An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
A plant species of the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae. This is the traditional mistletoe of literature and Christmas. Members contain viscotoxin (5 kDa basic polypeptides related to thionins), beta-galactoside- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin II (60 kDa), and polysaccharides. Mistletoe lectin I is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein. Commercial extracts include Plenosol, Eurixor, Helixor Isorel, Iscador, and NSC 635089 (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, PHYTOGENIC).
A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (1/3161)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (2/3161)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Cadmium-mediated activation of the metal response element in human neuroblastoma cells lacking functional metal response element-binding transcription factor-1. (3/3161)

Metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) binds specifically to metal response elements (MREs) and transactivates metallothionein (MT) gene expression in response to zinc and cadmium. This investigation contrasts the mechanism of mouse MT gene (mMT-I) promoter activation by cadmium and zinc in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells to determine whether MTF-1 binding to the MRE is necessary for activation by these metals. Cadmium activated a mMT-1 promoter (-150 base pairs) luciferase reporter 20-25-fold through a MRE-dependent mechanism. In contrast, zinc had little effect on the mMT-1 luciferase reporter. IMR-32 cells lacked MRE binding activity, and treatment with zinc in vitro or in vivo did not generate a MTF-1. MRE complex, suggesting that IMR-32 cells lack functional MTF-1. Overexpression of mMTF-1 regenerated a zinc-mediated induction of the MRE without affecting cadmium activation. Because no other transition metals tested activated the MRE, this effect appeared to be cadmium-specific. These data demonstrate that in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells, zinc and cadmium can use independent mechanisms for activation of the mMT-I promoter and cadmium-mediated MRE activation is independent of MTF-1 and zinc.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/3161)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

Relationship between L-type Ca2+ current and unitary sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events in rat ventricular myocytes. (5/3161)

1. The time courses of Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence were determined in single rat ventricular myocytes voltage clamped with patch pipettes containing 0.1 microM fluo-3. Acquisition of line-scan images on a laser scanning confocal microscope was synchronized with measurement of Cd2+-sensitive Ca2+ currents. In most cells, individual Ca2+ sparks were observed by reducing Ca2+ current density with nifedipine (0.1-8 microM). 2. Ca2+ sparks elicited by depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses had a peak [Ca2+] amplitude of 289 +/- 3 nM with a decay half-time of 20.8 +/- 0.2 ms and a full width at half-maximum of 1.40 +/- 0.03 microm (mean +/- s. e.m., n = 345), independent of the membrane potential. 3. The time between the beginning of a depolarization and the initiation of each Ca2+ spark was calculated and data were pooled to construct waiting time histograms. Exponential functions were fitted to these histograms and to the decaying phase of the Ca2+ current. This analysis showed that the time constants describing Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence at membrane potentials between -30 mV and +30 mV were not significantly different. At +50 mV, in the absence of nifedipine, the time constant describing Ca2+ spark occurrence was significantly larger than the time constant of the Ca2+ current. 4. A simple model is developed using Poisson statistics to relate macroscopic Ca2+ current to the opening of single L-type Ca2+ channels at the dyad junction and to the time course of Ca2+ spark occurrence. The model suggests that the time courses of macroscopic Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence should be closely related when opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel initiates a Ca2+ spark. By comparison with the data, the model suggests that Ca2+ sparks are initiated by the opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel at all membrane potentials encountered during an action potential.  (+info)

Delayed rectifier potassium current in undiseased human ventricular myocytes. (6/3161)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the properties of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in myocytes isolated from undiseased human left ventricles. METHODS: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied in 28 left ventricular myocytes from 13 hearts at 35 degrees C. RESULTS: An E-4031 sensitive tail current identified the rapid component of IK (IKr) in the myocytes, but there was no evidence for an E-4031 insensitive slow component of IK (IKs). When nifedipine (5 microM) was used to block the inward calcium current (ICa), IKr activation was fast (tau = 31.0 +/- 7.4 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and deactivation kinetics were biexponential and relatively slow (tau 1 = 600.0 +/- 53.9 ms and tau 2 = 6792.2 +/- 875.7 ms, at -40 mV, n = 7). Application of CdCl2 (250 microM) to block ICa altered the voltage dependence of the IKr considerably, slowing its activation (tau = 657.1 +/- 109.1 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and accelerating its deactivation (tau = 104.0 +/- 18.5 ms, at -40 mV, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: In undiseased human ventricle at 35 degrees C IKr exists having fast activation and slow deactivation kinetics; however, there was no evidence found for an expressed IKs. IKr probably plays an important role in the frequency dependent modulation of repolarization in undiseased human ventricle, and is a target for many Class III antiarrhythmic drugs.  (+info)

Differences in pharmacological properties of dopamine release between the substantia nigra and striatum: an in vivo electrochemical study. (7/3161)

The properties of dopamine (DA) release in the rat substantia nigra (SN) and striatum were investigated using high-speed chronoamperometric recordings in brain slices. In both brain regions, a 2-min bath superfusion with 30 mM KCl produced robust DA-like electrochemical signals, with the mean amplitude of the signal being >10-fold greater in the striatum than the SN. The reproducibility of the response was confirmed by a second stimulus (S2)/first-stimulus (S1) ratio of >0.8 in both regions. The bath application of tetrodotoxin significantly reduced the S2/S1 ratio in both the striatum and SN, implicating the requirement for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in the DA-release process. However, the application of cadmium chloride, a nonselective blocker of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, reduced the S2/S1 ratio only in the striatum and not within the SN. Moreover, removal of Ca2+ from the buffer did not significantly affect release within the SN, despite a >85% reduction in release within the striatum. In addition, although the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride enhanced the S2/S1 ratio in the striatum, no effect of this agent was seen in the SN. Finally, the application of d-amphetamine produced DA-like electrochemical signals in both the striatum and SN. However, the amplitude of the d-amphetamine-evoked response, relative to the KCl-evoked release, was much smaller in the striatum than in the SN. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that differences in the mechanism or mechanisms of release exist between somatodendritic and axonal elements within the nigrostriatal pathway.  (+info)

Selective effects of neuronal-synaptobrevin mutations on transmitter release evoked by sustained versus transient Ca2+ increases and by cAMP. (8/3161)

Synaptobrevin is a key constituent of the synaptic vesicle membrane. The neuronal-synaptobrevin (n-syb) gene in Drosophila is essential for nerve-evoked synaptic currents, but miniature excitatory synaptic currents (mESCs) remain even in the complete absence of this gene. To further characterize the defect in these mutants, we have examined conditions that stimulate secretion. Despite the inability of an action potential to trigger fusion, high K+ saline could increase the frequency of mESCs 4- to 17-fold in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and the rate of fusion approached 25% of that seen in wild-type synapses under the same conditions. Similarly, the mESC frequency in n-syb null mutants could be increased by a Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, and by black widow spider venom. Thus, the ability of the vesicles to fuse in response to sustained increases in cytosolic Ca2+ persisted in the absence of this protein. Tetanic stimulation could also increase the frequency of mESCs, particularly toward the end of a train and after the train of stimuli. In contrast, these mutants did not respond to an elevation of cAMP induced by an activator of adenylyl cyclase, forskolin, or a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP, dibutyryl cAMP, which in wild-type synapses causes a marked increase in the mESC frequency even in the absence of external Ca2+. These results are discussed in the context of models that invoke a special role for n-syb in coupling fusion to the transient, local changes in Ca2+ and an as yet unidentified target of cAMP.  (+info)

In a representative US population higher levels of urinary cadmium were found to be significant predictors of lower FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC in current and former smokers but not in never smokers. In addition, variability in urine cadmium levels was found among current smokers. It is not clear whether this finding is related to the dose of cadmium to which smokers are exposed or to variability in the uptake and metabolism of cadmium in smokers. It is possible that the variability in cadmium levels in smokers is related to the intensity of smoking-that is, smokers with higher cadmium levels extract more tar and nicotine out of each cigarette than smokers with lower levels. It is also possible that the variability in lung function in smokers is similarly related to variability in smoking intensity, and that cadmium levels are just a long term marker of tobacco dose.. Cadmium intake in humans is either through ingestion or inhalation, with the major source of exposure in never smokers being ...
Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations together with cadmium in air concentrations from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in an alkaline battery factory were determined at regular intervals for 11 consecutive weeks. Nine of the workers examined were smokers and nine non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in age or years of employment. Cadmium in air concentrations varied, but no definite trend was observed. The concentrations of cadmium in the blood and urine were found to be stable. Exposure to airborne cadmium was identical for smokers and non-smokers but average cadmium concentrations in the blood and urine of smokers were approximately twice as high as those in non-smokers. For the whole group, urinary cadmium was significantly correlated with years of employment, but no correlation was found between blood cadmium concentrations and exposure. For non-smokers, the correlation between cadmium in blood and years of employment was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). ...
Prevention is the key to managing cadmium exposure. No effective treatment for cadmium toxicity exists. For the general public, the primary source of exposure to cadmium is dietary. Smoking tobacco adds an additional burden of cadmium. Nutritional deficiencies can increase the risk of cadmium toxicity. Chronic cadmium exposure primarily affects the kidneys and secondarily the bones. Acute inhalation of fumes containing cadmium affects the lungs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of cadmium exposure on mouse sperm. AU - Oliveira, Helena. AU - Spanò, Marcello. AU - Santos, Conceição. AU - Pereira, Maria de Lourdes. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - The effects of cadmium chloride exposure on sperm functional parameters were evaluated on eight-week-old ICR-CD1 male mice administered with a single s.c. injection of 1, 2 and 3 mg CdCl2/kg bw. Groups of animals treated with each dose, as well as their respective controls, were sacrificed after 24 h to detect short-term (acute) effects and after 35 days. Sperm cells were collected from the epididymis and several parameters of sperm quality and function were evaluated, namely density, morphology, motility, viability, mitochondrial function, acrosome integrity, together with DNA fragmentation assessed by the TUNEL assay. The short-term effects of cadmium chloride resulted in an increased fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology, premature acrosome reaction and reduced motility. Late term ...
Environmental cadmium exposure is associated with elevated risk of chronic otitis media in adults[4] Chronic otitis media (COM) is caused by an infection of the middle ear, although it may also be associated with environmental pollutants. Recent reports found that cadmium exposure could be toxic to middle ear cell lines, but the role of cadmium in the development of COM in humans has not been examined to date. We hypothesised that environmental cadmium exposure was associated with an increased risk of COM in the general population. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data for 5331 adults of 20 years of age or above, obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. We examined the association between blood cadmium levels and COM diagnosed by an otolaryngologist. RESULTS: The highest quartile group of cadmium blood concentration was associated with an OR of 3.33 (95% CI 1.78 to 7.53) for COM, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Doubling blood ...
The ubiquitous food contaminant cadmium has features of an estrogen mimetic that may promote the development of estrogen-dependent malignancies, such as breast cancer. However, no prospective studies of cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk have been reported. , We examined the association between dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1987) and the risk of overall and estrogen receptor (ER)-defined (ER+ or ER-) breast cancer within a population-based prospective cohort of 55,987 postmenopausal women. During an average of 12.2 years of follow-up, 2,112 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were ascertained (1,626 ER+ and 290 ER-). After adjusting for confounders, including consumption of whole grains and vegetables (which account for 40% of the dietary exposure, but also contain putative anticarcinogenic phytochemicals), dietary cadmium intake was positively associated with overall breast cancer tumors, comparing the highest tertile with the lowest [rate ratio (RR), 1.21; 95% confidence ...
Previous U.S. population modeling studies have reported that urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion patterns differ with age, sex, and dietary exposure; associations between Cd exposures and health outcomes also have differed by age and sex. Therefore, it is important to test models used to estimate Cd exposures across an expanded Cd-exposure range.,We estimated relative Cd exposures from both diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios to provide data for improving risk assessment calculations.,We used a Cd toxicokinetic-based model to estimate Cd exposures based on urinary Cd levels measured for 399 persons in a low-exposure area (Bangkok) and 6,747 persons in a high-exposure area (Mae Sot) in Thailand.,In Bangkok, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 50-56 µg/day for males and 21-27 µg/day for females 20-59 years of age who never smoked. In Mae Sot, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 188-224 µg/day for males and 99-113 µg/day for females 20-59 years of age who never smoked. In Bangkok, ...
Cadmium is an element that occurs naturally in the earths crust.� Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal.� Cadmium is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).� Cadmium is most often present in nature as complex oxides, sulfides, and carbonates in zinc, lead, and copper ores. It is rarely present in large quantities as the chlorides and sulfates.� These different forms of cadmium compounds are solids that dissolve in water to varying degrees.� The chlorides and sulfates are the forms that most easily dissolve in water.� Cadmium may change forms, but the cadmium metal itself does not disappear from the environment.� Knowing the particular form of cadmium, however, is very important when determining the risk of potential adverse health effects.
Adams SV, Passarelli MN, Newcomb PA. 2012. Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort. Occup Environ Med 69(2):153-156.. Akerstrom M, Barregard L, Lundh T, Sallsten G. 2013. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 268:286-293.. Arnich N, Sirot V, Rivière G, Jean J, Noël L, Guérin T, et al. 2012. Dietary exposure to trace elements and health risk assessment in the 2nd French Total Diet Study. Food Chem Toxicol 50:2432-2449.. Buser MC, Ingber SZ, Raines N, Fowler DA, Scinicariello F. 2016. Urinary and blood cadmium and lead and kidney function: NHANES 2007-2012. Int J Hyg Environ Health 219(3):261-267.. Ciesielski T, Bellinger DC, Schwartz J, Hauser R, Wright RO. 2013. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults. Environ Health 12:13, doi: ...
Cadmium toxicity has been demonstrated in several organs, as discussed later. It targets many systems of the body and can cause a multitude of different symptoms. Under normal conditions, mitochondria, microsomes, and peroxi-somes produce significant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this article, we have reviewed recent developments and findings on cadmium toxicology. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The metal transporters involved in Cd transport within plant tissues are also discussed and how their manipulation can control Cd uptake and/or translocation. NLM in various industries. Gender differences in susceptibility, at lower exposure, are uncertain, but some data indicate that Cd has estrogenic effects and affects female offspring [8]. This volume focuses on cadmium (Cd) exposure, its effects on human health, the mechanism of Cd accumulation and the development of mitigation technologies. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the ...
Cadmium poisoning through industrial exposure to inorganic cadmium fumes may produce fatigue, coughing, chest pain, a burning sensation in the throat, and renal damage. The prognosis of persons with cadmium-induced renal dysfunction is unfavorable, with urinary β-microglobulin and urinary protein the most important factors.2 Inhalation of cadmium fumes can lead to pneumonia with acute exposure and emphysema with chronic exposure.3. Cadmium poisoning is predominantly associated with cadmium fumes and/or inorganic cadmium salts that may be present in certain industrial environments. Cadmium and its inorganic compounds are commonly found in industry. Cadmium is utilized in many alloys and metal plating. Inorganic cadmium fumes or dusts are generally associated with heating, welding, and grinding of cadmium-containing metal products. Cadmium exposure in the general populace is derived from dietary intake, averaging 2−200 μg/day, and is only occasionally the precipitant of overexposure. In ...
BACKGROUND: Low-level environmental cadmium exposure in children may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate associations between urinary cadmium concentration and reported learning disability (LD), special education utilization, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in U.S. children using National Health and Nutrition Examination Su
Article Urine metabolomics of women from small villages exposed to high environmental cadmium levels. This study aimed to identify urine metabolites in women exposed to high cadmium levels. 21 women exposed to environmental Cd and 12 age‐matched cont...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of maternal dietary exposure to cadmium during pregnancy on mammary cancer risk among female offspring. AU - Davis, Jennifer. AU - Khan, Galam. AU - Martin, Mary. AU - Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Background: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. Methods: From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G) diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet), or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 μg/kg of feed) or high (150 μg/kg) cadmium levels. Some dams were injected with 10 μg 17β-estradiol (E2) daily between gestation days 10 and 19. Results: Rats exposed to a moderate cadmium dose in utero were heavier and exhibited accelerated puberty onset. Both moderate and high cadmium dose led to increased circulating testosterone ...
The nephrotoxicity of cadmium at low levels of exposure, measured by urinary cadmium, has recently been questioned since co-excretion of cadmium and proteins may have causes other than cadmium toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the relation between kidney function and low or moderate cadmium levels, measured directly in kidney biopsies ...
The cadmium (Cd) contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) in urine (as an internal exposure dose) and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose). Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%-86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%-86%
Our earlier work described that the roots of two maize cultivars, grown hydroponically, differentially responded to cadmium (Cd) stress by initiating changes in medium pH depending on their Cd tolerance. The current study investigated the root exudation, elemental contents and antioxidant behavior of the same maize cultivars (cv. 3062 (Cd-tolerant) and cv. 31P41 (Cd-sensitive)] under Cd stress. Plants were maintained in a rhizobox-like system carrying soil spiked with Cd concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mu mol/kg soil. The root and shoot Cd contents increased, while Mg, Ca and Fe contents mainly decreased at higher Cd levels, and preferentially in the sensitive cultivar. Interestingly, the K contents increased in roots of cv. 3062 at low Cd treatments. The Cd stress caused acidosis of the maize root exudates predominantly in cv. 3062. The concentration of various organic acids was significantly increased in the root exudates of cv. 3062 with applied Cd levels. This effect was ...
Introduction Agricultural soils in Iran, as in many other countries, are slightly to moderately contaminated by cadmium. According to some published reports, the average content of cadmium in some agricultural products and soils of Iran was found to be above the FAO/WHO guidelines. Abiotic stresses including cadmium stress can lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. In order to reduce cadmium-induced toxicity and alleviate some adverse effects of this metal on plants, a number of strategies including phytoremediation have been developed. Meanwhile, it was found that application of some elements such as calcium could diminish adverse effects of heavy metals in plants. In addition to calcium, selenium due to its potential in mitigation of cadmium toxicity has gained increased attention in recent decades. Selenium, as an antioxidant, plays an important role in the maintenance of human health, and on the other hand, many ...
Whole books and maybe encyclopedias could be written on pigments having the word cadmium in their common name. I dont recommend any cadmium paint because of the potential health hazard. Yes, I know: manufacturers say they are making safe cadmiums…but, in my opinion, who really knows. Therefore I dont press my luck. But, as so many of you use these pigments you should be aware of their virtues and their drawbacks. If you are not using a single pigment PY35 cadmium yellow, be aware of the additional pigment(s). If the additional pigment is an orange pigment the bias of that particular cadmium yellow will be orange. As in the case of a cadmium yellow hue, if the pigments have nothing to do with cadmium pigments, check on the bias of the pigments used to manipulate to achieve a cadmium yellow hue. If cadmium yellow has the word deep in its name, again, be assured that the bias will be orange. All yellow cadmiums made of PY37 are orange biased. Are you confused yet? I know I am. Why should any ...
Smoking is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and causes exposure to cadmium, which is a pro-atherosclerotic metal. Cadmium exposure has also been shown to increase the risk of CVD, even after adjustment for smoking. Our hypothesis was that part of the risk of CVD in smokers may be mediated by cadmium exposure from tobacco smoke. We examined this hypothesis in a mediation analysis, trying to assess how much of the smoking-induced CVD risk could be explained via cadmium. We used prospective data on CVD (incidence and mortality) in a Swedish population-based cohort of 4304 middle-aged men and women (the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study). Blood cadmium was analyzed in base-line samples from 1991, and clinical events were followed up for 16-19 years based on registry data. Mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate the indirect effect (via cadmium) of smoking on CVD. Survival was analyzed by the accelerated failure time (AFT) model and the Aalen additive hazard model. The mean blood cadmium
The accumulation of cadmium in plants cause a variety of physiological, biochemical and structural changes, while selenium that is often used in the process of biofortification of plants can significantly change the plants response to cadmium treatment. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the roots and shoots of two varieties of wheat (Divana and Srpanjka) seedlings enriched with selenium. Enzymes that were observed in this study were glutathione S-transferase, Cu, Zn-Superoxid-Dismutase and catalase The effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme gene expression depended on the type of cultivar and the type of plant organ (root or shoot). Cadmium treatment affected the expression of glutathione S-transferase the most.The effect of cadmium on decrease in antioxidant enzyme gene expression was much more visible in the roots than in the shoots. Variety Divana was shown to be more sensitive to cadmium treatment than variety Srpanjka ...
Arsenic and cadmium are ranked among the top ten priority hazardous substances by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) [1]. Exposure to arsenic and cadmium can lead to adverse health outcomes such as lung and kidney cancers as well as cardiovascular disease and diabetes [2, 3]. Further, exposure to these two toxic and well-classified chemicals is of particular interest because of their extensive global impact [4-6]. For example, it is estimated that more than 40 million people worldwide drink water containing arsenic at concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water guideline of 10 ppb [7]. Also, humans are exposed to low levels of cadmium through food consumption, typically ranging between 8 and 25 ug per day [3]. Smoking populations experience higher levels of cadmium exposure, as one cigarette may contain 1-2 ug cadmium [3].. Both arsenic and cadmium are classified as Group 1 carcinogens by the ...
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Yan, J., Wang, P., Wang, P., Yang, M., Lian, X., Tang, Z., Huang, C. -F., Salt, D. E., and Zhao, F. J. (2016) A loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 associated with high cadmium accumulation in shoots and grain of Japonica rice cultivars. Plant, Cell & Environment, 39: 1941-1954., which has been published in final form at doi: 10.1111/pce.12747.. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving ...
Data from experimental studies clearly indicates that cadmium is an animal carcinogen. Only one study reported an increase in cancer after oral exposure to soluble cadmium compounds. However, strong evidence exists that inhalation of cadmium oxide dust and fumes or cadmium chloride causes lung cancer in rat. Mice exposed to equivalent levels of cadmium oxide had only marginally significant elevations in lung cancer and no evidence for lung carcinogenicity was found in hamster, so that it has been suggested that interspecies and also inter-strain differences may play a role in the sensitivity to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis. Intrathoracic, intratracheal and subcutaneous exposure to cadmium compounds have also been shown to produce carcinogenic responses in rat. Overall, there is currently no conclusive evidence from human studies that cadmium acts as a carcinogen following oral exposure. In worker populations exposed via inhalation, a statistically significant increase in mortality from lung ...
Data from experimental studies clearly indicates that cadmium is an animal carcinogen. Only one study reported an increase in cancer after oral exposure to soluble cadmium compounds. However, strong evidence exists that inhalation of cadmium oxide dust and fumes or cadmium chloride causes lung cancer in rat. Mice exposed to equivalent levels of cadmium oxide had only marginally significant elevations in lung cancer and no evidence for lung carcinogenicity was found in hamster, so that it has been suggested that interspecies and also inter-strain differences may play a role in the sensitivity to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis. Intrathoracic, intratracheal and subcutaneous exposure to cadmium compounds have also been shown to produce carcinogenic responses in rat. Overall, there is currently no conclusive evidence from human studies that cadmium acts as a carcinogen following oral exposure. In worker populations exposed via inhalation, a statistically significant increase in mortality from lung ...
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)s Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR) has created a list of some of the most detrimental conditions linked to high cadmium exposure. According to the ATSDR, occupational exposure to cadmium may trigger the onset of obstructive lung disease and emphysema. Studies also show that cadmium exposure is tied to various forms of cardiovascular conditions such as increased systolic blood pressure, depressed atrial natriuretic peptide levels, increased blood aldosterone levels, and sodium and salt retention.. Exposure to the heavy metal is also associated with the onset of skeletal lesions. According to the agency, clinically significant bone lesions commonly set in late and may include other conditions including pseudofractures, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. The heavy metal is also linked to developmental issues and birth defects. Women who had high occupational cadmium exposure are also found to have higher rates of pre-term labor ...
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death worldwide, including Qatar. Hypertension is one of the most common CVDs that contribute to this mortality. Cadmium is a well-known pollutant that has been suggested to be a risk factor for hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Very little is known about the effect of cadmium on the expression of vascular alpha- 1 adrenoceptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cadmium on the expression of vascular alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in vitro. Along with that, there are several phenotypic changes could modulate the VSMCs function and contribute to CVDs including hypertension. These changes include hypertrophy, migration and senescence. The second objective of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on VSMCs phenotype. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were incubated with different concentrations of cadmium chloride for varying
Cadmium has proatherogenic effects as shown in experimental and clinical studies.7, 8, 11, 20, 21 Atherosclerotic plaque is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke, and inflammation in the plaque is a critical mechanism for plaque rupture.7, 8, 22 Previous studies from the MDC and other cohorts have reported relationships between cadmium in blood and cardiovascular disease, including carotid plaque.4, 5, 6, 8 The present results show that cadmium and carotid plaque were associated with risk of future ischemic stroke in a synergistic manner. Since the whole population is exposed to cadmium through the diet and cadmium is eliminated very slowly from the human body, this observation could have important implications for public health.. The blood vessels have been identified as a target organ for cadmium accumulation.9 Cadmium has been associated with pro‐inflammatory effects, both in experimental and human studies.23 An in vitro study showed increased necrosis and apoptosis in macrophages exposed ...
Cadmium (Cd) is frequently used in various industrial applications and is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, also present in tobacco smoke. An important route of exposure is the circulatory system whereas blood vessels are considered to be main stream organs of Cd toxicity. Our previous results indicate that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) affects mean arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that Cd alters the intracellular calcium transient mechanism, by cadmium-induced stimulation of MAPKs (ERK 1 & 2) which is mediated partially through calcium-dependent PKC mechanism. To investigate this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from wistar kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to increased concentrations of CdCl2 on cell viability, expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/ERK 1 & 2), and protein kinase C (PKC) which are activated by Cd in several cell types. The results from these studies indicate that CdCl2
Presence of cadmium in drinking water is hazardous to human health. Renal, cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal effects have been found to be induced by cadmium exposure. Cadmium can induce renal tubular dysfunction leading to renal lesion and irreversible impairment of reabsorption capacity of renal tubules. Combine concentration of metallothionein, a cadmium binding protein, and cadmium…
Journal of Toxicology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of toxicological sciences. The journal will consider articles looking at the structure, function, and mechanism of agents that are toxic to humans and/or animals, as well as toxicological medicine, risk assessment, safety evaluation, and environmental health.
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Cadmium and lead linked to hearing loss in U.S. adults.. Low levels of lead and cadmium may contribute to hearing loss, according to a large study of U.S. adults. Hearing loss was seen at metal concentrations common in the general population and below current workplace standards. Hearing ability dropped about 14 to 19 percent.. Loud noise can harm hearing but two common metals - lead and cadmium - may have a similar effect, according to a study published in Environmental Health Perspectives.. This study is unique because it links hearing loss and low-level exposures to lead and cadmium in a large sample of men and women in the United States. It is also the first to report cadmiums effects on hearing in adults.. This article originally appeared in the February 2013 issue of Environmental Health News.. Click Here for the original article. ...
Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well as their variation were monitored after acute and chronic exposure or recovery from two cadmium concentrations (Cd(1) = 10 mu g and Cd(2) = 30 mu g Cd/g dry food). Larval mass only decreased, without returning to the control level at recovery stage following chronic cadmium challenge. Acute stress did not change trait value but increased genetic variance of larval mass. Significant ALP activity changes, sensitivity of isozyme patterns (Mr of 60, 64, and 85 kDa) and increased variation in ALP plasticity during acute exposure to cadmium point to its possible aplication as an exposure biomarker. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved ...
Citation: Grant, C.A., Clarke, J.M., Duguid, S., Chaney, R.L. 2003. Use of genetic variability in reducing cadmium uptake by plants. Proceedings of the SCOPE Workshop on Risk Assessment and Management of Environmental Cadmium (Ghent, Belgium, September 3-5, 2003) UNEP-SCOPE, Paris. Interpretive Summary: All crops accumulate some cadmium from soils, but some crops accumulate soil cadmium more effectively that others, and some soils are geochemically enriched in cadmium or contaminated with cadmium. Excessive lifetime cadmium consumption can cause renal tubular dysfunction in susceptible individuals, especially subsistence rice consumers. One method to minimize the possibility that consumers will ingest excessive cadmium in foods is to breed crop cultivars which accumulate lower levels of cadmium in the edible plant tissue (e.g., grain). Major or staple foods are of greater importance if breeding for low cadmium is needed, but minor foods which accumulate higher levels of cadmium than most other ...
Exposure to cadmium has been associated with carotid plaques, inflammation in carotid plaques, and increased risk of ischemic stroke. This study examined the separate and interacting effects of blood cadmium levels and carotid plaques on the risk of incident ischemic stroke.Cadmium levels were measured in 4156 subjects (39.2% men; mean±SD age 57.3±5.9 years) without history of stroke, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The right carotid artery was examined using B-mode ultrasound examination at baseline. Incidence of ischemic stroke was monitored over a mean follow-up of 16.7 years. Carotid plaque was present in 34.5% of participants. Cadmium was significantly higher in subjects with plaque (mean±SD: 0.53±0.58 μg/L versus 0.42±0.49 μg/L; ...
1. Chromatography measurements indicated that adult rats converted 25-hydroxycholecalciferol into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol at a lower rate than that reported earlier for young animals. In serum, less-polar metabolites were found which probably represented vitamin D esters and vitamin D3.. 2. A low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an evident increase in the fraction corresponding to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the kidneys and also in the intestinal mucosa and serum.. 3. Inclusion of 0·67 mmol of cadmium/l of drinking water at a low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an increased accumulation of both cadmium and zinc in the kidneys and liver compared with values at a normal dietary calcium intake.. 4. At a normal dietary calcium intake, cadmium exposure caused inhibited production of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by the kidneys and an increased accumulation of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D3 and vitamin D esters in the serum.. 5. The inhibitory effect of cadmium on ...
1. Chromatography measurements indicated that adult rats converted 25-hydroxycholecalciferol into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol at a lower rate than that reported earlier for young animals. In serum, less-polar metabolites were found which probably represented vitamin D esters and vitamin D3.. 2. A low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an evident increase in the fraction corresponding to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the kidneys and also in the intestinal mucosa and serum.. 3. Inclusion of 0·67 mmol of cadmium/l of drinking water at a low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an increased accumulation of both cadmium and zinc in the kidneys and liver compared with values at a normal dietary calcium intake.. 4. At a normal dietary calcium intake, cadmium exposure caused inhibited production of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by the kidneys and an increased accumulation of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D3 and vitamin D esters in the serum.. 5. The inhibitory effect of cadmium on ...
Exposure levels and exposure sources. Among subjects in this study, age, sex, smoking, and locality were sources of U-Cd variability. A comparison of observed U-Cd data from males and females who never smoked in the 20- to 39-year-old and 40- to 59-year-old groups in Mae Sot with respective counterparts in Bangkok indicated overall Cd exposure levels in Mae Sot to be 3- to 3.8-times greater than in Bangkok. Evidence supporting diet as a major source of high Cd exposures in Mae Sot comes from a previous report indicating that Cd levels in most staple food (rice) samples from Mae Sot were above the permissible limit of 0.2 mg/kg (Swaddiwudhipong et al. 2007). In another report, Cd content in 524 rice samples was 0.05-7.7 mg/kg, with over 90% of samples , 0.2 mg/kg (Simmons et al. 2005). Further, U-Cd levels were higher among persons who consumed locally grown rice compared with those who consumed rice purchased from other areas (Swaddiwudhipong et al. 2007). U-Cd levels were also higher in Mae Sot ...
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have observed that cadmium (Cd) exposure of pregnant women was associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the potential mechanism still remains unclear. In addition, various animal studies have suggested that Cd exposure could affect fatty acids (FAs) metabolism, but data on humans are scant. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a nested case-control study to investigate the associations of urinary Cd concentrations with levels of circulating FAs and risk of GDM in pregnant women, and further to examine the role of FAs in mediating the relationship between Cd exposure and risk of GDM. METHODS: A total of 305 GDM cases were matched to 305 controls on pregnant womens age (±2 years) and infants gender from a birth cohort study conducted in Wuhan, China. Urinary Cd concentrations and levels of plasma FAs between 10 and 16 gestational weeks were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass ...
Cadmium is a carcinogenic heavy metal. Urinary levels of cadmium are considered to be an indicator of long-term body burden, as cadmium accumulates in the kidneys and has a half-life of at least 10 years. However, the temporal stability of the biomarker in urine samples from a non-occupationally exposed population has not been rigorously established. We used repeated measurements of urinary cadmium (U-Cd) in spot urine samples and first morning voids from two separate cohorts, to assess the temporal stability of the samples.
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On the potential exposure to toxic levels of cadmium: I was surprised to learn that one serving (46g) of sunflower seeds contains 23.9 ug (212 nanomoles) of cadmium (ref). The concentrated metal stocks we use for Maxpar labeling are 50 mM. If I did the math correctly, one serving of sunflower seeds contains the same amount of cadmium as 4.3 uL of a 50 mM cadmium stock. Admittedly, the cadmium in sunflower seeds could be much less bioavailable than a cadmium salt solution, but I just want to make the point that were not handling very high levels of metal in a typical CyTOF workflow ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcification in molar teeth of rats exposed to cadmium during development. AU - Shearer, T. R.. AU - Britton, J. L.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - The purpose of the experiments described below was to determine if calcification of the molar teeth was altered in rats exposed to high levels of cadmium during the period of tooth development. Microdistribution of calcium and phosphorus in enamel, microhardness of enamel, molar lengths and weights, and in vitro solubilization of enamel was measured in the molar teeth of rats receiving injections of cadmium. Compared to controls, no changes were found. We concluded that caries promotion by cadmium was not caused by a direct effect of the cadmium on the calcification of enamel.. AB - The purpose of the experiments described below was to determine if calcification of the molar teeth was altered in rats exposed to high levels of cadmium during the period of tooth development. Microdistribution of calcium and phosphorus in enamel, ...
This 24-hour urine test is used to monitor exposure to cadmium. Cadmium is an extremely toxic metal frequently found in industrial places of work. Cigarettes are also a significant source of cadmium exposure. Cadmium may be found in batteries, fertilizers, pesticides, PVC plastics and certain shellfish. Those who work with cadmium pigments are also at risk for cadmium exposure. Cadmium toxicity affects the liver, placenta, lungs, brain, kidneys and bones, which may lead to problems such as fatigue, confusion, depression and cardiac arrhythmias. ...
High levels of cadmium, a chemical found in cigarettes and in contaminated vegetables, are associated with higher death rates in patients with influenza or pneumonia, research finds.. High cadmium levels may also increase the severity of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, according to the study.. Our study suggests the public in general, both smokers and nonsmokers, could benefit from reduced exposure to cadmium, says lead author Sung Kyun Park, associate professor of epidemiology and environmental health sciences at the University of Michigan School of Public Health.. Long-term exposure to cadmium, even at low levels, may undermine our defense system in the lungs, and people with high levels of the chemical may not be able to cope with influenza virus attacks, Park says.. The associations we found need to be verified in other populations and also studied with respect to cadmiums potential impact on COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality, says senior author Howard Hu, professor and ...
Cadmium is a soft, malleable metal that, according to OSHA, can cause serious health problems for workers exposed to it. When using this metal, proper personal protective equipment must be worn because cadmium is highly toxic. Exposure to this metal is known to cause cancer and targets the bodys cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the administration states.. Cadmium is used today in batteries, alloys, plastic stabilizers and solar cells. OSHA estimates that 300,000 workers are exposed to the metal in the United States. Cadmium exposure can occur in all industry sectors, but construction and manufacturing have the highest exposure rates. The following workplace activities can lead to exposure:. ...
The purpose of this article is to emphasize that new nanomaterials offer a number of attractive alternatives for solar energy use in wastewater photocatalysis. The wastewater from the textile industry contains dyes and heavy metals. Thin films of cadmium doped TiO2 (Cd-TiO2) were coated by a doctor blade using TiO2 Degussa P25 and cadmium precursor (cadmium nitrate). The photocatalytic efficiency of cadmium doped TiO2 is strongly influenced by crystal structure, particle size, particle morphology, porosity and doping. The pore size distribution and the roughness analysis have been studied by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the thin films. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was tested in Methyl orange and Methylene blue photodegradation. Cadmium doped TiO2 catalyst does not significantly decrease the efficiency of photodegradation processes, and, in some situations, improves dye photodegradation ...
Aeration and water management increasing rhizosphere oxygen amount significantly promote rice (Oryza sativa) growth and yield, but the effect of root aeration on cadmium (Cd) toxicity and accumulation in rice seedlings under hydroponic culture remains unclear. Results showed that aeration promoted rice seedling growth and alleviated Cd toxicity. Transverse section discovered that Cd accelerated root mature and senescence while aeration delayed the mature and senescence of roots. Non-invasive Micro-test Technology (NMT) showed that aeration increased net O2 and Cd2+ influxes on the surface of roots while decreased net Cd2+ influx in xylem. Perls blue staining showed that aeration and Cd treatments increased iron plaque formation on the surface of roots. Results of metal concentration analysis showed that besides increasing Cd retention in iron plaque, aeration also increasing Cd retention in the cell wall of rice roots. Cell wall component analysis showed that aeration not only increased pectin content
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A Comparative Study of Metallothionein Gene Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes and Blood Cadmium Level among Die Casting Male Workers
The effects of cadmium (from 7.5 to 75 lM) on chloroplasts of rice were studied at the structural and biochemical level. Loss of pigments, reduction of thylakoids and decrease in oxygen evolution and Fv/Fm ratio occur in leaves following cadmium treatment. However, the amount of photosystem II reaction center proteins and that of its light harvesting complex is not affected, indicating that cadmium does not adversely influence the structural organization of this photosystem. In thylakoids isolated from cadmium-treated plants a loss in the capability to reduce 2,6- hlorophenolindophenol is observed, which is partially restored if diphenylcarbazide is used as an electron donor, indicating that cadmium affects water splitting activity. In thylakoids isolated from control plants and treated with cadmium, diphenylcarbazide preserves most of the photosystem II activity lost after incubation with cadmium; most of the S2 multiline electron paramagnetic resonance signal from the manganese cluster is ...
A 28-year-old female presented for evaluation of left flank pain and polyuria after having been exposed to cadmium in the jewelry manufacturing industry for approximately 3 years. This patient possessed both elevated 24-hr urinary β[sub 2]-microglobulin and elevated blood cadmium levels. Approximately 6 months after initial presentation, the patient resigned from her job due to shortness of breath, chest pain, and anxiety. Exposure to cadmium in the jewelry industry is a significant source of occupational cadmium exposure. Other occupational sources include the manufacture of nickel-cadmium batteries, metal plating, zinc and lead refining, smelting of cadmium and lead, and production of plastics. Cadmium is also an environmental pollutant that accumulates in leafy vegetables and plants, including tobacco. Major toxicities anticipated from cadmium exposure involve the renal, pulmonary, and, to a lesser extent, gastrointestinal systems. These include the development of renal proximal tubular ...
Only limited data were available on the skin or respiratory sensitization potential of cadmium metal and cadmium compounds. Cadmium chloride did not show any skin sensitization effects at 0.5% in a GMPT test. Cadmium chloride and sulphate were patch-tested in human volunteers but, across several studies, the evidence remained inconclusive. If at all, significant exposure is expected to occur principally in occupational settings.Given the carcinogen properties of cadmium metal and some of the cadmium compounds, risk reduction measures are in place to prevent contact.Therefore, neither skin nor respiratory tract sensitization are expected to be an issue for human health and further testing is not considered necessary, in accordance withAnnex XI (3) of the REACH directive.This is in line with the conclusions of the EU RAR (ECB, 2007). At present, none of the cadmium substances covered in the present assessment is classified for sensitization in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC. ...
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Cadmium is an ubiquitous toxic metal to which everyone is exposed at low levels. It is toxic to almost every organ system of the body including the immune system. In this study, the effects of a relatively low dose of cadmium on the immune system of mice and the effects of a moderately large dose of zinc on cadmium-induced immunopathology were studied. Six-week old C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 50 ppm cadmium in drinking water for 3 weeks, and killed 0, 3 and 6 weeks after cessation of treatment. In some groups, 500 ppm zinc was added to the drinking water with or after cadmium treatment. The number of IgM and IgG antibody-forming cells in the spleen was higher in cadmium-treated mice as compared to non-treated controls at 0 week. Concurrent zinc administration prevented the enhancement of antibody-forming cell response. Proliferative response of spleen cells to the T cell mitogens phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A tended to be high in cadmium-treated mice and zinc administration after ...
The roots of the cadmium-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, cad1-1, become brown in the presence of cadmium. A new cadmium-sensitive mutant affected at a second locus, cad2, has been identified using this phenotype. Genetic analysis has shown that the sensitive phenotype is recessive to the wild type and segregates as a single Mendelian locus. Assays of cadmium accumulation by intact plants indicated that the mutant is deficient in its ability to sequester cadmium. Undifferentiated callus tissue was also cadmium sensitive, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is expressed at the cellular level. The level of cadmium-binding complexes formed in vivo was decreased compared with the wild type and accumulation of phytochelatins was about 10% of that in the wild type. The level of glutathione, the substrate for phytochelatin biosynthesis, in tissues of the mutant was decreased to about 15 to 30% of that in the wild type. Thus, the deficiency in phytochelatin biosynthesis can be explained by a ...
Figure 1. Overall breast cancer according to tertiles of estimated dietary cadmium exposure and whole grain and vegetable consumption jointly, Swedish Mammography Cohort, 1987-2008. Multivariable adjusted RRs (with 95% CIs) of overall breast cancer according to tertiles of dietary cadmium exposure (,14, 14-16, ≥16 μg/d) and whole grain and vegetable consumption (,187, 187-287, ≥287 g/d). Adjustments were made for attained age in years, height, BMI, education, use of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones, age at menarche and menopause, parity, age at first birth, alcohol consumption, glycemic load, and total energy intake. In the lowest tertile of whole grain and vegetable intake, the daily consumption corresponded to, on average, 1.5 servings of whole grain and 1 serving of vegetables, whereas the corresponding consumption in the highest tertile was 3.5 servings of whole grain and 2.5 servings of vegetables. Pinteraction = 0.73.. ...
A significant reduction of kallikrein activity in urine (assayed by its amidolytic activity) was found in 64 normotensive workers who had been exposed to cadmium for 11 years on average and whose cadmium concentrations in urine ranged from 2.2 to 33.1 micrograms/g creatinine. The mean (geometric) urinary kallikrein activity (in U/g creatinine) amounted to 0.52 (range 0.11-1.90) in the control group (n = 193) against 0.39 (range 0.10-1.03) in the cadmium group, and the prevalence of abnormally low activity levels (less than or equal to 0.20 U/g creatinine) amounted to 17.2% in the cadmium group against 5.2% in the control group. A reduction of aldosterone release (aldosterone in urine) associated with an increased natriuresis was also observed. This might constitute a compensatory mechanism maintaining blood pressure in the normal range. These biological effects of cadmium were not reversible after removal from exposure. This study indicates that cadmium can induce an irreversible toxic effect in ...
The effect of cadmium on protein expression in the aerial parts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Mandolina) seedlings was investigated by proteomic analysis of leaf apoplast proteins. Dramatic changes were observed in the protein pattern of intercellular washing fluid from Cd-treated (0-300 μM) barley leaves both by 1D- and 2D-PAGE. By mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF and/or LC-MS/MS) analysis of induced proteins PR1 proteins, certain 1-3-glucanases (PR2), chitinases (PR3), members of the chitin binding PR4 family, a rich set of thaumatin-like proteins (PR5) and two PR17 proteins were identified, indicating that a general plant defence response, inducing massive secretion of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR) into the extracellular space, is an important part of the Cd-induced stress reactions. Although systemic induction of PR proteins is probably important for an adequate plant response to cadmium stress, many of these proteins are known to have an allergenic potential and as such present a ...
Loss of soil resource capacity can be defined as points at which one or more of these outcomes are realised. In terms of the first and second outcomes, the most readily quantifiable point for soil resource loss is 1 mg/kg for total soil cadmium. This is both the current recommended limit for cadmium in agricultural soils, and a default human health protection limit for Waikato properties being subdivided to residential or rural-residential land. The recommended agricultural soil cadmium limit is set partly with respect to current and anticipated expectations of New Zealands international trading partners. The third outcome, non-compliance with food standards, relates mainly to particular types of horticultural and arable crops. The exact point at which soil cadmium has become high enough to cause food standards to be exceeded can be difficult to predetermine, as it depends on crop and soil conditions. However, this outcome has been observed to occur at soil cadmium concentrations below the ...
The aim of this report was to estimate impacts of cadmium in phosphorus fertilizers on a cadmium content and cadmium balance of the cultivated soil, and to assess related human health and environmental risks under Finnish conditions. The assessment was performed by applying, as appropriate, the EU principles on risk assessment of New and Existing Substances, and the guidance document prepared by Environmental Resources Management Limited for the risk assessment of cadmium in fertilizers. The work was carried out on the basis of the available literature and other information relating to the occurrence of cadmium in the environment in Finland, harmful environmental influences of cadmium, as well as its adverse health effects ...
Characterization of Chl a Fluorescence of Hydrophytes under Cadmium Stress - Chl a fluorescence;Hydrophytes;Cadmium stress;Fv/Fm;Lemna plants;
Lauwerys, R. R., Buchet, J.-P., and Roels, H. A. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 359-364. Comparative study of effect of inorganic lead and cadmium on blood δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase in man. δ-Aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA1-D) of red blood cells, lead concentration in blood (Pb-B) and in urine (Pb-U), cadmium concentration in blood (Cd-B) and in urine (Cd-U), and ALA in urine (ALA-U) were measured in 77 workers occupationally exposed to cadmium, and in 73 control workers.. An excellent negative correlation was found between log ALA-D and Pb-B (r = - 0·660) or Pb-U (r = - 0·501), but no significant correlation was found between Cd-B and log ALA-D activity.. Unlike ALA-D, ALA-U is not correlated with Pb and Pb-U in the `normal range of Pb concentration investigated. Mean ALA-D activity in smokers is lower than in nonsmokers, and this is probably related to the fact that a higher mean Pb-B concentration is found in smokers than in nonsmokers.. It is clear from this ...
[Objective] The study aimed to study the interactive effect of the nitrogen application and cadmium contamination on growth and nutrition quality of vegetable.[Method] With alluvial soil as tested soil and with amaranth as tested vegetable,the complete orthogonal design with cadmium at 4 concn.of 0,0.5,1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg and nitrogen at 4 concn.of 0,0.2,0.4 and 0.6 g/kg was set up in the pot test to study the interactive effect of nitrogen and cadmium on growth and nutrition quality of vegetable.[Result] The cadmium and nitrogen at low concn.(0.5 mg/kg and 0.2 g/kg) could extremely significantly promote the growth of amaranth..Under the cadmium contamination condition,the treatment of nitrogen application could extremely significantly promote the growth of amaranth compared with the treatment without nitrogen application;cadmium contamination could extremely significantly increase the synthesis of Vc and soluble sugar,and inhibit the content of soluble protein in amaranth;the nitrogen application could
In this study, we demonstrate that the high-affinity component of the manganese transport system in mammalian cells is also used for cadmium uptake. Previously, we have established cadmium-resistant cell lines from MT-null mouse cells that exhibited a marked decrease in the uptake of cadmium (Yanagiya et al., 1999). The application of multitracer technique in this study revealed that the uptake of ultra-trace amount of manganese in Cd-rB5 cells was reduced to approximately 10% of that in parental cells, whereas no change in the incorporation of zinc, copper, or iron was observed. Because cadmium accumulation in the Cd-rB5 cells was also reduced to 10% of that in parental cells, the same mechanism may be responsible for the reduction of the incorporation of both cadmium and manganese into Cd-rB5 cells.. The results of time- and dose-dependent uptake of Mn2+ in Cd-rB5 and parental cells (Fig. 2, A and C) suggest that there are at least two components, having high and low affinity to Mn2+, for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Biofertilizers on Maize and Sunflower Seedlings under Cadmium Stress. AU - Gajdos, Éva. AU - Lévai, László. AU - Veres, Szilvia. AU - Kovács, Béla. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Application of various alternative nutrient supplies can partly be substituted by chemical fertilizers, resulting in economical use with less environmental strains. Biofertilizers containing living microorganisms promote nutrition uptake, but still there are questions regarding their application under stress conditions. One of the main abiotic factors that can induce stress is contamination of soils with toxic elements. In the course of intensive plant-growth conditions, considerable quantities of basic cations are removed from the soil, resulting in acidification and thereby enhancing the uptake of heavy metals by plants. Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a major problem affecting crop productivity worldwide. The presence of Cd in the rhizosphere can cause stress responses and alteration in ...
Heavy metal pollution has become the major concern of many countries, and the key to control the matter calls for good model organisms as early-warning indicators, effective target genes as molecular markers, and a sensitive method studying differential expressions of the genes. To study the potential molecular mechanisms of cadmium and copper combined toxicity, the unicellular protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila was chosen for its fast growth and sensitivity to pollutants in water ecosystem, and a method of real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR(Q-PCR) was applied which is effective, accurate and has been widely used in molecular field. In this article, the Q-PCR method was optimized, on the basis of which tests were designed to study the relative expression of metallothionein gene (MTT1) in T.thermophila treated with different concentrations of heavy metals cadmium and copper. The results suggested that: MTT1 gene was more sensitive to cadmium induction compared to copper, and in a certain threshold
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This report contains market size and forecasts of Cadmium Chloride in global, including the following market information: Global Cadmium Chloride Market Revenue, 2016-2021, 2022-2027, ($ millions) Glo...
In the contaminated soils, the poor plant establishment and reduction in  plant biomass will reduce the efficiency of phytoremediation. In this study the effect of sunflower seed pretreatment with salicylic acid (100 mg/L) and potassium nitrate (2%) on its enhancing tolerance under different concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were evaluated. Results showed that increasing of cadmium concentration significantly reduced the root dry weight, stem dry weight and leaf dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and increased carotenoids, proline content and electrolyte leakage. Seed priming with salicylic acid and potassium nitrate improved the damage effect of contaminated soil with cadmium on mentioned parameters. Under cadmium stress, potassium nitrate increased stem dry weight, leaf dry weight, chlorophyll a, aboveground cadmium concentration, and translocation factor. However, salicylic acid increased root dry weight, chlorophyll b and root cadmium concentration. Under highest
Cadmium (Cd2+) is a known nephrotoxin causing tubular necrosis during acute exposure and potentially contributing to renal failure in chronic long-term exposure. To investigate changes in global gene expression elicited by cadmium, an in-vitro exposure system was developed from cultures of human renal epithelial cells derived from cortical tissue obtained from nephrectomies. These cultures exhibit many of the qualities of proximal tubule cells. Using these cells, a study was performed to determine the cadmium-induced global gene expression changes after short-term (1 day, 9, 27, and 45 μM) and long-term cadmium exposure (13 days, 4.5, 9, and 27 μM). These studies revealed fundamental differences in the types of genes expressed during each of these time points. The obtained data was further analyzed using regression to identify cadmium toxicity responsive genes. Regression analysis showed 403 genes were induced and 522 genes were repressed by Cd2+ within 1 day, and 366 and 517 genes were induced and
Biochemical indicators of renal dysfunction have been compared with liver and kidney cadmium levels measured by neutron activation analysis in a group of 37 cadmium smelters. Higher than normal concentrations of cadmium in the liver reflect past expo
Cadmium is a non-essential microelement that can accumulate in seeds of edible plants at levels that exceed acceptable limits for human consumption (Gerritse et al., 1983; Hocking and McLaughlin, 2000). The daily adult human limit for Cd intake has been set at 70 ,ig by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Department of Health (Chaney et al., 1993). Increasing international concerns about the risks associated with long-term consumption of crops containing elevated Cd levels (McLaughlin et al., 1994) has led the international food standards organization, Codex Alimentarius Commission, to propose a 200 g Cd kg-1 limit for cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and legumes and 400 g Cd kg-1 for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Europe (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2000). Vegetables contribute more than 70% of the Cd intake in human diets. Dietary intake of Cd depends on both the amount of food consumed and the Cd concentration in the consumed food (Wagner, 1993). High Cd intake by humans has been associated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cadmium exposure exerts neurotoxic effects in peacock blennies Salaria pavo. AU - Naïja,Azza. AU - Kestemont,Patrick. AU - Chénais,Benoit. AU - Haouas,Zohra. AU - Blust,Ronny. AU - Helal,Ahmed Noureddine. AU - Marchand,Justine. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Cadmium (Cd) is considered as an important factor involved in several neurological disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Cd in the brain of peacock blennies Salaria pavo, a species used as a bioindicator of water pollution. A sublethal contamination of 2 mg CdCl2 L−1 was performed over periods of 1, 4, 10 and 15 days. Total Cd accumulation was measured in brains and displayed low concentrations throughout the experiment. Partial-length cDNA of different ATP-binding cassette transporters (abcb1, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2 proteins) and acetylcholinesterase (ache) were characterized. mRNA expressions profiles displayed an up-regulation of abcc2 mRNA after 4 days of Cd exposure only while abcg2 mRNA ...
Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metal in several part of the world. Its toxicity in soil is becoming a severe threat to living organism worldwide. It is one of the main pollutants in paddy fields near industrial areas and highly toxic to plant growth and development of the plants. Cd can be easily taken up by plants and enter the food chain. Therefore, precautionary measurements should be done to reduce accumulation of Cd in crops to alleviate the risk of health hazards in response to Cd-polluted soils. Several strategies have been proposed for the successful management of the Cd-contaminated in crops. One approach, applicable on slightly contaminated soils, is selection of plant genotypes with high ability to repress root uptake and shoot transport of Cd which could be a reasonable approach to alleviate adverse effects of Cd toxicity in crops. Moreover, the toxic effect of Cd can be decreased by proper application of essential nutrients such as Zn, S and N fertilizers Cd
In studies with mouse and rat, effects on development were observed after oral and inhalatory exposure to cadmium compounds. Neurobehavioural changes were reported in the absence of maternal toxicity but the robustness of these observations was not sufficient to derive an appropriate NOAEL. It is suggested that further studies are needed to better document the possible effects of cadmium on the developing brain (ECB, 2007). No clear evidence indicates that cadmium has adverse effects on the development of offprings from women exposed indirectly via the environment or occupationally. Effects on birth weight, motor and perceptual abilities of offsprings have been reported by some authors. However, these studies suffer from drawbacks either in the definition of the study postulation, the definition of the effects, or in the assessment of exposure. Moreover, it is not clear whether the effects on psychomotor development were related to cadmium or to a simultaneous exposure to other substances such ...
Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of rice straw biochar (RSB) on soil cadmium (Cd) availability and accumulation in lettuce. The RSB was applied either in bands or broadcast in the test site of four greenhouses with soil Cd concentrations ranging from 1.70-3.14 μg g−1. Biochar doses applied in bands were half of those broadcast. The Cd levels in the shoots of lettuce were observed to be reduced by up to 57% with increasing RSB application rate (0, 6, 12, 18 t ha−1). Following RSB application, shoot Cd concentrations of lettuce were reduced to below the Chinese threshold value set for food, and hazard quotients for Cd associated with vegetable consumption were reduced from 0.70-1.11 to 0.42-0.65. A decrease in soil bulk density (11%) and increases in water holding capacity (16%), available phosphorus (30%), available potassium (197%), and lettuce yield (15%) were observed after RSB application. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the soil ...
Hyperaccumulator plants are able to accumulate unusually high levels of heavy metals because they can store them in cell vacuoles where they cannot harm metabolic processes in the cell cytoplasm. The plant cell vacuole has been termed the cellular trashbag. One yeast that accumulates high levels of cadmium has small peptides called phytochelatins that bond with cadmium ions. This allows transport of the cadmium ions across cell membranes and into the vacuole. References X-ray Imaging of Zinc Uptake and Accumulation in Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens Re: How does biomining for heavy metals work? Yeast Gene and Cadmium ...
Since cadmium compounds are often found in association with zinc ores, cadmium oxide is a common by-product of zinc refining.[15] It is produced by burning elemental cadmium in air. Pyrolysis of other cadmium compounds, such as the nitrate or the carbonate, also affords this oxide. When pure, it is red, but CdO is unusual in being available in many differing colours due to its tendency to form defect structures resulting from anion vacancies.[16] Cadmium oxide is prepared commercially by oxidizing cadmium vapor in air.[17] ...
Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated cadmium (Cd) with breast cancer. in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal marker ZEB-1. Treatment of cells with Cd significantly increased the level of Snail, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of EMT. However, the Cd-induced Snail expression was abolished by actinomycin D. Luciferase reporter assay indicated the fact that appearance of Snail was governed Tshr by Compact disc on the promotor level. Snail was needed for Cd-induced advertising of EMT within the MDA-MB-231 cells, as knockdown of Snail appearance obstructed Cd-induced cell migration. Jointly, these outcomes indicate that Compact disc promotes EMT in breasts epithelial cells and will therefore by modulating the transcription of Snail. solid course=kwd-title Keywords: Cadmium, Breasts cancer, Epithelial-mesenchymal changeover, Snail, MDA-MB-231 cells, MCF10A cells Launch Cadmium (Compact disc) can be an environmental pollutant along ...
56 A CASE HISTORY OF REMOVING CADMIUM FROM ELECTROPLATING WASTEWATER USING CALCIUM SULFIDE James D. Edwards, Associate John W. Cammarn, Senior Chemical Engineer Burgess & Niple, Limited Columbus, Ohio 43220 INTRODUCTION United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) Effluent Guideline Limitations for the Electroplating and Metal Finishing Point Source Categories limit the allowable discharge of cadmium to navigable waters and to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). Communities have often placed additional restrictions on cadmium discharges in an effort to protect sewage treatment system performance and to extend the usable life of sludge land application sites. The following is a case history of the design, construction, and operation of a 330-gallon per minute (gpm) electroplating wastewater treatment facility for a large midwestern manufacturing facility. The facility uses both rack and barrel plating lines to electroplate chrome and cadmium. The treatment plant replaced an existing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Developing nanostructured, cadmium doped zinc oxide methanol sensor. AU - Sadani, Kapil. AU - Bandyopadhyay, Rajib. AU - Nag, Pooja. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Cadmium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical combustion of acetates of metals, nitric acid and di/triethanolamine. Thick film screen-printed sensors have been fabricated using the nano-powders. The sensor exhibits fastest response time for detection of methanol in comparison to reported metal oxide alcohol sensors when doped with 2 atomic percent Cadmium at 3000C. The Doped ZnO phases were characterized by XRD, FESEM and EDS. It was found to exist as a hexagonal system in a primitive lattice with average crystallite size of around 25 nm, bandgap of 2.7 eV and grain size less than 100 nm. The sensors were found to be selectively sensitive to 20-300ppm of methanol vapours with a response and recovery times of 4- 9 seconds and 5-10 seconds respectively.. AB - Cadmium doped zinc oxide ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-202908, Cadmium chloride for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Male rats received one injection of a subtoxic amount of Cd|sup|2+|/sup| (9.2 µmol/kg body weight) as cadmium chloride and the testes were removed 24 h later. Homogenate fractions of testes that had been freed of ribosomes were tested for their activity in cell-free protein-synthesizing systems using excess exogenous rat liver ribosomes and mRNA. A marked decrease in the incorporation of free [|sup|14|/sup|C]-phenylalanine into peptide was observed with the testes preparations from the cadmium-treated rats. The results indicated that about half of the effect of cadmium was due to decreased aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity and the other half was due to decreased binding of [|sup|14|/sup|C]-phenylalanyl-tRNA to ribosomes. The results are discussed relative to the contrasting results obtained in kidney and liver preparations.
Page contains details about cadmium chloride nanocrystals . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
In December 2015, the European Commission adopted its circular economy package, which aims to encourage European businesses and consumers to utilise resources in a more sustainable manner. One of the first deliverables of the circular economy package was a proposal on fertilizer regulation.. Cadmium content of both organic and inorganic fertilizer has received much attention throughout the proposal process. Phosphate fertilizers can contain heavy metals, including cadmium. Some countries within Europe currently implement strict limits to cadmium levels, due to bio-accumulation concerns. To harmonise bloc regulations, the commission has proposed limits for heavy metals, including cadmium. Under the proposal, limits for cadmium in phosphate fertilizers will be set at 60 mg/kg before being tightened to 40 mg/kg after 3 years and to 20 mg/kg after 12 years.. An EU council vote on the proposed regulations is now set for the 23-26th of October. Despite the pending vote, the industry has commenced ...
In our DEG data, we found that synthesis of secondary metabolites such as glutathione, phenylpropanoids, stilbenoids, diarylheptanoids, gingerol, and flavonoids, signaling molecules and ABC transporters were significantly altered by Cd stress (Table 3). This is consistent with previous results that identified genes involved in sulfur assimilation-reduction, glutathione (GSH) metabolism, enzymes catalyzing the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, unfolded protein binding, antioxidant responses, and metal transport [17, 23, 49-51]. Based on a fluorescent differential display method, sequences related to signal transduction, protein denaturing stress, and responses to signal transduction were found to be controlled by Cd-responsive genes in A. thaliana[51]. Some signaling molecules including transcription factors such as DREB1 (Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding protein) and NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2 domain proteins), and protein kinases were induced in response to Cd stress [23]. In addition, ...
Janssen, H. H. and Dallinger, R. (1991): Diversification of cadmium-binding proteins due to different levels of contamination in Arion lusitanicus , Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ...
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CADMIUM METALLICUM(Cadmium)MENTAL SYMPTOMS OR CADMIUM pathogenesis METALLICUM1 - () Hypersensitive, irritable. 0 indifferent, and does not want to see anyone.2 Memory weakened.
The toxicity of zinc and the influence of cadmium on the toxicity of zinc to Clarias submaginatus was investigated under laboratory conditions. The fish were exposed to Zn concentration of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/l used alone or in combination with equal amounts of cadmium used together at 27 ± 20C, in water 45 mg/l hardness expressed as CaCO3 at pH 6.5 in a static system in tests which lasted 200 hours. The median lethal concentration, (LC50), obtained were a 4-, 5- and 10-day LC50 values of 0.76, 0.50 and 0.21 mgZn/l respectively when zinc was used alone. In the mixed solution containing Cd, the 2-, 4-, 5- and 10- day LC50 values were 0.90, 0.42, 0.29 and 0.12mgZn/l respectively. The mixed solutions containing zinc and cadmium were twice as toxic to the fish as solution containing only zinc. Synergism is indicated ...
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The Zrt/Irt-related protein 8 (ZIP8) encoded by slc39a8 is now emerging as an important zinc transporter involved in cellular cadmium incorporation. We have previously shown that mRNA and protein levels of ZIP8 were decreased in cadmium-resistant metallothionein-null (A7) cells, leading to a decreas …
Cheap jewelry made with the heavy metal cadmium, banned in the European Union, is sold in North America in popular fashion chains.
LOS ANGELES - Federal safety regulators recalled a line of holiday-themed bracelets Thursday, expanding their effort to purge childrens jewelry boxes and store shelves of items containing high levels of the toxic metal cadmium.The latest action by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission targeted Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer - themed charm bracelets that released alarmingly high levels of cadmium in government lab tests, suggesting children could be exposed to a carcinogen that also can
A study published today finds that cheap childrens jewelry can contain up to 100 times the recommended limit of toxic metal cadmium. Cadmium poisoning has become a major problem as environmental health organizations uncover an increasing use of this poisonous metal in childrens toys and cheap jewelry.
Cadmium; some of the noble gases, for example xenon; zinc; benzophenone; and a large number of organic dyes, are also used as ...
Cadmium is also present in the manufacturing of some types of batteries. Exposures to cadmium are addressed in specific ... Cadmium is also found in some industrial paints and may represent a hazard when sprayed. Operations involving removal of ... Cadmium is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Due to its low permissible exposure limit, ... overexposures may occur even in situations where trace quantities of cadmium are found. Cadmium is used extensively in ...
Cd(I) has been observed in cadmium(I) tetrachloroaluminate (Cd2(AlCl4)2); see Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils ( ... 1985). "Cadmium". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91-100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1056-1057. ISBN 978-3-11- ...
"Cadmium". American Elements. Retrieved 13 April 2010. "Characterization of Lead Leachability from Cathode Ray Tubes Using the ... Older color and monochrome CRTs may have been manufactured with toxic substances, such as cadmium, in the phosphors. The rear ... Early red and green phosphors contained Cadmium, and some black and white CRT phosphors also contained beryllium powder, ... In 1965, brighter rare earth phosphors began replacing dimmer and cadmium-containing red and green phosphors. Eventually blue ...
... cadmium; calcium; chloride; chromium; iron; magnesium; manganese; nickel; nitrate; pH; phosphorus; potassium; sodium; and ...
With the exception of its use in nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium telluride solar panels, the use of cadmium is generally ... Although cadmium has no known biological role in higher organisms, a cadmium-dependent carbonic anhydrase has been found in ... Cadmium occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores and therefore is a byproduct of zinc production. It was used for a long ... Cadmium and its congeners are not always considered transition metals, in that they do not have partly filled d or f electron ...
Cadmium: Cadmium is another metal, which is found in rechargeable batteries and "phosphor" coatings in older cathode ray tubes ... Heart disease, hypertension, and lung cancer are other health effects of cadmium inhalation. Cadmium exposure is also ... Cadmium is a rare metal that is very toxic to plants, animals, and humans and is released into the air by incineration or ... When released, cadmium commonly accumulates in nearby crops, resulting in the additional exposure to humans and animals. ...
May release dangerous gases (chlorine). EUH207: Warning! Contains cadmium. Dangerous fumes are formed during use. See ...
... fourteen is also Cadmium-114m is a radioisotope and nuclear isomer with a half-life of 14.1 years The atomic number of ...
"Cadmium Red". Retrieved 28 November 2013. Keith Beal's personal website - work in progress. ... and Cadmium Red', based on painting and politics in Paris of the 1950s' The following is an as yet incomplete overview of ...
"48 Cadmium". Retrieved 2008-09-12. "34 Selenium". Retrieved 2008-09-12. "14 ...
Cadmium and cancer". In Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel and Roland K. O. Sigel (ed.). Cadmium: From Toxicology to Essentiality. ... cadmium, acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, and isoprene. Most of these compounds cause DNA damage by forming DNA adducts or by ...
Cadmium Yellow' 1995". Tate. Retrieved 2016-03-05. v t e. ...
"Nickel Cadmium Batteries". Electropaedia. Woodbank Communications. Retrieved 2016-02-29. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link ...
... cadmium, and carbene•lithium adducts. Reactions of carbenes with phosphinidenes were also reported from Arduengo's laboratory ...
Cadmium-nitrilotriacetate system". Analytical Chemistry. 46 (8): 1069-1074. doi:10.1021/ac60344a008. Siddesh, Gaddadevara Matt ...
Küpper, Hendrik; Leitenmaier, Barbara (2013). "Cadmium-Accumulating Plants". Cadmium: From Toxicity to Essentiality. Metal Ions ... Martelli, A.; Rousselet, E.; Dycke, C.; Bouron, A.; Moulis, J.-M. (November 2006). "Cadmium toxicity in animal cells by ... "A cadmium enzyme from a marine diatom". Nature. 435 (7038): 42. doi:10.1038/435042a. PMID 15875011. ...
Cadmium in Metallothioneins". In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RK (eds.). Cadmium: From Toxicology to Essentiality. Metal Ions in ... Natural and artificial proteins containing cadmium". In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RK (eds.). Cadmium: From Toxicology to ...
Cadmium-accumulating plants". In Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel and Roland K. O. Sigel (ed.). Cadmium: From Toxicology to ... Cadmium accumulation has been reviewed. These transporters are known as heavy metal transporting ATPases (HMAs). One of the ... Han F., Shan X.Q., Zhang S.Z., Wen B. & Owens G. (2006) Enhanced cadmium accumulation in maize roots - the impact of organic ...
Zinc and Cadmium are tetrahedrally coordinated to cysteine residues, each metallothionein protein molecule may bind up to 7 ... MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, ... ISBN 1-84755-899-2. Margoshes M, Vallee BL (1957). "A cadmium protein from equine kidney cortex". Journal of the American ... Freisinger E, Vašák M (2013). "Cadmium in metallothioneins". Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 11: 339-71. doi:10.1007/978-94-007- ...
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar panels exhibit some of the greatest efficiencies for solar cell electric power generators. (Cd, ... 1981). Mercury cadmium telluride. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-752118-3. Capper, Peter; Elliott, C. T., eds. (2001 ... mercury cadmium telluride is a semiconductor material that is sensitive to infrared radiation. Organotellurium compounds are ... Saha, Gopal B. (2001). "Cadmium zinc telluride detector". Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine. New York: Springer. pp ...
"ToxGuide for cadmium" (PDF). Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, US Department of Health and Human ... Spinach may be high in cadmium contamination depending on the soil and location where the spinach is grown. Spinach is thought ...
Addition of cadmium yields Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd alloys with improved fluidity and wetting and lower melting point; however cadmium is ... Supplies of Cadmium Bearing Silver Solders Continue (2009-01-20). "Strength of Silver Solder Joints". ... These silver alloys consist of many different percentages of silver and other metals, such as copper, zinc and cadmium. Brazing ... Unsuitable (or requires special care) for metals with high vapor pressure, e.g. silver, zinc, phosphorus, cadmium, and ...
Cadmium together with sulphur forms cadmium sulfide and results in deep yellow color, often used in glazes. However, cadmium is ... When used together with cadmium sulfide, it yields a brilliant red color known as "Selenium Ruby". Pure metallic copper ...
"GP Cadmium Poisoning Case". Globalization Monitor. 9 October 2012. Liu, Chenyan (14 December 2006). "Cadmium poisoned workers ... Workers at GP factories have been routinely exposed to Cadmium dust, an extremely toxic chemical used in the manufacture of ... over suspected cadmium poisoning. On 24 August 2010, over a hundred workers protested outside GP's factory in Huizhou. GP had ...
The Sulfuric Acid Plant 3. The Vertical Retort Plant - a zinc plant 4. The Sinter Plant 5. The Cadmium Plant 6. The Beryllium ... The site remained operational until 2003 when the production of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead and sulphuric acid ceased. The site is ...
Heavy metals used for colors include mercury (red); lead (yellow, green, white); cadmium (red, orange, yellow); nickel (black ...
Cadmium together with sulphur results in deep yellow colour, often used in glazes. However, cadmium is toxic. Uranium (0.1% to ... When used together with cadmium sulphide, it yields a brilliant red colour known as "Selenium Ruby". This was very often ...
The element, cadmium (Cd), was, in 1817, first isolated from an impurity in calamine; hence, the name, cadmium. Coordinates: 38 ...
Cadmium plating is under scrutiny because of the environmental toxicity of the cadmium metal. Cadmium plating is widely used in ... Why use cadmium plated fasteners in the aeronautical field Archived 2008-07-02 at the Wayback Machine. Cadmium ... Cadmium plating (or cad. plating) offers a long list of technical advantages such as excellent corrosion resistance even at ... The majority of hardware parts are zinc-plated, rather than cadmium-plated. Zinc-nickel plating is one of the best corrosion ...
... or from cadmium oxide or cadmium carbonate. Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "Cadmium ... International Chemical Safety Card 0116 IARC Monograph "Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds" National Pollutant Inventory - Cadmium ... Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2. This salt is a hygroscopic ... Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the action of anhydrous chlorine or hydrogen chloride gas on heated cadmium metal ...
Cadmium hydride (systematically named cadmium dihydride) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (CdH 2) n (also ... The systematic name cadmium dihydride, a valid IUPAC name, is constructed according to the compositional nomenclature. Cadmium ... Unless cooled below −20 °C (−4 °F), cadmium hydride rapidly decomposes to produce cadmium and hydrogen: (CdH 2) n → n Cd + n H ... to cadmium hydride. Solid cadmium hydride, on the basis of its infrared spectrum, is believed to contain hydrogen-bridge bonds ...
Cadmium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdS. Cadmium sulfide is a green solid.[4] It occurs in nature with ... Cadmium sulfide is toxic, especially when inhaled as dust, and cadmium compounds general are classified as carcinogenic.[35] ... Cadmium sulfide can be prepared by the precipitation from soluble cadmium(II) salts with sulfide ion. This reaction has been ... Karl-Heinz Schulte-Schrepping, Magnus Piscator "Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
Cadmium is found in cadmium fumes (CdO) and cadmium compounds. Workers may be harmed from exposure to cadmium. It is a highly ... Cadmium metal (Cd) is a silver-white solid, tinged with blue. ... Cadmium is found in cadmium fumes (CdO) and cadmium compounds. ... IARC Monographs: Cadmium and Cadmium Compoundspdf iconexternal icon. *International Chemical Safety Cards: Cadmium and Cadmium ... NIOSH Occupational Health Guidelines for Cadmium Dust (as Cadmium)*pdf icon. *NIOSH Occupational Health Guidelines for Cadmium ...
Encyclopedia Need a reference? Check ourencyclopedia for a gloss on thousands of topics from biographies to the table of elements.. ...
The chemical reactions at the cadmium electrode during discharge are: C. d. +. 2. O. H. −. →. C. d. (. O. H. ). 2. +. 2. e. −. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and ... GP Nickel Cadmium Technical Handbook *^ "Solucorp Unveils Pollution Preventing, Self-Remediating Ni-Cd Battery to International ... The abbreviation Ni-Cd is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd): the abbreviation NiCad is a ...
The general population is exposed from breathing cigarette smoke or eating cadmium contaminated foods. Cadmium damages the ... Exposure to cadmium happens mostly in the workplace where cadmium products are made. ... The amount of cadmium in your blood shows your recent exposure to cadmium. The amount of cadmium in your urine shows both your ... cadmium sulfide).. All soils and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. Most cadmium used in the ...
NIOSH did a study to look at the kidneys of cadmium workers. 45 current and former workers took part. This study is completely ... Cadmium Recovery Workers (Cadmium). 1991. Kidney Study Background. In 1985, NIOSH did a study to look at the kidneys of cadmium ... Why the Cadmium Mortality Study Was Done. The purpose of the study was to see whether exposure to cadmium was associated with ... Charts for the Cadmium Mortality Study. The charts show the risk of dying from lung cancer for cadmium workers at the plant. ...
ILO: International Labour Organization - The International Labour Organization is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights
Toxicological profile for Cadmium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Media in category "Cadmium nitrate". The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...
... and cadmium telluride (CdTe). These two semiconductors form a continuous semiconductor alloy CdxHg1 − xTe, where x is any ... Other articles where Cadmium telluride is discussed: crystal: Growth from the melt: …is mercury telluride (HgTe) ... is mercury telluride (HgTe) and cadmium telluride (CdTe). These two semiconductors form a continuous semiconductor alloy CdxHg1 ...
Cadmium (Cd), chemical element, a metal of Group 12 (IIb, or zinc group) of the periodic table. atomic number 48 atomic weight ... The most important cadmium compound is cadmium oxide, CdO. It is a brown powder produced by burning cadmium vapor in air, and ... Cadmium is physically similar to zinc but is denser and softer. The plated cadmium has a smaller grain size than electro-zinc ... The resultant diatomic cadmium ion, Cd22+ (where cadmium is in the +1 oxidation state), is unstable in water and immediately ...
CADMIUM may have to be added to the list of gender-bending substances after the discovery that the metal can have the same ... CADMIUM may have to be added to the list of gender-bending substances after the discovery that the metal can have the same ... She gave cadmium to female rats whose ovaries had been removed, preventing them from making oestrogen. The animals were given a ... The toxic effects of high levels of cadmium on the liver and kidneys are well known. But studies by Mary Beth Martins team at ...
Retrieved from "" ...
... cadmium (Cd) induces both damaging and repair processes in which the cellular redox status plays a crucial role. Being not ... RC IA (1993) Cadmium and cadmium compounds. IARC Monographs. International Agency for research on Cancer, Lyon, FranceGoogle ... Nawrot TS, Van Hecke E, Thijs L et al (2008) Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden ... Thévenod F (2009) Cadmium and cellular signaling cascades: to be or not to be? Toxicol Appl Pharm 238(3):221-239CrossRefGoogle ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Cadmium Sulfide is available on the website. ... Cadmium Sulfide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
Cadmium levels at the Longjiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region on Wednesday were three times the official limit, ... Excessive levels of cadmium were detected last Sunday, the news agency said, adding that the authorities had injected 80 tonnes ... China closed a chemical plant in central Hunan province in 2009 after residents protested over cadmium pollution that killed ... Residents of a town in southern China have been rushing to buy bottled water after excessive levels of carcinogenic cadmium ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Synonyms: Cadmium dichloride; Cadmium chloride, hydrate (2:5); Cadmium chloride, hemipentahydrate CAS No.: 10108-64-2 Molecular ... Cadmium Chloride (10108-64-2) No No No Cadmium comp --------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 2 ... DANGER! CONTAINS CADMIUM. CANCER HAZARD. AVOID CREATING DUST. CAN CAUSE LUNG AND KIDNEY DISEASE. CAN CAUSE CANCER. Risk of ... CADMIUM CHLORIDE. MSDS Number: C0099 --- Effective Date: 12/08/96. 1. Product Identification. ...
This specification covers the requirements for an electrodeposit of cadmium diffused into an electrodeposit of nickel on carbon ... Plating, Nickel-Cadmium Diffused AMS2416M This specification covers the requirements for an electrodeposit of cadmium diffused ...
Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) represent the largest segment of ...
The discovery of cadmium in McDonalds Shrek-themed drinking glasses has led to a nation-wide recall and fear over how the ... Cadmium is also present at alarmingly high levels in cigarette smoke . In fact, a direct measurement of cadmium levels in body ... Cadmium, a natural element in the Earths crust, is actually present in miniscule amounts in all soil and rocks, according to ... The discovery of cadmium in McDonalds "Shrek Forever After" movie-themed drinking glasses has led to a nationwide recall and ...
This page includes Cadmiums : cover picture, songs / tracks list, members/musicians and line-up, different releases details, ... Cadmium is a music studio album recording by SKY (Eclectic Prog/Progressive Rock) released in 1983 on cd, lp / vinyl and/or ... Sky..Cadmium...1983 LP. USD $4.08 [0 bids]. 2 days SKY Cadmium... RARE Original NO BARCODE 1983 W.German CD Ariola 610103-222 N ... SKY - Cadmium - Ariola - 1983 #246541. USD $8.65 14 days SKY Cadmium ORANGE COLOR VINYL 2xLP Sealed 3 BONUS TRACKS Gatefold. ...
absorption spectrum atomic level band at high band extending 2110 Boltzmann distribution broad band extending CADMIUM VAPOR Cd ... sharp triplet short wave-length limit single absorption process spark as source spectra of Cd spectrograph SPECTRUM OF CADMIUM ... gb-gplus-shareMolecular spectrum of cadmium vapor. ... cadmium_vapor.html?id=l3vzAAAAMAAJ&utm_source= ... 0 Reviews ...
Home » Cadmium » Level 1. Cadmium. Context - Cadmium is produced mainly as a by-product of mining, smelting and refining of ... How is cadmium produced and used?. Cadmium is produced mainly as a by-product of mining, smelting and refining of zinc and, to ... What is Cadmium?. In its elemental form, cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal. It is not usually present in the environment as ... How does cadmium affect the environment?. Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal, meaning that it is not used by biological ...
Cadmium did not trigger the unfolded protein response, thus ERAD was not activated because of a nonspecific effect of cadmium ... The environmental toxin cadmium is excreted from cells by the membrane P-type ATPase transporter, called Pca1 in Saccharomyces ... D. J. Adle, W. Wei, N. Smith, J. J. Bies, J. Lee, Cadmium-mediated rescue from ER-associated degradation induces expression of ... Transfer of the N-terminal degron sequence that is necessary for regulation by cadmium and Pca1 degradation, either to another ...
A cancer-causing cadmium discharge has polluted a long stretch of two rivers in southern China, with officials warning some 3.7 ... A cancer-causing cadmium discharge has polluted a long stretch of two rivers in southern China, with officials warning some 3.7 ...
... to sublethal concentrations of cadmium (400 µg l−1) for 65 d resulted in the induction of... ... Noël-Lambot, F. (1976). Distribution of cadmium, zinc and copper in the musselsMytilus edulis. Existence of cadmium-binding ... Copper Zinc Chromatography Soft Tissue Cadmium These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is ... Frazier, J. M. (1986). Cadmium-binding proteins in the musselMytilus edulis. Envir. Hlth Perspectives 65: 39-43Google Scholar ...
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to cadmium. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to cadmium. (
  • Criteria for a Recommendation Standard: Occupational Exposure to Cadmium - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-192 (1976). (
  • Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to cadmium over a working lifetime. (
  • Exposure to cadmium happens mostly in the workplace where cadmium products are made. (
  • Long-term exposure to lower levels of cadmium in air, food, or water leads to a buildup of cadmium in the kidneys and possible kidney disease. (
  • Animal studies also indicate that the young are more susceptible than adults to a loss of bone and decreased bone strength from exposure to cadmium. (
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to cadmium? (
  • The amount of cadmium in your blood shows your recent exposure to cadmium. (
  • The amount of cadmium in your urine shows both your recent and your past exposure. (
  • Studies at many companies had shown that exposure to cadmium can damage the kidneys. (
  • It is not known exactly how much cadmium exposure it takes to cause kidney damage. (
  • NIOSH wanted more information on the association of cadmium exposure and kidney damage. (
  • We are concerned because the study shows that kidney damage due to cadmium exposure was occurring. (
  • The hospital workers are considered to have no exposure to cadmium. (
  • The cadmium workers are divided into the low, medium, and high cadmium exposure groups. (
  • The charts clearly show that the percent of workers with abnormal results goes up as cadmium exposure goes up. (
  • Many cadmium workers (especially in the medium and high exposure groups) showed some signs of kidney damage. (
  • The NIOSH cadmium mortality study helped us learn more about the hazards of cadmium exposure. (
  • The purpose of the study was to see whether exposure to cadmium was associated with increased death rates in workers when compared to the general population. (
  • Chronic exposure to cadmium, even at relatively low concentrations, may result in kidney damage, anemia, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, perforation of the nasal septum, loss of smell, male reproductive effects, and an increased risk of cancer of the lung and of the prostate. (
  • Long-term exposure to cadmium can cause adverse health effects ," according to the official recall notice from the CPSC. (
  • Long-term exposure to cadmium, even to low levels, poses a potential threat to a child's health as the toxic metal may seep from the cup and enter the body. (
  • A known carcinogen, or cancer-causing agent, chronic cadmium exposure has been shown to primarily cause severe kidney problems, including kidney failure, and, secondarily, bone softening. (
  • Cadmium can accumulate in liver , kidneys and bones, which may serve as sources of exposure later in life. (
  • Skeletal damage is another critical effect of long term exposure to cadmium at levels somewhat higher than those for which kidney problems occur. (
  • The exposure of mussels, Mytilus edulis , collected from Whitsand Bay, southwest England, in August 1988, to sublethal concentrations of cadmium (400 µ g l −1 ) for 65 d resulted in the induction of metallothionein (MT) synthesis in the soft tissues. (
  • Although copper concentrations were not affected by cadmium-exposure, zinc levels were significantly reduced. (
  • The results demonstrate that the induction of metallothioneins in M. edulis is a quantifiable biological response to sublethal levels of cadmium exposure. (
  • It estimated a woman's exposure to the chemical on the basis of food logs, extrapolating her likely dietary exposure to cadmium on the basis of national estimates of cadmium in crops. (
  • A new study led by a researcher at Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH) at the George Washington University looks at the metal cadmium and finds that higher human exposure can lead to significantly shorter telomeres, bits of DNA at the ends of chromosomes that are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and other diseases of old age. (
  • The study, which was published online in the American Journal of Epidemiology , is the largest-ever to look at cadmium exposure and telomeres. (
  • We looked at heavy metals in this study and found a strong association between exposure to low levels of cadmium and telomere shortening," says Ami Zota, ScD, MS, an assistant professor of environmental and occupational health at Milken Institute SPH. (
  • Our findings suggest that cadmium exposure can cause premature aging of cells. (
  • The World Health Organization calls environmental exposure to cadmium a "major public health concern," and notes this heavy metal has been associated with cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, cancer and other serious diseases. (
  • People with the highest cadmium exposure had cells that looked on average 11 years older than their chronological age," Zota said, adding that even people in the highest group of exposure still had very tiny amounts of metal in their bloodstream. (
  • Chronic exposure is of particular concern because of the cumulative nature of cadmium injury to the kidney, and the association of chronic oral exposure to arsenic with dermal lesions and cancer. (
  • 104 and arsenic, and lead and cadmium, may interact at environmental levels of exposure to produce adverse neurobehavioral consequences in children (Marlowe et al. (
  • Prevention is the key to managing cadmium exposure. (
  • For the general public, the primary source of exposure to cadmium is dietary. (
  • Chronic cadmium exposure primarily affects the kidneys and secondarily the bones. (
  • The general population is exposed to cadmium by breathing tobacco smoke or eating cadmium-contaminated foods, which is the major source of cadmium exposure for nonsmokers. (
  • The expanding nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery recycling industry is also a potential source for exposure. (
  • Which cancers are associated with exposure to cadmium? (
  • Occupational exposure to various cadmium compounds is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer . (
  • LEUVEN, Belgium, Jan. 16 - The risk of lung cancer and other malignancies seems to be significantly increased by environmental exposure to the metal cadmium -- a component of rechargeable batteries and a byproduct of zinc smelting. (
  • We have shown that environmental exposure to cadmium in north-east Belgium in the neighborhood of zinc smelters was associated with about 30% increased urinary cadmium excretion, renal dysfunction, increased calciuria, osteoporosis, and a 35% population-attributable risk of fractures. (
  • To better study the association between environmental cadmium exposure and cancer risk, the investigators recruited at random 521 people who lived close to one of three zinc smelters in the Noorderkempen region in northeast Belgium. (
  • The reference population sample of 473 was drawn at random from people living in parts of the same region that are known to be low in cadmium exposure. (
  • Because of its extraordinarily long elimination half-life in the human body, a measure of cadmium excretion in urine over 24 hours is representative of life-time exposure to the toxic metal, the authors noted. (
  • They used Cox regression analysis to calculate hazard ratios for cancer in relation to urinary concentration and soil exposure to cadmium. (
  • In the high-exposure area, environmental cadmium conferred on residents a risk for lung cancer comparable to that of smoking. (
  • The population-attributable risk for lung cancer from cadmium exposure was 67% (95% CI 33-101) compared with 73% (38-108) for smoking. (
  • For lung cancer, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.70 (1.13-2.57, P =0.011) for a doubling of 24-hour urinary cadmium excretion, 4.17 (1.21-14.4, P =0.024) for residence in the high-exposure area versus the low-exposure area, and 1.57 (1.11-2.24, P =0.012) for a doubling of cadmium concentration in soil," the investigators wrote. (
  • The association between cadmium exposure and cancer held up even when the data were adjusted to account for arsenic exposure, the authors noted. (
  • Consistent with indirect evidence currently available, we have shown a significant association between risk of lung cancer and environmental exposure to cadmium," Dr. Staessen and colleagues wrote. (
  • Environmental exposure to cadmium and risk of cancer: a prospective population-based study. (
  • In some developing countries, open burning of cadmium-containing products and indiscriminate dumping contribute to local and regional exposure. (
  • Cadmium poisoning through industrial exposure to inorganic cadmium fumes may produce fatigue, coughing, chest pain, a burning sensation in the throat, and renal damage. (
  • 2 Inhalation of cadmium fumes can lead to pneumonia with acute exposure and emphysema with chronic exposure. (
  • Cadmium exposure in the general populace is derived from dietary intake, averaging 2−200 μg/day, and is only occasionally the precipitant of overexposure. (
  • This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to cadmium exposure. (
  • Human exposure occur ten to fifty present through inhalation and ingestion by absorbing cadmium dust particles, toxicity depend on particles size. (
  • Through this course, know the hazards of cadmium exposure, learn the procedures for monitoring and adopt safe work practices. (
  • Cadmium is a toxic metal and exposure is mainly from diet and tobacco smoke. (
  • Pulmonary changes resulting from subchronic exposure to cadmium chloride aerosol. (
  • While no injuries were reported and the cadmium level in the glasses is low, long-term exposure to the metal can cause adverse health effects. (
  • Blood cadmium levels reflect more recent exposures (previous months) whereas urine levels reflect current lifetime exposure. (
  • 1. Short-term (acute) exposure: Cadmium is much more dangerous by inhalation than by ingestion. (
  • Repeated or long-term exposure to cadmium, even at relatively low concentrations, may result in kidney damage and an increased risk of cancer of the lung and of the prostate. (
  • Cadmium does not have a detectable odor except at levels well above the permissible exposure limits. (
  • The opinion will consider any new developments regarding the toxicity of cadmium and include an updated assessment of exposure from food (including drinking water) in relation to non-dietary sources (e.g. air, cigarette smoke etc.), while taking into account available biomonitoring data and compare such results with the calculated exposure. (
  • The exposure situation for specific groups of the population will be addressed (e.g. infants and children, pre- and post-menopausal women, special diets, smokers/alcohol consumption, etc.) and an indication of the age group of the population most exposed to cadmium. (
  • In addressing exposure, EFSA will in the first place utilise already available information, but there is also an important need to collect recent analytical data on cadmium levels in foodstuffs. (
  • Cadmium chloride is used for the preparation of cadmium sulfide, used as "Cadmium Yellow", a brilliant-yellow stable inorganic pigment. (
  • Cadmium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdS. (
  • Cadmium sulfide is a green solid. (
  • Cadmium sulfide can be prepared by the precipitation from soluble cadmium(II) salts with sulfide ion. (
  • [7] When cadmium sulfide selenides are required the CdSe is co-precipitated with CdS and the cadmium sulfoselenide is created during the calcination step. (
  • Cadmium sulfide can be dissolved in acids. (
  • Cadmium sulfide has, like zinc sulfide , two crystal forms. (
  • It is usually found as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide). (
  • The chief zinc ore, zinc blende, or sphalerite , consists mainly of zinc sulfide, containing from 0.1 to 0.3 percent cadmium. (
  • All methods of zinc production begin with the conversion of the sulfide into zinc oxide by roasting: the cadmium becomes concentrated in the fumes, which are treated in various steps until a product is obtained containing over 99.9 percent cadmium. (
  • Zinc producers who use the electrolytic process recover cadmium in a somewhat different way, but again the principle is the same, beginning with the roasting of zinc sulfide, followed by the treatment of the flue dusts. (
  • a pigment used in painting, consisting of a mixture of hydrated oxide of chromium with cadmium sulfide, and characterized by its strong green color and slow drying rate. (
  • Cadmium Diethyldithiocarbamate is a a precursor material for cadmium sulfide (CdS) for nanowires, nanocomposites, and band gap materials in photovoltaic solar cells . (
  • Cadmium sulfide (CdS) exists in two natural forms: greenockite and hawleyite, which differ in their crystal structure. (
  • Cadmium sulfide is a direct band gap semiconductor with E g = 2.42 eV at room temperature. (
  • Mixed with zinc sulfide , cadmium sulfide acts as a phosphor with long afterglow. (
  • Cadmium sulfide was used as a pigment in paints as far back as 1819. (
  • Synthetic cadmium sulfide pigments are valued for their good thermal stability in many polymers, for example in engineering plastics. (
  • Are you sure you want to remove Surface Areas of Thermally Treated Cadmium Sulfide Powders from your list? (
  • Developed soon after the discovery in 1817 of the element cadmium, credited to the German chemist Friedrich Stromeyer, the first cadmium pigment was a yellow-cadmium sulfide. (
  • Cadmium is found in cadmium fumes (CdO) and cadmium compounds. (
  • Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) for Cadmium Compounds - The IDLH documents the criteria and information sources that have been used by NIOSH to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations. (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that cadmium and cadmium compounds are known human carcinogens. (
  • Health effects are here mainly based on the studies of other cadmium compounds. (
  • In its compounds cadmium exhibits almost exclusively the +2 oxidation state , as in the colourless Cd 2+ ion, which forms a number of stable complex ions, especially halide complexes. (
  • A few compounds of the +1 oxidation state have been prepared by dissolving cadmium metal in molten doubly charged cadmium (Cd 2+ ) halides. (
  • Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds, Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition. (
  • Cadmium and its inorganic compounds are commonly found in industry. (
  • Since these data are expressed on basis of a measured cadmium (ion) concentration, they were pooled with the data obtained on other Cd-compounds, also mentioned in the RAR. (
  • Some cadmium compounds may also appear as a brown, yellow, or red powdery substance. (
  • No effective treatment for cadmium toxicity exists. (
  • Nutritional deficiencies can increase the risk of cadmium toxicity. (
  • Although this soluble form of cadmium may produce toxicity, overexposure to organic cadmium is generally indicative of isolated, environmental pollution. (
  • The legal limit for cadmium, established in 1991, was based on research studies of cadmium toxicity conducted in the 1970s. (
  • Combination of antioxidants is useful for the treatment of toxicity from cadmium in intestine. (
  • Numerous data are available on acute toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms. (
  • The short-term acute aquatic toxicity data on cadmium for all species (1 algae species, 2 invertebrate species, and 6 fish species) are summarised in the CSR. (
  • As for the acute toxicity, numerous data are available on the chronic toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms. (
  • Most often, results from studies using the first three approaches have indicated multiple functions of MT in cell biology: MT (a) is a "storehouse" for zinc, (b) is a free-radical scavenger, and (c) protects against cadmium (Cd) toxicity. (
  • Cadmium is a silvery white shiny heavy metal with high toxicity, long duration, migration and bioaccumulation. (
  • Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2. (
  • The crystal structure of cadmium chloride (described below), composed of two-dimensional layers of ions, is a reference for describing other crystal structures. (
  • Cadmium chloride forms crystals with rhombohedral symmetry. (
  • Cadmium chloride dissolves well in water and other polar solvents. (
  • Anhydrous cadmium chloride can be prepared by the action of anhydrous chlorine or hydrogen chloride gas on heated cadmium metal. (
  • Cadmium chloride is also used for photocopying, dyeing and electroplating. (
  • Sigma-Aldrich Co., Cadmium chloride. (
  • Excessive levels of cadmium were detected last Sunday, the news agency said, adding that the authorities had injected 80 tonnes of aluminium chloride, a neutralising agent, into the river in a bid to eliminate the health risk. (
  • Seven studies in rats and mice wherein cadmium salts (acetate, sulfate, chloride) were administered orally have shown no evidence of carcinogenic response. (
  • Cadmium chloride is colorless, odorless and highly soluble in water. (
  • Although less sensitive than these endpoints, testicular effects also are potentially of concern because they are caused by lead, cadmium, and chromium(VI), and the joint action of lead and cadmium on this endpoint is synergistic. (
  • A California Superior Court judge has approved a settlement resolving claims over whether certain levels of lead and cadmium in chocolate require warning labels under California's Prop 65 law. (
  • Recognizing the need to protect our environment and address the health concern issues, we made the choice to create LCF [lead- and cadmium-free] products. (
  • This is a huge undertaking for many manufacturers because lead and cadmium are very prevalent substances, used in many different products," continues Reed. (
  • A balanced diet can reduce the amount of cadmium taken into the body from food and drink. (
  • Urinary cadmium has been shown to accurately reflect the amount of cadmium in the body. (
  • A very small amount of cadmium can come to the surface of the glass, and in order to be as protective as possible of children, CPSC and McDonald's worked together on this recall," said U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) spokesman Scott Wolfson. (
  • In addition, according to the CPSC statement, the amount of cadmium found in the cups was "slightly above the protective level currently being developed by the agency. (
  • Most of the cadmium produced is used in the production of nickel-cadmium batteries, which in 2004 represented 81 per cent of the total amount of cadmium. (
  • Improving the assessment and reporting of releases and exposures, especially for developing countries, and understanding the inconsistencies between official numbers for releases and the amount of cadmium that is observed in the environment. (
  • The large discrepancy is mainly due to different estimates of the amount of cadmium released to air with soil particles. (
  • According to one CPSC spokesman, "A very small amount of cadmium can come to the surface of the glass" and the amounts that could be absorbed through the skin were "slightly above the protective level currently being developed by the agency. (
  • Cd + 2 HCl → CdCl2 + H2 Hydrochloric acid may be used to make hydrated CdCl2 from the metal, or from cadmium oxide or cadmium carbonate. (
  • Useful search terms for cadmium fumes include "cadmium monoxide" and "cadmium oxide fumes. (
  • The nickel-cadmium battery ( Ni-Cd battery or NiCad battery ) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes . (
  • Friedrich Stromeyer, a German chemist, discovered the element (1817) in a sample of zinc carbonate, and, in the same year, K.S.L. Hermann and J.C.H. Roloff found cadmium in a specimen of zinc oxide . (
  • An important application of cadmium is its use as the anode with either nickel or silver oxide as the cathode and a caustic potash electrolyte in rechargeable electrical storage batteries for uses in which lower weight, longer life, and stability upon storage in discharged condition are desirable as in aircraft. (
  • Cadmium oxide is used in phosphors for television picture tubes. (
  • Cadmium Orange PO20:1 is cadmium orange pigment that contains 15% or more barium sulfate. (
  • Poisoning results from the inhalation of vapour or dust of cadmium. (
  • Acute inhalation of fumes containing cadmium affects the lungs. (
  • 4. Inhalation: If large amounts of cadmium are inhaled, the exposed person must be moved to fresh air at once. (
  • Breathing high levels of cadmium can severely damage the lungs. (
  • The babies of animals exposed to high levels of cadmium during pregnancy had changes in behavior and learning ability. (
  • The toxic effects of high levels of cadmium on the liver and kidneys are well known. (
  • I had reason to think of this last month when McDonalds recalled over 13 million Shrek-themed drinking glasses after discovering in them high levels of cadmium, element forty-eight. (
  • This produces toxic fumes of cadmium and sulfur oxides. (
  • If involved in a fire, this material can emit very toxic fumes of cadmium. (
  • Cadmium poisoning is predominantly associated with cadmium fumes and/or inorganic cadmium salts that may be present in certain industrial environments. (
  • Inorganic cadmium fumes or dusts are generally associated with heating, welding, and grinding of cadmium-containing metal products. (
  • is mercury telluride (HgTe) and cadmium telluride (CdTe). (
  • Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) represent the largest segment of commercial thin-film module production worldwide. (
  • NREL plans to release a competitive solicitation for a consortium on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office's Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Photovoltaics (PV) Accelerator program. (
  • The Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Photovoltaics (PV) Accelerator program is intended to enhance U.S. technology leadership and competitiveness in CdTe PV. (
  • We studied 2D cadmium telluride CdTe and discovered an unexpected effect of spontaneous folding of its ultrathin (only 1 nm) sheets that are also called colloidal quantum wells," said Roman Vasiliev, a co-author of the work, PhD of Chemical Sciences, and Associate Professor of the Faculty of Chemistry and the Faculty of Materials Science, MSU. (
  • In the home, store substances that contain cadmium safely, and keep nickel-cadmium batteries out of reach of young children. (
  • CADMIUM may have to be added to the list of gender-bending substances after the discovery that the metal can have the same effects as the hormone oestrogen. (
  • Cadmium, a natural element in the Earth's crust, is actually present in miniscule amounts in all soil and rocks, according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (
  • Being a simple chemical element, cadmium is persistent - it cannot be broken down into less toxic substances in the environment. (
  • Toxic Substances Portal - Cadmium. (
  • Cadmium can undoubtedly be one of the most beautiful elements-it has a long history in art as a pigment, and helped old masters produce vibrant colors no other substances of the time could. (
  • Cadmium, a heavy metal long identified as a carcinogen, leaches into crops from fertilizers and when rainfall or sewage sludge deposit it onto farmland. (
  • Be aware that cadmium is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a human carcinogen, and that people who live near zinc-smelting plants or are exposed to cadmium at work appear to be at significantly increased risk for lung cancer and other malignancies. (
  • Cadmium is also classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a human carcinogen, although previous population-based studies of a cancer-cadmium link, conducted primarily in Japan, have yielded inconsistent results, the authors wrote. (
  • Cadmium, which at high levels is a carcinogen, can cause kidney and bone damage. (
  • Cadmium is a known human carcinogen. (
  • [4] It occurs in nature with two different crystal structures as the rare minerals greenockite and hawleyite , but is more prevalent as an impurity substituent in the similarly structured zinc ores sphalerite and wurtzite , which are the major economic sources of cadmium. (
  • Whole grains, potatoes, other vegetables and shellfish are key dietary sources of cadmium, which also becomes airborne as a pollutant when fossil fuels are burned, and is likely inhaled as well as ingested. (
  • Natural sources of cadmium result from mobilization of naturally occurring cadmium from the Earth's crust and mantle, by volcanic activity and weathering of rocks. (
  • There is also some information from animal studies that high enough exposures to cadmium before birth can reduce body weights and affect the skeleton in the developing young. (
  • The U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration has more information about controlling exposures to cadmium. (
  • Some lead ores also contain small quantities of cadmium, and, if it is present in sufficient quantity, it is recovered by a cycle of operations similar to that used by zinc smelters. (
  • The small quantities of cadmium added to the heavy metals strengthen them. (
  • Previous recalls of children's products found to contain large quantities of cadmium include jewelry and toys, according to the ATSDR. (
  • Pigment production usually involves the precipitation of CdS, the washing of the solid precipitate to remove soluble cadmium salts followed by calcination (roasting) to convert it to the hexagonal form followed by milling to produce a powder. (
  • Ingested cadmium salts may cause severe and sometimes fatal poisonings. (
  • Although as little as 10 - 20 mg of soluble cadmium salts have produced severe toxic symptoms when ingested, death probably requires several hundred mg by oral route. (
  • All soils and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. (
  • Cadmium is also released as a result of use, disposal, recycling, reclamation of various products, of open burning or incineration and of the mobilization and releases of cadmium previously deposited in soils, sediments, landfills and waste or tailings piles. (
  • Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: selection of washing chemicals," Environmental Pollution , vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 2-10, 2006. (
  • We examined whether blood cadmium increase the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).The Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (n = 28,449) was examined in 1991-1996 and blood samples were taken. (
  • Cadmium damages the kidneys, lungs, and bones. (
  • In 1985, NIOSH did a study to look at the kidneys of cadmium workers. (
  • It found signs that the kidneys of cadmium workers were not working as well as they should be. (
  • The critical health effect of cadmium is on the kidneys where it damages the blood filtration system of the kidneys, which results in proteins being excreted in urine. (
  • Cadmium is mainly stored in the liver and kidneys. (
  • Current regulations for cadmium are based on threats to adults, and the kidneys have been considered the most sensitive organ to its toxic effects. (
  • In the case of the McDonald's glass cups, cadmium was used in the red and yellow pigments on the cup's painted designs, according to McDonald's USA spokesman Bill Whitman. (
  • Cadmium does not corrode easily and has been used to manufacture batteries, pigments, metal coatings, and plastics. (
  • Cadmium is a key component in battery production and particular pigments and coatings due to its distinct yellow color. (
  • Cadmium pigments have been partially replaced by azo pigments, which are similar in lightfasness to the cadmium colors, cheaper, and non-toxic. (
  • Further, the environmental impact of the disposal of the toxic metal cadmium has contributed considerably to the reduction in their use. (
  • This paper focuses on the status quo of heavy metal cadmium pollution sites, analyzes and summarizes the physical, chemical and bioremediation technologies of cadmium contaminated soil, and carefully analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of each repair technology. (
  • The various heavy metal ions dissolved in these acidic wastewaters include metal cadmium. (
  • The new study, published by the American Assn. for Cancer Research and released Thursday, found that among 55,987 post-menopausal women, the one-third with the highest cadmium intakes were 21% more likely to develop breast cancer than the one-third with the lowest intakes. (
  • For those with the highest cadmium levels, the odds of having a learning disability were 3.21 times higher than for the children with the lowest exposures. (
  • ATSDR (2005) Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, U.S. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. (
  • A team led by Jonathan Poplawsky of the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences used advanced microscopy techniques to discover efficiency differences of crystalline structures of various mixtures of cadmium, tellurium and selenium. (
  • In some instances, adding too much selenium changes the crystalline structure of cadmium-tellurium and dramatically reduces the conversion efficiency. (
  • Wet-cell nickel-cadmium batteries were invented in 1899. (
  • Most of the cadmium produced is used in the production of nickel-cadmium batteries. (
  • Dispose of nickel-cadmium batteries properly, and do not allow children to play with these batteries. (
  • The cadmium atom has a radius of 151 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 230 pm.Cadmium was discovered and first isolated by Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer in 1817. (
  • The general population is exposed from breathing cigarette smoke or eating cadmium contaminated foods. (
  • Cadmium Dust, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. (
  • Cadmium is a natural element in the earth's crust. (
  • A rare element (about 0.2 gram per ton in Earth's crust), cadmium occurs in a few minerals and in small quantities in other ores, especially zinc ores, from which it is produced as a by-product. (
  • Cadmium, a natural element in the Earth's crust, is present in miniscule amounts in all soil and rocks. (
  • Cadmium is a natural element found in the earth's crust, and has been used to make batteries and other products. (
  • Cadmium makes up about 0.1 ppm of the earth's crust. (
  • The study found that cadmium workers had more cadmium in their blood and in their urine than hospital workers. (
  • For example, 18 of 45 (40%) cadmium workers had too much protein in their urine. (
  • Protein in the urine is a typical finding in people exposed to too much cadmium. (
  • People don't feel any different if their urine has small extra amounts of protein or cadmium. (
  • Then the researchers measured the concentration of cadmium in the blood and urine samples. (
  • During the baseline period from 1985-89, they measured cadmium in 24-hour urine samples and from the soil of gardens in the participants' homes. (
  • The investigators found that a doubling of 24-hour cadmium excretion in urine was significantly associated with overall cancer risk (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.65, P =0.026). (
  • The new study is the largest to look at connections between cadmium in urine and neurological effects, and the only one that has used a national group of children. (
  • If you work with cadmium, use all safety precautions to avoid carrying cadmium-containing dust home from work on your clothing, skin, hair, or tools. (
  • Most cadmium produced is electroplated onto steel , iron , copper , brass, and other alloys to protect them from corrosion . (
  • Cadmium is utilized in many alloys and metal plating. (
  • BrazeTec offers several cadmium free brazing alloys from its comprehensive range of products under the name of CoMet (coated metal) as flux coated rods. (
  • Construction workers involved in demolition can be exposed to dust containing cadmium. (
  • In fact, a direct measurement of cadmium levels in body tissue shows that smokers have roughly twice the amount of the toxic metal in their bodies as do non-smokers, according to the ATSDR. (
  • This information will help workers exposed to cadmium around the world. (
  • Babu KR, Rajmohan HRR, Rajan BKM et al (2006) Plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes status in workers exposed to cadmium. (
  • Lead, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium are frequently found together in the soil of hazardous waste sites. (
  • A drinking water study of a mixture of lead, cadmium, and chromium(VI+III) in diethylnitrosamine-initiated rats gave no evidence of promoting activity for the mixture (Benjamin et al. (
  • China has set a goal of reducing pollution by lead, mercury, chromium, cadmium and arsenic by 15 percent of 2007 levels by 2015. (
  • Cadmium pollution not only affects the atmosphere, water and agricultural production, but also can cause chronic poisoning by entering the human body through migration and enrichment in the food chain, and induce genetic mutations and cancer. (
  • Cadmium concentrations in most tissues increase with age. (
  • In cadmium-exposed mussels, metallothionein concentrations, measured by differential pulse polarography, increased by a factor of three, from 2 to 3 mg g −1 to a maximum of 9 mg g −1 after 30 d. (
  • They divided the participants up into fourths based on the concentrations of cadmium found in their bloodstream, finding that people in the highest group had telomeres that were about six percent shorter than those in the lowest group. (
  • Observed concentrations of cadmium in 2014. (
  • The map shows the cadmium annual mean concentrations. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • It was produced by the gas phase reaction of excited cadmium atoms with dihydrogen, H2, and the structure determined high-resolution infrared emission spectra. (
  • Lanphear, one of the world's leading experts on the effects of lead in children, added that "the pattern we're seeing here with cadmium is very consistent with what we see with other toxicants," including lead and mercury. (
  • RoHS forbids the use of certain chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and certain brominated flame retardants as of July 1, 2006. (
  • Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted during the production of other metals like zinc, lead, and copper. (
  • Context - Cadmium is produced mainly as a by-product of mining, smelting and refining of zinc , lead and copper. (
  • The Pca1 degron bound copper, and this interaction was competed by cadmium. (
  • Copper and zinc were also analysed in the whole soft-tissues and in subcellular fractions of cadmium-exposed mussels. (
  • Human activities that are a source of cadmium are, for instance, the release of cadmium impurities from raw materials such as phosphate minerals, fossil fuels and other metals, particularly zinc and copper. (
  • Cadmium, copper and lead contamin. (
  • Aug. 3, 2016 - Solar cells based on cadmium and tellurium could move closer to theoretical levels of efficiency because of some sleuthing by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (
  • While some of today's solar cells use a blend of cadmium and tellurium to convert light into electricity, adding the optimum amount of selenium in the right places could help increase efficiency from the current mark of about 22 percent to levels approaching the theoretical limit of 30-33 percent. (
  • This information can be used as a roadmap for solar cell producers to make improved cadmium-tellurium solar cells that use selenium additions, and hopefully increase the overall efficiency. (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on cadmium - NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • Cadmium hydride (systematically named cadmium dihydride) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (CdH 2) n (also written as ([CdH 2]) n or CdH 2). (
  • A cancer-causing cadmium discharge has polluted a long stretch of two rivers in southern China, with officials warning some 3.7 million people to avoid drinking water from the river. (
  • The systematic name cadmium dihydride, a valid IUPAC name, is constructed according to the compositional nomenclature. (
  • Cadmium hydride is also used as a compositional IUPAC name for the compound with the chemical formula CdH. (
  • In its elemental form, cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal. (
  • In its elemental form, cadmium has a silvery bluish gray metallic appearance. (
  • Cadmium dihydride is also used to refer to the related molecular compound dihydridocadmium and its oligomers. (
  • The soil replacement method mainly reduces the concentration of cadmium by replacing the original cadmium-contaminated soil by replacing the fresh soil with good fertility, and transferring the contaminated soil to reduce the risk of cadmium-contaminated soil to the surrounding environment. (
  • EFSA is thus issuing a call for data on cadmium levels in food and beverages. (
  • Some forms of cadmium dissolve in water. (
  • The normal daily intake of organic forms of cadmium ranges from 2−200 μg. (
  • As a compound that is easy to isolate and purify, it is the principal source of cadmium for all commercial applications. (
  • Limited evidence from occupational epidemiologic studies of cadmium is consistent across investigators and study populations. (
  • They found that cadmium concentration in soil ranged from 0.8 mg/kg to 17.0 mg/kg. (
  • The three lines in the spectrum of cadmium that have the purest radiations and that were first used by Michelson to calculate the standard meter. (
  • The most recent study of global human emissions of cadmium estimated the total to be around 3000 tons. (
  • The most recent study of global human emissions of cadmium estimated the total in the mid-1990's at 2 983 tonnes. (
  • Available data indicate, that anthropogenic emissions of cadmium have decreased by an average of about 50 per cent from 1990 to 2003 in developed countries. (
  • The findings of this study suggest that cadmium can elicit harmful effects on the human body at levels well below the current safety standards set by environmental and occupational safety agencies. (
  • NEW YORK ( -- McDonald's is recalling 12 million drinking glasses featuring characters from the 'Shrek' movie series because the paint used contains cadmium, which can pose health risks. (
  • The alloy composition that performed best consisted of approximately 50 percent cadmium, 25 percent tellurium and 25 percent selenium. (
  • We have shown that the amount of selenium incorporated into the cadmium-tellurium controls whether the small crystals inside the solar cell form as crystal structure A or crystal structure B," Poplawsky said. (
  • This also makes solar panels composed of cadmium, tellurium and selenium more competitive with other forms of electricity generation. (
  • Metallic cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Strohmeyer. (
  • HONG KONG, Jan 26 (Reuters) - Residents of a town in southern China have been rushing to buy bottled water after excessive levels of carcinogenic cadmium were found in a river source of drinking water, state media said on Thursday in the latest health scare to hit the country. (
  • Cadmium levels at the Longjiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region on Wednesday were three times the official limit, Xinhua news agency said, pointing the finger of blame at a mining company. (
  • In a finding that strengthens the link between environmental pollutants and rising rates of breast cancer, new research finds that women whose diets contain higher levels of cadmium are at greater risk of developing breast cancer than those who ingest less of the industrial chemical in their food. (
  • Children with higher cadmium levels are three times more likely to have learning disabilities and participate in special education, according to a new study led by Harvard University researchers. (
  • The three times higher risk is high for such low cadmium levels," said Aimin Chen, an assistant professor of environmental health at University of Cincinnati's College of Medicine. (
  • Obviously, the cadmium levels in the glasses probably aren't high enough to do this kind of damage, but the glasses are still a valid concern for parents. (
  • The spill prompted residents of Liuzhou, a city of 3.2 million in southwestern China's Guangxi region, to stock up on bottled water, though officials said efforts to neutralize the cadmium were keeping the water within safe levels and the city could use groundwater reserves if water from local rivers and reservoirs becomes too contaminated. (
  • It is a critical time right now as downstream drinking water safety is in jeopardy, so we will take every measure possible and optimize our strategies to bring down cadmium concentration levels," it quoted He Xinxing, Hechi's mayor, as saying. (
  • Top level provincial officials cited in those reports said that chemicals dumped into the river had helped reduce the cadmium contamination to safer levels, though some communities living near the spill were relying on barrels of water trucked in by the government. (
  • Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs contains the most recent maximum levels for cadmium. (
  • Cadmium binds strongly to soil particles. (
  • Cadmium is a natural element found in tiny amounts in air, water, soil, and food. (
  • Absorbed from the soil, cadmium is found in certain foods, particularly potatoes, grains, sunflower seeds and leafy greens, as well as tobacco. (
  • The two scientists recommended that government re-examine its standards and guidelines for cadmium in food, soil, workplaces and consumer products to consider the effects on children's brains. (
  • Wastewater enters the soil through mine drainage and rainfall, indirectly or directly causing the cadmium content in the industrial site to exceed the environmental standards. (
  • The occurrence and shape of cadmium in soil are not only related to the nature and content of the element itself, but also depend on the physical and geographical conditions of its existence, soil type and its properties, soil composition (such as organic matter, clay minerals, ferromanganese oxides, carbonates and microorganisms), soil environmental conditions. (
  • Cadmium undergoes adsorption, desorption, dissolution, aggregation, complexation and adsorption after entering the soil, which causes it to exist in various forms in the soil. (
  • Cadmium soil pollution repair can be divided into physical repair technology, chemical repair technology and bioremediation technology according to different technical principles. (
  • The cadmium-contaminated soil vitrification repair technology is to treat the soil contaminated with cadmium in a high temperature and high pressure environment for a period of time, and then cool it to form a vitreous substance. (
  • This material is generally stable, and cadmium contaminants in the soil are fixed to achieve a repair method for migration of cadmium-contaminated soil. (
  • Electro-repair technology refers to inserting electrodes at both ends of cadmium-contaminated soil to form a certain electric field gradient in the soil. (
  • of heavy metals Sludge from aquaculture is classified as quality class 1 due to the content of zinc and cadmium . (
  • Hechi and the surrounding area have been repeatedly singled out for inadequate controls on pollution by cadmium, lead, arsenic and other heavy metals. (
  • In both of these forms the cadmium and sulfur atoms are four coordinate. (
  • This was bad enough-some atoms of cadmium would naturally slough off every time somebody filled the glass-but became a big problem when summer rolled around and people began drinking fruit juices like lemonade. (
  • These acidic juices scraped cadmium atoms off the cup's surface in droves, and people around America fell ill with intense pain and diarrhea. (