Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Cadmium Poisoning: Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.Cadmium Chloride: A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.Metallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Phytochelatins: Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Tellurium: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Viscum album: A plant species of the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae. This is the traditional mistletoe of literature and Christmas. Members contain viscotoxin (5 kDa basic polypeptides related to thionins), beta-galactoside- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin II (60 kDa), and polysaccharides. Mistletoe lectin I is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein. Commercial extracts include Plenosol, Eurixor, Helixor Isorel, Iscador, and NSC 635089 (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, PHYTOGENIC).Chenopodium album: A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.BooksMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Rare BooksDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (1/3161)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (2/3161)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Cadmium-mediated activation of the metal response element in human neuroblastoma cells lacking functional metal response element-binding transcription factor-1. (3/3161)

Metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) binds specifically to metal response elements (MREs) and transactivates metallothionein (MT) gene expression in response to zinc and cadmium. This investigation contrasts the mechanism of mouse MT gene (mMT-I) promoter activation by cadmium and zinc in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells to determine whether MTF-1 binding to the MRE is necessary for activation by these metals. Cadmium activated a mMT-1 promoter (-150 base pairs) luciferase reporter 20-25-fold through a MRE-dependent mechanism. In contrast, zinc had little effect on the mMT-1 luciferase reporter. IMR-32 cells lacked MRE binding activity, and treatment with zinc in vitro or in vivo did not generate a MTF-1. MRE complex, suggesting that IMR-32 cells lack functional MTF-1. Overexpression of mMTF-1 regenerated a zinc-mediated induction of the MRE without affecting cadmium activation. Because no other transition metals tested activated the MRE, this effect appeared to be cadmium-specific. These data demonstrate that in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells, zinc and cadmium can use independent mechanisms for activation of the mMT-I promoter and cadmium-mediated MRE activation is independent of MTF-1 and zinc.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/3161)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

Relationship between L-type Ca2+ current and unitary sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events in rat ventricular myocytes. (5/3161)

1. The time courses of Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence were determined in single rat ventricular myocytes voltage clamped with patch pipettes containing 0.1 microM fluo-3. Acquisition of line-scan images on a laser scanning confocal microscope was synchronized with measurement of Cd2+-sensitive Ca2+ currents. In most cells, individual Ca2+ sparks were observed by reducing Ca2+ current density with nifedipine (0.1-8 microM). 2. Ca2+ sparks elicited by depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses had a peak [Ca2+] amplitude of 289 +/- 3 nM with a decay half-time of 20.8 +/- 0.2 ms and a full width at half-maximum of 1.40 +/- 0.03 microm (mean +/- s. e.m., n = 345), independent of the membrane potential. 3. The time between the beginning of a depolarization and the initiation of each Ca2+ spark was calculated and data were pooled to construct waiting time histograms. Exponential functions were fitted to these histograms and to the decaying phase of the Ca2+ current. This analysis showed that the time constants describing Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence at membrane potentials between -30 mV and +30 mV were not significantly different. At +50 mV, in the absence of nifedipine, the time constant describing Ca2+ spark occurrence was significantly larger than the time constant of the Ca2+ current. 4. A simple model is developed using Poisson statistics to relate macroscopic Ca2+ current to the opening of single L-type Ca2+ channels at the dyad junction and to the time course of Ca2+ spark occurrence. The model suggests that the time courses of macroscopic Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence should be closely related when opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel initiates a Ca2+ spark. By comparison with the data, the model suggests that Ca2+ sparks are initiated by the opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel at all membrane potentials encountered during an action potential.  (+info)

Delayed rectifier potassium current in undiseased human ventricular myocytes. (6/3161)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the properties of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in myocytes isolated from undiseased human left ventricles. METHODS: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied in 28 left ventricular myocytes from 13 hearts at 35 degrees C. RESULTS: An E-4031 sensitive tail current identified the rapid component of IK (IKr) in the myocytes, but there was no evidence for an E-4031 insensitive slow component of IK (IKs). When nifedipine (5 microM) was used to block the inward calcium current (ICa), IKr activation was fast (tau = 31.0 +/- 7.4 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and deactivation kinetics were biexponential and relatively slow (tau 1 = 600.0 +/- 53.9 ms and tau 2 = 6792.2 +/- 875.7 ms, at -40 mV, n = 7). Application of CdCl2 (250 microM) to block ICa altered the voltage dependence of the IKr considerably, slowing its activation (tau = 657.1 +/- 109.1 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and accelerating its deactivation (tau = 104.0 +/- 18.5 ms, at -40 mV, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: In undiseased human ventricle at 35 degrees C IKr exists having fast activation and slow deactivation kinetics; however, there was no evidence found for an expressed IKs. IKr probably plays an important role in the frequency dependent modulation of repolarization in undiseased human ventricle, and is a target for many Class III antiarrhythmic drugs.  (+info)

Differences in pharmacological properties of dopamine release between the substantia nigra and striatum: an in vivo electrochemical study. (7/3161)

The properties of dopamine (DA) release in the rat substantia nigra (SN) and striatum were investigated using high-speed chronoamperometric recordings in brain slices. In both brain regions, a 2-min bath superfusion with 30 mM KCl produced robust DA-like electrochemical signals, with the mean amplitude of the signal being >10-fold greater in the striatum than the SN. The reproducibility of the response was confirmed by a second stimulus (S2)/first-stimulus (S1) ratio of >0.8 in both regions. The bath application of tetrodotoxin significantly reduced the S2/S1 ratio in both the striatum and SN, implicating the requirement for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in the DA-release process. However, the application of cadmium chloride, a nonselective blocker of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, reduced the S2/S1 ratio only in the striatum and not within the SN. Moreover, removal of Ca2+ from the buffer did not significantly affect release within the SN, despite a >85% reduction in release within the striatum. In addition, although the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride enhanced the S2/S1 ratio in the striatum, no effect of this agent was seen in the SN. Finally, the application of d-amphetamine produced DA-like electrochemical signals in both the striatum and SN. However, the amplitude of the d-amphetamine-evoked response, relative to the KCl-evoked release, was much smaller in the striatum than in the SN. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that differences in the mechanism or mechanisms of release exist between somatodendritic and axonal elements within the nigrostriatal pathway.  (+info)

Selective effects of neuronal-synaptobrevin mutations on transmitter release evoked by sustained versus transient Ca2+ increases and by cAMP. (8/3161)

Synaptobrevin is a key constituent of the synaptic vesicle membrane. The neuronal-synaptobrevin (n-syb) gene in Drosophila is essential for nerve-evoked synaptic currents, but miniature excitatory synaptic currents (mESCs) remain even in the complete absence of this gene. To further characterize the defect in these mutants, we have examined conditions that stimulate secretion. Despite the inability of an action potential to trigger fusion, high K+ saline could increase the frequency of mESCs 4- to 17-fold in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and the rate of fusion approached 25% of that seen in wild-type synapses under the same conditions. Similarly, the mESC frequency in n-syb null mutants could be increased by a Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, and by black widow spider venom. Thus, the ability of the vesicles to fuse in response to sustained increases in cytosolic Ca2+ persisted in the absence of this protein. Tetanic stimulation could also increase the frequency of mESCs, particularly toward the end of a train and after the train of stimuli. In contrast, these mutants did not respond to an elevation of cAMP induced by an activator of adenylyl cyclase, forskolin, or a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP, dibutyryl cAMP, which in wild-type synapses causes a marked increase in the mESC frequency even in the absence of external Ca2+. These results are discussed in the context of models that invoke a special role for n-syb in coupling fusion to the transient, local changes in Ca2+ and an as yet unidentified target of cAMP.  (+info)

In a representative US population higher levels of urinary cadmium were found to be significant predictors of lower FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC in current and former smokers but not in never smokers. In addition, variability in urine cadmium levels was found among current smokers. It is not clear whether this finding is related to the dose of cadmium to which smokers are exposed or to variability in the uptake and metabolism of cadmium in smokers. It is possible that the variability in cadmium levels in smokers is related to the intensity of smoking-that is, smokers with higher cadmium levels extract more tar and nicotine out of each cigarette than smokers with lower levels. It is also possible that the variability in lung function in smokers is similarly related to variability in smoking intensity, and that cadmium levels are just a long term marker of tobacco dose.. Cadmium intake in humans is either through ingestion or inhalation, with the major source of exposure in never smokers being ...
Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations together with cadmium in air concentrations from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in an alkaline battery factory were determined at regular intervals for 11 consecutive weeks. Nine of the workers examined were smokers and nine non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in age or years of employment. Cadmium in air concentrations varied, but no definite trend was observed. The concentrations of cadmium in the blood and urine were found to be stable. Exposure to airborne cadmium was identical for smokers and non-smokers but average cadmium concentrations in the blood and urine of smokers were approximately twice as high as those in non-smokers. For the whole group, urinary cadmium was significantly correlated with years of employment, but no correlation was found between blood cadmium concentrations and exposure. For non-smokers, the correlation between cadmium in blood and years of employment was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). ...
Prevention is the key to managing cadmium exposure. No effective treatment for cadmium toxicity exists. For the general public, the primary source of exposure to cadmium is dietary. Smoking tobacco adds an additional burden of cadmium. Nutritional deficiencies can increase the risk of cadmium toxicity. Chronic cadmium exposure primarily affects the kidneys and secondarily the bones. Acute inhalation of fumes containing cadmium affects the lungs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of cadmium exposure on mouse sperm. AU - Oliveira, Helena. AU - Spanò, Marcello. AU - Santos, Conceição. AU - Pereira, Maria de Lourdes. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - The effects of cadmium chloride exposure on sperm functional parameters were evaluated on eight-week-old ICR-CD1 male mice administered with a single s.c. injection of 1, 2 and 3 mg CdCl2/kg bw. Groups of animals treated with each dose, as well as their respective controls, were sacrificed after 24 h to detect short-term (acute) effects and after 35 days. Sperm cells were collected from the epididymis and several parameters of sperm quality and function were evaluated, namely density, morphology, motility, viability, mitochondrial function, acrosome integrity, together with DNA fragmentation assessed by the TUNEL assay. The short-term effects of cadmium chloride resulted in an increased fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology, premature acrosome reaction and reduced motility. Late term ...
Environmental cadmium exposure is associated with elevated risk of chronic otitis media in adults[4] "Chronic otitis media (COM) is caused by an infection of the middle ear, although it may also be associated with environmental pollutants. Recent reports found that cadmium exposure could be toxic to middle ear cell lines, but the role of cadmium in the development of COM in humans has not been examined to date. We hypothesised that environmental cadmium exposure was associated with an increased risk of COM in the general population. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data for 5331 adults of 20 years of age or above, obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. We examined the association between blood cadmium levels and COM diagnosed by an otolaryngologist. RESULTS: The highest quartile group of cadmium blood concentration was associated with an OR of 3.33 (95% CI 1.78 to 7.53) for COM, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Doubling blood ...
The ubiquitous food contaminant cadmium has features of an estrogen mimetic that may promote the development of estrogen-dependent malignancies, such as breast cancer. However, no prospective studies of cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk have been reported. , We examined the association between dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1987) and the risk of overall and estrogen receptor (ER)-defined (ER+ or ER-) breast cancer within a population-based prospective cohort of 55,987 postmenopausal women. During an average of 12.2 years of follow-up, 2,112 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were ascertained (1,626 ER+ and 290 ER-). After adjusting for confounders, including consumption of whole grains and vegetables (which account for 40% of the dietary exposure, but also contain putative anticarcinogenic phytochemicals), dietary cadmium intake was positively associated with overall breast cancer tumors, comparing the highest tertile with the lowest [rate ratio (RR), 1.21; 95% confidence ...
Previous U.S. population modeling studies have reported that urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion patterns differ with age, sex, and dietary exposure; associations between Cd exposures and health outcomes also have differed by age and sex. Therefore, it is important to test models used to estimate Cd exposures across an expanded Cd-exposure range.,We estimated relative Cd exposures from both diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios to provide data for improving risk assessment calculations.,We used a Cd toxicokinetic-based model to estimate Cd exposures based on urinary Cd levels measured for 399 persons in a low-exposure area (Bangkok) and 6,747 persons in a high-exposure area (Mae Sot) in Thailand.,In Bangkok, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 50-56 µg/day for males and 21-27 µg/day for females 20-59 years of age who never smoked. In Mae Sot, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 188-224 µg/day for males and 99-113 µg/day for females 20-59 years of age who never smoked. In Bangkok, ...
Cadmium is an element that occurs naturally in the earths crust.� Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal.� Cadmium is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).� Cadmium is most often present in nature as complex oxides, sulfides, and carbonates in zinc, lead, and copper ores. It is rarely present in large quantities as the chlorides and sulfates.� These different forms of cadmium compounds are solids that dissolve in water to varying degrees.� The chlorides and sulfates are the forms that most easily dissolve in water.� Cadmium may change forms, but the cadmium metal itself does not disappear from the environment.� Knowing the particular form of cadmium, however, is very important when determining the risk of potential adverse health effects.
Adams SV, Passarelli MN, Newcomb PA. 2012. Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort. Occup Environ Med 69(2):153-156.. Akerstrom M, Barregard L, Lundh T, Sallsten G. 2013. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 268:286-293.. Arnich N, Sirot V, Rivière G, Jean J, Noël L, Guérin T, et al. 2012. Dietary exposure to trace elements and health risk assessment in the 2nd French Total Diet Study. Food Chem Toxicol 50:2432-2449.. Buser MC, Ingber SZ, Raines N, Fowler DA, Scinicariello F. 2016. Urinary and blood cadmium and lead and kidney function: NHANES 2007-2012. Int J Hyg Environ Health 219(3):261-267.. Ciesielski T, Bellinger DC, Schwartz J, Hauser R, Wright RO. 2013. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults. Environ Health 12:13, doi: ...
Cadmium poisoning through industrial exposure to inorganic cadmium fumes may produce fatigue, coughing, chest pain, a burning sensation in the throat, and renal damage. The prognosis of persons with cadmium-induced renal dysfunction is unfavorable, with urinary β-microglobulin and urinary protein the most important factors.2 Inhalation of cadmium fumes can lead to pneumonia with acute exposure and emphysema with chronic exposure.3. Cadmium poisoning is predominantly associated with cadmium fumes and/or inorganic cadmium salts that may be present in certain industrial environments. Cadmium and its inorganic compounds are commonly found in industry. Cadmium is utilized in many alloys and metal plating. Inorganic cadmium fumes or dusts are generally associated with heating, welding, and grinding of cadmium-containing metal products. Cadmium exposure in the general populace is derived from dietary intake, averaging 2−200 μg/day, and is only occasionally the precipitant of overexposure. In ...
Article Urine metabolomics of women from small villages exposed to high environmental cadmium levels. This study aimed to identify urine metabolites in women exposed to high cadmium levels. 21 women exposed to environmental Cd and 12 age‐matched cont...
The nephrotoxicity of cadmium at low levels of exposure, measured by urinary cadmium, has recently been questioned since co-excretion of cadmium and proteins may have causes other than cadmium toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the relation between kidney function and low or moderate cadmium levels, measured directly in kidney biopsies ...
The cadmium (Cd) contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) in urine (as an internal exposure dose) and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose). Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%-86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%-86%
Our earlier work described that the roots of two maize cultivars, grown hydroponically, differentially responded to cadmium (Cd) stress by initiating changes in medium pH depending on their Cd tolerance. The current study investigated the root exudation, elemental contents and antioxidant behavior of the same maize cultivars (cv. 3062 (Cd-tolerant) and cv. 31P41 (Cd-sensitive)] under Cd stress. Plants were maintained in a rhizobox-like system carrying soil spiked with Cd concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mu mol/kg soil. The root and shoot Cd contents increased, while Mg, Ca and Fe contents mainly decreased at higher Cd levels, and preferentially in the sensitive cultivar. Interestingly, the K contents increased in roots of cv. 3062 at low Cd treatments. The Cd stress caused acidosis of the maize root exudates predominantly in cv. 3062. The concentration of various organic acids was significantly increased in the root exudates of cv. 3062 with applied Cd levels. This effect was ...
Introduction Agricultural soils in Iran, as in many other countries, are slightly to moderately contaminated by cadmium. According to some published reports, the average content of cadmium in some agricultural products and soils of Iran was found to be above the FAO/WHO guidelines. Abiotic stresses including cadmium stress can lead to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. In order to reduce cadmium-induced toxicity and alleviate some adverse effects of this metal on plants, a number of strategies including phytoremediation have been developed. Meanwhile, it was found that application of some elements such as calcium could diminish adverse effects of heavy metals in plants. In addition to calcium, selenium due to its potential in mitigation of cadmium toxicity has gained increased attention in recent decades. Selenium, as an antioxidant, plays an important role in the maintenance of human health, and on the other hand, many ...
Whole books and maybe encyclopedias could be written on pigments having the word cadmium in their common name. I dont recommend any cadmium paint because of the potential health hazard. Yes, I know: manufacturers say they are making safe cadmiums…but, in my opinion, who really knows. Therefore I dont press my luck. But, as so many of you use these pigments you should be aware of their virtues and their drawbacks. If you are not using a single pigment PY35 cadmium yellow, be aware of the additional pigment(s). If the additional pigment is an orange pigment the bias of that particular cadmium yellow will be orange. As in the case of a cadmium yellow hue, if the pigments have nothing to do with cadmium pigments, check on the bias of the pigments used to manipulate to achieve a cadmium yellow hue. If cadmium yellow has the word "deep" in its name, again, be assured that the bias will be orange. All yellow cadmiums made of PY37 are orange biased. Are you confused yet? I know I am. Why should any ...
Smoking is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and causes exposure to cadmium, which is a pro-atherosclerotic metal. Cadmium exposure has also been shown to increase the risk of CVD, even after adjustment for smoking. Our hypothesis was that part of the risk of CVD in smokers may be mediated by cadmium exposure from tobacco smoke. We examined this hypothesis in a mediation analysis, trying to assess how much of the smoking-induced CVD risk could be explained via cadmium. We used prospective data on CVD (incidence and mortality) in a Swedish population-based cohort of 4304 middle-aged men and women (the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study). Blood cadmium was analyzed in base-line samples from 1991, and clinical events were followed up for 16-19 years based on registry data. Mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate the indirect effect (via cadmium) of smoking on CVD. Survival was analyzed by the accelerated failure time (AFT) model and the Aalen additive hazard model. The mean blood cadmium
The accumulation of cadmium in plants cause a variety of physiological, biochemical and structural changes, while selenium that is often used in the process of biofortification of plants can significantly change the plants response to cadmium treatment. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the roots and shoots of two varieties of wheat (Divana and Srpanjka) seedlings enriched with selenium. Enzymes that were observed in this study were glutathione S-transferase, Cu, Zn-Superoxid-Dismutase and catalase The effect of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme gene expression depended on the type of cultivar and the type of plant organ (root or shoot). Cadmium treatment affected the expression of glutathione S-transferase the most.The effect of cadmium on decrease in antioxidant enzyme gene expression was much more visible in the roots than in the shoots. Variety Divana was shown to be more sensitive to cadmium treatment than variety Srpanjka ...
Arsenic and cadmium are ranked among the top ten priority hazardous substances by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) [1]. Exposure to arsenic and cadmium can lead to adverse health outcomes such as lung and kidney cancers as well as cardiovascular disease and diabetes [2, 3]. Further, exposure to these two toxic and well-classified chemicals is of particular interest because of their extensive global impact [4-6]. For example, it is estimated that more than 40 million people worldwide drink water containing arsenic at concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water guideline of 10 ppb [7]. Also, humans are exposed to low levels of cadmium through food consumption, typically ranging between 8 and 25 ug per day [3]. Smoking populations experience higher levels of cadmium exposure, as one cigarette may contain 1-2 ug cadmium [3].. Both arsenic and cadmium are classified as Group 1 carcinogens by the ...
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Yan, J., Wang, P., Wang, P., Yang, M., Lian, X., Tang, Z., Huang, C. -F., Salt, D. E., and Zhao, F. J. (2016) A loss-of-function allele of OsHMA3 associated with high cadmium accumulation in shoots and grain of Japonica rice cultivars. Plant, Cell & Environment, 39: 1941-1954., which has been published in final form at doi: 10.1111/pce.12747.. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving ...
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death worldwide, including Qatar. Hypertension is one of the most common CVDs that contribute to this mortality. Cadmium is a well-known pollutant that has been suggested to be a risk factor for hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lacking. Very little is known about the effect of cadmium on the expression of vascular alpha- 1 adrenoceptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cadmium on the expression of vascular alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in vitro. Along with that, there are several phenotypic changes could modulate the VSMCs function and contribute to CVDs including hypertension. These changes include hypertrophy, migration and senescence. The second objective of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on VSMCs phenotype. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were incubated with different concentrations of cadmium chloride for varying
Cadmium has proatherogenic effects as shown in experimental and clinical studies.7, 8, 11, 20, 21 Atherosclerotic plaque is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke, and inflammation in the plaque is a critical mechanism for plaque rupture.7, 8, 22 Previous studies from the MDC and other cohorts have reported relationships between cadmium in blood and cardiovascular disease, including carotid plaque.4, 5, 6, 8 The present results show that cadmium and carotid plaque were associated with risk of future ischemic stroke in a synergistic manner. Since the whole population is exposed to cadmium through the diet and cadmium is eliminated very slowly from the human body, this observation could have important implications for public health.. The blood vessels have been identified as a target organ for cadmium accumulation.9 Cadmium has been associated with pro‐inflammatory effects, both in experimental and human studies.23 An in vitro study showed increased necrosis and apoptosis in macrophages exposed ...
Cadmium (Cd) is frequently used in various industrial applications and is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, also present in tobacco smoke. An important route of exposure is the circulatory system whereas blood vessels are considered to be main stream organs of Cd toxicity. Our previous results indicate that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) affects mean arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that Cd alters the intracellular calcium transient mechanism, by cadmium-induced stimulation of MAPKs (ERK 1 & 2) which is mediated partially through calcium-dependent PKC mechanism. To investigate this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from wistar kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to increased concentrations of CdCl2 on cell viability, expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/ERK 1 & 2), and protein kinase C (PKC) which are activated by Cd in several cell types. The results from these studies indicate that CdCl2
Presence of cadmium in drinking water is hazardous to human health. Renal, cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal effects have been found to be induced by cadmium exposure. Cadmium can induce renal tubular dysfunction leading to renal lesion and irreversible impairment of reabsorption capacity of renal tubules. Combine concentration of metallothionein, a cadmium binding protein, and cadmium…
Journal of Toxicology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of toxicological sciences. The journal will consider articles looking at the structure, function, and mechanism of agents that are toxic to humans and/or animals, as well as toxicological medicine, risk assessment, safety evaluation, and environmental health.
ILO: International Labour Organization - The International Labour Organization is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights
Cadmium and lead linked to hearing loss in U.S. adults.. Low levels of lead and cadmium may contribute to hearing loss, according to a large study of U.S. adults. Hearing loss was seen at metal concentrations common in the general population and below current workplace standards. Hearing ability dropped about 14 to 19 percent.. Loud noise can harm hearing but two common metals - lead and cadmium - may have a similar effect, according to a study published in Environmental Health Perspectives.. This study is unique because it links hearing loss and low-level exposures to lead and cadmium in a large sample of men and women in the United States. It is also the first to report cadmiums effects on hearing in adults.. This article originally appeared in the February 2013 issue of Environmental Health News.. Click Here for the original article. ...
Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well as their variation were monitored after acute and chronic exposure or recovery from two cadmium concentrations (Cd(1) = 10 mu g and Cd(2) = 30 mu g Cd/g dry food). Larval mass only decreased, without returning to the control level at recovery stage following chronic cadmium challenge. Acute stress did not change trait value but increased genetic variance of larval mass. Significant ALP activity changes, sensitivity of isozyme patterns (Mr of 60, 64, and 85 kDa) and increased variation in ALP plasticity during acute exposure to cadmium point to its possible aplication as an exposure biomarker. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved ...
Citation: Grant, C.A., Clarke, J.M., Duguid, S., Chaney, R.L. 2003. Use of genetic variability in reducing cadmium uptake by plants. Proceedings of the SCOPE Workshop on Risk Assessment and Management of Environmental Cadmium (Ghent, Belgium, September 3-5, 2003) UNEP-SCOPE, Paris. Interpretive Summary: All crops accumulate some cadmium from soils, but some crops accumulate soil cadmium more effectively that others, and some soils are geochemically enriched in cadmium or contaminated with cadmium. Excessive lifetime cadmium consumption can cause renal tubular dysfunction in susceptible individuals, especially subsistence rice consumers. One method to minimize the possibility that consumers will ingest excessive cadmium in foods is to breed crop cultivars which accumulate lower levels of cadmium in the edible plant tissue (e.g., grain). Major or staple foods are of greater importance if breeding for low cadmium is needed, but minor foods which accumulate higher levels of cadmium than most other ...
Exposure to cadmium has been associated with carotid plaques, inflammation in carotid plaques, and increased risk of ischemic stroke. This study examined the separate and interacting effects of blood cadmium levels and carotid plaques on the risk of incident ischemic stroke.Cadmium levels were measured in 4156 subjects (39.2% men; mean±SD age 57.3±5.9 years) without history of stroke, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The right carotid artery was examined using B-mode ultrasound examination at baseline. Incidence of ischemic stroke was monitored over a mean follow-up of 16.7 years. Carotid plaque was present in 34.5% of participants. Cadmium was significantly higher in subjects with plaque (mean±SD: 0.53±0.58 μg/L versus 0.42±0.49 μg/L; ...
1. Chromatography measurements indicated that adult rats converted 25-hydroxycholecalciferol into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol at a lower rate than that reported earlier for young animals. In serum, less-polar metabolites were found which probably represented vitamin D esters and vitamin D3.. 2. A low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an evident increase in the fraction corresponding to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the kidneys and also in the intestinal mucosa and serum.. 3. Inclusion of 0·67 mmol of cadmium/l of drinking water at a low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an increased accumulation of both cadmium and zinc in the kidneys and liver compared with values at a normal dietary calcium intake.. 4. At a normal dietary calcium intake, cadmium exposure caused inhibited production of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by the kidneys and an increased accumulation of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D3 and vitamin D esters in the serum.. 5. The inhibitory effect of cadmium on ...
1. Chromatography measurements indicated that adult rats converted 25-hydroxycholecalciferol into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol at a lower rate than that reported earlier for young animals. In serum, less-polar metabolites were found which probably represented vitamin D esters and vitamin D3.. 2. A low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an evident increase in the fraction corresponding to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the kidneys and also in the intestinal mucosa and serum.. 3. Inclusion of 0·67 mmol of cadmium/l of drinking water at a low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an increased accumulation of both cadmium and zinc in the kidneys and liver compared with values at a normal dietary calcium intake.. 4. At a normal dietary calcium intake, cadmium exposure caused inhibited production of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by the kidneys and an increased accumulation of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D3 and vitamin D esters in the serum.. 5. The inhibitory effect of cadmium on ...
Exposure levels and exposure sources. Among subjects in this study, age, sex, smoking, and locality were sources of U-Cd variability. A comparison of observed U-Cd data from males and females who never smoked in the 20- to 39-year-old and 40- to 59-year-old groups in Mae Sot with respective counterparts in Bangkok indicated overall Cd exposure levels in Mae Sot to be 3- to 3.8-times greater than in Bangkok. Evidence supporting diet as a major source of high Cd exposures in Mae Sot comes from a previous report indicating that Cd levels in most staple food (rice) samples from Mae Sot were above the permissible limit of 0.2 mg/kg (Swaddiwudhipong et al. 2007). In another report, Cd content in 524 rice samples was 0.05-7.7 mg/kg, with over 90% of samples , 0.2 mg/kg (Simmons et al. 2005). Further, U-Cd levels were higher among persons who consumed locally grown rice compared with those who consumed rice purchased from other areas (Swaddiwudhipong et al. 2007). U-Cd levels were also higher in Mae Sot ...
Cadmium is a carcinogenic heavy metal. Urinary levels of cadmium are considered to be an indicator of long-term body burden, as cadmium accumulates in the kidneys and has a half-life of at least 10 years. However, the temporal stability of the biomarker in urine samples from a non-occupationally exposed population has not been rigorously established. We used repeated measurements of urinary cadmium (U-Cd) in spot urine samples and first morning voids from two separate cohorts, to assess the temporal stability of the samples.
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On the potential exposure to toxic levels of cadmium: I was surprised to learn that one serving (46g) of sunflower seeds contains 23.9 ug (212 nanomoles) of cadmium (ref). The concentrated metal stocks we use for Maxpar labeling are 50 mM. If I did the math correctly, one serving of sunflower seeds contains the same amount of cadmium as 4.3 uL of a 50 mM cadmium stock. Admittedly, the cadmium in sunflower seeds could be much less bioavailable than a cadmium salt solution, but I just want to make the point that were not handling very high levels of metal in a typical CyTOF workflow ...
This 24-hour urine test is used to monitor exposure to cadmium. Cadmium is an extremely toxic metal frequently found in industrial places of work. Cigarettes are also a significant source of cadmium exposure. Cadmium may be found in batteries, fertilizers, pesticides, PVC plastics and certain shellfish. Those who work with cadmium pigments are also at risk for cadmium exposure. Cadmium toxicity affects the liver, placenta, lungs, brain, kidneys and bones, which may lead to problems such as fatigue, confusion, depression and cardiac arrhythmias. ...
Cadmium is a soft, malleable metal that, according to OSHA, can cause serious health problems for workers exposed to it. When using this metal, proper personal protective equipment must be worn because cadmium is highly toxic. Exposure to this metal is "known to cause cancer and targets the bodys cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, neurological, reproductive, and respiratory systems," the administration states.. Cadmium is used today in batteries, alloys, plastic stabilizers and solar cells. OSHA estimates that 300,000 workers are exposed to the metal in the United States. Cadmium exposure can occur in all industry sectors, but construction and manufacturing have the highest exposure rates. The following workplace activities can lead to exposure:. ...
The purpose of this article is to emphasize that new nanomaterials offer a number of attractive alternatives for solar energy use in wastewater photocatalysis. The wastewater from the textile industry contains dyes and heavy metals. Thin films of cadmium doped TiO2 (Cd-TiO2) were coated by a doctor blade using TiO2 Degussa P25 and cadmium precursor (cadmium nitrate). The photocatalytic efficiency of cadmium doped TiO2 is strongly influenced by crystal structure, particle size, particle morphology, porosity and doping. The pore size distribution and the roughness analysis have been studied by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the thin films. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was tested in Methyl orange and Methylene blue photodegradation. Cadmium doped TiO2 catalyst does not significantly decrease the efficiency of photodegradation processes, and, in some situations, improves dye photodegradation ...
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal with high toxicity to plants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in plant abiotic stress responses. To investigate whether miRNAs function in Cd stress response, miRNA expression profiles in rice (Oryza sativa) under Cd stress were monitored using microarray assays. A total of 12 Cd-responsive novel miRNAs predicted previously were identified, of which four were further validated experimentally. 44 target genes were predicted for the Cd-responsive miRNAs, many of which appeared to regulate gene networks mediating environmental stresses. Several target genes were validated to show a reciprocal regulation by miRNAs. A transgenic approach was also used to determine the role of miRNAs in rice response to Cd stress. Overexpression of miR192 retarded seed germination and seedling growth under Cd stress. These results implied the role of novel miRNAs in the involvement of Cd tolerance of rice. (Read the full ...
envisionsolutions/09-27/crusher-1000-tph/ .. .envisionsolutions/09-28/ball-mill-grinder-machine/ .. .envisionsolutions/10-06/stone-crushing-company-in-china/ ... .envisionsolutions/10-22/quarry-rock-crusher/ .. .envisionsolutions/10-31/cadmium-content-of-zinc-ores/.cadmium levels in quarry rock grinding mill china,determination of concentration of some heavy metals in . - IRAJAbstract- Concentration of heavy metals (iron, lead, chromium and cadmium) was determined in road . In places such as flour and sugar mills and coal mines.. ...
... _cadmium separation from zinc sulphide - cadmium separation from zinc sulphide Strongly recommend cadmium separation from zinc sulphide - cadmium separation from zinc sulphide Strongly recommend
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Metallic Salts | Metallic Oxides - Offering metallic salts and metallic oxides like cadmium nitrate, cadmium carbonate, cadmium citrate, cobalt sulphate monohydrate, cobalt sulphate heptahydrate, nickel acetate tetrahydrate, nickel ammonium sulphate, nickel nitrate hexahydrate, nickel oxide, stannous oxalate and cobalt carbonate hydrate.
Abstract : Cadmium is widely utilized in nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers, and coating applications due to its versatile physico-chemical properties. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on atomic, thermal, and physical properties of cadmium powder. The cadmium powder was divided into two groups, one group as control and another group as treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed significant alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, densities, nuclear charge per unit volume, and atomic weight in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. Furthermore, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control. DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat ...
Abstract : Cadmium is widely utilized in nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers, and coating applications due to its versatile physico-chemical properties. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on atomic, thermal, and physical properties of cadmium powder. The cadmium powder was divided into two groups, one group as control and another group as treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed significant alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, densities, nuclear charge per unit volume, and atomic weight in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. Furthermore, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control. DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat ...
The effects of cadmium on performance, antioxidant defense system, liver and kidney functions, and cadmium accumulation in selected tissues of broiler chickens were studied. Whether the possible adverse effects of cadmium would reverse with the antio
When I was an art student studying in New York City I dreaded having to purchase cadmium colors - as the proverbial starving artist I cringed at the price tag for them. At that time any money was too much money. But at some point I decided they were necessary and justified buying a cadmium red and a cadmium yellow light. I made do with just those two pigments for a number of years and they gave me that extra punch of chroma or intensity whenever I needed it. After awhile I found them a necessity for many projects. At some point I ended up also adding cadmium orange to the mix. But still every time I went to repurchase them I found myself cringing at the price tag. However, by this point we had become old friends and despite the price I was so accustomed to their hue, value and chroma attributes that I automatically added them to my cart without much reservation whenever I needed a new tube ...
For the comparison cohort: Patient is switching CD treatment or beginning CD treatment for the first time. Previous Cimzia treatment is prohibited in the comparator group. Patient must receive new CD treatment within 2 months of enrollment into the registry. Patient is currently receiving anti-TNF treatment for ,=12 months. Patient must receive anti-TNF treatment within 2 months following enrollment into the registry. Patient is currently receiving immunosuppressant therapy for ,=12 months. Patient must receive immunosuppressant therapy within 2 months following enrollment into the registry. Patient is currently receiving systemic steroid therapy for ,=12 months. Patient must receive systemic steroid therapy within 2 months following enrollment into registry ...
Cadmium is a transition metal that has been widely used in industry. Epidemiological and animal studies have demonstrated a carcinogenic effect of cadmium on the prostate. Although it has been established that androgen is required for this cancer-inducing process, it is not clear how cadmium interacts with androgen. In this study, the carcinogenic mechanism of cadmium was explored with a focus on
Cadmium is a kind of metal, which is naturally found as a compound with other elements. There are many uses of cadmium, such as batteries, cigarette smoke, pigments, metal coatings, plastics, and appears a lot in industrial waste. The consequences of u...
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, EC 1.14.99.3) is a key enzyme in the cellular response to tissue injury and oxidative stress. It oxidizes heme, a pro-oxidant and toxic species, to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. Cytoprotection during the heat shock response is a complex phenomenon involving multiple inducible mechanisms. Several important pathways involving serine/threonine kinases mediate the induction of HO-1 in response to external stimuli. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of HO-1 induction during cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the lymphocyte B cell line BJAB. To examine the signal pathways involved in HO-1 expression, cells were pre-treated with various inhibitors of key signaling molecules. Increased DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity were observed in BJAB cells exposed to 5-40 μM CdCl2 revealing that Cd induced apoptosis in these cells. Our results indicate that Cd also induces HO-1 expression which is modulated by the thiol redox status,
According to early studies on the transport of cadmium (Cd), it was suggested that iron (Fe) or calcium (Ca) transport system is important in Cd incorporation into cells based on the evidence that dietary Fe or Ca deficiency enhanced intestinal Cd absorption. Transporter of Fe, divalent metal transporter, was shown to be capable of permeating other divalent metals including Cd. On the other hand, L-type Ca channel was also shown to be responsible at least in part, for cellular Cd uptake. In addition to Ca and Fe, it was suggested that the transporter for cellular incorporation of manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) may also be involved in Cd uptake by using Cd-resistant metallothionein null cells. Recently, two members of ZIP family, ZIP8 (Slc39a8) and ZIP14 (Slc39a14) have been suggested as the candidates for Cd transporter. ZIP8 was found to be the determinant for the sensitivity to Cd-induced testicular hemorrhage. ZIP14 was down-regulated in Cd-resistant metallothionein null cells. Further ...
Concentration of aquatic environment with heavy metals has become a matter of great concern because of their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation. Cadmium is widely distributed in aquatic environments
By reacting cadmium salts with H2SO4 in the presence of organic amines or directly with amine sulfates under hydrothermal conditions, it has been possible to prepare three linear cadmium sulfates of linarite topology, with the compositions [H3N(CH2)(2)NH3](2)[CdCl2(SO4)][SO4].H2O, I, [HN(CH2)(6)NH][CdBr2(SO4)], II, [HN(CH2)(6)NH][CdCl2-(SO4)], III. A layered cadmium sulfate of composition [H3N(CH2)(3)NH3][Cd-2(H2O)(2)(SO4)(3)], IV, has also been obtained. These sulfates are the first examples of a family of organically templated metal sulfates with interesting structural features. In the linarite chains, the CdX4O2 (X = Cl, Br) octahedron shares two trans-edges to form an [Mphi(4)] (phi = anionic ligand) chain decorated by the SO4 tetrahedron that adopts a staggered arrangement on either side of the chain. IV is constructed by the fusion of four-membered ring ladders involving edge sharing between the sulfate tetrahedron and metal octahedron. IV appears to be the first member of a family of ...
In this work liquid and solid cadmium has been investigated in a wide pressure and temperature range in order to provide new information about structure and transitions occurring in this metal. X-ray absorption, single-energy temperature scans and energy scanning X-ray diffraction data were collected in a 25-600 degrees C temperature and 0-5.8 GPa pressure range, exploiting the setup available at the ESRF-BM29 beam-line. Clear changes in the absorption spectra (measured at cadmium K-edge) and in the diffraction patterns, associated with the solid-liquid transition, allowed us to obtain an accurate measurement of the melting curve as a function of pressure. The structural data are compared with the few available calculations and X-ray scattering data on molten Cd at ambient pressure. High pressure data on liquid cadmium are reported for the first time and are essential to shed some light on the changes of the local structure induced by pressure.. ...
Cadmium (Cd), is a silvery white coloured heavy metal. Resistant to corrosion and abrasion, it is a common carcinogenic chemical with a soft texture that is extremely elastic. It is non-degradable and therefore poses an environmental hazard when discarded as industrial waste. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies cadmium and its compounds as Group 1 of carcinogen for humans.[1] When inhaled, cadmium is eliminated from the human body via urine. However, the amount of cadmium excreted daily in this manner is very small.
In a finding that strengthens the link between environmental pollutants and rising rates of breast cancer, new research finds that women whose diets contain higher levels of cadmium are at greater
A recent epidemiological study provides more persuasive evidence for the carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide. Subsequent to the 1976 report of a study of workers in a cadmium production facility,10 the cohort was expanded from the original 292 workers to 602 white males who had worked at least six months between 1940-1969 in the cadmium production area of the cadmium smelting plant.11 This expanded cohort was followed through 1978. Of the 602 workers, 345 had two or more years of total employment, including some for whom records were not available at the time of the earlier study; the remaining 257 were short-term workers employed for 6 months to 2 years. Mortality from cancer of the respiratory tract was significantly greater in the entire cohort than would have been expected from rates in the general U.S. population (20 observed vs. 12.15 expected, standardized mortality ratio [SMR]=165, 95% confidence interval [CI]=101-254). All respiratory cancer deaths were due to cancer of the lung, trachea, ...
Cadmium (Cd) Physical character: Atomic Weight: 112.41 Electronegative: 1.4-1.69 Density: ρ=2.0 g/cm3 Melting Point: mp: 320.9 ℃ Boiling Point: bp: 765 ℃ Specification: High Purity Cadmium: Cd-05 Grade 99.999. The content of Cadmium is above...
Looking for cadmium cells? Find out information about cadmium cells. A standard cell used as a voltage reference; at 20°C its voltage is 1.0186 volts Explanation of cadmium cells
Alleystamp DANIEL SMITH Extra Fine Watercolors - Cadmium Yellow Med - 15ml [DS284600184] - Cadmium Yellow Medium Hue is a rich, bright and intense alternative to Cadmium Yellow. Using a blend of pigments, our chemist has duplicated the brilliance and opacity of Cadmium Yellow with unsurpassed opacity, color strength, durability and lightfastness. It disperses beautifully in water for smooth, rich washes. ASTM Lightfastness Rating: Excellent Transparency: Semi-transparent Staining: Low Granulating: No
The issue is becoming even more complicated by a growing realisation that decades of carpet-bombing phosphorus on large parts of the country have had unexpected side-effects.. Because phosphate rock is mined, it isnt pure. The mineral you want in the soil, phosphorus, is just one part of the rock. Other parts contain cadmium, fluorine, and uranium, heavy metals that are hidden like stowaways.. The properties of phosphate rock differ wildly, depending on where it comes from. Some sources have much higher levels of these heavy metals than others.. The phosphate rock from the Pacific was cheap and plentiful, but it had an unfortunate downside. It was high in cadmium.. While much of the phosphorus in Superphosphate is taken up by plants, the heavy metals -cadmium, fluorine, uranium- stay in the soil, slowly accumulating.. Cadmium is similar in many respects to mercury, and in some parts of the country, the buildup has reached a point where it has become a concern.. "The main thing people are, or ...
Cadmium is a potentially toxic heavy metal that hampers plant productivity by interfering with their photochemistry. Cd causes disturbances in a range of physiological processes of plants such as photosynthesis, water relations, ion metabolism and mineral uptake. Cd pronouncedly affects photosynthesis by alteration of its vital machinery in all aspects. Photosynthesis is a well organised and sequential process fundamental to all green plants and microorganisms which involves various components, including photosynthetic pigments and photosystems, the electron transport system and CO2 reduction pathways. Any damage at any level caused by Cd, critically affects overall photosynthetic capacity. Present review focuses on key effects of Cd on photosynthetic apparatus including chloroplast structure, photosynthetic pigments, Chl-protein complexes and photosystems resulting in overall decrease in efficiency of carbon assimilation pathway.
The present investigation evaluates the toxic potential of Cd in larvae of the frog Xenopus laevis after 12 days of exposure to environmentally relevant contamination levels, close to those measured in the river Lot (France). Several genotoxic and detoxification mechanisms were analyzed in the larvae: clastogenic and/or aneugenic effects in the circulating blood by micronucleus (MN) induction, metallothionein (MT) production in whole larvae, gene analyses and Cd content in the liver and also in the whole larvae. The results show: (i) micronucleus induction at environmental levels of Cd contamination (2, 10, 30 μg L−1); (ii) an increased and concentration-dependent quantity of MT in the whole organism after contamination with 10 and 30 μg Cd L−1 (a three- and six-fold increase, respectively) although no significant difference was observed after contamination with 2 μg Cd L−1; (iii) Cd uptake by the whole organism and by the liver as a response to Cd exposure conditions; (4) up-regulation ...
Cadmium can come in the silver variety, Zinc and Cadmium are related somehow chemically, I believe the the Cad is a by product of zinc or something like that. The Muriatic acid is the hot tip for removing either, after the acid, drop in a solution of 1 lb baking soda per gal of water, that will neutralize and keep the bolt from rusting as it .. ...
The results of this study were consistent with the immunotoxicity of heavy metal cadmium. After newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low concentration of cadmium (10 ppb) for 24 days through breastfeeding, the results revealed a gender-related impact on the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on both day 28 and day 63 (Pillet et al., 2005). Holásková et. al. (2012) reported that chronic exposure to low-dose cadmium in the parental generation causes a reduced selleck chemical proportion of splenic NK cells in the offspring mice, most likely leading to reduced tumour resistance. However, earlier studies revealed that NK cells are apparently not sensitive to the immunotoxicity that is caused by chronic exposure to lead or to lead combined with cadmium (Yücesoy et al., 1997 and Neilan et al., 1983). We reason that in addition to gender, these differences may be mainly due to the channel of exposure, the dose of exposure, the duration Selleck SCH772984 of exposure, and the age at which exposure ...
The results of this study were consistent with the immunotoxicity of heavy metal cadmium. After newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low concentration of cadmium (10 ppb) for 24 days through breastfeeding, the results revealed a gender-related impact on the cytotoxic effect of NK cells on both day 28 and day 63 (Pillet et al., 2005). Holásková et. al. (2012) reported that chronic exposure to low-dose cadmium in the parental generation causes a reduced selleck chemical proportion of splenic NK cells in the offspring mice, most likely leading to reduced tumour resistance. However, earlier studies revealed that NK cells are apparently not sensitive to the immunotoxicity that is caused by chronic exposure to lead or to lead combined with cadmium (Yücesoy et al., 1997 and Neilan et al., 1983). We reason that in addition to gender, these differences may be mainly due to the channel of exposure, the dose of exposure, the duration Selleck SCH772984 of exposure, and the age at which exposure ...
Recent studies in children have reported associations of urinary cadmium (U-Cd), used as biomarker of Cd body burden, with renal dysfunction, retarded growth and impaired cognitive development in children. Little is known, however, about factors influencing U-Cd in children and likely to act as confounders. In a cross-sectional study involving 249 schoolchildren (mean age, 5.72 years; 138 boys), we measured the urine concentrations of cadmium, zinc, lead, albumin, alpha1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein, β2-microglobulin and club cell protein (CC16). Determinants of U-Cd expressed per creatinine or adjusted to specific gravity were identified by multiple regression analyses. Girls and boys had similar median concentrations of U-Cd (0.22 and 0.24 μg/L, 0.33 and 0.35 μg/g creatinine, respectively). When models were run without including creatinine or specific gravity among independent variables, urinary zinc, urinary A1M and age emerged as the strongest predictors of U-Cd expressed per g
The role of exogenously-applied polyamines [i.e., spermine (Spm), spermidine (Spd) and putrescine (Put)] in the improvement of cadmium (Cd|sup|2+|/sup|) tolerance in wheat plants, and their effects on growth, yield and its components and changes in the osmoprotectant and endogenous Cd|sup|2+|/sup| concentrations and the contents of some nutrients in plants grown under 2.0 mM Cd|sup|2+|/sup| stress were assessed. The efficiency of wheat plants to tolerate Cd|sup|2+|/sup| stress in terms of growth and yield characteristics was noticed to varying degrees with the three applied polyamines. The reasonable growth of Cd|sup|2+|/sup|-stressed seedlings and consequently acceptable grain yield was correlated with the improvements in the concentrations of osmoprotectants and tissue health in terms of relative water content (RWC) and membrane stability index (MSI), and reductions in electrolyte leakage (EL) and tissue Cd|sup|2+|/sup| concentration. Results show that, seed soaking in 0.25 mM Spm, 0.50 mM Spd or 1.0
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Characterization of Azomonas agilis PY101, a cadmium-resistant strain isolated from Anyang stream. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Zinc is also used in making paint pigments, cosmetics, soaps, skin ointments, and various plastics. A compound of zinc is used to coat the inside of television screens and fluores cent lamps. Other compounds are used in dry batteries and in embalming and to protect wood from decay and from insects.. Zinc is an essential trace element in the human body in red blood cells. It is also an im portant ingredient of the hormone insulin. In plants and animals, zinc is necessary for nor mal growth and healing. Its deficiency can cause leaf disease in trees.. Cadmium. Cadmium is a soft, silvery-white metal that is found only in small quantities, usually in com bination with zinc minerals. It is similar to zinc and is obtained as a by-product from zinc, lead, and copper ores.. Cadmium is used mainly as a protective plating on steel and other metals. It is used in many alloys. For instance, it improves the strength and maleability of copper for electri cal contacts and terminals. It is also used for many ...
Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. (Metallbiologisk forskning) ...
transfer of lead, zinc and cadmium from mine tailings to, zinc and cadmium mining,abstract carbonate rich mine tailings are exposed to severe erosion and dispersion in mediterranean climat in jalta mining area, the dispersion of particles that contain (pb, zn and cd) results in the contamination of the surrounding.exposure to cadmium: a Get Price ...
... _Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Tin and Arsenic in Food2 of 13 Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Tin and Arsenic in Food TOXICOLOGY FACTSHEET SERIES In addition to the overall responsibility placed on FBOs by th
Produced in Clarksville Tennessee at the Nyrstar Mine, our 2″ Cadmium Ball Anodes, Bars, and Cadmium Sticks are 99.99% pure.. Most common is the 2″ Ball Anode, although we can produce custom-cast hanging anodes too. Similar to zinc and tin/zinc coatings, Cadmium plating provides excellent corrosion protection especially in marine environments and for military specifications.. ...
Cadmium bromide tetrahydrate 13464-92-1 NMR spectrum, Cadmium bromide tetrahydrate H-NMR spectral analysis, Cadmium bromide tetrahydrate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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CADMIUM and Chemtrail Spraying Information. Chemtrail Information Center for California. What are Chemtrails? What you can do to protect your family. What you can do to help stop Chemtrail spraying in California. Stop Chemtrail Spraying in Cali!ornia. Report Chemtrail Spraying in California. Biological & Chemicals Agents on U. S. Citizens is Illegal! Get active! Where to call to complain about Chemtrail spraying in California. >!
37ml Tube of Winsor and newton Griffin Alkyd Cadmium Orange Hue Cadmium Orange Hue is composed of several pigments closely resembling genuine Cadmium
1ELM: Three high-resolution crystal structures of cadmium-substituted carboxypeptidase A provide insight into the enzymatic function
There are many risk factors that have a causal effect on prostate cancer, and one of them is most definitely exposure to cadmium. Actually it is no news that
Combined effects of estrogen deficiency and cadmium exposure on calcified hard tissues: Animal model relating to itai-itai disease in postmenopausal women (2013 ...
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd ...
A test that measures the levels of five chemicals in the breath has shown promising results for the detection of cancers of the oesophagus and stomach in a large patient… Source link. ...
Keith Dubanevich was asked to comment about the alarming results of a monitoring program of airborne heavy metals, including arsenic and cadmium, that was conducted this past October in inner Southeast Portland. Read more about this story as reported in The Portland Mercury.. ...
In this large population-based prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, estimated dietary cadmium was associated with an increased breast cancer incidence. Results by ER subtype were fairly similar, although not statistically significant for ER−. The associations were more pronounced when taking the consumption of whole grain and vegetables into account, foods that account for about 40% of the dietary cadmium exposure, but that are also important sources of phytochemicals with proposed anticarcinogenic properties.. We undertook several steps in the analysis to reveal the possible estrogenic effects of cadmium. First, we restricted the analysis to include only postmenopausal women to avoid the effect of ovary-produced estrogens. Second, because estrogen is mainly produced in adipose tissue after menopause and estrogen-related exposures such as BMI are associated specifically with ER+ tumors (42-44), the analysis was stratified by BMI. This stratification revealed a slight increase in point ...
Nishijo et al. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:702 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Risk assessment for Thai population: benchmark dose of urinary and blood cadmium levels for renal effects by hybrid approach of
Although welding is an industrial process with well-known health effects, the effects of heavy metal exposure on the respiratory system during welding are largely unknown. In this study, we...
Mainly found in contaminated soil that works its way into the food we eat (and ultimately our body tissue), cadmium is a persistent environmental toxin that also may be linked to increased risk of bone fracture.. Subscribe to this exclusive audio series on iTunes, Google Play, Stitcher or TuneIn.. ...
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This study was part of a wider study to look at potentially toxic metals in everyday household and consumer products.. The main findings here are that many enameled bottles, mainly used to store alcoholic beverages, contain very high levels of cadmium and lead in the décor. MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?. Response: While not a direct risk to consumers, there is a risk of environmental damage through leaching from landfill if bottles are disposed of. If recycled, levels of cadmium and lead could build up in recycled glass to levels of concern. There is a potential risk to people who work in the recycling industry.. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work? Response: There are safer alternatives to these chemicals, as the analysis of some bottles ...
Our results suggest that functional actin is needed during SC differentiation not only for changes in cell shape but also for abundant expression of myelin-specific mRNAs. The initial step in morphological differentiation, elongation, was inhibited only when higher CD concentrations (0.75-1.0 μg/ml) known to remove stress fibers in other cell types were used (Yahara et al., 1982). At lower CD concentrations (0.25 μg/ml), SC elongation and segregation of axons away from each other occurred, but ensheathment of axons in a 1:1 relationship and spiralization did not occur. Phalloidin staining of CD-treated cultures revealed that actin became increasingly disrupted and aggregated as CD concentration increased. At the time experiments began, all cultures had equal SC densities and SCs displayed a rounded morphology characteristic of their behavior in ascorbate-free medium, which allows SC proliferation but not differentiation (Eldridge et al., 1987; Fernandez-Valle et al., 1993). Therefore, any ...
M. Cd concentration was expressed as mg?g21 wet weight tissue.Determination of H2O2 contentFrozen gill segments (0.1 g) were homogenized in a 1:9 (w/v) 50 mM pH
Map of This is a map showing the quality of untreated water for public supplies in Florida, specifically showing the cadmium concentration range (ug/L), current to 1979. Yellow is 0, blue is 1-2 and green is 3-4. The injection of liquid wastes into de...
This database contains the ADNs Dangerous Goods List, as implemented by the EUs Directive 2008/68/EC. This Directive establishes rules for the safe transport of dangerous goods between EU countries by road, rail, and waterway. It applies the European Agreements on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR) and inland waterways (ADN), and the Regulations concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by rail (RID).. ...
The CSV is a delimited data format that has fields/columns separated by the semicolon character and records/rows separated by newlines. Fields that may contain a special character (semicolon, newline, or double quote), are enclosed in double quotes. For an easier handling, the list of Pre-registered substances is available in four parts ordered by EC number. They contain the same information as the following full list.. ...
This database contains the ADNs Dangerous Goods List, as implemented by the EUs Directive 2008/68/EC. This Directive establishes rules for the safe transport of dangerous goods between EU countries by road, rail, and waterway. It applies the European Agreements on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR) and inland waterways (ADN), and the Regulations concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by rail (RID).. ...
This database contains the ADNs Dangerous Goods List, as implemented by the EUs Directive 2008/68/EC. This Directive establishes rules for the safe transport of dangerous goods between EU countries by road, rail, and waterway. It applies the European Agreements on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR) and inland waterways (ADN), and the Regulations concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by rail (RID).. ...
Cadmium telluride[edit]. Main article: Cadmium telluride photovoltaics. Cadmium telluride is the only thin film material so far ... However cadmium is highly toxic and tellurium (anion: "telluride") supplies are limited. The cadmium present in the cells would ... A square meter of CdTe contains approximately the same amount of Cd as a single C cell nickel-cadmium battery, in a more stable ... "Life cycle impact analysis of cadmium in CdTe PV production" (PDF). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 8 (4): 303-334. ...
The chemical reactions at the cadmium electrode during discharge are: C. d. +. 2. O. H. −. →. C. d. (. O. H. ). 2. +. 2. e. −. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and ... GP Nickel Cadmium Technical Handbook *^ "Solucorp Unveils Pollution Preventing, Self-Remediating Ni-Cd Battery to International ... The abbreviation Ni-Cd is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd): the abbreviation NiCad is a ...
Cadmium telluride[edit]. Main article: Cadmium telluride photovoltaics. Cadmium telluride is the only thin film material so far ... However cadmium is highly toxic and tellurium (anion: "telluride") supplies are limited. The cadmium present in the cells would ... Some solar modules (For example: First Solar CdTe solar module) contains toxic materials like lead and cadmium which, when ... A square meter of CdTe contains approximately the same amount of Cd as a single C cell nickel-cadmium battery, in a more stable ...
Cadmium 1817 S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff 1817 S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff All three found ... "48 Cadmium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "34 Selenium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. ...
Metalloestrogens (e.g., cadmium). *Pesticides (e.g., alternariol, dieldrin, endosulfan, fenarimol, methiocarb, methoxychlor, ...
Addition of cadmium yields Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd alloys with improved fluidity and wetting and lower melting point; however cadmium is ... Cadmium. structural, wetting, melting volatile. toxic Lowers melting point, improves fluidity. Toxic. Produces toxic fumes, ... Supplies of Cadmium Bearing Silver Solders Continue (2009-01-20). "Strength of Silver Solder Joints". www.cupalloys.co.uk. ... These silver alloys consist of many different percentages of silver and other metals, such as copper, zinc and cadmium. ...
cadmium 48 Cd indium 49 In tin 50 Sn antimony 51 Sb ...
Cadmium Cd 3 μg/l 5 μg/l 5 μg/l 5 μg/l 5.00 μg/l ...
Cad-mium48Cd​112.41 Indium49In​114.82 Tin50Sn​118.71 Anti-mony51Sb​121.76 Tellur-ium52Te​127.60 Iodine53I​126.90 Xenon54Xe​ ...
Functions have been proposed for trace amounts of cadmium and lead, although these are almost certainly toxic in amounts very ... cadmium, mercury, radioactives). The possible utility and toxicity of a few elements at levels normally found in the body ( ... Cadmium. 6993720000000000000♠720×10−9. 0.000050. 0.0000045. No. toxic. 12 58. Cerium. 6993570000000000000♠570×10−9. 0.000040. ...
Cadmium: is found in batteries and plastics. It can be inhaled through cigarette smoke, or digested when included as a pigment ...
Cadmium. solid. 0.231. 26.02. 3.13 R Carbon dioxide CO2[26]. gas. 0.839*. 36.94. 28.46. 1.14 R ...
The halides of cadmium, with the exception of the fluoride, exhibit a substantially covalent nature.[65] The oxides of cadmium ... Cadmium forms Zintl phases such as LiCd, RbCd13 and CsCd13.[61] When heated in air to a few hundred degrees, cadmium represents ... Cadmium is otherwise stable in air and in water, at ambient conditions, protected by a layer of cadmium oxide. ... Dirkse, TP (ed.) 1986, Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides, IUPAC solubility data series, vol ...
Cadmium oxide Solid CdO −258 Cadmium hydroxide Solid Cd(OH)2 −561 ...
Lead, arsenic, chromium, and cadmium are estimated by the EPA to be present in detectable quantities in 100% of national sewage ... One of the main concerns in the treated sludge is the concentrated metals content (lead, arsenic, cadmium, thallium, etc.); ... This has been very successful and, for example, the content of cadmium in sewage sludge in major European cities is now only 1 ...
Cadmium[edit]. The concentration of cadmium in phosphorus-containing fertilizers varies considerably and can be problematic.[50 ... Taylor MD (1997). "Accumulation of Cadmium derived from fertilizers in New Zealand soils". Science of the Total Environment. ... Loganathan, P.; Hedley, M.J.; Grace, N.D. (2008). "Pasture soils contaminated with fertilizer-derived cadmium and fluorine: ... Limits to the cadmium content of phosphate fertilizers has been considered by the European Commission.[57][58][59] Producers of ...
Cadmium fluoride - CdF2. *Cadmium iodide - CdI2. *Cadmium nitrate - Cd(NO3)2 ...
Environmental hazard due to Cadmium - use now virtually prohibited in Europe. Lead-acid. 2.1. 140. Moderately expensive. ... Nickel-cadmium chemistry.. Inexpensive. High-/low-drain, moderate energy density. Can withstand very high discharge rates with ... Cells of this type (in order of increasing power density and cost) include nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-zinc (NiZn), nickel ... See also: Nickel-cadmium battery § Memory effect. NiCd cells, if used in a particular repetitive manner, may show a decrease in ...
48 Cd cadmium use. 1040 K. 767 °C. 1413 °F WebEl. 1040 K. 767 °C. 1413 °F ...
Cadmium in Metallothioneins". In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RK. Cadmium: From Toxicology to Essentiality. Metal Ions in Life ... Natural and artificial proteins containing cadmium". In Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RK. Cadmium: From Toxicology to Essentiality. ... Cadmium[57][58] Metallothionein. Thiolate proteins Molybdenum[59]. Nitrate reductase. Sulfite oxidase. Xanthine oxidase. DMSO ...
MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, ... ISBN 1-84755-899-2. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Margoshes M, Vallee BL (1957). "A cadmium protein from equine ... Freisinger E, Vašák M (2013). "Cadmium in metallothioneins". Met Ions Life Sci. 11: 339-71. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5179-8_11. ... Klaassen, C; Liu, J; Choudhuri, S (1999). "Metallothionein: an intracellular protein to protect against cadmium toxicity". ...
Cadmium together with sulphur forms cadmium sulfide and results in deep yellow color, often used in glazes. However, cadmium is ... When used together with cadmium sulfide,[9] it yields a brilliant red color known as "Selenium Ruby". ...
m Cadmium telluride photovoltaics‎; 10:12 . . (+29)‎ . . ‎. Rjwilmsi. (talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Tellurium: Journal cites:fix DOI, ... m Cadmium telluride photovoltaics‎; 10:08 . . (-28)‎ . . ‎. Rjwilmsi. (talk , contribs)‎ (Journal cites: fix DOI, Added 1 doi ...
Cadmium production, 3,000 tons. 1. 2005. Cement production, 1,038,000,000 tons. 1. 2005. ...
Cadmium: From Toxicology to Essentiality. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 11. Springer. pp. 1-30.. ... Maret, Wolfgang; Moulis, Jean-Marc (2013). "Chapter 1. The Bioinorganic Chemistry of Cadmium in the Context of its Toxicity". ...
Cadmium chloride explanation free. What is Cadmium chloride? Meaning of Cadmium chloride medical term. What does Cadmium ... Looking for online definition of Cadmium chloride in the Medical Dictionary? ... cadmium. (redirected from Cadmium chloride). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. cadmium. (Cd) [kad´ ... cadmium iodatum (kadˑ·mē·. m ī·ō·dāˑ·t. m),. n a homeopathic preparation of cadmium used to alleviate the symptoms associated ...
Cadmium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula CdS. Cadmium sulfide is a green solid.[4] It occurs in nature with ... Cadmium sulfide is toxic, especially when inhaled as dust, and cadmium compounds general are classified as carcinogenic.[35] ... Cadmium sulfide can be prepared by the precipitation from soluble cadmium(II) salts with sulfide ion. This reaction has been ... Karl-Heinz Schulte-Schrepping, Magnus Piscator "Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
Cadmium is found in cadmium fumes (CdO) and cadmium compounds. Workers may be harmed from exposure to cadmium. It is a highly ... Cadmium metal (Cd) is a silver-white solid, tinged with blue. ... Cadmium is found in cadmium fumes (CdO) and cadmium compounds. ... IARC Monographs: Cadmium and Cadmium Compoundspdf iconexternal icon. *International Chemical Safety Cards: Cadmium and Cadmium ... NIOSH Occupational Health Guidelines for Cadmium Dust (as Cadmium)*pdf icon. *NIOSH Occupational Health Guidelines for Cadmium ...
The chemical reactions at the cadmium electrode during discharge are: C. d. +. 2. O. H. −. →. C. d. (. O. H. ). 2. +. 2. e. −. ... The nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and ... GP Nickel Cadmium Technical Handbook *^ "Solucorp Unveils Pollution Preventing, Self-Remediating Ni-Cd Battery to International ... The abbreviation Ni-Cd is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd): the abbreviation NiCad is a ...
NIOSH did a study to look at the kidneys of cadmium workers. 45 current and former workers took part. This study is completely ... Cadmium Recovery Workers (Cadmium). 1991. Kidney Study Background. In 1985, NIOSH did a study to look at the kidneys of cadmium ... Why the Cadmium Mortality Study Was Done. The purpose of the study was to see whether exposure to cadmium was associated with ... Charts for the Cadmium Mortality Study. The charts show the risk of dying from lung cancer for cadmium workers at the plant. ...
This produces toxic fumes of cadmium and sulfur oxides. Formula: CdSO4. Molecular mass: 208.5 Melting point: 1000°C Density: ... Health effects are here mainly based on the studies of other cadmium compounds.. Depending on the degree of exposure, periodic ...
How People Are Exposed to Cadmium. People are exposed to cadmium through their diet, since cadmium is absorbed into plant and ... Cadmium and Cadmium Compoundspdf iconexternal icon. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. *Workplace Safety & ... Cadmium is considered a cancer-causing agent.. Levels of Cadmium in the U.S. Population. In the Fourth National Report on Human ... CDC researchers found cadmium in most participants. Blood and urinary cadmium levels are known to increase with age, as seen in ...
Media in category "Cadmium nitrate". The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Cadmium_nitrate&oldid=28153870" ...
Cadmium (Cd), chemical element, a metal of Group 12 (IIb, or zinc group) of the periodic table. atomic number 48 atomic weight ... The most important cadmium compound is cadmium oxide, CdO. It is a brown powder produced by burning cadmium vapor in air, and ... Cadmium is physically similar to zinc but is denser and softer. The plated cadmium has a smaller grain size than electro-zinc ... The resultant diatomic cadmium ion, Cd22+ (where cadmium is in the +1 oxidation state), is unstable in water and immediately ...
The general population is exposed from breathing cigarette smoke or eating cadmium contaminated foods. Cadmium damages the ... Exposure to cadmium happens mostly in the workplace where cadmium products are made. ... The amount of cadmium in your blood shows your recent exposure to cadmium. The amount of cadmium in your urine shows both your ... cadmium sulfide).. All soils and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. Most cadmium used in the ...
CADMIUM may have to be added to the list of gender-bending substances after the discovery that the metal can have the same ... CADMIUM may have to be added to the list of gender-bending substances after the discovery that the metal can have the same ... She gave cadmium to female rats whose ovaries had been removed, preventing them from making oestrogen. The animals were given a ... The toxic effects of high levels of cadmium on the liver and kidneys are well known. But studies by Mary Beth Martins team at ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=cadmii&oldid=43773441" ...
... cadmium: Compounds: …most important cadmium compound is cadmium oxide, CdO. It is a brown powder produced by burning cadmium ... Another compound of some economic value is cadmium sulfide, CdS. Generally produced by treating cadmium… ... vapor in air, and it provides a convenient starting material for the production of most other cadmium salts. ... In cadmium: Compounds. …most important cadmium compound is cadmium oxide, CdO. It is a brown powder produced by burning cadmium ...
... cadmium (Cd) induces both damaging and repair processes in which the cellular redox status plays a crucial role. Being not ... RC IA (1993) Cadmium and cadmium compounds. IARC Monographs. International Agency for research on Cancer, Lyon, FranceGoogle ... Nawrot TS, Van Hecke E, Thijs L et al (2008) Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden ... Thévenod F (2009) Cadmium and cellular signaling cascades: to be or not to be? Toxicol Appl Pharm 238(3):221-239CrossRefGoogle ...
... cadmium sulfide).

All soils and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. Most cadmium used ... It is usually found as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen (cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or ... Cadmium does not corrode easily and has many uses, including batteries, pigments, metal coatings, and plastics. ... Cadmium is a natural element in the earths crust. ... cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium ...
Toxicological profile for Cadmium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Cadmium Sulfide is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Cadmium Sulfide is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
Cadmium levels at the Longjiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region on Wednesday were three times the official limit, ... Excessive levels of cadmium were detected last Sunday, the news agency said, adding that the authorities had injected 80 tonnes ... China closed a chemical plant in central Hunan province in 2009 after residents protested over cadmium pollution that killed ... Residents of a town in southern China have been rushing to buy bottled water after excessive levels of carcinogenic cadmium ...
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Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) represent the largest segment of ...
... cadmium oxide), chlorine (cadmium chloride), or sulfur (cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide).� Cadmium is most often present in ... ½ Pure cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal.� Cadmium is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but as a ... ½ Cadmium may change forms, but the cadmium metal itself does not disappear from the environment.� Knowing the particular ... It is rarely present in large quantities as the chlorides and sulfates.� These different forms of cadmium compounds are ...
Cadmium is found primarily as cadmium sulfide (less than 1%) in ores containing zinc, lead, and copper. Cadmium-containing ... Holden H: Further mortality studies on workers exposed to cadmium fume. In: Occupational Exposure to Cadmium. Cadmium ... of cadmium pigments, and handling of powdered cadmium oxide in production of cadmium soaps that are used to stabilize plastics. ... promulgated a standard for cadmium which set permissible exposure limits for cadmium fume (as Cd) of 100 micrograms of cadmium ...
This page includes Cadmiums : cover picture, songs / tracks list, members/musicians and line-up, different releases details, ... Cadmium is a music studio album recording by SKY (Eclectic Prog/Progressive Rock) released in 1983 on cd, lp / vinyl and/or ... Sky..Cadmium...1983 LP. USD $4.08 [0 bids]. 2 days SKY Cadmium... RARE Original NO BARCODE 1983 W.German CD Ariola 610103-222 N ... SKY - Cadmium - Ariola - 1983 #246541. USD $8.65 14 days SKY Cadmium ORANGE COLOR VINYL 2xLP Sealed 3 BONUS TRACKS Gatefold. ...
absorption spectrum atomic level band at high band extending 2110 Boltzmann distribution broad band extending CADMIUM VAPOR Cd ... sharp triplet short wave-length limit single absorption process spark as source spectra of Cd spectrograph SPECTRUM OF CADMIUM ... gb-gplus-shareMolecular spectrum of cadmium vapor. ... cadmium_vapor.html?id=l3vzAAAAMAAJ&utm_source= ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Molecular_spectrum_of_cadmium_vapor.html?id=l3vzAAAAMAAJ ...
Home » Cadmium » Level 1. Cadmium. Context - Cadmium is produced mainly as a by-product of mining, smelting and refining of ... How is cadmium produced and used?. Cadmium is produced mainly as a by-product of mining, smelting and refining of zinc and, to ... What is Cadmium?. In its elemental form, cadmium is a soft, silver-white metal. It is not usually present in the environment as ... How does cadmium affect the environment?. Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal, meaning that it is not used by biological ...
  • This information will help workers exposed to cadmium around the world. (cdc.gov)
  • Babu KR, Rajmohan HRR, Rajan BKM et al (2006) Plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes status in workers exposed to cadmium. (springer.com)
  • As workers exposed to cadmium may, however, suffer from such diseases during or most often after their occupational career, and considering the long half-life of cadmium in humans and its accumulation with age, it is considered prudent to recommend a Biological Limit Value (BLV) that would provide a sufficient degree of protection in this respect (SCOEL, 2010). (europa.eu)
  • Cadmium Niobate is a highly water insoluble crystalline Cadmium source for uses compatible with higher (basic) pH environments. (americanelements.com)
  • A team led by Jonathan Poplawsky of the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences used advanced microscopy techniques to discover efficiency differences of crystalline structures of various mixtures of cadmium, tellurium and selenium. (eurekalert.org)
  • In some instances, adding too much selenium changes the crystalline structure of cadmium-tellurium and dramatically reduces the conversion efficiency. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lanphear, one of the world's leading experts on the effects of lead in children, added that "the pattern we're seeing here with cadmium is very consistent with what we see with other toxicants," including lead and mercury. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This database contains use prohibitions of mercury and cadmium above certain thresholds in batteries and accumulators, with certain exceptions. (europa.eu)
  • It also captures certain labeling requirements on such products containing mercury, cadmium and lead above specified quantities. (europa.eu)
  • RoHS forbids the use of certain chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and certain brominated flame retardants as of July 1, 2006. (mixonline.com)
  • Cadmium shares group 12 with zinc and mercury and their corresponding chemistries have much in common. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abbreviation Ni-Cd is derived from the chemical symbols of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd): the abbreviation NiCad is a registered trademark of SAFT Corporation , although this brand name is commonly used to describe all Ni-Cd batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wet-cell nickel-cadmium batteries were invented in 1899. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thomas Edison patented a nickel- or cobalt-cadmium battery in 1902, and adapted the battery design when he introduced the nickel-iron battery to the US two years after Jungner had built one. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1932 active materials were deposited inside a porous nickel-plated electrode and fifteen years later began on a sealed nickel-cadmium battery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Up to this point, the batteries were "pocket type," constructed of nickel-plated steel pockets containing nickel and cadmium active materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive and negative plates are produced by soaking the nickel plates in nickel- and cadmium-active materials, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the home, store substances that contain cadmium safely, and keep nickel-cadmium batteries out of reach of young children. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the cadmium produced is used in the production of nickel-cadmium batteries. (greenfacts.org)
  • Most of the cadmium produced is used in the production of nickel-cadmium batteries, which in 2004 represented 81 per cent of the total amount of cadmium. (greenfacts.org)
  • Dispose of nickel-cadmium batteries properly, and do not allow children to play with these batteries. (cancer.gov)
  • Nickel-cadmium batteries are one of the most popular and most common cadmium-based products, and this soil can be mined for use in them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Farmland governed by Xinxiang municipality were also noted for heavy metal contamination by leading China news site Caixin as the epicenter of Chinese battery (some lead & manganese, mostly nickel cadmium) producers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generated in storage battery anodes, in nickel-cadmium and silver-cadmium storage batteries in its discharge: 2 NiO(OH) + 2 H2O + Cd → Cd(OH)2 + Ni(OH)2 Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • A silver-cadmium battery provides more energy than a nickel-cadmium cell of comparable weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • It used nickel-cadmium batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solar panels charged nickel-cadmium batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Power consisted of 160 Gulton nickel-cadmium batteries, each rated at 75 ampere-hours, and controlled through Wouk designed electronics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadmium is a natural element in the earth's crust. (cdc.gov)
  • A rare element (about 0.2 gram per ton in Earth's crust), cadmium occurs in a few minerals and in small quantities in other ores, especially zinc ores, from which it is produced as a by-product. (britannica.com)
  • Cadmium is a natural element found in the earth's crust, and has been used to make batteries and other products. (cancer.gov)
  • Natural sources of cadmium result from mobilization of naturally occurring cadmium from the Earth's crust and mantle, by volcanic activity and weathering of rocks. (greenfacts.org)
  • The average concentration of cadmium in Earth's crust is between 0.1 and 0.5 parts per million (ppm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadmium makes up about 0.1 ppm of the earth's crust. (americanelements.com)
  • HONG KONG, Jan 26 (Reuters) - Residents of a town in southern China have been rushing to buy bottled water after excessive levels of carcinogenic cadmium were found in a river source of drinking water, state media said on Thursday in the latest health scare to hit the country. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The purpose of this bulletin is to disseminate recent information concerning the potential carcinogenic hazard to workers of cadmium (Cd). (cdc.gov)
  • Blood and urinary cadmium levels are known to increase with age, as seen in the Fourth Report . (cdc.gov)
  • Urinary cadmium has been shown to accurately reflect the amount of cadmium in the body. (cdc.gov)
  • 1981. The effects of sodium chromate and carbon tetrachloride on the urinary excretion and tissue distribution of cadmium in cadmium-pretreated rats. (cdc.gov)
  • The prognosis of persons with cadmium-induced renal dysfunction is unfavorable, with urinary β-microglobulin and urinary protein the most important factors. (labcorp.com)
  • Cadmium (Latin cadmia, Greek καδμεία meaning "calamine", a cadmium-bearing mixture of minerals that was named after the Greek mythological character Κάδμος, Cadmus, the founder of Thebes) was discovered simultaneously in 1817 by Friedrich Stromeyer and Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • CADMIUM may have to be added to the list of gender-bending substances after the discovery that the metal can have the same effects as the hormone oestrogen. (newscientist.com)
  • Cadmium exists as the hydrated ion or as ionic complexes with other inorganic or organic substances. (cdc.gov)
  • At present, none of the cadmium substances covered in the present assessment is classified for irritation according to Directive 67/548/EEC. (europa.eu)
  • At present, none of the cadmium substances covered in the present assessment is classified for corrosivity in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC. (europa.eu)
  • Il s'agit d'une source d'informations unique sur les substances chimiques fabriquées et importées en Europe. (europa.eu)
  • This is a huge undertaking for many manufacturers because lead and cadmium are very prevalent substances, used in many different products," continues Reed. (mixonline.com)
  • While some of today's solar cells use a blend of cadmium and tellurium to convert light into electricity, adding the optimum amount of selenium in the right places could help increase efficiency from the current mark of about 22 percent to levels approaching the theoretical limit of 30-33 percent. (eurekalert.org)
  • The alloy composition that performed best consisted of approximately 50 percent cadmium, 25 percent tellurium and 25 percent selenium. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have shown that the amount of selenium incorporated into the cadmium-tellurium controls whether the small crystals inside the solar cell form as crystal structure A or crystal structure B," Poplawsky said. (eurekalert.org)
  • This information can be used as a roadmap for solar cell producers to make improved cadmium-tellurium solar cells that use selenium additions, and hopefully increase the overall efficiency. (eurekalert.org)
  • This also makes solar panels composed of cadmium, tellurium and selenium more competitive with other forms of electricity generation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Octopus heads are high in selenium and are a risk for cadmium poisoning, even in small amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs in nature with two different crystal structures as the rare minerals greenockite and hawleyite , but is more prevalent as an impurity substituent in the similarly structured zinc ores sphalerite and wurtzite , which are the major economic sources of cadmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole grains, potatoes, other vegetables and shellfish are key dietary sources of cadmium, which also becomes airborne as a pollutant when fossil fuels are burned, and is likely inhaled as well as ingested. (latimes.com)
  • Aug. 3, 2016 - Solar cells based on cadmium and tellurium could move closer to theoretical levels of efficiency because of some sleuthing by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study found that cadmium workers had more cadmium in their blood and in their urine than hospital workers. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, 18 of 45 (40%) cadmium workers had too much protein in their urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Protein in the urine is a typical finding in people exposed to too much cadmium. (cdc.gov)
  • People don't feel any different if their urine has small extra amounts of protein or cadmium. (cdc.gov)
  • The highest levels of urine cadmium in the U.S. population were only slightly lower than levels associated with indicators of changes in the kidney. (cdc.gov)
  • Finding a measurable amount of cadmium in blood or urine does not imply that the levels of cadmium cause an adverse health effect. (cdc.gov)
  • During the baseline period from 1985-89, they measured cadmium in 24-hour urine samples and from the soil of gardens in the participants' homes. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The investigators found that a doubling of 24-hour cadmium excretion in urine was significantly associated with overall cancer risk (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.65, P =0.026). (medpagetoday.com)
  • The new study is the largest to look at connections between cadmium in urine and neurological effects, and the only one that has used a national group of children. (scientificamerican.com)
  • There were no statistical differences between smokers and non-smokers in urine cadmium concentrations, whereas blood cadmium levels in young adult smokers were 11 times higher than in non-smokers. (ilo.org)
  • An increase in blood cadmium without any changes in urine cadmium could be explained by the accumulation of cadmium in tissues. (ilo.org)
  • The new study, published by the American Assn. for Cancer Research and released Thursday, found that among 55,987 post-menopausal women, the one-third with the highest cadmium intakes were 21% more likely to develop breast cancer than the one-third with the lowest intakes. (latimes.com)
  • For those with the highest cadmium levels, the odds of having a learning disability were 3.21 times higher than for the children with the lowest exposures. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cadmium is utilized in many alloys and metal plating. (labcorp.com)
  • Cadmium can also be added to gold alloys but there are health concerns regarding its use. (wikipedia.org)
  • In extreme cases, cadmium (present in some older silver solder alloys) can cause loss of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1976, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that exposures to any form of cadmium at concentrations greater than 40 µg/m 3 (determined as a TWA for up to a 10-hour workday, 40-hour workweek) or at a ceiling concentration greater than 200 µg/m 3 for any 15-minute period not be permitted. (cdc.gov)
  • They found that cadmium concentration in soil ranged from 0.8 mg/kg to 17.0 mg/kg. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Blood cadmium concentration and risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage. (gu.se)
  • Cadmium was measured in stored blood samples from incident SAH cases and matched controls (n = 93 vs n = 276) and odds ratio (OR) for SAH was assessed in a nested case control design.Subjects with cadmium concentration in the highest quartile had increased risk of SAH compared to those in the first quartile (OR: 3.22, 95%CI: 1.67-6.22). (gu.se)
  • However, after adjusting for smoking, results were weakened and non-significant (OR: 1.57, 95%CI: 0.51-4.80).Cadmium concentration was associated with increased risk of SAH but this association was largely explained by smoking. (gu.se)
  • 2009). Methodology has been reported for the determination of boron concentration in steels using Cadmium tetrafluoroborate complex formation during solvent extraction to facilitate indirect atomic absorption measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Cadmium . (cdc.gov)