadmium chloride structure and the spinel structure. Praseodymium diiodide with the cadmium chloride structure belongs to ...
When exposed to TGF-β1 and cadmium chloride, both human and rat PCLS have displayed relevant pathohistological changes commonly ...
Cadmium metal is soluble in molten cadmium chloride, produced by heating cadmium chloride above 568 °C. Upon cooling, the metal ... Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chloride, with the formula CdCl2. This salt is a hygroscopic ... Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and cadmium metal or cadmium oxide. Cd + 2 HCl ... Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "cadmium yellow", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic ...
... chloride hydrate M040026. Testing Status of Cadmium (II) chloride hydrate M040026. CASRN: 7790-78-5. Related: CADMIUM CHLORIDE ... Cadmium chloride hemipentahydrate. *Cadmium chloride pentahydrate. Special Studies. *C. elegans (S0861) Completed * C. elegans ...
After the long-term exposure to cadmium chloride in drinking water, the Wistar rats developed peripheral polyneuropathy. The ... An ultrastructural study of chronic cadmium chloride-induced neuropathy Acta Neuropathol. 1978 Mar 15;41(3):185-90. doi: ... After the long-term exposure to cadmium chloride in drinking water, the Wistar rats developed peripheral polyneuropathy. The ...
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Effect of zinc chloride on the growth and characterization of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate semiorganic NLO single ... Biomineralization of a Cadmium Chloride Nanocrystal by a Designed Symmetrical Protein Arnout R D Voet 1 , Hiroki Noguchi 2 , ... Biomineralization of a Cadmium Chloride Nanocrystal by a Designed Symmetrical Protein Arnout R D Voet et al. Angew Chem Int Ed ... Can zinc(II) ions be doped into the crystal structure of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate? Srinivasan BR. Srinivasan BR. ...
Buy best price high-purity Cadmium Chloride - speciality chemicals at best price from AB Enterprises in Mumbai, India known for ... Cadmium Chloride is Cadmium salts.The Relative Name of Cadmium Chloride is Dichlorocadmium, Caddy, Cadmium chloride (CdCl2), ... Dichlorocadmium, Caddy, Cadmium chloride (CdCl2), cadmium chloride, Cadmium dichloride, VI-Cad, 10108-64-2 ... cadmium chloride, Cadmium dichloride, VI-Cad, 10108-64-2, and Cas number of Cadmium Chloride is 10108-64-2. The molecular ...
Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Cadmium Chloride in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 286441 Summary Data ... Cytogenetic Study of Cadmium Chloride in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Sister Chromatid Exchange Test ... Cadmium chloride (10108-64-2). Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS). Research Triangle Park, NC (USA): National ... Cytogenetic Study of Cadmium Chloride in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Chromosome Aberrations Test ...
Role of microRNAs in response to cadmium chloride in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Archives of Toxicology. 96, p. 467-485. ... This study underlines the role of miRs (miR-221, miR-155, miR-126) in response to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in vitro. Lethal ... Role of microRNAs in response to cadmium chloride in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Mortoglou, M., Djordjevic, A.B., ... Role of microRNAs in response to cadmium chloride in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. ...
The cytotoxic effects of cadmium chloride was studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. Cadmium chloride appeared to have the direct ... These toxic effects of cadmium chloride were dose-related and could be detected as early as 30 minutes of incubation. ... The metabolic capability of isolated cells was also affected by cadmium chloride. There was the sign of inhibition on ... Effects of Cadmium Chloride on Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Article Sidebar. PDF Keywords: Hepatocytes Cadmium Chloride ...
Egyptian date palm pollen ameliorates testicular dysfunction induced by cadmium chloride in adult male rats. Journal of ... Testicular dysfunction was induced by an oral administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 5mg/kg body wt, every other day for 30 ... Egyptian date palm pollen ameliorates testicular dysfunction induced by cadmium chloride in adult male rats ... The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect and the possible mechanisms of DPP against cadmium-induced ...
... cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).� Cadmium is most often present in ... ½ The chlorides and sulfates are the forms that most easily dissolve in water.� Cadmium may change forms, but the cadmium ... It is rarely present in large quantities as the chlorides and sulfates.� These different forms of cadmium compounds are ... ½ Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal.� Cadmium is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but as a ...
Cadmium chloride 1% aq. 0.7% (1,057). NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. 9.2% (719 ... Cadmium chloride 1% aq. 1,057. 0.7. 0.9. 0.0. 85.7. 0.0. 14.3. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. ... Zinc chloride 2% aq. 3.4% (963). NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. 5.4% (372)‡ NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. ... Ferric chloride 1% aq. 0.1% (964). NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. 0.8% (374)‡ NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. NT. ...
Keshava C, Keshava N, Zhou G, Whong W-Z, Ong T-M [Mar 1999]. Genomic instability in silica- and cadmium chloride-transformed ... Lynch D [Jun 1999]. Cadmium chloride - developmental toxicology in intact drosophila [Abstract]. Abstracts of the 39th Annual ...
OJO, A.A., OLUSOLA, I.O. and DHARMADASA, I (2017). Effect of the inclusion of Galium in normal Cadmium chloride treatment on ... Effect of the inclusion of Galium in normal Cadmium chloride treatment on electrical properties of CdS/CdTe solar cell ...
Aqueous speciation of cadmium in 2 M chloride solutions was determined at 500 and 600°C, 1 kbar and 600°C, 0.5 kbar in the ... Aqueous speciation of cadmium chloride in supercritical hydrothermal solutions at 500 and 600°C under 0.5 and 1 kbar. / Uchida ... Aqueous speciation of cadmium chloride in supercritical hydrothermal solutions at 500 and 600°C under 0.5 and 1 kbar. In: ... Aqueous speciation of cadmium chloride in supercritical hydrothermal solutions at 500 and 600°C under 0.5 and 1 kbar. ...
D019256 Cadmium Chloride *D019327 Copper Sulfate *D016572 Cyclosporine *D003993 Dibutyl Phthalate more ... click here to view ...
Studies have been performed to determine if cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) can induce morphological cell transformation, DNA from ... Transforming and carcinogenic potential of cadmium chloride in BALB/c-3T3 cells. ... A large number of workers are potentially exposed to cadmium during mining and processing. Therefore, there is a concern ... Carcinogens; Carcinogenicity; Carcinogenesis; Cadmium compounds; Occupational exposure; Worker health; Work environment; Mining ...
Cadmium Chloride; Cadmium/metabolism; Cadmium/toxicity*; Carcinogens/toxicity*; Cell Count; Chlorides/metabolism; Chlorides/ ... Title: Metallothionein induction and pulmonary responses to inhaled cadmium chloride in rats and mice. ... Cadmium and MT in lavagate and lung tissue were measured. The retention half-time of pulmonary Cd was greater in mice (290 vs ...
Snider GL, Hayes JA, Korthy AL, et al. Centrilobular emphysema experimentally induced by cadmium chloride aerosol. Am Rev ... the extent to which variation in cadmium levels among smokers reflects cadmium dose versus cadmium uptake and metabolism, and ... Urinary cadmium levels reflect the total body burden of cadmium.. Methods: The following data from the Third National Health ... Adjustment of urinary cadmium to creatinine reduces variability between individuals.23 Cadmium levels in the lung and urine ...
Magnesium taurate attenuates progression of hypertension and cardiotoxicity against cadmium chloride-induced hypertensive ... Magnesium chloride. Magnesium chloride is a type of salt that people can find in topical magnesium products, such as magnesium ... People can also take magnesium chloride internally, as the intestines absorb it well. . However, as with some other types of ...
Cadmium Chloride / pharmacology Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Studies on the Effect of Zinc Chloride Mixing on Bisthiourea Cadmium Chloride Crystals (Articles) ... Growth, Structural, Spectral and Optical Studies on Pure and L-Alanine Mixed Bisthiourea Cadmium Bromide (LABTCB) Crystals ( ...
Studies on the Effect of Zinc Chloride Mixing on Bisthiourea Cadmium Chloride Crystals (Articles) ... Growth, Structural, Spectral and Optical Studies on Pure and L-Alanine Mixed Bisthiourea Cadmium Bromide (LABTCB) Crystals ( ...
This threshold captured 11 out of 17 constituents: cadmium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, molybdenum, manganese, potassium, ... cadmium, calcium, chloride, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, zinc. The correlation matrix for water-quality constituents are ...
CadmiumCadmium chloride, anhydrous (99.995%-Cd) PURATREM. Product Detail Safety Data Sheet Certificates of Analysis ...
cadmium dichloride increases expression. EXP. 6480464. Cadmium Chloride results in increased expression of MIR125B1 mRNA. CTD. ... manganese(II) chloride multiple interactions. EXP. 6480464. [manganese chloride results in increased abundance of Manganese] ... manganese chloride results in increased abundance of Manganese] which results in increased expression of MIR125B1 mRNA. CTD. ... manganese chloride results in increased abundance of Manganese] which results in increased expression of MIR125B1 mRNA. CTD. ...
cadmium dichloride decreases expression. EXP. 6480464. Cadmium Chloride results in decreased expression of RSPH6A mRNA. CTD. ...
9. Cadmium chloride-induced testicular toxicity in male wistar rats; prophylactic effect of quercetin, and assessment of ... 2. Resveratrol reverses cadmium chloride-induced testicular damage and subfertility by downregulating p53 and Bax and ... Resveratrol protects against cadmium chloride-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress and GAAD 153 and ... Ficus natalensis extract alleviates Cadmium chloride-induced testicular disruptions in albino rats.. Elish SEA; Sanad FA; Baky ...
Resistance to arsenic, cadmium and the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BC) are examples of such adaptations ... cadmium and BC and determined the prevalence of three cadmium resistance determinants (cadA1, cadA2 and cadA3) among cadmium- ... A subset (15/77, 19%) of the cadmium-resistant isolates lacked the known cadmium resistance determinants. Most of these ... Prevalence of the known cadmium resistance determinants was serotype-associated: cadA1 was more common in serotype 1/2a and 1/ ...
  • Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chloride, with the formula CdCl2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadmium iodide, CdI2, has a similar structure, but the iodide ions are arranged in a HCP lattice, whereas in CdCl2 the chloride ions are arranged in a CCP lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • CdCl2 + 2 Cl− → [CdCl4]2− Solutions of equimolar cadmium chloride and potassium chloride give potassium cadmium trichloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cd + 2 HCl → CdCl2 + H2 The anhydrous salt can also be prepared from anhydrous cadmium acetate using hydrogen chloride or acetyl chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadmium Chloride is Cadmium salts.The Relative Name of Cadmium Chloride is Dichlorocadmium, Caddy, Cadmium chloride (CdCl2), cadmium chloride, Cadmium dichloride, VI-Cad, 10108-64-2, and Cas number of Cadmium Chloride is 10108-64-2. (bangchemicals.com)
  • The molecular formula of the Cadmium Chloride is CdCl2 and the molecular weight of the Cadmium Chloride is 183.32 g/mol. (bangchemicals.com)
  • This study underlines the role of miRs (miR-221, miR-155, miR-126) in response to cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in vitro. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Testicular dysfunction was induced by an oral administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 5mg/kg body wt, every other day for 30 days). (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Aqueous speciation of cadmium in 2 M chloride solutions was determined at 500 and 600°C, 1 kbar and 600°C, 0.5 kbar in the system CaTiO3-CdTiO3-CaCl2-CdCl2-NaCl-H2O using the same experimental method as Uchida et al. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In comparative studies, we also examined GRP78, HSP72/73, and cJun expression in RLE cells exposed to equitoxic concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). (cdc.gov)
  • The control rats intraperito- neally (i.p.) injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), the cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated rats were i.p. injected with 4.5 mg/kg of CdCl2, the KPF-treated rats were orally gavaged with 50 mg/kg of KPF, and the KPF + CdCl2-treated rats were administered orally 50 mg/kg of KPF 120 min before receiving i.p. injection of 4.5 mg/kg CdCl2. (edu.sa)
  • Structure de dichlorure de cadmium tétrahydraté" [Structure of cadmium dichloride tetrahydrate]. (wikipedia.org)
  • cadmium dichloride. (mcw.edu)
  • After the long-term exposure to cadmium chloride in drinking water, the Wistar rats developed peripheral polyneuropathy. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect and the possible mechanisms of DPP against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction in adult male rats. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Modulation of tissue trace metal concentrations in weanling rats fed different levels of zinc and exposed to oral lead and cadmium. (cdc.gov)
  • 1981. The effects of sodium chromate and carbon tetrachloride on the urinary excretion and tissue distribution of cadmium in cadmium-pretreated rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Metallothionein induction and pulmonary responses to inhaled cadmium chloride in rats and mice. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Effect of lead and cadmium co-exposure on testicular steroid metabolism and antioxidant system of adult male rats. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Protective role of N-Acetyl L-Cysteine against reproductive toxicity due to interaction of lead and cadmium in male Wistar rats. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Ferulic acid influences Nrf2 activation to restore testicular tissue from cadmium-induced oxidative challenge, inflammation, and apoptosis in rats. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Ficus natalensis extract alleviates Cadmium chloride-induced testicular disruptions in albino rats. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Activated Nrf-2 Pathway by Vitamin E to Attenuate Testicular Injuries of Rats with Sub-chronic Cadmium Exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Rats were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), a stressor causing oligozoospermia, and HO-1-induction was monitored by following HO isozyme expression. (jci.org)
  • Changes in the structure and function of the kidney of rats chronically exposed to cadmium. (springer.com)
  • Ahokas and colleagues fed laboratory rats chronically low drinking water levels (0, 1.0, 10.0, and 100 µg/mL) of cadmium (Cd), a known embryotoxic trace element, through gestation (Ahokas, 1980). (europa.eu)
  • Daston and colleagues injected pregnant rats 8 mg/kg cadmium chloride alone or with 12 mg/kg zinc chloride on gestation days 12-15 and sacrificed on gestation day 21. (europa.eu)
  • Polyvinyl chloride produces a great deal of vapor whic… These plants release huge amounts of toxic chemicals into the environment around them. (myweb.ge)
  • Over the past few decades, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) plastic, commonly known as "vinyl," has become one of the most widely-used types of plastics. (myweb.ge)
  • Industrially, it is produced by the reaction of molten cadmium and chlorine gas at 600 °C. The monohydrate, hemipentahydrate, and tetrahydrate can be produced by evaporation of the solution of cadmium chloride at 35, 20, and 0 °C respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, a solution of cadmium chloride is used as coating for thin-film solar cells. (reset.org)
  • These were once used in the synthesis of ketones from acyl chlorides: CdCl 2 + 2 RMgX → R 2Cd + MgCl 2 + MgX 2 R 2Cd + 2R'COCl → 2R'COR + CdCl 2 Such reagents have largely been supplanted by organocopper compounds, which are much less toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all cadmium compounds, CdCl 2 is highly toxic and appropriate safety precautions must be taken when handling it. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Chemical Safety Card 0116 IARC Monograph "Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds" National Pollutant Inventory - Cadmium and compounds Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cadmium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are exposed to cadmium or cadmium compounds, many factors will determine whether you will be harmed. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium and its compounds may travel through soil, but its mobility depends on several factors such as pH and amount of organic matter, which will vary depending on the local environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted as a byproduct during the production of other metals such as zinc, lead, or copper. (cdc.gov)
  • A variety of heavy metals contaminants including (cadmium, copper, mercury and zinc) are reported to be ubiquitously present in rivers, reservoirs, they are not biodegraded, they bioaccumulate in fish, oyster, mussels, sediments and other components of aquatic ecosystems (Bhattacharya et al. (academicjournals.org)
  • Nickel-Cadmium batteries are made in a wide range of sizes and capacities, from portable sealed types comparable to carbon-zinc dry cells, to large ventilated cells used for standby and motive power. (emergencylighting.com)
  • Bem EM, Piotrowski JK, Turzyńska E (1993) Cadmium, zinc, and copper levels in the kidneys and liver of the inhabitants of north-eastern Poland. (springer.com)
  • Zinc has been shown to protect fetal cellular growth and development against cadmium-induced effects and fetotoxicity (Ahokas, 1980, Daston, 1982). (europa.eu)
  • Coadministration of zinc with cadmium prevented all of the previously observed cadmium-induced fetotoxicity. (europa.eu)
  • However, cadmium treatment decreased fetal zinc content. (europa.eu)
  • Simultaneous injection of zinc with cadmium maintained the fetal zinc concentration at the control level. (europa.eu)
  • Thus cadmium appears to exert its fetotoxic effects indirectly, through a fetal zinc deficiency. (europa.eu)
  • Resistance to arsenic, cadmium and the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BC) are examples of such adaptations. (usda.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated 138 isolates from foods and food processing plants for resistance to arsenic, cadmium and BC and determined the prevalence of three cadmium resistance determinants (cadA1, cadA2 and cadA3) among cadmium-resistant strains. (usda.gov)
  • Most of these isolates were of serotype 4b and were also resistant to arsenic, suggesting novel determinants that may confer resistance to cadmium and arsenic in these serotype 4b strains. (usda.gov)
  • The distribution of heavy metal resistance attributes and determinants observed in this study may reflect components of the ecological history of different serotypes and clonal groups of L. monocytogenes, including exposures of the microorganisms to cadmium or arsenic. (usda.gov)
  • Aqueous speciation of cadmium in 2 M chloride solutions was determined at 500 and 600°C, 1 kbar and 600°C, 0.5 kbar in the system CaTiO 3 -CdTiO 3 -CaCl 2 -CdCl 2 -NaCl-H 2 O using the same experimental method as Uchida et al. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Studies have been performed to determine if cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) can induce morphological cell transformation, DNA from CdCl(2)-induced transformed cells can transform other mammalian cells, and the transformed cells induced by CdCl(2) can form tumors in nude mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "cadmium yellow", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis revealed that the artist employed poor paint, resorting to low-quality cadmium sulfide pigments. (zmescience.com)
  • It turned out that rather than use pure cadmium sulfide as he should have done, apparently he also used a dirty version, a not very clean version that contained chlorides," Koen Janssens, a professor at the University of Antwerp who worked on the study, told the Guardian . (zmescience.com)
  • During the time of the painting's completion, cadmium sulfide was manufactured by reacting cadmium chloride with sodium sulfide. (zmescience.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of kidneys, as well as to establish the body burden of Cd at which the changes occur. (springer.com)
  • Cadmium chloride and cadmium sulfate are soluble in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium (as oxide, chloride, and sulfate) will exist in air as particles or vapors (from high temperature processes). (cdc.gov)
  • Leaf-applied sodium chloride promotes cadmium accumulation in durum wheat grain. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • They found that the children with the autism disorders were 50% more likely than the non-autistic children to be born in areas with higher estimated levels of three metals and two chlorinated solvents: mercury, cadmium, nickel, trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride. (blogspot.com)
  • Cadmium chloride appeared to have the direct toxic effects on plasma membrane integrity as shown by the leakage of cytoplasmic enzymes and intracellular potassium. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • Anhydrous cadmium chloride forms a layered structure consisting of octahedral Cd2+ centers linked with chloride ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and cadmium metal or cadmium oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • These toxic effects of cadmium chloride were dose-related and could be detected as early as 30 minutes of incubation. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • This non-toxic chemical costs 300 times less than cadmium chloride, and is harmless enough to use in the production of food products including soy milk and tofu. (reset.org)
  • Here are … Although PVC is flame resistant, PVC products release toxic hydrogen chloride gas when heated. (myweb.ge)
  • It is also used in electroplating, in solder for aluminum, as a constituent of easily fusible alloys, as a deoxidizer in nickel plating, in process engraving, and in nickel-cadmium batteries. (misterart.com)
  • Magnesium chloride is a type of salt that people can find in topical magnesium products, such as magnesium oils and some bath salts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People can also take magnesium chloride internally, as the intestines absorb it well . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The research group tested a number of alternatives to find a replacement, but it was magnesium chloride that took the cake. (reset.org)
  • Uchida, E , Inoue, R & Ogiso, K 1998, ' Aqueous speciation of cadmium chloride in supercritical hydrothermal solutions at 500 and 600°C under 0.5 and 1 kbar ', GEOCHEMICAL JOURNAL , vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 339-344. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized in aqueous solution using mercaptopropionic acid and L-cysteine (L-Cys) as ligands. (intechopen.com)
  • GRP78, HSP72/73, and cJun stress protein levels in lung epithelial cells exposed to asbestos , cadmium, or H2O2. (cdc.gov)
  • 16. Ameliorative effect of edible Halopteris scoparia against cadmium-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice: A biochemical and histopathologic study. (nih.gov)
  • Cadmium metal is soluble in molten cadmium chloride, produced by heating cadmium chloride above 568 °C. Upon cooling, the metal precipitates. (wikipedia.org)
  • These then react to form cadmium sulphide, which is not water soluble and thus precipitates in the form of nanoparticles. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Green knew that placing thiols - sulphur-containing groups of atoms - on water-soluble cadmium telluride dots made them more luminescent. (newscientist.com)
  • A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we characterized a panel of L. monocytogenes from foods and processing plant environments in terms of their resistance to heavy metals and to the ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride. (usda.gov)
  • 1. Sub-chronic cadmium and lead compound exposure induces reproductive toxicity and development of testicular germ cell neoplasia in situ in murine model: Attenuative effects of resveratrol. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Resveratrol reverses cadmium chloride-induced testicular damage and subfertility by downregulating p53 and Bax and upregulating gonadotropins and Bcl-2 gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • prophylactic effect of quercetin, and assessment of testicular recovery following cadmium chloride withdrawal. (nih.gov)
  • Cadmium can accumulate in aquatic organisms and agricultural crops. (cdc.gov)
  • We examined the relationship between smoking, urinary cadmium levels, and pulmonary function in a nationally representative population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). (bmj.com)
  • Cadmium treatment caused embryonic death, lung hypoplasia and diminished quantity of the major pulmonary surfactant phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine. (europa.eu)
  • The placenta appeared to act as a barrier to cadmium movement, as cadmium was found in the placenta but not in fetal tissues. (europa.eu)
  • 14. Letrozole protects against cadmium-induced inhibition of spermatogenesis via LHCGR and Hsd3b6 to activate testosterone synthesis in mice. (nih.gov)
  • 2009). Contamination of aquatic ecosystems with cadmium and various physiological adverse effects caused by cadmium have raised genuine concern (Perera et al. (academicjournals.org)
  • Cadmium, which is known to cause emphysema in occupational settings, may also be important in the development of tobacco related lung disease. (bmj.com)
  • Cadmium and MT in lavagate and lung tissue were measured. (nih.gov)
  • A study was undertaken to determine the relation between urinary cadmium levels and lung function in a nationally representative cohort of current, former, and never smokers in the US. (bmj.com)
  • The following data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analysed: urinary cadmium (adjusted for urinary creatinine), lung function, sex, race/ethnicity, age, education level, job category, body mass index, serum cotinine level, and smoking history. (bmj.com)
  • Linear regression models were developed to predict lung function using urinary cadmium as the main predictor, adjusting for other covariates and stratified by smoking status. (bmj.com)
  • 5. Lead and cadmium exposure induces male reproductive dysfunction by modulating the expression profiles of apoptotic and survival signal proteins in tea-garden workers. (nih.gov)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Mammalian Cell Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Cadmium chloride (10108-64-2). (nih.gov)
  • It said to me it was cadmium telluride quantum dots," he says. (newscientist.com)
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Cadmium Chloride in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
  • A nine-year old chronic toxicity study of cadmium in monkeys II. (cdc.gov)
  • Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity, inducing a number of hazardous effects to humans and animals including neurotoxicity. (edu.sa)
  • Buy best price high-purity Cadmium Chloride - speciality chemicals at best price from AB Enterprises in Mumbai, India known for using superior purity chemicals and the latest manufacturing equipment by highly experienced technicians to meet International Chemical Industry standards. (bangchemicals.com)
  • 3. Resveratrol Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Damage and Overexpression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and its Downstream Signaling Proteins in the Reproductive System of Male Swiss Albino Mice. (nih.gov)
  • Direct measurement of cadmium levels in body tissues confirms that smoking roughly doubles cadmium body burden in comparison to not smoking. (cdc.gov)
  • Urinary cadmium levels reflect the total body burden of cadmium. (bmj.com)
  • Current smokers had higher mean (SE) urinary cadmium/creatinine levels (0.46 (0.01) μg/g) than former (0.32 (0.01) μg/g) or never smokers (0.23 (0.01) μg/g). (bmj.com)
  • Higher levels of urinary cadmium were associated with significantly lower forced expiratory volumes in 1 second (FEV 1 ) in current (−2.06%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.86 to −1.26 per 1 log increase in urinary cadmium) and former smokers (−1.95%, 95% CI -2.87 to −1.03) but not in never smokers (−0.18%, 95% CI -0.60 to 0.24). (bmj.com)
  • The effects of different sublethal concentrations (0.828, 0.0828, and 0.00828 mg/l) of cadmium (Cd) was evaluated on the total energy budget of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles over 56-day period of exposure. (academicjournals.org)
  • Tobacco leaves accumulate high levels of cadmium from the soil. (cdc.gov)
  • One toxicant in tobacco smoke that may be important in the development of COPD is cadmium. (bmj.com)
  • The national geometric mean blood cadmium level for adults is 0.38 µg/L. A geometric mean blood cadmium level of 1.58 µg/L for New York City smokers has been reported. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers produced cadmium sulphide particles in microscopically small membrane bubbles. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Degraded cadmium yellow paints and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy single-point analysis in The Scream. (zmescience.com)
  • Cadmium chloride dissolves well in water and other polar solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytotoxic effects of cadmium chloride was studied in isolated rat hepatocytes. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • This public health statement tells you about cadmium and the effects of exposure to it. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects of dietary cadmium on circulatory function plasma cholesterol and triglyceride. (cdc.gov)
  • Aughey E, Fell GS, Scott R, Black M (1984) Histopathology of early effects of oral cadmium in the rat kidney. (springer.com)
  • Cadmium is emitted to soil, water, and air by non-ferrous metal mining and refining, manufacture and application of phosphate fertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, and waste incineration and disposal. (cdc.gov)
  • Generally, cadmium binds strongly to organic matter where it will be immobile in soil and be taken up by plant life, eventually, entering the food supply. (cdc.gov)
  • Green got together with colleagues studying how earthworms process cadmium in contaminated soil that they eat. (newscientist.com)
  • Hac E, Krzyzanowski M, Krechniak J (1998) Cadmium content in human kidney and hair in the Gdansk region. (springer.com)
  • However, other metals with high reaction rates-such as manganese chloride 2% (allergic rate, 20.2%), palladium chloride (13.3%), and Ticonium (10.8%)-were less familiar. (medscape.com)
  • Final Report: Multisite lead and cadmium exposure study with biological markers incorporated. (cdc.gov)
  • 1991. Epidemiological study of cadmium and lead in the hair of ceramists and dental personnel. (cdc.gov)
  • Chalkley SR, Richmond J, Barltrop D (1998) Measurement of vitamin D 3 metabolites in smelter workers exposed to lead and cadmium. (springer.com)
  • Insoluble forms of cadmium are immobile and will deposit and absorb to sediments. (cdc.gov)
  • In general, leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach, potatoes and grains, peanuts, soybeans, and sunflower seeds contain high levels of cadmium, approximately 0.05- 0.12 mg cadmium/kg. (cdc.gov)