Cacodylic Acid: An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Arsenic Poisoning: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Roxarsone: An arsenic derivative which has anticoccidial action and promotes growth in animals.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Micrognathism: Abnormally small jaw.Ear Auricle: The shell-like structure projects like a little wing (pinna) from the side of the head. Ear auricles collect sound from the environment.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Local Lymph Node Assay: The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.

Interference in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine. (1/89)

The aim of this paper is to report on the presence of chemical interferences in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine when using a method based on selective volatile arsine species generation, chromatographic separation, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) detection. An abnormal profile of methylated arsenic species characterized by the absence of the peak corresponding to dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was observed in urine from some individuals exposed to arsenic via drinking water and living in rural communities of northwestern Argentina. The absence of this peak persisted even after the addition of known amounts of DMA to the samples. However, the DMA peak appeared after urine digestion with hydrochloric acid (2M). Samples showing interferences were provided by individuals who had mate consumption and coca-leaf chewing habits. Because the relative proportions of methylated arsenic species present in urine have been used to evaluate the efficiency of the methylation process, interferences in the formation or detection of methylarsines may cause underestimation of As exposure and also lead to erroneous conclusions about relative biomethylation efficiencies. Therefore, we recommend that urine samples should be digested with 2M HCl before performing speciation analysis using HGAA techniques. Further studies on the impact of this type of interferences on other arsenic speciation methods are also required.  (+info)

Determination of monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (2/89)

A method for the simultaneous measurement of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ES-MS-MS) was developed. The multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) was used for quantitation. The protonated molecule ions (m/z 141.0 for MMA and m/z 139.0 for DMA) were selected as precursor ions, and the same fragment ion AsO+ (m/z 91.1) was monitored as the product ion. A two-step liquid-liquid extraction of MMA and DMA from urine provided recoveries of 92-100%. The coefficients of variation were lower than 7% for the within-day precision and lower than 11% for the between-day precision. The limit of quantitation was 25 microg/L as As for the two analytes. The assay was linear over the range of 25-800 microg/L.  (+info)

Urinary bladder carcinogenicity of dimethylarsinic acid in male F344 rats. (3/89)

The present study was conducted to determine the carcinogenicity of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) administered to male F344 rats in a 2 year bioassay. A total of 144 rats (10 weeks old at the start) were divided into four groups of 36 rats each. Groups 1-4 received DMA (purity 100%) at concentrations of 200, 50, 12.5 and 0 p.p.m. in the drinking water, respectively, for 104 weeks. From weeks 97 to 104, urinary bladder tumors were observed in 12 of 31, eight of 31 and none of 33 in groups 1-3, respectively. No bladder tumors were observed in group 4. The present study demonstrated that long-term p. o. administration of DMA induced urinary bladder carcinomas in male F344 rats. Therefore, the results indicate that DMA is carcinogenic for the rat urinary bladder, which may be related to the human carcinogenicity of arsenicals.  (+info)

Crystal structure of human glyoxalase II and its complex with a glutathione thiolester substrate analogue. (4/89)

BACKGROUND: Glyoxalase II, the second of two enzymes in the glyoxalase system, is a thiolesterase that catalyses the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoylglutathione to form glutathione and D-lactic acid. RESULTS: The structure of human glyoxalase II was solved initially by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering and refined at a resolution of 1.9 A. The enzyme consists of two domains. The first domain folds into a four-layered beta sandwich, similar to that seen in the metallo-beta-lactamases. The second domain is predominantly alpha-helical. The active site contains a binuclear zinc-binding site and a substrate-binding site extending over the domain interface. The model contains acetate and cacodylate in the active site. A second complex was derived from crystals soaked in a solution containing the slow substrate, S-(N-hydroxy-N-bromophenylcarbamoyl)glutathione. This complex was refined at a resolution of 1.45 A. It contains the added ligand in one molecule of the asymmetric unit and glutathione in the other. CONCLUSIONS: The arrangement of ligands around the zinc ions includes a water molecule, presumably in the form of a hydroxide ion, coordinated to both metal ions. This hydroxide ion is situated 2.9 A from the carbonyl carbon of the substrate in such a position that it could act as the nucleophile during catalysis. The reaction mechanism may also have implications for the action of metallo-beta-lactamases.  (+info)

Effects of dietary dimethylarsinic acid on the urine and urothelium of rats. (5/89)

Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), fed to rats for 2 years, produced bladder hyperplasia and tumors at doses of 40 and 100 p.p.m., more in females than males. No urothelial proliferation was seen in mice. Our objectives were to investigate the mode of action of bladder tumor formation, evaluate the dose-response and the role of diet and to determine if the urothelial effects were reversible. The study included groups of female F344 rats fed DMA in Purina 5002 diet at doses of 0, 2, 10, 40 or 100 p.p.m. for 10 weeks; two groups of females fed DMA (0 and 100 p.p.m.) in Altromin 1321 for 10 weeks; two groups of males fed DMA (0 and 100 p.p.m.) in Purina 5002 for 10 weeks; a female high-dose recovery group (100 p.p.m. in Purina 5002 diet for 10 weeks followed by control diet for 10 weeks); and two female groups (0 and 100 p.p.m.) in Purina diet for 20 weeks. Urothelial toxicity and hyperplasia were detected by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was increased in the female 40 and 100 p.p.m. groups. The effects were less in males, but were similar in females fed DMA in Altromin 1321. SEM detected no abnormal urinary solids related to treatment in any group. Urinary calcium was increased in the females fed 40 and 100 p.p.m. in Purina diet, despite overall urinary dilution. Calcification was increased in kidneys of female rats fed Purina diet. The urothelial effects of DMA were reversible. The findings support a non-DNA reactive mechanism for DMA rat bladder carcinogenicity related to urothelial toxicity and regeneration. The toxicity is probably not due to urinary solids. The toxicity and regeneration are produced in a dose-responsive manner in female rats, are greater in female than in male rats, and are reversible.  (+info)

Simple and rapid determination of Gtpase activity by capillary electrophoresis without radioisotope. (6/89)

In order to determine guanosine-5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) activity, we developed a simple, rapid and reliable method that utilizes capillary electrophoresis without radioisotope. Tubulin-GTPase was used for simple measurement of GTPase activity utilizing capillary electrophoresis. Tubulin, a component of microtubules, was incubated with guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) in 100 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer (pH 6.5). Guanosine-5'-diphosphate (GDP) was determined as the hydrolyzed product of GTP. Guanosine-5'-monophosphate, GDP and GTP in the filtrate of the mixture were clearly separated using 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.5) (migration time, 3.8, 5.5 and 7.2 minutes, respectively) with a fused-silica capillary column. The quantification of GDP was based on the peak area, which increased linearly with the concentration of GDP from 1 to 50 microM (r2=0.995). The peak area and migration time had good reproducibility; the intra-assay coefficient of variation (n=6) was 1.3% for peak area and 0.6% for migration time. As an application of this method, we examined the effect of dimethylarsinic acid, an effective antimitotic agent, on tubulin-GTPase. Dimethylarsinic acid inhibited tubulin-GTPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was not complete and the maximum decrease of the activity was about 50% at 200 microM dimethylarsinic acid. Thus, since this method is clean, simple and rapid, its application to the study of various GTPase proteins is expected to be useful.  (+info)

Urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration induced by dimethylarsinic acid in rats. (7/89)

Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen of the skin and respiratory tract. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that it is also carcinogenic to the urinary bladder and other internal organs. Lack of an animal model has limited progress on understanding the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis. It was recently reported that high doses of an organic arsenical, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), increased urinary bladder tumors in rats when administered in the diet or in the drinking water for 2 years, with the female being more sensitive than the male. We previously showed that high doses of DMA (40 or 100 ppm of the diet) fed for 10 weeks increased urothelial cell proliferation in the rat. Treatment with DMA also increased renal calcification and increased urinary calcium concentration. In 2 experiments, we examined the urothelial proliferative effects of treatment with 100 ppm DMA in the diet in female F344 rats for 2 and 10 weeks and for 6 and 24 h, and 3, 7, and 14 days. Cytotoxic changes in the urothelium were evident by SEM as early as 6 h after treatment was begun. Foci of cellular necrosis were detected after 3 days of treatment, followed by widespread necrosis of the urothelium after 7 days of treatment. The bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index was not increased until after 7 days of treatment, suggesting that administration of DMA results in cytotoxicity with necrosis, followed by regenerative hyperplasia of the bladder epithelium. Although the rat provides an animal model to study the urothelial effects of DMA, the relevance of this finding to inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in humans must be extrapolated cautiously, due to the high doses of DMA necessary to produce these changes in the rat and the differences in metabolism of arsenicals in rodents, especially rats, compared to humans.  (+info)

The perturbation of thrombin binding to human platelets by anions. (8/89)

Thrombin binds with high affinity to specific cell-surface receptors on washed human platelets. We present experiments indicating that thrombin binding correlates withe the release reaction when binding is perturbed by anions. Marked differences in the affinity of human 125I-thrombin for platelets wer observed in various isotonic buffers at pH 7.4. At low concentrations of thrombin (0.001-0.01 U/ml), binding was 5-fold greater in Tris-sodium acetate and 12-fold greater in Tris-sodium cacodylate than in Tris-sodium chloride. These anion-induced changes in 125I-thrombin binding paralleled changes in [14C] serotonin release when both parameters were measured in the same platelets. Thus, equivalent release occurred for equal amounts of thrombin bound in all buffers, even though the thrombin concentration varied by up to 30-fold. After approximately 100 molecules of thrombin bound per platelet, complete release occurred in all buffers in 2 min. The effect of anions was specific for the thrombin-receptor interaction as there was no corresponding effect on the binding of erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (E-PHA) to platelets nor on E-PHA or collagen-induced serotonin release. The various anions did not alter platelet morphology as judged by electron microscopy. The anions had no effect on thrombin esterase catalytic activity. In addition, the total number of thrombin receptors per platelet was approximately the same in all buffers. Thus anions alter the affinity between platelet thrombin receptors and a site on thrombin distinct from the catalytic site. We conclude that the thrombin receptor is essential for thrombin-induced platelet reactions.  (+info)

Looking for cacodylic acid? Find out information about cacodylic acid. 2 AsOOH Colorless crystals that melt at 200°C; soluble in alcohol and water; used as a herbicide Explanation of cacodylic acid
II. Cacodylate Buffer (arsenate buffer) pH 5-7.4. Advantages:. 1. Easy to prepare.. 2. Stable during storage for long periods of time.. 3. Does not support growth of microorganisms.. 4. Precipitates usually do not occur. Precipitates do not occur at low concentrations of calcium.. Disadvantages:. 1. Toxic. Contains arsenic.. 2. Unpleasant smell.. Preparation of Buffer:. Stock solutions:. 0.2M sodium cacodylate 1 liter. Na(CH3)2As02*3H20 (MW = 195.92) 42.8 gm. + ddH20 to make 1 liter. 0.2M HC1. Conc. HC1 (36-38%) 10 ml. ddH20 603 ml. Working buffer: 0.1M 100 ml. Adjust 50 ml of 0.2M sodium cacodylate to desired pH with 0.2M HC1. Dilute to 100 ml with ddH20 or dilute 1:1 with fixative.. pH 0.2M HC1 (ml). 6.4 18.3. 6.6 13.3. 6.8 9.3. 7.0 6.3. 7.2 4.2. 7.4 2.7. Buffer may also be made with cacodylic acid.. Stock solutions:. 0.2M cacodylic acid 1 liter. (CH3)2AsO2H (MW = 138.0) 27.6 gm. + ddH20 to make 1 liter. 0.2M NaOH 100 ml. NaOH (MW = 40) 0.8 gm. + ddH20 to make 100 ml. Working buffer: ...
This is an sop template and is not complete until: 1 lab specific information is entered into the box below 2 lab specific protocol/procedure is added to the protocol/procedure section and
Hundreds of millions of people world-wide are exposed to unacceptable levels of arsenic in drinking water. This is a public health crisis because arsenic is a Group I (proven) human carcinogen. Human cells methylate arsenic to monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV). Although the liver is the predominant site for arsenic methylation, elimination occurs mostly in urine. The protein(s) responsible for transport of arsenic from the liver (into blood), ultimately for urinary elimination are unknown. Human multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) and MRP2 (ABCC2), are established arsenic efflux pumps, but unlike the related MRP4 (ABCC4), are not present at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. MRP4 is also found at the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells making it an ideal candidate for urinary arsenic elimination. In the current study, human MRP4 expressed in HEK293 cells reduced the ...
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Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is believed to have negative effects on our heart and may even result in death. Runners, listen up! DMAA was found in the blood of a marathoner who died of cardiac arrest at the London Marathon last year. Her name: Claire Squires. In another instance, two American soldiers who took a supplement containing DMAA died of similar cause after undergoing fitness exercise during military training.
Arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenous (III) acid, arsenic (V) acid. The concentration of speciated arsenics is determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate the species coupled to an ICP-DRC-MS to detect the arsenic species. This analytical technique is based on separation by anion-exchange chromatography (IC), followed by detection using quadrupole ICP-MS technology, and includes DRC™ technology (Baranov VI et al., 1999), which minimizes or eliminates many argon-based polyatomic interferences (Tanner S et al., 2000) will require 0.5 mL of urine. Arsenic species column separation is largely achieved due to differences in charge-charge interactions of each negatively-charged arsenic component in the mobile phase, with the positively-charged quaternary ammonium groups bound at the columns solid-liquid interface. Upon exit from the column, the chromatographic eluent goes through a nebulizer, where it is converted into ...
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HydroxyElite 90ct By Hi Tech OxyElite Replacement With DMAA [HItech25] - USP Labs OXY Elite Original Formula is Now Back With DMAA called HydroxyElite Everyone knows how well Oxyelite worked, but because of some pressure the product was removed from the market. Hi Tech Pharma is not afraid of a little pressure and has brought this fat destroying muscle building turbine back
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has considered a proposal to list 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) as a schedule 9 compound. Schedule 9 compounds are prohibited substances which have no therapeutic…
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Hi-Tech Pharmaceuticals has released HydroxyElite, which is basically an OxyELITE Pro replacement / clone that INCLUDES 1,3 Dimethylamylamine (DMAA)!
DMAA has been all over headlines in recent months and everyones starting to take sides. Lets take a look at USPlabs, GNC, NSF, FDA, CRN-UK and WADA and see where they stand.
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However better quality products, improved and more transparent supplement testing programmes coupled with more accurate and sophisticated anti-doping controls, mean the supplements industry - at least honest players - have little to worry about at next months London Olympics.. While acknowledging contamination issues have drawn unwanted attention at Olympiads past, Paul Brown, lab manager at reputed UK-based product tester, HFL Sport Science, points out that ever-heightened scrutiny around the nutritional inputs of elite athletes means there is a much reduced likelihood of a rogue product smiting an athlete - and besmirching the wider law-abiding industry.. Not that it is non-existent. On your marks: DMAA…. DMAA confusion​. "Historically there have been issues associated with supplements and contamination and it is something that is still pointed at as being an issue within the sports supplement industry,"​ Brown said.. "A prime example in relation to that would be DMAA which we have seen ...
Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. Surprisingly, it was also found that DPS protects normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells (CECs) from clonogenic death after ionizing radiation (IR). Here we tested the DPS radiosensitizing effect in a clinically relevant model of prostate cancer and explored the radioprotective effect and mechanism of DPS on CECs. Methods and Materials: The radiation modification effect of DPS was tested in a mouse model of orthotopic xenograft prostate cancer and of IR-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. The effect of DPS on CEC DNA damage and DNA damage responses was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: In the mouse model of IR-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, DPS treatment before IR accelerated recovery from body weight loss and increased animal survival. DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, ...
Party pill retailers will be asked by the Ministry of Health to stop selling some new generation pills, following reports they have made some users sick.
Metabolic Nutrition ESP is a Pre-Workout Formula that is going to make a major impact in the supplement world. E.S.P. is going to give you the ability to read minds…ok no it wont however it will give you the ability to get that extra push at the gym. How
First off a big thanks to D Dubs (Dreamweaver, you like that?) for hooking me up,and the rest of you with Finaflex for giving such a great opportunity!
Prepared buffers are ready to use with fixative. Borate, citrate, Earles, Hepes, Millonig, mops, phosphate buffer saline, sodium cacodylate and Sorensens.. ...
NO2 OVERLOAD is the ultimate pre-workout drink. We fully believe that this formula is currently the best pre-workout supplement on the market. This is based using research and customer research. The new formula has had DMAA removed due to it becoming banned in the UK, however we feel the new formula is just as good, if not even better. NO2 OVERLOAD gives you pumps like youve never known before.. When using NO2 OVERLOAD youll find youself with explosive energy, strength and power throughout your workout. This product will give you strength and energy you never knew you had so be sure not to miss out on being able to hit new Personal Bests.. Guidelines: - DO NOT take more than 4 out of 7 days. - DO NOT take caffeine 2 hours either side of taking this product. - We strongly recommend only using half a scoop when first taking this supplement in order to ease yourself into its extreme effects. - DO NOT take with alcohol. - DO NOT take if you are preganant. - DO NOT take if you suffer from kidney or ...
http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm302133.htm Holy shit!!! DA NEWS RELEASEFor Immediate Release: April 27, 2012 Media Inquiries: Siobhan DeLancey, 301-796-4668 or 202-510-4177, [email protected]; Tamara Ward, 301-796-7567, [email protected] Trade Press Inquiries: Sebastian Cianci, 240-402-2291, [email protected] Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDAFDA challenges marketing of DMAA products for lack of safety evidence Agency cites
By Janet Klein, Lauren Specter and Adrian TaylorRock Center Updated 6:18 PM, April 12, 2013: In advance of Rock Centers report on the supplement industry, the FDA issued a warning about DMAA, the supplement present in the popular product Jack3
Was thnking of phasing out stims, DMAA, for a while and dabble in nootropics as pre workout supps. Caffeine in the form of strong coffee is mandatory
Looking for online definition of dimethylarsinic acid in the Medical Dictionary? dimethylarsinic acid explanation free. What is dimethylarsinic acid? Meaning of dimethylarsinic acid medical term. What does dimethylarsinic acid mean?
It is generally admitted that when a body becomes conjugated, its essential chemical character is not altered by the presence of the conjunct: thus for instance, the series of acids CnHnO4, formed by the conjunction of the radicals CnH(n+1) with oxalic acid, have the same neutralizing power as the original oxalic acid; and, therefore, if we assume the organo-metallic bodies above mentioned to be metals conjugated with various hydrocarbons, we might reasonably expect, that the chemical relations of each metal to oxygen, chlorine, sulphur, &c. would remain unchanged; a glance at the formulae of these compounds will however suffice to show us that this is far from being the case: it is true that cacodyl forms protoxide of cacodyl and cacodylic acid, corresponding the one to a somewhat hypothetical protoxide of arsenic, which, if it exist, does not seem to possess any well-defined basic character, and the other to arsenious acid[12]; but no compound corresponding to arsenic acid can be formed, and ...
What is arsenic and where do you find it?. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is widely distributed in the earths crust. Arsenic can exist in several oxidation states with other elements as inorganic or organic arsenic. It is a silvery-gray, semimetallic substance that tarnishes in air. Inorganic and organic arsenic compounds are white in color, and have no smell or special taste. Inorganic arsenic occurs naturally in certain types of soils and rock formations. Inorganic arsenic compounds are mainly used as a preservative in pressure-treated wood to make it resistant to rotting and decay. Organic arsenic compounds are used to make insect killers, weed killers, and fungicides.. Who is exposed to arsenic?. Anyone can be exposed to arsenic since low levels of arsenic are present in soil, water, food, and air. People are primarily exposed to arsenic through eating food (fish and shellfish), drinking water, or breathing air containing arsenic. If wells are drilled in areas where naturally ...
There has been intense debate about whether DMAA, which was first manufactured synthetically by drug giant Eli Lily in the 1940s, is in fact a constituent of geranium.. According to a single analysis by Chinese researchers reportedly using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and published in the Journal of Guizhou Institute of Technology​ (1996, Vol. 25, pp. 82-85) - The Ping Paper - DMAA is a constituent of geranium oil, but no other published analysis has reported its presence.. Very good work performed by a reputable team of scientists​. Commenting independently on the new analysis, James Neal-Kababick, Director of Flora Research Laboratories, told NutraIngredients-USA that the paper "comprehensively puts the final coffin nail in the long suffering DMAA debate​. ​. "The researchers have comprehensively addressed the issues of analysis, accounted for numerous variables and once again, like so many other recent publications have shown using no less than three ...
In mammals, methylation occurs in the liver by methyltransferases, the products being the (CH3)2AsOH (dimethylarsinous acid) and (CH3)2As(O)OH (dimethylarsinic acid), which have the oxidation states As(III) and As(V), respectively.[2] Although the mechanism of methylation of arsenic in humans has not been elucidated, the source of methyl is methionine, which suggests a role of S-adenosyl methionine.[25] Exposure to toxic doses begin when the livers methylation capacity is exceeded or inhibited. There are two major forms of arsenic that can enter the body, arsenic (III) and arsenic (V).[26] Arsenic (III) enters the cells though aquaporins 7 and 9, which is a type of aquaglyceroporin.[26] Arsenic (V) compounds use phosphate transporters to enter cells.[26] The arsenic (V) can be converted to arsenic (III) by the enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase.[26] This is classified as a bioactivation step, as although arsenic (III) is more toxic, it is more readily methylated.[27]. There are two routes ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Arsenic methylation capability and human health. AU - Hsueh, Yu Mei. AU - Huang, Yung Kai. AU - Chung, Chi Jung. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The metabolism of inorganic arsenic takes place through a series of reactions, including reduction and oxidative methylation reactions. Biomethylation is considered a major detoxification pathway for inorganic arsenic. However, interspecies differences exist according to the efficiency with which inorganic arsenic is metabolized and excreted in urine. Intermediate trivalent methylated arsenic species are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than inorganic compounds. The arsenic methylation profile is influenced by demographic characteristics, lifestyle, diet and genetic susceptibility. Inefficient methylation is related to the risk of cancer and noncancer disease.. AB - The metabolism of inorganic arsenic takes place through a series of reactions, including reduction and oxidative methylation reactions. Biomethylation is considered a major ...
Commonly found arsenic species in human urine are AsIII (arsenite), AsV (arsenate), MMA (monomethyl arsenic acid), DMA (dimethylarsinic acid) and AB (arsenobetaine). Evidence has shown that these species vary in toxicity and have the potential to be used as biomarkers for human exposure. For human exposure assessments in areas that have naturally occurring arsenic contaminated sources, or those who live or work near contaminated environmental sites where arsenic has been used, it is important to fully understand what species of arsenic residents are being exposed to in order to grasp the risk of arsenic exposure. Since it is difficult to determine direct human exposures, a swine model was used as a surrogate. Urine samples from these studies were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LCICPMS) to quantitate arsenic species. There was a range of 64-74% DMA determined in swine urine samples for all test soils where a range of 60-75% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and risk of arsenic-induced urothelial carcinoma in residents of southwestern Taiwan. AU - Hsu, Ling I.. AU - Chen, Wu Ping. AU - Yang, Tse Yen. AU - Chen, Yu Hsin. AU - Lo, Wann Cheng. AU - Wang, Yuan Hung. AU - Liao, Ya Tang. AU - Hsueh, Yu Mei. AU - Chiou, Hung Yi. AU - Wu, Meei Maan. AU - Chen, Chien Jen. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: Arsenic exposure is an important public health issue worldwide. Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) is consistently observed. Inorganic arsenic is methylated to form the metabolites monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid while ingested. Variations in capacity of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation might explain individual variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced cancers. Methods. To estimate individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced UC, 764 DNA specimens from our long-term follow-up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of trivalent arsenicals on cell proliferation in mouse and human microvascular endothelial cells. AU - Dodmane, Puttappa R.. AU - Arnold, Lora L. AU - Pennington, Karen L.. AU - Singh, Rakesh K. AU - Cardoso, Ana Paula Ferragut. AU - Cohen, Samuel Monroe. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been associated with cancerous and non-cancerous health effects, including cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanism for a presumed toxic effect of arsenic on vascular tissue is not clear. Our working hypothesis is that inorganic trivalent arsenic and its methylated metabolites react with cysteine-containing cellular proteins and alter their function leading to adverse events such as cytotoxicity or proliferation. In this study, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC1) and mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MFP-MVEC) were exposed to arsenite (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), or dimethylarsinous acid ...
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The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) is recommending that methods to minimise the levels of inorganic arsenic in rice products should be investigated in the light of recent dietary exposure studies in the German population.. Analyses of rice and rice products in Germany have shown that many contain relatively high concentrations of carcinogenic inorganic arsenic. Some products, such as rice cakes, were found to contain more inorganic arsenic than rice grains, but the reason for this is not known.. The BfR has calculated the intake of toxic inorganic arsenic compounds through the consumption of rice and rice products in Germany and concludes that they could make a significant contribution to the overall intake, especially in children. "Because inorganic arsenic compounds are classified as carcinogenic for humans, foodstuffs should only contain as little as reasonably achievable," says BfR President Professor Dr Dr Andreas Hensel.. The Institute is advising food manufacturers to ...
Arsenic toxicity is species-dependent for mammals and is transformed to other metabolites in various organs. In order to understand its metabolism, in-vitro simulation experiments were set up for various organ tissues. As(V) was transformed to As(III), while DMA(V) was changed to DMAS in sheep rumen, but the suspected MA-V) was not formed. This is different for the incubation of seaweed in rumen fluid, which points to a different unknown source for MA(V). In another study, dog MDCK kidney cells showed that inorganic arsenicals were methylated in kidney cells while the exposed DMAS was only oxidized to DMA(V) in kidney cells, and the exposed DMA(V) rarely transformed. The toxicities of arsenicals in dog kidney cells is dependant upon the uptake rates and the transformation of arsenicals. DMAS was as toxic as the inorganic arsenic species and an order to magnitude more toxic than the oxo-species. Methylated arsenic species can accumulate in hair and wool and can be used as a biomarker for arsenic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption. AU - Meharg, A. A.. AU - Williams, P. N.. AU - Deacon, C. M.. AU - Norton, Gareth John. AU - Hossain, Mohammed Kamal. AU - Louhing, D.. AU - Marwa, Ernest Melkiory. AU - Lawgalwi, Y.. AU - Taggart, Mark Antony. AU - Cascio, Claudia. AU - Haris, P.. PY - 2014/11. Y1 - 2014/11. N2 - Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed ...
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The aim of this paper is to report on the presence of chemical interferences in the quantitation of methylated arsenic species in human urine when using a method based on selective volatile arsine species generation, chromatographic separation, and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry HGAAS detection. An abnormal profile of...
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The researchers performed genetic association analysis to screen for the presence of statistically significant effects of genotypes on arsenic metabolism, as indirectly reflected by urinary arsenic metabolite levels. Dr. Klimeckis research team first developed polymorphism catalogs for GSTO, PNP, and AS3MT, within ethnically defined human populations. From these catalogs, the researchers selected 23 polymorphic sites within these three genes to test in the study population. They determined phenotypes for each study participant, noting standard demographic characteristics, the ratio of As(III) to As(V) in urine and the ratio of urinary dimethylarsenic(V) to monomethylarsenic(V) (D:M) in urine. Three polymorphic sites in the AS3MT gene were found to be significantly associated with D:M ratios in the total population. To the researchers surprise, subsequent analysis of this association revealed that the association signal for the entire population was actually caused by an extremely strong ...
Dissection. Sacculi from adult American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) were rapidly dissected into an oxygenated saline solution [containing (in mm): 120 NaCl, 2 KCl, 0.1 CaCl2, 3 dextrose, 5 HEPES, and 0.02% phenol red] and cleaned of extraneous tissue (Assad and Corey, 1992). The pH was adjusted to 7.23 with NaOH, and the final osmolarity was 250 mOsm/kg. Otolithic membranes overlying saccular epithelia were removed in fresh saline solution with fine forceps after incubation of the tissue in 75 μg/ml of subtilisin (Type XXVIII; Sigma, St. Louis, MO) for 20 min.. Immunohistochemistry. Tissues were fixed for 18 min in 4% formaldehyde in 80 mm sodium cacodylate buffer with 4 mm CaCl2, pH 7.35, at room temperature with gentle agitation. After fixation, tissues were rinsed (one time for 5 min) in 80 mm sodium cacodylate buffer without CaCl2 and (three times for 5 min each) in PBS (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY) diluted to ∼250 mOsm, pH 7.4. This and all subsequent steps used PBS adjusted to ...
This application note demonstrates the ability to measure various arsenic forms in white rice, building upon previous work using HPLC/ICP-MS. The results described demonstrate that the combination of Flexar HPLC and NexION ICP-MS is suitable for the analysis of different forms of arsenic in white rice.
Understanding the biogeochemical behaviour of arsenic in the weathering and shallow subsurface environment depends critically upon determining the nature and distribution of the chemical species present in natural waters. To this end, coupled ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) is widely used, though species fractionation during ultrasonic nebulization, and matrix-dependent ionization in the plasma are analytical issues that need to be addressed. Hexapole collision cell technology is shown to be effective in suppressing chloride-based polyatomic interferences. Irrespective of the analytical technique used, As(III)/As(V) ratios of natural waters may change substantially during storage due to (1) differential adsorption of arsenic species on hydrated ferric oxides (HFOs); and (2) microbial activity. A wide range of apparently contradictory speciation changes observed by various workers can be rationalized in terms of the differences of microbial consortia ...
Citation: Ritchie, A.W., Edmonds, J.S., Goessler, W. and Jenkins, R.O. (2004) An origin for arsenobetaine involving bacterial formation of an arsenic-carbon bond. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 235 (1) pp.95-99 ...
Liquid chromatography combined with element specific detection is commonly applied in speciation analysis. In these analyses, to obtain reliable data chemical species should not be transformed. To preserve chemical species during the separation step, fast chromatographic procedures and mild separati …
Element speciation analysis requires an efficient and rapid separation of element species and their highly sensitive detection. In order to preserve the
Element speciation analysis requires an efficient and rapid separation of element species and their highly sensitive detection. In order to preserve the
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Experimental. 1H-NMR determinations. tRNAPhe from brewers yeast was from Sigma. It was dissolved in 0.5 mL of a buffer containing 50 mM sodium cacodylate, 2 mM EDTA, 400 mM NaCl (pH 7.2), and dialyzed for 20 h against the same buffer in double-sided biodialysers (Sialomed). The resulting tRNAPhe solution was polyamine-free (assayed by HPLC). The isotopically enriched spermines (Fig. 1) were added to the dialyzed tRNA solution to give final, 1 mM tRNAPhe, 8 mM polyamine mixtures. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 750 MHz at 5 °C. The water signal was suppressed by the jump return read pulse. The D period was set to 2.85 ms, the mixing period Tmix (t) was 300 ms and the d period was 45.3 ms; which placed the maximum of excitations at 12.1 ppm. The relaxation delay D1 was 1 s and the acquisition time was 0.182 s. The 1H transmitter frequency was on-resonance for H2O, and the 13C transmitter frequency was placed at 41 ppm. The 1H spectra was 22,522 Hz (30 ppm) and for each acquisition 2,048 complex ...
In vivo experiments were performed in male rats (Sprague Dawley; 250-300 g) in accordance with federally prescribed animal care and use guidelines. The University Committee for Animal Use in Research approved all experimental protocols.. Tract tracing experiments. Four rats were anesthetized with ketamine (75 mg/kg) plus xylazine (5 mg/kg), and the whisker-responsive region of the SpVi was identified by single-unit recordings. Then, a micropipette (tip diameter, 20 μm) containing FluoroGold (FG) (2% in 0.1 m cacodylate buffer, pH 7.0) was lowered in that same region, and the tracer was ejected with positive current pulses (on/off duration, 2 s) of 600 nA for 20 min. After tracer injection, the skin was sutured, rats were given analgesics (Anafen; 5 mg/kg), and they were returned to the animal facilities. After a survival period of 48 h, rats were perfused under ketaminexylazine anesthesia with a solution of 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.5% glutaraldehyde in PBS (0.1 m; pH 7.4). Brains were removed, ...
A warning letter written by the Food & Drug Administration last week to ten companies that produce pre-workout supplements with the ingredient dimethylamyamine (DMAA) has sent shockwaves through the industry, not only to the producers of the products but to consumers who have taken them.
The first pre-workout Ive ever taken was indeed Jack3d, which lasted me for about two and a half months or so. Honestly it was great. But, I found that the effectiveness of the dosage fell off after about 5 or 6 weeks. Ive cycled off a pre-workout for about a month now and Im about to start again at the start of September with Launch Full Impact 4350′. They both contain DMAA, which is a substance Im going to discontinue use of in products when I finish the tub of Launch. Seeing this product though, and the no BS stance of the company I really would like to give this a try. The ethos shown by Citadel Nutrition is something I can really appreciate. Is there some avenue where I can maybe purchase some samples to give it a try?. ...
Delugan Meissl Associated Architects ist ein österreichisches Architekturbüro mit Sitz in Wien.. 1993 gründeten Elke Delugan-Meissl und Roman Delugan die Delugan Meissl ZT GmbH, die 2004 zum Büro Delugan Meissl Associated Architects (DMAA) erweitert wurde. Weiterer Partner des Büros sind heute die langjährigen Mitarbeiter Dietmar Feistel und Martin Josst.. Zu den ersten Großprojekten der Architekten gehören der 1998 realisierte „Balken" und der zwei Jahre später fertiggestellte Mischek Tower, zwei bedeutende Wohnbauten in Wien. Während der nunmehr 15-jährigen Tätigkeit des Büros wurden weitere zahlreiche Projekte verwirklicht, darunter die Global Headquarters Sandoz der Novartis Company (2003), das vielfach publizierte Haus Ray1 (2003), die „City Lofts" und das „Hochhaus" am Wienerberg. Neben zahlreichen internationalen Wettbewerbserfolgen fand das 2004 anlässlich der 1. Architekturbiennale Chinas realisierte Apartment in der Phoenix City in Peking auch international große ...
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低電圧対応パワ-マネジメント機構を有するMTCMOSディジタル信号処理プロセッサ (特集論文 低電力LSIを実現する1V MTCMOS技術) (1998 ...
The influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and chemical species on arsenic accumulation in aquatic floating macrophyte Spirodela polyrhiza L. (duckweed) was investigated. The uptake of inorganic arsenic species (arsenate; As(V) and arsenite; As(III)) into the plant tissue and their adsorption on iron plaque of plant surfaces were significantly (p,0.05) higher than those of organic species (monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)). The addition of EDTA to the culture media increased the uptake of As(V) and As(III) into the plant tissue though the MMAA and DMAA uptake were not affected. About 46% of the inorganic arsenic species were desorbed or mobilized from iron plaque by EDTA. Desorption of organic arsenic species was not affected by EDTA addition because the co-precipitation occurs only with inorganic species. Phosphate uptake was not affected by EDTA though its concentration in citrate-bicarbonate-EDTA (CBE)-extract was much higher than that of plant ...
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Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) introduced a bill in Congress on Thursday which would limit the amount of inorganic arsenic permitted in rice and rice-based foods. The R.I.C.E (Reducing food-based Inorganic Compounds Exposure) Act would require the Food and Drug Administration to set a maximum permissible level of inorganic arsenic in rice and food containing rice. "Inorganic arsenic… Continue Reading. ...
This epidemiological study investigated the association between β-cell function (a predictive factor of diabetes development) and the organic arsenic arsenobetaine (an agent less toxic to humans). Urine arsenobetaine was revealed to be associated with HOMA-β in the normal population (without diabetes), especially in males, even after adjusting for factors affecting diabetes and β-cell function, while no association was shown with HOMA-IR which is associated with insulin resistance.. Despite several conflicting results, arsenic has been reported to be correlated with diabetes in many epidemiological studies [6, 9, 23-31], and arsenic can affect insulin resistance and β-cell function [7]. In some experimental studies, arsenite was found to induce oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cells and reduce insulin transcription and secretion [32, 33], caused by the altered expression of essential genes such as the Pdx1 gene [34, 35] and insulin gene [36] for pancreas development, insulin production, and ...
The committee also identified several factors that could affect susceptibility to inorganic arsenic, including life stage when exposure occurs, genetic factors, sex, nutritional deficiencies, health status, smoking or alcohol consumption, or exposures to mixtures of chemicals. Based on the degree of evidence concerning these vulnerability factors, consideration should be given to whether dose-response analyses should focus on the population as a whole or involve separate assessments for the susceptible groups, the report says. In particular, consideration should also be given to early-life exposure and the risk of adverse health effects later in life, the report adds. EPAs current approach of assessing partial-lifetime exposures by prorating the risk equally regardless of age needs to be critically evaluated to determine whether it is appropriate for assessing inorganic arsenic ...
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Nearly 100 severe hepatitis and liver failure illnesses - nearly half requiring hospitalization, including three transplants and one death - are raising new questions about the nations $32-billion-a-year supplements industry.. This comes only three months after the prestigious Annals of Internal Medicine found that all those vitamin and mineral supplements peddled by the industry are worthless if taken for preventing the occurrence or progression of chronic diseases.. All the recent liver damage was caused by a supplement called "OxyELITE Pro" sold by Texas-based USPlabs LLC, according to the U.S. Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC).. The supplement was recalled after it started crashing livers last May. While the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was then able to get two substances, aegeline and 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA), that were linked both to the illnesses and the fatality removed from the market, thats about all FDA could do.. "The dietary supplement was recalled, ...
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The LD50 for methylhexanamine is 39 mg/kg in mice and 72.5 mg/kg in rats, when administered intravenously.[7]:95[16]:110 The FDA has stated that methylhexanamine "is known to narrow the blood vessels and arteries, which can elevate blood pressure and may lead to cardiovascular events ranging from shortness of breath and tightening in the chest to heart attack".[17] Numerous adverse events and at least five deaths have been reported in association with methylhexanamine-containing dietary supplements.[3] A 2012 review by a panel convened by the U.S. Department of Defense to study whether the military should ban methylhexanamine supplements from stores on its bases concluded that: "The existing evidence does not conclusively establish that DMAA-containing substances are causally-associated with adverse medical events. However, a consistent theme among the studies is that DMAA use potentially affects cardiovascular function, just as other sympathomimetic stimulants. Without further rigorous study ...
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Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic leads to an increased risk of cancer. A biological measurement was conducted in 153 private well owners and their families consuming water contaminated by inorganic arsenic at concentrations that straddle 10 μg/L.
CPL 02-02-022 - CPL 2-2.22 - 29 CFR 1910.1018 Inspection and Compliance Procedures for the Permanent Occupation Exposure Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Compounds.
diff --git a/drivers/infiniband/hw/cxgb4/mem.c b/drivers/infiniband/hw/cxgb4/mem.c index 33db9ee..4cb8eb2 100644 --- a/drivers/infiniband/hw/cxgb4/mem.c +++ b/drivers/infiniband/hw/cxgb4/mem.c @@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ module_param(inline_threshold, int, 0644); MODULE_PARM_DESC(inline_threshold, inline vs dsgl threshold (default=128)); static int _c4iw_write_mem_dma_aligned(struct c4iw_rdev *rdev, u32 addr, - u32 len, void *data, int wait) + u32 len, dma_addr_t data, int wait) { struct sk_buff *skb; struct ulp_mem_io *req; @@ -88,7 +88,7 @@ static int _c4iw_write_mem_dma_aligned(struct c4iw_rdev *rdev, u32 addr, sgl-,cmd_nsge = cpu_to_be32(ULPTX_CMD(ULP_TX_SC_DSGL) , ULPTX_NSGE(1)); sgl-,len0 = cpu_to_be32(len); - sgl-,addr0 = cpu_to_be64(virt_to_phys(data)); + sgl-,addr0 = cpu_to_be64(data); ret = c4iw_ofld_send(rdev, skb); if (ret) @@ -178,6 +178,13 @@ int _c4iw_write_mem_dma(struct c4iw_rdev *rdev, u32 addr, u32 len, void *data) u32 remain = len; u32 dmalen; int ret = 0; + dma_addr_t daddr; + ...
Hello again ! Quite a big mail, but maybe someone may give me some useful hints in finding the real cause for my problem (besides the working work-around). ,Processing is done from the irq handler (well, actually from ,a tasklet triggered by irq). For a 30Mbit/s stream ,this buffer holds ~50ms worth of TS packets which are then pushed ,into a larger ringbuffer where it waits to be picked up by read() ,from the demux/dvr device. If the DMA buffer overflows you have ,an irq/tasklet latency problem. , , If this is really a IRQ latency problem, how does it come the timer interrupt keeps counting jiffies while the SAA7146 cannot get its interrupt handled ? Why does this happen in a reproducable way when using dump or sync ? My cards are at interrupt 5 and 10 (both have same problem), where IRQ 10 even has a higher priority than the IDE interrupt. Using APIC doesnt work at all, even with big DMA buffer. Below I measured the time in jiffies vs. the real time (which was measured by the amount of data ...
Mercedes-Benz campaign exceeds DMA email deliverability benchmark by 26%. Find out how they did it in this case study from Pure360. Read today.
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Todays a very important day overall. We have now gone down to the 61.8% retrace level, close to the 50dma, and have so far bounced. We are oversold on the short term oscillators and that is providing a little support here. It seems to me that this is pretty much do or die in this area and I think using the 50dma as a short or long entry spot is a good idea, as long as you exit on a break that goes against you. Personally, I dont like the long side for anything more than a possible scalp as the daily stochastic just issued a sell signal yesterday and thus we probably have more sell off coming in the days ahead. But again, we must get through the 50dma first which right now is at 889 as you can see in the SPX chart below ...
Eliminarea grasimilor este accelerata prin aplicarea simultana de presiune interioara si exterioara pe stratul de grasime. Intern, TriLipo DMA face ca muschii sa se contracte, impingand celule grase in sus. Extern, celulele grase sunt impinse in jos de catre presiunea aplicatorului. Efectul rezultat de "comprimare" face ca grasimea sa se scurga prin mecanismul patentat de drenaj limfatic DMA. Efectul combinat al TriLipo RF si al efectului de DMA accelereaza circulatia sangelui, optimizand oxigenarea sangelui si detoxifierea.. ...
Originally Posted by Hard Soooooo... yeah I am EIE afterall (subtype Fe). In this case, I wanted to be LSI. It was justified by a rather extensive typ
In 2013 FSANZ released a survey on the levels of inorganic arsenic in a range of seaweed types and products containing seaweed, available in Australia.. The levels in most seaweed tested were below the regulatory limit for inorganic arsenic, with the exception of one hijiki seaweed sample. Because this sample was made up of two individual samples of the same brand of hijiki it may not be representative of all hijiki seaweed available for sale in Australia. Hijiki seaweed is also tested at the border for inorganic arsenic and compliance rates are high.. The New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) has also conducted tests on levels of arsenic in imported hijiki products and found some levels exceeding the regulatory limit for inorganic arsenic.. Using the information collected on the levels of inorganic arsenic in seaweed, dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic was estimated for the Australian population. Using the median inorganic arsenic concentrations in seaweed, the contribution of ...
This work reports on the isolation and determination of biotransformation products obtained from the organoarsenic compounds that are present in Fucus distichus when it was subjected to an open anaerobic decomposition by using the Hydride Generation Gas Chromatography Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-GC-AAS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The seaweed and filtrate residues obtained from the open anaerobic degradation procedure were extracted in methanol and partitioned in phenol-ether-water mixtures to obtain water soluble extracts. The water soluble extracts were cleaned up and separated on a gel permeation Sephadex G15 column. Arsenic species concentrations were determined by using HG-GC-AAS. Final characterization of the biotransformation isolates was carried out on HPLC-ICP-MS. Only two arsenic species, 2-dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), were positively identified in the water soluble ...
Silver Spring, MD (TFC) - An approved animal drug known as 3-Nitro® (roxarsone) was added to chicken feed prior to July 2011. This drug was known to contain an organic form of arsenic, which is known to be toxic, but indeed it is less toxic than inorganic arsenic. In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration admitted that roxarsone contained inorganic arsenic, which is a much more toxic compound. After discovering this, the FDAs Center for Veterinary Medicine and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition developed a new analytical method used to detect minute levels of arsenic in animal tissue.. It is important to note that organic arsenic is in the environment as a naturally occurring substance and can also be a contaminant in water, air, soil and various food products. In this case, the cause for concern is the organic arsenic found in 3-Nitro® that could transform into inorganic arsenic found in the chicken feed at high levels.. The FDA made a statement in the Product Safety ...
Nickel (II) preconcentration and speciation analysis using a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) device was studied. A counterflow of protons coupled to complexation with formate provided the driving force of the process, while Kelex 100 was employed as carrier. The influence of variables related to module configuration (acceptor pH and carrier concentration) and to the sample properties (donor pH) on the preconcentration factor, E, was simultaneously studied and optimized using a 3 factor Doehlert matrix response surface methodology. The effect of metal concentration was studied as well. Preconcentration factors as high as 4240 were observed depending on the values of the different variables. The effects of the presence of inorganic anions (NO2-, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, CO32-, CN-) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the form of humic acids were additionally considered in order to carry out a speciation analysis study. Nickel preconcentration was observed to be independent of both effects,
Arsenic (As) is an ubiquitous chemical element that occurs in nature in the form of organic and inorganic compounds, and its harmful effects are well known and described. It is well known that inorganic arsenic (III and V) compounds are more toxic than organic compounds. Also the bioavailability of arsenic from different chemical compounds varies. Organic forms of arsenic, which are most commonly found in fish and seafood, undergo little biotransformation after consumption and are excreted from the body in virtually unchanged form. On the other hand, inorganic arsenic compounds are well absorbed and metabolized. Adverse effects of inorganic arsenic Long-term exposure to arsenic derived from inorganic compounds results in an increased risk of developing various types of cancer, including skin, bladder, lung, kidney, liver and prostate cancer. In addition, exposure to inorganic arsenic is accompanied by disorders of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, blood, respiratory, neurological, immune, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fine-granular cationic iron colloid - Its preparation, physicochemical characteristics and histochemical use for the detection of ionized anionic groups. AU - Seno, S.. AU - Akita, M.. AU - Ono, T.. AU - Tsujii, T.. PY - 1985/7/1. Y1 - 1985/7/1. N2 - In order to obtain distinct and reliable information concerning the localization of ionized anionic groups in tissues, fine-granular cationic ferric hydroxide colloid solution (Fe-Cac-f) was newly devised. This can be obtained by boiling a mixture of ferric chloride and ammonium cacodylate solutions. the colloid particles of Fe-Cac-f are about 1.0 nm in size, i.e., one-fifth of the size of ferric cacodylate colloid (Fe-Cac; Seno et al. 1983a). As with Fe-Cac, Fe-Cac-f particles in the pH range of 1.6-7.6 carry a positive electric charge, but the latter show a better permeation of tissues. Using the Prussian blue reaction, Fe-Cac-f gives a distinct deep-blue color and can be used for the detection of anionic groups of acid ...
TY - ABST. T1 - Determination of inorganic arsenic by fast anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS. AU - Jerše, Ana. AU - Høgsbro, Julie Storm. AU - Larios, Raquel. AU - Sloth, Jens J.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. KW - Inorganic arsenic. KW - HPLC. KW - ICP-MS. KW - Food. KW - Feed. M3 - Conference abstract for conference. ER - ...
Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen that can target the liver, but its carcinogenic mechanisms are still unknown. Global DNA hypomethylation occurs during arsenic-induced malignant transformation in rodent liver cells. DNA hypomethylation can increase gene expression, particularly when occurring in the promoter region CpG sites, and may be a non-genotoxic mechanism of carcinogenesis. Thus, in the present study liver samples of male mice exposed to 0 (control) or 45 p.p.m. arsenic (as NaAsO2) in the drinking water for 48 weeks were analyzed for gene expression and DNA methylation. Chronic arsenic exposure caused hepatic steatosis, a lesion also linked to consumption of methyl-deficient diets. Microarray analysis of liver samples showed arsenic induced aberrant gene expression including steroid-related genes, cytokines, apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle-related genes. In particular, the expression of the estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), and cyclin D1 genes were markedly increased. RT-PCR and ...
N-Isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM), N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA), and 2-acetamidoethyl acrylate (AcAMEA) were copolymerized with ethylene employing [(P^O)PdMe(DMSO)] (1-DMSO; P^O = κ2-P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O with Ar = 2-MeOC6H4) as a catalyst precursor. Inhibition studies with nonpolymerizable polar additives show that reversible κ-O-coordination of free amide retards polymerization significantly. Retardation of polymerization increases in the order ethyl acetate methyl ethyl sulfone , acetonitrile , N,N-dimethylacetamide ≈ N-methylacetamide ≈ propionic acid , dimethylsulfoxide. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for the insertion into 1-DMSO were determined to increase in the order DMAA , AcAMEA , NIPAM , methyl acrylate. Exposure of 1-DMSO to NIPAM resulted in the formation of consecutive insertion products [(P^O)Pd(C6H11NO2)nMe] (n ≤ 3), as determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The solid-state structure of the methanol adduct of the 2,1-insertion product of NIPAM into 1-DMSO, ...
Inorganic arsenic is an established cause of lung and skin cancer. Epidemiological evidence from Taiwan suggests that arsenic causes more fatal internal cancers, with the highest relative risks reported for bladder cancer. We conducted a cross-sectional biomarker study in a Chilean male population chronically exposed to high (70 subjects) and low (55 subjects) arsenic levels in their drinking water (average concentrations, 600 and 15 micrograms As/liter, respectively). A fluorescent version of the exfoliated bladder cell micronucleus (MN) assay was used employing fluorescence in situ hybridization with a centromeric probe to identify the presence (MN+) or absence (MN-) of whole chromosomes within micronuclei, thereby determining the mechanism of arsenic-induced genotoxicity in vivo. We divided the study population into quintiles by urinary arsenic levels and found an exposure-dependent increase in micronucleated cell prevalence in quintiles 2-4 (urinary arsenic, 54-729 micrograms/liter). The ...
The behaviour of As(III), As(V), MMAv and DMAv in batch activated sludge process were investigated. Experiments were carried out by using aerobic and anoxic reactors with an initial As concentration of 100 μg l−1. Under aerobic condition, As(III) was oxidized to As(V) within 9 hours, some part of MMAv was methylated to DMAv and some other part was demethylated to As(III), which in turn was immediately oxidized to As(V). Under anoxic condition, As(V) was reduced to As(III) within the same time-course. No significant transformation occurred during experiments conducted with DMAv. It was found that all reactions were biologically mediated. The overall As removal was low (,20%) during the experiments. Although a relationship seems to exist between the sludge concentration and As removal, it is concluded, under the conditions of our study, that the activated sludge process cannot remove arsenicals efficiently. However, it can control their transformations well. Thus, if associated with an ...
Ovalbumin and lysozyme have been reported to undergo a mixed association in solutions of low ionic strength. Osmotic pressure experiments were performed on ovalbumin and on lysozyme solutions in 0.06 M cacodylate buffer (I = 0.02, pH = 5.8) at 30 and
A recent study done at Queens University (1) in Belfast found high levels of illegal, inorganic arsenic in many baby rice food products. A professor at the university stated, "this research has shown direct evidence that babies are exposed to illegal levels of arsenic despite the EU regulation to specifically address this health challenge. Babies are particularly vulnerable to the damaging effects of arsenic that can prevent the healthy development of a babys growth, IQ and immune system to name but a few." Babies require constant care and appropriate nutrients to aid healthy growth, but if youre feeding them harmful things such as inorganic arsenic, they could cause a range of health problems in the future such as developmental problems, heart disease, diabetes and nervous system damage. ...
Many profits in the supplement industry are generated by making exaggerated claims about their products. Despite the popularity of such supplements, few are very well researched and the industry itself isnt well regulated. In fact, one popular pre-workout stimulant, Jack3d, was recently banned in the United States because it contained an illegal dietary supplement, dimethylamylamine (DMAA), that has been linked with the development of cardiovascular problems. Creatine, however, is a popular supplement used for increasing muscle development and athletic performance that has been well-researched and has been consistently proven to produce these effects. Its effects can be explained by basic biochemical principles. This article will also touch on the ethics regarding supplementation. Creatine, derived from the Greek word for flesh, (kreas), was first discovered in 1832, when Michel Eugene Chevreul extracted the compound from meat. Its anabolic effects would be confirmed in humans in the early 20th century
From 1948 to 1975, nine out of eleven epidemiological studies show significant excess mortality from respiratory cancer among diverse occupations exposed to various inorganic arsenicals and demonstrate that such exposure is carcinogenic in three different tissues. Two of the studies show concomitant significant excess mortality from lymphatic cancer and one from skin cancer. Two studies reveal a d
Food Ingredients first is the website on food ingredients news, food and beverage innovations, ingredients applications and market trends. Complemented by an extensive supplier directory and interesting video interviews.
3] Junru Wang, Fang-Jie Zhao, Andrew A. Meharg, Andrea Raab, Joerg Feldmann, and Steve P. McGrath, Mechanisms of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata. Uptake Kinetics, Interactions with Phosphate, and Arsenic Speciation. Plant Physiol, November 2002, Vol. 130, pp. 1552-1561. 18 jours de croissance en hydroponique avec des concentrations variables darséniate et de phosphate. En 8 heures, 50 % à 78 % de lAs absorbé est distribué aux feuilles, qui accumulent de 1,3 à 6,7 fois plus dAs que les racines. Supprimer P pendant 8 jours augmente labsorption darséniate par 2,5 fois; la plante absorbe alors 10 fois plus darséniate que darsenite. Si par contre on augmente lapport de P, labsorption dAs diminue fortement - avec un effet plus marqué dans les racines que dans les pousses. Plus darséniate diminue la concentration de P dans les racines, mais pas dans les feuilles. La présence de P dans la solution diminue fortement labsorption darséniate. Larsenite est transporté ...
Cacodylic acid Monosodium methyl arsenate Grund, S. C.; Hanusch, K.; Wolf, H. U. (2005), "Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds", ... It is a colorless, water-soluble solid derived from methanearsonic acid. It is used as a herbicide. Tradenames include ...
It has been used as a denaturing and warning agent.[citation needed] Arsenic Arsine Cacodylic acid lewisite Elschenbroich, C. ( ...
... is a mixture of two arsenic-containing compounds: sodium cacodylate and cacodylic acid. Agent Blue is chemically ... cacodylic acid in water. Today, large quantities of the chemical named Agent Blue are still used on lawns and crops throughout ... Agent Blue, (CH3)2AsOOH, obtained by the oxidation of cacodyl, and having the properties of an exceedingly stable acid; is one ...
Cacodylic acid arises from the methylation of arsenic(III) oxide. Phenylarsonic acids can be accessed by the reaction of ... including 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid (3-NHPAA or Roxarsone), ureidophenylarsonic acid, and p-arsanilic acid. These ... An important route to dimethylarsenic compounds begin with reduction of cacodylic acid (see above): (CH3)2AsO2H + 2 Zn + 4 HCl ... This dimethyl compound is Cacodylic acid ((CH3)2AsO2H), figures prominently throughout the chemistry of organoarsenic compounds ...
... cacodylic acid is the major As compound[7]. A very unusual composition of organoarsenic compounds was found in deer truffles ( ... including 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid (3-NHPAA or Roxarsone), ureidophenylarsonic acid, and p-arsanilic acid. These ... The monomethylated acid, methanearsonic acid (CH3AsO(OH)2), is a precursor to fungicides (tradename Neoasozin) in the ... is inhibited when monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) targets the thiol group of the lipoic acid cofactor.[40] PDH is a precursor ...
BrF3 Cacodylic acid - (CH3)2As(O)OH Cadmium arsenide - Cd3As2 Cadmium bromide - CdBr2 Cadmium chloride - CdCl2 Cadmium fluoride ... Sb2S5 Perbromic acid - HBrO4 Perchloric acid - HClO4 Periodic acid - HIO4 Perchloryl fluoride - ClFO3 Persulfuric acid (Caro's ... PH3 Phosphomolybdic acid - H3PMo12O40 Phosphoric acid - H3PO4 Phosphorous acid (Phosphoric(III) acid) - H3PO3 Phosphorus ... Cl2 Chloroplatinic acid - H2PtCl6 Chrome-alum - K2SO4Cr2(SO4)3·24H2O Chromic acid - CrO3 Chromium trioxide (Chromic acid) - ...
As herbicides are pesticides used to kill unwanted plants, silvicides are special pesticides (cacodylic acid or MSMA for ...
Cacodylic acid Cacodyl oxide Devarda's alloy, also used to produce arsine in the lab List of highly toxic gases Marsh test ... a) This is the only [metal] of all whole- as well as semi-metals that effervesces on digestion with arsenic acid.) Scheele ... Scheele, Carl Wilhelm (1775) "Om Arsenik och dess syra" (On arsenic and its acid), Kongliga Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar ( ... with As-free zinc and dilute sulfuric acid: if the sample contains arsenic, gaseous arsine will form. The gas is swept into a ...
... cacodylic acid (Ansar 138) and its sodium salt sodium cacodylate) used from 1962-71 in powder and water solution Agent White ( ... The United States discovered 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) during World War II. It was recognized as toxic and ... Army experiments with the chemical eventually led to the discovery that 2,4-D combined with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( ... Tordon 101): 21.2% (acid weight basis) triisopropanolamine salts of 2,4-D and 5.7% picloram used 1966-71 Agent Orange or ...
The other most common color-coded Ranch Hand herbicides were Agent Blue (cacodylic acid) that was primarily used against food ... cacodylic acid (Ansar 138) and its sodium salt sodium cacodylate) used from 1962-71 in powder and water solution Agent White ( ... 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) manufactured for the U.S. Department of Defense ... Tordon 101): 21.2% (acid weight basis) triisopropanolamine salts of 2,4-D and 5.7% picloram used 1966-71 Agent Orange or ...
Cacodylic acid Calcium phosphide Carbendazim Captan Carbaryl Carbofuran Chitosan Chloralose Chloramine-T Chlorbenside ... 5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid Triclopyr Trifluralin Triazofos Trophobiosis Ultra-low volume Uragan D2 UK Pesticides Campaign ... Davicil DCMU DDT DDT in Australia DDT in New Zealand DDT in the United States Dehydroacetic acid Deltamethrin Diatomaceous ... 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 1,3-Dichloropropene Dichlorprop Dichlorvos Dicrotophos 1,3-Difluoro-2-propanol Dimethenamid ...
... is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2AsO2H. Derivatives of cacodylic acid, cacodylates, were ... sold cacodylic acid and its salts under the Phytar brand name. The variety used in Vietnam (as Agent Blue) was Phytar 560G. In ... Cacodylic acid and its salts were incorporated into herbicides by large variety of manufacturers under numerous brand names. ... For example, "Agent Blue," one of the chemicals used during the Vietnam War, is a mixture of cacodylic acid and sodium ...
... in the urine of mammals is dimethylarsinic acid or cacodylic acid, DMA(V). Dimethylarsenic acid is also known as Agent Blue and ... Resulting metabolites are monomethylarsonous acid, MMA(III), and dimethylarsinous acid, DMA(III). Methylation had been regarded ... Dimethylarsinic acid, DMA(V), caused DNA single stand breaks resulting from inhibition of repair enzymes at levels of 5 to 100 ... Both DMA(III) and DMA(V) were shown to release iron from horse spleen as well as from human liver ferritin if ascorbic acid was ...
... (also known as 2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin, is a chlorophenoxy acetic acid herbicide used to ... 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). 2,4,5-T itself is toxic with a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 10 mg/kg/day.[3][medical ... Intentional overdoses and unintentional high dose occupational exposures to chlorophenoxy acid herbicides have resulted in ... IARC considers the chlorophenoxyacetic acids group of chemicals as possibly carcinogenic to humans.[7] In 1963 a production ...
These are easier to handle than the acid. Further discoveries[edit]. The triazine family of herbicides, which includes atrazine ... Like other acid herbicides, current formulations use either an amine salt (often trimethylamine) or one of many esters of the ... Vinegar[57] is effective for 5-20% solutions of acetic acid, with higher concentrations most effective, but it mainly destroys ... 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was a widely used broadleaf herbicide until being phased out starting in the late ...
... cacodylic acid MeSH D02.691.088.500 --- melarsoprol MeSH D02.691.088.700 --- roxarsone MeSH D02.691.340.350 --- iron-dextran ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...
... and uric acid derivatives (1860 and onwards) (including the discovery of barbituric acid (1864), the parent compound of the ... or cacodylic. After completing his doctorate, he followed Kekulé to the University of Ghent, when Kekulé became professor there ...
2 AsOOH Colorless crystals that melt at 200°C; soluble in alcohol and water; used as a herbicide Explanation of cacodylic acid ... Looking for cacodylic acid? Find out information about cacodylic acid. ... cacodylic acid. Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to cacodylic acid: sodium cacodylate cacodylic acid. [¦ ... Cacodylic acid , Article about cacodylic acid by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/cacodylic+acid ...
Cacodylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2AsO2H. Derivatives of cacodylic acid, cacodylates, were ... sold cacodylic acid and its salts under the Phytar brand name. The variety used in Vietnam (as Agent Blue) was Phytar 560G. In ... Cacodylic acid and its salts were incorporated into herbicides by large variety of manufacturers under numerous brand names. ... For example, "Agent Blue," one of the chemicals used during the Vietnam War, is a mixture of cacodylic acid and sodium ...
Cacodylic_acid. PDB Entries. 1d0c / 1d0o / 1d1v / 1d1w / 1d1x / 1d1y / 1ed4 / 1ed5 / 1ed6 / 3jww … ... Cacodylic acid. Accession Number. DB02994 (EXPT00823) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not Available. ...
... the defoliant and herbicide cacodylic acid; the plant growth regulator and herbicide diquat, the insecticides disulfoton, ... A tolerance is established for residues of the defoliant cacodylic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, including its metabolites and ... o-anisic acid, and its metabolites, 3,6-dichloro-5-hydroxy-o-anisic acid, and 3,6-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzoic acid, calculated as ... Acephate, Cacodylic Acid, Dicamba, Dicloran, et al.; Tolerance Actions. A Rule by the Environmental Protection Agency on 09/29/ ...
... cacodylic acid suppliers and exporters. These manufacturing companies provide high quality cacodylic acid as per buyers ... Find here listings of cacodylic acid (cas no 75-60-5) manufacturers, ... Sulfamic Acid Linoleic Acid Sulphamic Acid Cyanuric Acid Benzoic Acid Silicotungstic Acid Dl Pyroglutamic Acid Bronners Acid ... Cacodylic acid analytical standard Synonym: Dimethylarsinic acid, Dimethylarsonic acid, Hydroxydimethylarsine oxide CAS Number ...
Buffer for fixatives for light and electron microscopy; e.g., osmium tetroxide, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, Karnovskys fixative.
Cacodylic Acid, Sodium Salt, Trihydrate - CAS 6131-99-3 - Calbiochem. 205541 , Cacodylic Acid, Sodium Salt, Trihydrate - CAS ...
Cacodylic acid This is an SOP template and is not complete until: 1) lab specific information is entered into the box below 2) ... Preparation of buffers containing cacodylic acid: Add the required volume of the stock solution and mix well with the other ... Cacodylic acid may be partially reduced to inorganic arsenic in the body. Exposure to arsenic compounds can cause:, burning, ... Cacodylic acid is used as a buffering agent in chromatography/crystallization, and can be used in conjunction with fixatives ...
What is dimethylarsinic acid? Meaning of dimethylarsinic acid medical term. What does dimethylarsinic acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of dimethylarsinic acid in the Medical Dictionary? dimethylarsinic acid explanation free. ... Synonym(s): dimethylarsinic acid. cacodylic acid. /cac·o·dyl·ic ac·id/ (kak″o-dil´ik) dimethyl arsinic acid, a highly toxic ... Related to dimethylarsinic acid: Cacodylic acid. cac·o·dyl·ic ac·id. (kakō-dilik asid), Arsenical contact herbicide that ...
CACODYLIC ACID. HYDROXYDIMETHYLARSINE OXIDE. C2 H7 As O2. OGGXGZAMXPVRFZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N. ...
Benzoic acid Carnauba wax Fatty acids (some) Manganese carbonate Potassium sorbate Sodium benzoate Sorbic acid Sorbitol. ... 13 Inert Tolerance Exemption Reassessment Decisions Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ascorbic acid Barium sulfate Beeswax ... Potassium salts of fatty acids Promalin. 58 TREDs and Inert Tolerance Exemption Reassessment Decisions. ... Cacodylic acid. Chlorine dioxide. Chloroneb. Chlorsulfuron. Chromated arsenicals (CCA). Coal tar/creosote ...
CACODYLIC ACID. HYDROXYDIMETHYLARSINE OXIDE. C2 H7 As O2. OGGXGZAMXPVRFZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N. ...
... cacodylic acid; and picloram) and the following circulatory outcomes: circulatory disease mortality and various subgroups of ... cacodylic acid; and picloram) and the following respiratory outcomes: mortality from respiratory diseases; symptoms or history ... cacodylic acid; and picloram) and diabetes mellitus, changes in hepatic enzymes, lipid abnormalities, or gastrointestinal ... cacodylic acid; and picloram) and PCT in genetically susceptible individuals. ...
4) Dimethylarsinic acid (cacodylic acid).. e. Manufacturers of arsenical pesticides. Some examples of these products are as ... 1) Arsenic acid.. (2) 3-Nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid.. (3) 4-Nitrophenylarsonic acid.. (4) 4-Ureido-1-phenylarsonic acid. ... Salt solutions require material impervious to the solvent; acid solutions require material impervious to acid; and basic ... Example: Orthoarsenic acid.. g. Manufacturers of wood preservatives.. Some examples of these products are as follows:. (1) ...
Laboratory assay of cacodylic acid and ®Meta-Systox-R on Scolytus multistriatus and Pseudopityophthorus sp.. Cacodylic acid and ... Diets containing 900 to 1,000 ppm of cacodylic acid and diets containing 100 to 200 ppm of Meta-Systox-R killed both oak and ...
Adjust 50 ml of 0.2M cacodylic acid to desired pH with 0.2M NaOH. Dilute to 100 ml with ddH2 or dilute 1:1 with fixative. ... Add boric acid to borax solution until desired pH is reached. Dilute to desired molarity with ddH20. ... Mix citric acid and sodium citrate to give desired pH. Dilute with ddH20 to desired molarity. ... Add sodium acetate to acetic acid to give desired pH. Dilute with ddH20 to desired molarity. ...
cacodylic acid (180.311) 12/31/74. cadusafos (180.461) *. calcium arsenate (revoked) 07/01/67. calcium cyanide (revoked) 07/01/ ... 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (180.155) 11/01/75. 1-naphthylacetic acid, see 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (180.155) 11/01/75. 2,2- ... 180.311 cacodylic acid 12/31/74. 180.312 4-aminopyridine 12/31/74. 180.314 SÐ2,3,3-trichloroallyl diisopropylthiocarbamate 12/ ... 2-naphthyloxy)acetic acid, see naphthoxyacetic acid, beta- (revoked) 07/01/69. 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol ( ...
Cacodylic acid sodium salt trihydrate; MnCl2=Mangan (II) chlorid tetrahydrate; CMPsia=Sialic acid cytidine monophosphate ( ... Preparation of IEM-functionalized N-(8-Aminooctyl)lactobionic Acid Amide Solution. 1.6 g of N-(8-Aminooctyl)lactobionic acid ... Photografting of the Mixture of IEM-functionalized Sialidated N-(8-Aminooctyl)lactobionic Acid Amide Sialic Acid Derivative and ... The attachment of galactosamine or sialic acid includes suitable salts thereof. Preferably sialic acid is enzymatically ...
... cacodylic acid; and picloram) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ...
Cacodylic acid, sodium salt, solution, 0.2M, pH 7.4. 开始于: NT$1,776.00 ... 0.5M Citrate-Citric Acid Buffer, pH 4.6±0.2, 10X Concentrate. 开始于: NT$1,488.00 ...
  • Alphabetically arranged (by authors) "bibliography of published and unpublished literature relevant to the human health effects of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, PCDD, cacodylic acid, and picloram that has become available since mid-1981. (worldcat.org)
  • Conclusions Service in the Vietnam war was associated with defoliant herbicide exposure, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, picloram and cacodylic acid. (bmj.com)
  • The other most common color-coded Ranch Hand herbicides were Agent Blue (cacodylic acid) that was primarily used against food crops, and Agent White (picloram) which was often used when Agent Orange was not available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cacodylic acid analytical standard Synonym: Dimethylarsinic acid, Dimethylarsonic acid, Hydroxydimethylarsine oxide CAS Number 75. (tradeindia.com)
  • Urinary excretion of arsenite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) increased linearly with dose, whereas AsV and monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) excretion was non-linear with respect to dose. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The catalytic decomposition of sulfuric acid on mixed Cr/Fe oxide, shows an useful application in sulfur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production. (alfa.com)
  • Cacodylic acid arises from the methylation of arsenic(III) oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 AsCl3 + 3 NaBH4 → 4 AsH3 + 3 NaCl + 3 BCl3 As reported in 1775, Carl Scheele reduced arsenic(III) oxide with zinc in the presence of acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, the samples were postfixed in 1% OsO4 in 0.1 M cacodylic acid buffer, pH 7.2, for 1 h at room temperature, stained en bloc with 1% uranyl acetate, dehydrated in a grade series of ethanol and propylene oxide, and embedded in epon resin (Electron Microscopy Sciences). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Cacodylic acid and its salts were incorporated into herbicides by large variety of manufacturers under numerous brand names. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The most common herbicide used was Herbicide Orange, more commonly referred to as Agent Orange: a fifty-fifty mixture of two herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) manufactured for the U.S. Department of Defense primarily by Monsanto Corporation and Dow Chemical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suitable for use in gel electrophoresis for nucleic acid analysis. (polysciences.com)
  • Thus, for larger molecules, such as proteins or nucleic acid molecules, CE is implemented in a manner that accomplishes separation based on size rather than molecular charge. (google.com)
  • involved in nucleic acid synthesis, promoted hematopoietic function. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Mecobalamin is used for peripheral nerve disorders treatment drug, compared with other vitamin B12 preparations, having good transfer on the nervous tissue, through the methyl transfer reaction, can promote nucleic acid, protein lipid metabolism, repairing the damaged nerve tissue. (chemicalbook.com)
  • While not itself a strong carcinogen, cacodylic acid does promote tumors in the presence of carcinogens in organs such as the kidneys and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal to a stretch of basic amino acids that functions as a DNA binding domain. (ucsc.edu)
  • Using an unbiased screen to identify associations between O -glycosites and protein annotations we found that O -glycans were over-represented close (± 15 amino acids) to tandem repeat regions, protease cleavage sites, within propeptides, and located on a select group of protein domains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The sulfuric acid doped poly (m-aminophenol) is used as aliphatic alcohol vapor sensor material. (alfa.com)
  • Adhikari, B. Application of sulfuric acid doped poly (m-aminophenol) as aliphatic alcohol vapor sensor material. (alfa.com)
  • Both DMA(III) and DMA(V) were shown to release iron from horse spleen as well as from human liver ferritin if ascorbic acid was administered simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuing the analogy to SbH3, AsH3 is readily oxidized by concentrated O2 or the dilute O2 concentration in air: 2 AsH3 + 3 O2 → As2O3 + 3 H2O Arsine will react violently in presence of strong oxidizing agents, such as potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite or nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)