An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (1/3161)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (2/3161)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Cadmium-mediated activation of the metal response element in human neuroblastoma cells lacking functional metal response element-binding transcription factor-1. (3/3161)

Metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) binds specifically to metal response elements (MREs) and transactivates metallothionein (MT) gene expression in response to zinc and cadmium. This investigation contrasts the mechanism of mouse MT gene (mMT-I) promoter activation by cadmium and zinc in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells to determine whether MTF-1 binding to the MRE is necessary for activation by these metals. Cadmium activated a mMT-1 promoter (-150 base pairs) luciferase reporter 20-25-fold through a MRE-dependent mechanism. In contrast, zinc had little effect on the mMT-1 luciferase reporter. IMR-32 cells lacked MRE binding activity, and treatment with zinc in vitro or in vivo did not generate a MTF-1. MRE complex, suggesting that IMR-32 cells lack functional MTF-1. Overexpression of mMTF-1 regenerated a zinc-mediated induction of the MRE without affecting cadmium activation. Because no other transition metals tested activated the MRE, this effect appeared to be cadmium-specific. These data demonstrate that in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells, zinc and cadmium can use independent mechanisms for activation of the mMT-I promoter and cadmium-mediated MRE activation is independent of MTF-1 and zinc.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/3161)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

Relationship between L-type Ca2+ current and unitary sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events in rat ventricular myocytes. (5/3161)

1. The time courses of Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence were determined in single rat ventricular myocytes voltage clamped with patch pipettes containing 0.1 microM fluo-3. Acquisition of line-scan images on a laser scanning confocal microscope was synchronized with measurement of Cd2+-sensitive Ca2+ currents. In most cells, individual Ca2+ sparks were observed by reducing Ca2+ current density with nifedipine (0.1-8 microM). 2. Ca2+ sparks elicited by depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses had a peak [Ca2+] amplitude of 289 +/- 3 nM with a decay half-time of 20.8 +/- 0.2 ms and a full width at half-maximum of 1.40 +/- 0.03 microm (mean +/- s. e.m., n = 345), independent of the membrane potential. 3. The time between the beginning of a depolarization and the initiation of each Ca2+ spark was calculated and data were pooled to construct waiting time histograms. Exponential functions were fitted to these histograms and to the decaying phase of the Ca2+ current. This analysis showed that the time constants describing Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence at membrane potentials between -30 mV and +30 mV were not significantly different. At +50 mV, in the absence of nifedipine, the time constant describing Ca2+ spark occurrence was significantly larger than the time constant of the Ca2+ current. 4. A simple model is developed using Poisson statistics to relate macroscopic Ca2+ current to the opening of single L-type Ca2+ channels at the dyad junction and to the time course of Ca2+ spark occurrence. The model suggests that the time courses of macroscopic Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence should be closely related when opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel initiates a Ca2+ spark. By comparison with the data, the model suggests that Ca2+ sparks are initiated by the opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel at all membrane potentials encountered during an action potential.  (+info)

Delayed rectifier potassium current in undiseased human ventricular myocytes. (6/3161)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the properties of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in myocytes isolated from undiseased human left ventricles. METHODS: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied in 28 left ventricular myocytes from 13 hearts at 35 degrees C. RESULTS: An E-4031 sensitive tail current identified the rapid component of IK (IKr) in the myocytes, but there was no evidence for an E-4031 insensitive slow component of IK (IKs). When nifedipine (5 microM) was used to block the inward calcium current (ICa), IKr activation was fast (tau = 31.0 +/- 7.4 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and deactivation kinetics were biexponential and relatively slow (tau 1 = 600.0 +/- 53.9 ms and tau 2 = 6792.2 +/- 875.7 ms, at -40 mV, n = 7). Application of CdCl2 (250 microM) to block ICa altered the voltage dependence of the IKr considerably, slowing its activation (tau = 657.1 +/- 109.1 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and accelerating its deactivation (tau = 104.0 +/- 18.5 ms, at -40 mV, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: In undiseased human ventricle at 35 degrees C IKr exists having fast activation and slow deactivation kinetics; however, there was no evidence found for an expressed IKs. IKr probably plays an important role in the frequency dependent modulation of repolarization in undiseased human ventricle, and is a target for many Class III antiarrhythmic drugs.  (+info)

Differences in pharmacological properties of dopamine release between the substantia nigra and striatum: an in vivo electrochemical study. (7/3161)

The properties of dopamine (DA) release in the rat substantia nigra (SN) and striatum were investigated using high-speed chronoamperometric recordings in brain slices. In both brain regions, a 2-min bath superfusion with 30 mM KCl produced robust DA-like electrochemical signals, with the mean amplitude of the signal being >10-fold greater in the striatum than the SN. The reproducibility of the response was confirmed by a second stimulus (S2)/first-stimulus (S1) ratio of >0.8 in both regions. The bath application of tetrodotoxin significantly reduced the S2/S1 ratio in both the striatum and SN, implicating the requirement for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in the DA-release process. However, the application of cadmium chloride, a nonselective blocker of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, reduced the S2/S1 ratio only in the striatum and not within the SN. Moreover, removal of Ca2+ from the buffer did not significantly affect release within the SN, despite a >85% reduction in release within the striatum. In addition, although the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride enhanced the S2/S1 ratio in the striatum, no effect of this agent was seen in the SN. Finally, the application of d-amphetamine produced DA-like electrochemical signals in both the striatum and SN. However, the amplitude of the d-amphetamine-evoked response, relative to the KCl-evoked release, was much smaller in the striatum than in the SN. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that differences in the mechanism or mechanisms of release exist between somatodendritic and axonal elements within the nigrostriatal pathway.  (+info)

Selective effects of neuronal-synaptobrevin mutations on transmitter release evoked by sustained versus transient Ca2+ increases and by cAMP. (8/3161)

Synaptobrevin is a key constituent of the synaptic vesicle membrane. The neuronal-synaptobrevin (n-syb) gene in Drosophila is essential for nerve-evoked synaptic currents, but miniature excitatory synaptic currents (mESCs) remain even in the complete absence of this gene. To further characterize the defect in these mutants, we have examined conditions that stimulate secretion. Despite the inability of an action potential to trigger fusion, high K+ saline could increase the frequency of mESCs 4- to 17-fold in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and the rate of fusion approached 25% of that seen in wild-type synapses under the same conditions. Similarly, the mESC frequency in n-syb null mutants could be increased by a Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, and by black widow spider venom. Thus, the ability of the vesicles to fuse in response to sustained increases in cytosolic Ca2+ persisted in the absence of this protein. Tetanic stimulation could also increase the frequency of mESCs, particularly toward the end of a train and after the train of stimuli. In contrast, these mutants did not respond to an elevation of cAMP induced by an activator of adenylyl cyclase, forskolin, or a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP, dibutyryl cAMP, which in wild-type synapses causes a marked increase in the mESC frequency even in the absence of external Ca2+. These results are discussed in the context of models that invoke a special role for n-syb in coupling fusion to the transient, local changes in Ca2+ and an as yet unidentified target of cAMP.  (+info)

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that is a byproduct of the mining and smelting of zinc, lead, and copper. It has no taste or smell and can be found in small amounts in air, water, and soil. Cadmium can also be found in some foods, such as kidneys, liver, and shellfish.

Exposure to cadmium can cause a range of health effects, including kidney damage, lung disease, fragile bones, and cancer. Cadmium is classified as a known human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP).

Occupational exposure to cadmium can occur in industries that produce or use cadmium, such as battery manufacturing, metal plating, and pigment production. Workers in these industries may be exposed to cadmium through inhalation of cadmium-containing dusts or fumes, or through skin contact with cadmium-containing materials.

The general population can also be exposed to cadmium through the environment, such as by eating contaminated food or breathing secondhand smoke. Smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure for smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke.

Prevention measures include reducing occupational exposure to cadmium, controlling emissions from industrial sources, and reducing the use of cadmium in consumer products. Regular monitoring of air, water, and soil for cadmium levels can also help identify potential sources of exposure and prevent health effects.

Cadmium poisoning is a condition that results from the exposure to cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. This can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. Cadmium is found in some industrial workplaces, such as battery manufacturing, metal smelting, and phosphate fertilizer production. It can also be found in contaminated food, water, and cigarette smoke.

Acute cadmium poisoning is rare but can cause severe symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle cramps. Chronic exposure to cadmium can lead to a range of health problems, including kidney damage, bone disease, lung damage, and anemia. It has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer.

The treatment for cadmium poisoning typically involves removing the source of exposure, providing supportive care, and in some cases, chelation therapy to remove cadmium from the body. Prevention measures include reducing exposure to cadmium in the workplace, avoiding contaminated food and water, and not smoking.

Cadmium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CdCl2. It is a white crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and has a bitter, metallic taste. Cadmium chloride is a toxic compound that can cause serious health effects, including kidney damage, respiratory problems, and bone degeneration. It is classified as a hazardous substance and should be handled with care.

Cadmium chloride is used in various industrial applications, such as electroplating, soldering, and as a stabilizer in plastics. It is also used in some research settings as a reagent in chemical reactions.

It's important to note that exposure to cadmium chloride should be avoided, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this compound. This includes wearing protective clothing, such as gloves and lab coats, and working in a well-ventilated area or under a fume hood. In case of accidental ingestion or inhalation, seek medical attention immediately.

Cadmium compounds refer to combinations of the chemical element cadmium (Cd) with one or more other elements. Cadmium is a naturally occurring heavy metal that is commonly found in zinc ores and is often produced as a byproduct of mining and smelting operations for other metals.

Cadmium compounds can take many forms, including cadmium chloride (CdCl2), cadmium sulfate (CdSO4), cadmium oxide (CdO), and cadmium carbonate (CdCO3). These compounds are often used in a variety of industrial applications, such as electroplating, pigments, and batteries.

Exposure to cadmium compounds can be harmful to human health, as they can accumulate in the body over time and cause damage to the kidneys, liver, bones, and respiratory system. Long-term exposure to cadmium has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer. As a result, occupational exposure to cadmium compounds is regulated by various governmental agencies, and efforts are underway to reduce the use of cadmium in consumer products.

Cadmium radioisotopes are unstable forms of the heavy metal cadmium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable elements. These isotopes can be created through various nuclear reactions, such as bombarding a cadmium atom with a high-energy particle. Some common cadmium radioisotopes include cadmium-109, cadmium-113, and cadmium-115.

These radioisotopes have a wide range of applications in medicine, particularly in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. For example, cadmium-109 is used as a gamma ray source for medical imaging, while cadmium-115 has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

However, exposure to cadmium radioisotopes can also be hazardous to human health, as they can cause damage to tissues and organs through ionizing radiation. Therefore, handling and disposal of these materials must be done with care and in accordance with established safety protocols.

Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of small, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins found in the cells of many organisms, including humans. They play important roles in various biological processes such as:

1. Metal homeostasis and detoxification: MTs can bind to various heavy metals like zinc, copper, cadmium, and mercury with high affinity. This binding helps regulate the concentration of these metals within cells and protects against metal toxicity.
2. Oxidative stress protection: Due to their high cysteine content, MTs act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals, thus protecting cells from oxidative damage.
3. Immune response regulation: MTs are involved in the modulation of immune cell function and inflammatory responses. They can influence the activation and proliferation of immune cells, as well as the production of cytokines and chemokines.
4. Development and differentiation: MTs have been implicated in cell growth, differentiation, and embryonic development, particularly in tissues with high rates of metal turnover, such as the liver and kidneys.
5. Neuroprotection: In the brain, MTs play a role in protecting neurons from oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and heavy metal toxicity. They have been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

There are four main isoforms of metallothioneins (MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4) in humans, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

In the context of medicine, "lead" most commonly refers to lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead is a heavy metal that can be harmful to the human body, even at low levels. It can enter the body through contaminated air, water, food, or soil, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body over time, causing damage to the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and kidneys. Symptoms of lead poisoning may include abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, headache, irritability, memory problems, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death.

Lead exposure is particularly dangerous for children, as their developing bodies are more sensitive to the harmful effects of lead. Even low levels of lead exposure can cause learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delays in children. Therefore, it's important to minimize lead exposure and seek medical attention if lead poisoning is suspected.

Phytochelatins are low molecular weight, heavy metal-binding peptides that are synthesized by plants and some other organisms in response to exposure to toxic metals. They are composed of repeating units of the amino acids glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine, with the general structure (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, where n typically ranges from 2 to 5.

Phytochelatins are produced by the enzyme phytochelatin synthase, which is activated in the presence of heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, and lead. Once synthesized, phytochelatins bind to these metals, forming metal-phytochelatin complexes that are then transported to the vacuole for sequestration and detoxification.

In addition to their role in heavy metal detoxification, phytochelatins have been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting plants against oxidative stress. They have also attracted interest as potential therapeutic agents for heavy metal poisoning in humans and other animals.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

Environmental pollutants are defined as any substances or energy (such as noise, heat, or light) that are present in the environment and can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the natural ecosystems. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, agriculture, and household activities. They can be in the form of gases, liquids, solids, or radioactive materials, and can contaminate air, water, and soil. Examples include heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases.

It is important to note that the impact of environmental pollutants on human health and the environment can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and it depends on the type, concentration, duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of environmental pollutants include respiratory problems, cancer, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and developmental delays in children.

It is important to monitor, control and reduce the emissions of these pollutants through regulations, technology advancements, and sustainable practices to protect human health and the environment.

In the context of medicine, Mercury does not have a specific medical definition. However, it may refer to:

1. A heavy, silvery-white metal that is liquid at room temperature. It has been used in various medical and dental applications, such as therapeutic remedies (now largely discontinued) and dental amalgam fillings. Its use in dental fillings has become controversial due to concerns about its potential toxicity.
2. In microbiology, Mercury is the name of a bacterial genus that includes the pathogenic species Mercury deserti and Mercury avium. These bacteria can cause infections in humans and animals.

It's important to note that when referring to the planet or the use of mercury in astrology, these are not related to medical definitions.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

"Body burden" is a term used in the field of environmental health to describe the total amount of a chemical or toxic substance that an individual has accumulated in their body tissues and fluids. It refers to the overall load or concentration of a particular chemical or contaminant that an organism is carrying, which can come from various sources such as air, water, food, and consumer products.

The term "body burden" highlights the idea that people can be exposed to harmful substances unknowingly and unintentionally, leading to potential health risks over time. Some factors that may influence body burden include the frequency and duration of exposure, the toxicity of the substance, and individual differences in metabolism, elimination, and susceptibility.

It is important to note that not all chemicals or substances found in the body are necessarily harmful, as some are essential for normal bodily functions. However, high levels of certain environmental contaminants can have adverse health effects, making it crucial to monitor and regulate exposure to these substances.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "metallurgy" is not a term that has a medical definition. Metallurgy is a branch of materials science that deals with the properties, physical and chemical behavior, and production of metals. It involves studying the techniques and processes used to isolate, alloy, and fabricate various types of metal products. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Arsenic is a naturally occurring semi-metal element that can be found in the earth's crust. It has the symbol "As" and atomic number 33 on the periodic table. Arsenic can exist in several forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. In its pure form, arsenic is a steel-gray, shiny solid that is brittle and easily pulverized.

Arsenic is well known for its toxicity to living organisms, including humans. Exposure to high levels of arsenic can cause various health problems, such as skin lesions, neurological damage, and an increased risk of cancer. Arsenic can enter the body through contaminated food, water, or air, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

In medicine, arsenic has been used historically in the treatment of various diseases, including syphilis and parasitic infections. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited due to its toxicity. Today, arsenic trioxide is still used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a type of blood cancer. The drug works by inducing differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in APL cells, which contain a specific genetic abnormality. However, its use is closely monitored due to the potential for severe side effects and toxicity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tellurium" is not a medical term. Tellurium is a chemical element with the symbol "Te" and atomic number 52. It is a rare, silver-white metalloid that is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. It is not used in medicine or healthcare. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

  • Useful search terms for cadmium fumes include "cadmium monoxide" and "cadmium oxide fumes. (
  • It is usually found as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide). (
  • Among the important compounds of cadmium are cadmium oxide (used in batteries, as an intermediate and catalyst and in electroplating), cadmium sulfide (used as a pigment), cadmium sulfate (used as an intermediate and in electroplating) and cadmium stearate (used as a plastics stabilizer). (
  • The yellow in the bottom of the bulb is cadmium oxide on the surface of the starting material, and you can see the final product collected on the top inside surface of the bulb. (
  • acetate, chloride and sulfate, whereas cadmium oxide, carbonate and sulfide are almost insoluble (1). (
  • Cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Freidrich Stromeyer, a Professor at the University of Göttingen, whilst heating samples of cadmia to produce the white compound, zinc oxide. (
  • By separating this new element into its oxide form, he was able to produce a sample of a blue grey metal, which he named cadmium after the mineral in which it was found. (
  • Despite many attempts at substitutes due to issues of toxicity, cadmium oxide is still used for a true cadmium yellow for applications such as yellow car paint. (
  • Some plants produce cadmium oxide and/or metallic cadmium powder. (
  • Cadmium oxide is produced by melting the ingots and keeping a controlled oxidizing atmosphere in the retort. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to cadmium. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to cadmium. (
  • Criteria for a Recommendation Standard: Occupational Exposure to Cadmium - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-192 (1976). (
  • Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to cadmium over a working lifetime. (
  • Exposure to cadmium happens mostly in the workplace where cadmium products are made. (
  • Long-term exposure to lower levels of cadmium in air, food, or water leads to a buildup of cadmium in the kidneys and possible kidney disease. (
  • Animal studies also indicate that the young are more susceptible than adults to a loss of bone and decreased bone strength from exposure to cadmium. (
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to cadmium? (
  • The amount of cadmium in your blood shows your recent exposure to cadmium. (
  • The amount of cadmium in your urine shows both your recent and your past exposure. (
  • Cadmium is introduced to the food chain oral, or dermal exposure, respectively. (
  • Cadmium aerosols with exposure. (
  • Cadmium occurs in the earth's crust and exposure for smoking general population by the dose (how much), the The most sensitive targets of cadmium is commonly associated with zinc, lead, and occupational population. (
  • Cadmium is refined and consumed for Dermal - Minor route of exposure for Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) The effects observed in humans include use in batteries, pigments, coatings and the general population. (
  • WHO is looking for experts to work on the burden of disease caused by foodborne exposure to cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic, and lead. (
  • The brochure takes up questions like how cadmium in the environment reaches food, which groups in the population ingest what amounts, how exposure to cadmium in the environment and food can be reduced. (
  • Nongenotoxic mechanisms upregulating intracellular signalling pathways leading to increased mitogenesis are discussed as major mechanisms for the interpretation of the carcinogenic activity by chronic cadmium exposure. (
  • Occupational exposure to cadmium and cadmium compounds occurs mainly in the form of airborne dust and fume. (
  • Urinary and blood cadmium concentrations are generally much lower in non-occupationally exposed people, for whom the most important sources of exposure are cigarette smoking and, especially in polluted areas, eating certain foods (e.g. rice). (
  • A case-control analysis of lung cancer did not show any association with exposure to cadmium. (
  • Excess mortality from lung cancer was reported among workers employed in a US cadmium recovery plant, and a dose-response relationship was demonstrated between estimated cumulative exposure to cadmium and lung cancer risk. (
  • In a large cohort of workers from 17 cadmium processing plants in the United Kingdom, decreased mortality from prostatic cancer was observed, while that from lung cancer was increased in the overall cohort and there were suggested trends with duration of employment and with intensity of exposure. (
  • The increase in lung cancer risk was stronger in the small proportion of workers with high cadmium exposure. (
  • Excess mortality from stomach cancer, which was not related to intensity of cadmium exposure, was also reported among these workers. (
  • Constraints that influence the assessment of both lung and prostatic cancer risk are that the number of long-term, highly exposed workers is small, the historical data on exposure to cadmium are limited, particularly for the non-US plants, and the ability to define and examine a gradient of cumulative exposure varies across studies. (
  • Acute toxicity of cadmium due to dietary exposure is very unlikely but prolonged excessive intake of cadmium may have adverse effects on the kidneys. (
  • While this is not the first study exploring a potential link between cadmium and endometriosis, the researchers said it's the largest study to look at cadmium measured in urine, which reflects long-term exposure between 10 and 30 years. (
  • The researchers then analyzed the data, dividing the cadmium levels into four classes, or quartiles, with the first quartile being the lowest exposure and the fourth being the largest exposure. (
  • Cadmium exposure due to contaminated water, food, or tobacco and, mainly, due to workplace exposures can cause nephropathy. (
  • note that chelation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) may aggravate renal toxicity in acute cadmium poisoning but has been used successfully in cases of chronic cadmium exposure. (
  • Cadmium was used for a long time as a corrosion-resistant plating on steel, and cadmium compounds are used as red, orange, and yellow pigments, to color glass, and to stabilize plastic. (
  • Cadmium (Latin cadmia, Greek καδμεία meaning "calamine", a cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals that was named after the Greek mythological character Κάδμος, Cadmus, the founder of Thebes) was discovered in contaminated zinc compounds sold in pharmacies in Germany in 1817 by Friedrich Stromeyer. (
  • Cadmium is found in cadmium fumes (CdO) and cadmium compounds. (
  • Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) for Cadmium Compounds - The IDLH documents the criteria and information sources that have been used by NIOSH to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations. (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that cadmium and cadmium compounds are known human carcinogens. (
  • Cadmium compounds as such are only weak mutagens and clastogens. (
  • Shipping name: Cadmium Compounds. (
  • Precipitation of a solution of cadmium(II)-nitrate with a solution of sodium sulfide. (
  • Cadmium is found at low concentrations in the Earth's crust, mainly as the sulfide in zinc-containing mineral deposits. (
  • This mineral, cadmium sulfide (CdS), was named greenockite after Lord Greenock, who was in charge of the project, although the substance had been used for more than 2,000 years as a yellow pigment, when it had been mined in Greece and Bohemia. (
  • Cadmium is mainly a byproduct of beneficiating and refining of zinc metal from sulfide ore concentrates. (
  • Another large use of cadmium is for the production of pigments. (
  • Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid dissolve cadmium by forming cadmium chloride (CdCl2), cadmium sulfate (CdSO4), or cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2). (
  • The resulting solution is filtered to remove impurities and obtain a purified cadmium sulfate solution. (
  • The oxidation state +1 can be produced by dissolving cadmium in a mixture of cadmium chloride and aluminium chloride, forming the Cd22+ cation, which is similar to the Hg22+ cation in mercury(I) chloride. (
  • Cadmium use is generally decreasing because it is toxic (it is specifically listed in the European Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive) and nickel-cadmium batteries have been replaced with nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. (
  • Now, the government agency is trying to determine whether it can do anything about another toxic chemical found in toys - a heavy metal called cadmium. (
  • Cadmium is toxic if ingested by children and can cause adverse health effects. (
  • Of all contaminant metals, cadmium is considered an extremely toxic heavy metal with acceptable levels one-tenth those of most of the other toxic metals [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • White Plains, New York, January 23, 2020 - Dark chocolate and cocoa contain antioxidant flavanols that may be good for the heart and mind, but they can also contain high levels of the heavy metal cadmium, which is toxic to kidneys and can soften bones. (
  • Cadmium from smoking cigarettes is more likely to pose a health concern than cadmium … "Unfortunately, the human body finds it much more difficult to excrete cadmium than other toxic metals, and its presence in many nutritious foods means it is critical to continue reducing sources of environmental pollution that contribute to its presence in air, soil and water," says Hu. (
  • Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, especially to the pro … Zinc ores contain up … Cadmium releases can be carried to and deposited on areas remote from the sources of emission by means of long-range atmospheric transport. (
  • Cadmium (Cd), a by-product of zinc production, is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. (
  • Women with a history of endometriosis had higher concentrations of cadmium in their urine compared to those without that diagnosis, according to a Michigan State University study that suggests the toxic metal could be linked to the development of endometriosis. (
  • Cadmium is a toxic metal and a "metalloestrogen," meaning it can act like the hormone estrogen. (
  • A new University of California at Berkeley study has found many common brands of lipstick contain toxic levels of lead, cadmium, aluminum, chromium, etc. (
  • Testing of 32 commonly sold lipsticks and lip glosses found they contain lead, cadmium, chromium, aluminum and five other metals - some at potentially toxic levels, according to researchers at the University of California-Berkeley's School of Public Health. (
  • The most notable feature of cadmium is its toxicity, which accumulates both in the environment and living organisms. (
  • Cadmium plating is still used in some specialized applications, but the toxicity of cadmium has discouraged more common use as a plating. (
  • Again the toxicity of cadmium is a problem, and it's important to bring rechargeable batteries back for recycling, to avoid contaminating landfills. (
  • Acidification of cadmium-containing soils and sediments may increase the concentrations of cadmium in surface waters and crops. (
  • CL's tests revealed that cocoa powders tended to have the highest concentrations of cadmium, followed by dark chocolate bars, chocolate chips, and nibs. (
  • Waste containing heavy metals such as cadmium, zinc, arsenic must be packed separately. (
  • In the home, store substances that contain cadmium safely, and keep nickel-cadmium batteries out of reach of young children. (
  • Occupations in which the highest potential exposures occur include cadmium production and refining, nickel-cadmium battery manufacture, cadmium pigment manufacture and formulation, cadmium alloy production, mechanical plating, zinc smelting, soldering and polyvinylchloride compounding. (
  • This paper will summarize the details of replacing the EA-6B Sealed Nickel-Cadmium (SNC) batteries in an effort to reduce battery maintenance and battery maintenance costs. (
  • Meriweather, T., Fleener, W., and Johnson, W., "Replacement of Sealed Nickel-Cadmium Batteries on EA-6B Aircraft with Valve Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3084, 2006, . (
  • The main use of cadmium since the mid 20th Century has been for the production of nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries. (
  • Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries are rechargeable and are used to power a variety of electrical goods, from toys and electrical appliances to electric vehicles. (
  • Large amounts of cadmium are used in Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cad) rechargeable batteries, used in a wide variety of electronic devices. (
  • From memory, nickel-cadmium plating used to be used on engine parts and other high-wear, high-temperature items, but I know this was banned in the UK some time ago (I'm not sure about its current status in other parts of the world). (
  • Cadmium occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores and is a byproduct of zinc production. (
  • Fertilisers produced from phosphate ores and industrial operations such as mining are important sources of environmental cadmium contamination. (
  • Cadmium occurs naturally in zinc, in lead and copper ores, in coal and other fossil fuels, in shales and is released during volcanic action. (
  • Other cadmium ores are known, such as cadmoselite (CdSe) and otavite (CdCO3), but no ore is mined specifically for its cadmium. (
  • An estimated 90% to 98% of the cadmium present in zinc ores is recovered in the mining and beneficiating stages of the extraction process. (
  • All soils and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. (
  • The geometric urine level of cadmium in agricultural soils is 0.27 mg/kg. (
  • With increasing pollution and emission of cadmium, its levels in agricultural soils are increasing. (
  • Fish, plants, and animals take up cadmium from the environment. (
  • The geometric blood level of cadmium in Topsoil concentrations are often twice as the general population (1 year of age) is high as subsoil levels. (
  • For those food items for which Codex Alimentarius does not have an established standard, like the level of cadmium in scallop, the CFS generally conducts risk assessment to determine the potential health risk to the public. (
  • A balanced diet can reduce the amount of cadmium taken into the body from food and drink. (
  • Urinary cadmium has been shown to accurately reflect the amount of cadmium in the body. (
  • Among products that were approved, ConsumerLab selected Top Picks - indicating its best choices for getting the highest amount of flavanols with the lowest amount of cadmium and other contaminants, as well as good value and taste. (
  • A few studies in animals indicate that younger animals absorb more cadmium than adults. (
  • The highest levels of cadmium in food will absorb more cadmium. (
  • Electronic waste can potentially contain harmful chemicals like lead, mercury, and cadmium. (
  • Photometer tests Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium levels in water. (
  • Rock Hill, South Carolina - The new eXact® LEADQuick(TM) photometer is the ideal meter for field testing Lead, Mercury and Cadmium amounts in potable water. (
  • Mercury is detected at 10 to 600 µ/L (ppb) with resolution of 1 µg/L and accuracy of +/-6 µg/L while Cadmium is detected at .01-.80 mg/L with .06 mg/L resolution. (
  • It meets US EPA standards for accuracy and specificity of target contaminants such as lead, mercury and cadmium. (
  • Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted during the production of other metals like zinc, lead, and copper. (
  • Two small copper-cadmium alloy plants were studied in the United Kingdom. (
  • In the hydrometallurgical process, zinc, copper and cadmium are dissolved in the sulfuric acid leach of the roasted zinc ore. (
  • The copper and cadmium are among the most common interfering impurities that are removed before the purified solution is subjected to electrolysis for zinc recovery. (
  • The cadmium precipitate is sent to the cadmium plant where it is filtered and formed into a cake containing cadmium, zinc, and minor amounts of copper and lead. (
  • The following process is usually used to obtain cadmium produced from flue dust collected at lead or copper smelters. (
  • Concentrates of copper, and especially lead, contain considerable amounts of cadmium. (
  • In copper smelters, the cadmium reports in flue dusts, which are collected and recycled through the smelter system to upgrade the cadmium content. (
  • The USBM estimated that about 95% of the cadmium content of zinc, lead, and copper concentrates is recovered in the smelting and refining process stages. (
  • Cadmium damages the kidneys, lungs, and bones. (
  • After intake cadmium accumulates in the body. (
  • Cadmium is easily absorbed and accumulates in tissues, and its main sources in our diet are fish and cereal products (Olmedo et al. (
  • 2013). It accumulates in the body through food and water, but also through the air we breathe and the environment in … Cadmium and Human Health. (
  • Effects of the carcinogenic metal cadmium on the regulation of mammalian gene expression are reviewed and discussed in the light of observations on interference with cellular signal transduction pathways. (
  • By looking at environmental risk factors such as metal cadmium, we are moving the needle closer to understanding risk factors for this condition," added the study's first author, Mandy Hall, a data analyst in the MSU Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. (
  • The data also suggests a 60% increased prevalence of endometriosis based on urinary cadmium concentrations in the fourth quartile. (
  • Several factors affect cadmium most commonly used biomarkers of natural y contain cadmium, or from absorption. (
  • On a positive note, ConsumerLab found fewer extreme examples of cadmium contamination in products purchased in 2019 than among those purchased in 2017. (
  • Cadmium concentrations in human blood and urine are associated with polymorphisms in zinc transporter genes. (
  • There is also some information from animal studies that high enough exposures to cadmium before birth can reduce body weights and affect the skeleton in the developing young. (
  • The average concentration of cadmium in Earth's crust is between 0.1 and 0.5 parts per million (ppm). (
  • The median concentration of zinc in 726 filtered samples of water taken from rivers and lakes of the United States in November 1971 was close to 20 μg/l, and the median concentration of cadmium was a little below 1 μg/l. 6. (
  • The Committee evaluated the contaminants cadmium and tin. (
  • The Centre for Food Safety (CFS) has been conducting routine surveillance for heavy metals including cadmium in foods collected from import, wholesale and retail levels. (
  • Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of non-essential heavy metals which is released into environment naturally or anthropogenically. (
  • We compared mainstream smoke cadmium, thallium, and lead deliveries from counterfeit and authentic brands. (
  • Breathing high levels of cadmium can severely damage the lungs. (
  • The babies of animals exposed to high levels of cadmium during pregnancy had changes in behavior and learning ability. (
  • Cadmium levels in particulate matter have been cut in half since 1991. (
  • Cadmium levels in dust fall out have also declined. (
  • The European Commission has set new maximum levels for lead and cadmium in a range of food products to protect public health. (
  • The mechanisms underlying the modulation of gene activity by cadmium are discussed in terms of interference with cellular signalling at the levels of cell surface receptors, cellular calcium and zinc homeostases, protein phosphorylation, and modification of transcription factors. (
  • The Consumer Product Safety Commission is reacting to a report by the Associated Press that found 12% of children's jewelry had high levels of cadmium. (
  • The children's metal jewelry contains high levels of cadmium. (
  • Labels don't disclose levels of flavanols or cadmium, so ConsumerLab purchased and tested popular cocoa powders, bars, chips, nibs, and supplements . (
  • However, background levels of cadmium in food, water, and ambient air are not a health concern for the general North American population. (
  • They looked at data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative sample of U.S. adults over 45 years of age to compare the mortality rates from influenza or pneumonia of people whose cadmium levels were on the lower end versus people whose cadmium levels were on the higher end. (
  • After adjusting for other factors that could influence the results, researchers found that people who had cadmium levels in the 80th percentile had a 15% greater risk of dying from these illnesses than those in with cadmium levels in the 20th percentile. (
  • Even low levels of cadmium can make it difficult for the immune system to properly function. (
  • Construction workers involved in demolition can be exposed to dust containing cadmium. (
  • If you work with cadmium, use all safety precautions to avoid carrying cadmium-containing dust home from work on your clothing, skin, hair, or tools. (
  • Most of the cadmium is precipitated in a second zinc dust addition, and any remaining dissolved cadmium is precipitated by a third stage of zinc dust addition. (
  • In the pyrometallurgical process, cadmium is volatilized during the roasting and sintering of zinc concentrates, and the resultant fume and dust are collected as flue dust in baghouses or electrostatic precipitators. (
  • The baghouse dust is recycled to upgrade the cadmium content and later used as feed material for the cadmium refinery plant. (
  • Next, metallic cadmium, called sponge because of its appearance, is precipitated from the solution using zinc dust. (
  • Cadmium binds strongly to soil particles. (
  • Cadmium occurs naturally in the soil but is also introduced into the environment by man. (
  • From soil cadmium spreads to plants that are processed into food and feed. (
  • Cadmium may enter drinking water sources naturally (leaching from soil) , as a result of human activities (as a cadmium in drinking water. (
  • Persistently high cadmium intake can lead to kidney and bone damage. (
  • At the lead smelters, the cadmium is fumed off and collected in the blast furnace baghouses. (
  • Some forms of cadmium dissolve in water. (
  • Cadmium and its congeners in group 12 are often not considered transition metals, in that they do not have partly filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. (
  • Unlike most other metals, cadmium is resistant to corrosion and is used as a protective plate on other metals. (
  • Cadmium and its congeners are not always considered transition metals, in that they do not have partly filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. (
  • Cadmium is a natural element in the earth's crust. (
  • Cadmium is a metallic element that occurs naturally in the Earth's crust. (
  • Natural sources of cadmium result from mobilization of naturally occurring cadmium from the Earth's crust and mantle, by volcanic activity and weathering of rocks. (
  • Cadmium can also contaminate drinking water through corrosion of galvanized pipes and cadmium-containing solders. (
  • High use could potentially cause overexposure to aluminum, cadmium and manganese. (
  • In considering the available evidence, the carcinogenic properties of cadmium are interpreted using a multifactorial approach involving indirect genotoxicity (interference with DNA repair) and the upregulation of mitogenic signalling pathways. (
  • It maintained the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for cadmium of 7 µg/kg of body weight. (
  • The consumer protection group As You Sow claims it has new testing data showing cadmium, a non-essential heavy metal, in a range of spinach products. (
  • In the U.S., people are commonly exposed to cadmium by breathing in cigarette smoke and eating contaminated food like spinach and lettuce. (