Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.
A genus of pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae, class BIVALVIA. Both cultured and natural pearls are obtained from species in the genus. They are distinct from the distantly related, edible true oysters of the family OSTREIDAE.
The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.
One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Svalbard" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition; it is a geographical location, an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, north of Norway.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Polyamines are organic compounds with more than one amino group, involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and found to be increased in certain diseases including cancer.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Cell surface-associated lipoteichoic acid acts as an adhesion factor for attachment of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. (1/3466)

The influence of pH on the adhesion of two Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 human intestinal cells was investigated. One strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, was adherent at any pH between 4 and 7. The other one, L. acidophilus La10, did not attach to this cell line under the same experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, we used the monoclonal antibody technique as a tool to determine differences on the surface of these bacteria and to identify a factor for adhesion. Mice were immunized with live La1, and the hybridomas produced by fusion of spleen cells with ONS1 cells were screened for the production of antibodies specific for L. johnsonii La1. A set of these monoclonal antibodies was directed against a nonproteinaceous component of the L. johnsonii La1 surface. It was identified as lipoteichoic acid (LTA). This molecule was isolated, chemically characterized, and tested in adhesion experiments in the same system. The adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to Caco-2 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent way by purified LTA as well as by L. johnsonii La1 culture supernatant that contained LTA. These results showed that the mechanism of adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to human Caco-2 cells involves LTA.  (+info)

Cytochrome P-450 1A1 expression in human small bowel: interindividual variation and inhibition by ketoconazole. (2/3466)

Human cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is located primarily in extrahepatic tissues. To begin the characterization of this enzyme in the small intestine, we screened a bank of 18 human small intestinal microsomal preparations for CYP1A1 catalytic [(7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)] activity and protein content. Although EROD activity was below detectable limits in 12 of the preparations, 6 exhibited measurable activity (1.4-123.5 pmol/min/mg), some exceeding that for 2 human liver microsomal preparations (11.0 and 26.4 pmol/min/mg). This variation was not due to variable quality of the preparations because each sample displayed readily detectable CYP3A4 catalytic activity and immunoreactive protein. We inadvertently found that intestinal EROD activity was inhibitable by ketoconazole at a concentration commonly believed to selectively inhibit CYP3A4. The possibility that CYP3A4 metabolizes 7-ethoxyresorufin was excluded because there was no correlation between intestinal CYP3A4 catalytic and EROD activity, and cDNA-expressed human CYP3A4 exhibited no EROD activity. Moreover, CYP1A1 immunoreactive protein was most abundant in the three intestinal preparations with the highest EROD activities, and the mean apparent Ki of ketoconazole observed for these three preparations (40 nM) was essentially identical with that for cDNA-expressed human CYP1A1 (37 nM). In summary, there is large interindividual variation in CYP1A1 expression in human small bowel, and ketoconazole is not a selective CYP3A4 inhibitor in in vitro metabolism studies involving intestinal tissue obtained from some individuals. These observations raise the possibility that in vivo drug interactions involving ketoconazole could result from CYP1A1 inhibition in the intestine in some individuals.  (+info)

CREB-binding [corrected] protein interacts with the homeodomain protein Cdx2 and enhances transcriptional activity. (3/3466)

Cdx2 encodes for a homeodomain protein that is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. The Cdx2 protein triggers intestinal differentiation in cell lines and is necessary for maintenance of the intestinal phenotype in mice. CBP (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a transcriptional co-activator that interacts with many transcription factors and components of the basal transcriptional machinery. In this study, we demonstrate that CBP is markedly induced upon differentiation of the Caco-2 intestinal cell line and augments Cdx2-dependent transcriptional activity. Cdx2 interacts with the amino-terminal domain of CBP, and the two proteins coexist in vivo within the same nuclear protein complex. Moreover, expression of the CBP domain that interacts with Cdx2 acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of transcriptional activation by Cdx2. These findings demonstrate a direct interaction between an intestinal homeodomain protein and CBP and suggest that CBP participates in the network of transcriptional proteins that direct intestinal differentiation.  (+info)

Regulation of the human apolipoprotein AIV gene expression in transgenic mice. (4/3466)

The apolipoprotein (Apo) AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster has a complex pattern of gene expression that is modulated by both gene- and cluster-specific cis-acting elements. In particular the regulation of Apo AIV expression has been previously studied in vivo and in vitro including several transgenic mouse lines but a complete, consistent picture of the tissue-specific controls is still missing. We have analysed the role of the Apo AIV 3' flanking sequences in the regulation of gene expression using both in vitro and in vivo systems including three lines of transgenic mice. The transgene consisted of a human fragment containing 7 kb of the 5' flanking region, the Apo AIV gene itself and 6 kb of the 3' flanking region (-7+6 Apo AIV). Accurate analysis of the Apo AIV mRNA levels using quantitative PCR and Northern blots showed that the 7+6 kb Apo AIV fragment confers liver-specific regulation in that the human Apo AIV transgene is expressed at approximately the same level as the endogenous mouse Apo AIV gene. In contrast, the intestinal regulation of the transgene did not follow, the pattern observed with the endogenous gene although it produced a much higher intestinal expression following the accepted human pattern. Therefore, this animal model provides an excellent substrate to design therapeutic protocols for those metabolic derangements that may benefit from variations in Apo AIV levels and its anti-atherogenic effect.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor regulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism in Caco-2 cells. (5/3466)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been reported to stimulate carbohydrate, amino acid, and electrolyte transport in the small intestine, but its effects on lipid transport are poorly documented. This study aimed to investigate EGF effects on fatty acid uptake and esterification in a human enterocyte cell line (Caco-2). EGF inhibited cell uptake of [14C]palmitate and markedly reduced its incorporation into triglycerides. In contrast, the incorporation in phospholipids was enhanced. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, key steps of lipid synthesis were investigated. The amount of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), which is thought to be important for fatty acid absorption, and the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), an enzyme at the branch point of diacylglycerol utilization, were reduced. EGF effects on DGAT and on palmitate esterification occurred at 2-10 ng/ml, whereas effects on I-FABP and palmitate uptake occurred only at 10 ng/ml. This suggests that EGF inhibited palmitate uptake by reducing the I-FABP level and shifted its utilization from triglycerides to phospholipids by inhibiting DGAT. This increase in phospholipid synthesis might play a role in the restoration of enterocyte absorption function after intestinal mucosa injury.  (+info)

The isoflavone genistein inhibits internalization of enteric bacteria by cultured Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes. (6/3466)

The dietary isoflavone genistein is the focus of much research involving its role as a potential therapeutic agent in a variety of diseases, including cancer and heart disease. However, there is recent evidence that dietary genistein may also have an inhibitory effect on extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria. To study the effects of genistein on bacterial adherence and internalization by confluent enterocytes, Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes (cultivated for 15-18 d and 21-24 d, respectively) were pretreated for 1 h with 0, 30, 100, or 300 micromol/L genistein, followed by 1-h incubation with pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, or Escherichia coli. Pretreatment of Caco-2 and HT-29 enterocytes with genistein inhibited bacterial internalization in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.60-0.79). Compared to untreated enterocytes, 1-h pretreatment with 300 micromol/L genistein was generally associated with decreased bacterial internalization (P < 0. 05) without a corresponding decrease in bacterial adherence. Using Caco-2 cell cultures, decreased bacterial internalization was associated with increased integrity of enterocyte tight junctions [measured by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)], with alterations in the distribution of enterocyte perijunctional actin filaments (visualized by fluorescein-labeled phalloidin), and with abrogation of the decreased TEER associated with S. typhimurium and E. coli incubation with the enterocytes (P < 0.01). Thus, genistein was associated with inhibition of enterocyte internalization of enteric bacteria by a mechanism that might be related to the integrity of the enterocyte tight junctions, suggesting that genistein might function as a barrier-sustaining agent, inhibiting extraintestinal invasion of enteric bacteria.  (+info)

Transport of rhodamine 123, a P-glycoprotein substrate, across rat intestine and Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence of cytochrome P-450 3A-related compounds. (7/3466)

Effects of cytochrome P-450 3A- and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-related compounds, erythromycin, midazolam, ketoconazole, verapamil, and quinidine, on transport of rhodamine 123 (Rho-123), a P-gp substrate, were studied in rat intestine and in Caco-2 cells. Ileum was mainly used in rat studies because this segment showed greater P-gp-mediated Rho-123 transport. In an in vitro everted rat ileum, all the compounds examined significantly inhibited the transport of Rho-123 from serosal to mucosal surfaces across the intestine, with different inhibitory potencies among these compounds. In an in vivo rat study, the exsorption of Rho-123 from blood to the intestinal lumen, which was evaluated as exsorption clearance of Rho-123 under a steady-state plasma concentration of Rho-123, was also inhibited when these compounds were added to the intestinal lumen. Similarly, transepithelial transport of Rho-123 from the basolateral to apical side across Caco-2 cell monolayers was inhibited by these compounds. A linear relationship was observed in their inhibitory potencies on Rho-123 transport between in vitro and in vivo studies using rat ileum and between studies with rat ileum and Caco-2 cells. P-gp-mediated transport across the intestine was found to be inhibited not only by P-gp-related but also by all the cytochrome P-450 3A-related compounds examined. Within experimental error, the relative inhibitory potencies were the same between the studies with rat ileum (in vivo, in vitro) and those with Caco-2 cells. Thus, it is suggested that the function of P-gp and its sensitivity to these drugs may be similar in rat intestine and Caco-2 cells.  (+info)

Interactions of a nonpeptidic drug, valacyclovir, with the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) expressed in a mammalian cell line. (8/3466)

The results of previous work performed in our laboratory using an in situ perfusion technique in rats and rabbit apical brush border membrane vesicles have suggested that the intestinal uptake of valacyclovir (VACV) appears to be mediated by multiple membrane transporters. Using these techniques, it is difficult to characterize the transport kinetics of VACV with each individual transporter in the presence of multiple known or unknown transporters. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of VACV and the human intestinal peptide transporter using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that overexpress the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) gene. VACV uptake was significantly greater in CHO cells transfected with hPEPT1 than in cells transfected with only the vector, pcDNA3. The optimum pH for VACV uptake was determined to occur at pH 7.5. Proton cotransport was not observed in hPEPT1/CHO cells, consistent with previously observed results in tissues and Caco-2 cells. VACV uptake was concentration dependent and saturable with a Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum velocity of 1.64 +/- 0.06 mM and 23.34 +/- 0.36 nmol/mg protein/5 min, respectively. A very similar Km value was obtained in hPEPT1/CHO cells and in rat and rabbit tissues and Caco-2 cells, suggesting that hPEPT1 dominates the intestinal transport properties of VACV in vitro. VACV uptake was markedly inhibited by various dipeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics, and Ki values of 12.8 +/- 2.7 and 9.1 +/- 1.2 mM were obtained for Gly-Sar and cefadroxil at pH 7.5, respectively. The present results demonstrate that VACV is a substrate for the human intestinal peptide transporter in hPEPT1/CHO cells and that although transport is pH dependent, proton cotransport is not apparent. Also, the results demonstrate that the hPEPT1/CHO cell system has use in investigating the transport kinetics of drugs with the human intestinal peptide transporter hPEPT1; however, the extrapolation of these transport properties to the in vivo situation requires further investigation.  (+info)

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks and in the shells of many marine animals. As a mineral, it is known as calcite or aragonite.

In the medical field, calcium carbonate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is also commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion.

Calcium carbonate works by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride. This reaction helps to raise the pH level in the stomach and neutralize excess acid.

It is important to note that excessive use of calcium carbonate can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion, and muscle weakness. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Caco-2 cells are a type of human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line that is commonly used in scientific research, particularly in the field of drug development and toxicology. These cells are capable of forming a monolayer with tight junctions, which makes them an excellent model for studying intestinal absorption, transport, and metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotic compounds.

Caco-2 cells express many of the transporters and enzymes that are found in the human small intestine, making them a valuable tool for predicting drug absorption and bioavailability in humans. They are also used to study the mechanisms of drug transport across the intestinal epithelium, including passive diffusion and active transport by various transporters.

In addition to their use in drug development, Caco-2 cells are also used to study the toxicological effects of various compounds on human intestinal cells. They can be used to investigate the mechanisms of toxicity, as well as to evaluate the potential for drugs and other compounds to induce intestinal damage or inflammation.

Overall, Caco-2 cells are a widely used and valuable tool in both drug development and toxicology research, providing important insights into the absorption, transport, metabolism, and toxicity of various compounds in the human body.

Haptophyta is a group of unicellular algae also known as Prymnesiophytes. They are characterized by the presence of unique organelles called haptonema, which is used for attachment and possibly feeding. Many species have calcium carbonate scales or plates in their cell walls. Haptophyta are important primary producers in marine environments and some of them can form harmful algal blooms. They are also known to produce a wide range of bioactive compounds.

"Pinctada" is not a medical term, but a biological genus name. It refers to a group of saltwater clams, also known as pearl oysters, that are part of the family Pteriidae. These species, including Pinctada maxima, Pinctada margaritifera, and Pinctada radiata, are known for their ability to produce high-quality pearls.

The misconception might arise from the fact that some people confuse "Pinctada" with a medical or healthcare term related to human health. However, it is essential to clarify that "Pinctada" is purely a zoological term used in the classification of certain types of mollusks.

Lithostathine is a protein that is primarily produced in the pancreas. It is a component of pancreatic stones or calculi, also known as pancreatic lithiasis. These stones can cause blockages in the pancreatic ducts, leading to inflammation (pancreatitis) and damage to the pancreas. Lithostathine is believed to play a role in the formation of these stones, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. It's worth noting that the medical literature might use the term "lithostathine" or "pancreatic lithostathine" to refer to this protein.

Isopoda is an order of crustaceans characterized by having a body that is usually laterally compressed, a pair of antennae, and seven pairs of legs (periopods) along the thorax. They are commonly known as "isopods" and include various familiar forms such as woodlice, pill bugs, and sea slaters. Isopods vary in size from less than a millimeter to over 50 centimeters in length. Some isopod species are terrestrial, while others are freshwater or marine dwellers. Medical relevance of isopods is limited, but some species can be vectors for diseases or parasites affecting fish and other aquatic animals.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Carbonates are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a metal or metalloid combined with carbonate ions (CO32-). These compounds form when carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with a base, such as a metal hydroxide. The reaction produces water (H2O), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the corresponding carbonate.

Carbonates are important in many biological and geological processes. In the body, for example, calcium carbonate is a major component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by reacting with excess acid in the stomach to form carbon dioxide and water.

In nature, carbonates are common minerals found in rocks such as limestone and dolomite. They can also be found in mineral waters and in the shells of marine organisms. Carbonate rocks play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they can dissolve or precipitate depending on environmental conditions, which affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Svalbard" is not a medical term. It is a geographical name referring to an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, north of Norway. It is known for its cold climate and is home to unique wildlife adapted to polar conditions. If you have any medical terminology or concepts you'd like me to define or explain, I'd be happy to help!

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

HT-29 is a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line that is commonly used in research. These cells are derived from a colorectal cancer tumor and have the ability to differentiate into various cell types found in the intestinal mucosa, such as absorptive enterocytes and mucus-secreting goblet cells. HT-29 cells are often used to study the biology of colon cancer, including the effects of drugs on cancer cell growth and survival, as well as the role of various genes and signaling pathways in colorectal tumorigenesis.

It is important to note that when working with cell lines like HT-29, it is essential to use proper laboratory techniques and follow established protocols to ensure the integrity and reproducibility of experimental results. Additionally, researchers should regularly authenticate their cell lines to confirm their identity and verify that they are free from contamination with other cell types.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oceans and Seas" are not medical terms. Generally speaking, an ocean is a large body of saltwater that covers a majority of the Earth's surface, and a sea is a smaller body of saltwater that may be partially enclosed by land. However, if you have any questions related to marine biology or environmental science, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

CD98, also known as 4F2 cell surface antigen or solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2), is a heterodimeric amino acid transporter protein. It is composed of two subunits: a heavy chain (CD98hc) and a light chain (4F2hc). CD98 is widely expressed in various tissues, including hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells.

As an antigen, CD98 can be recognized by specific antibodies and play a role in immune responses. The protein is involved in several biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. It also functions as a receptor for certain viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

CD98 has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. In cancer, CD98 overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. In autoimmune disorders, CD98 may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In infectious diseases, CD98 can serve as a target for viral entry and replication.

Overall, CD98 is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, making it an attractive target for therapeutic interventions.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flounder" is not a medical term. It is a common name used for several species of flatfish that are widely consumed as food. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, please don't hesitate to ask!

Antacids are a type of medication that is used to neutralize stomach acid and provide rapid relief from symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach discomfort. They work by chemically reacting with the stomach acid to reduce its acidity. Antacids may contain one or more active ingredients, including aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate.

Antacids are available over-the-counter in various forms, such as tablets, chewable tablets, liquids, and powders. They can provide quick relief from acid reflux and related symptoms; however, they may not be effective for treating the underlying cause of these symptoms. Therefore, if you experience frequent or severe symptoms, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Cephalexin is a type of antibiotic known as a first-generation cephalosporin. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is essential for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacterial cells become unstable and eventually die.

Cephalexin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating various types of infections, such as respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, and urinary tract infections.

Like all antibiotics, cephalexin should be used only to treat bacterial infections, as it has no effect on viral infections. It is important to take the full course of treatment as directed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Common side effects of cephalexin include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, severe skin rashes, or liver damage may occur. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any signs of an allergic reaction or serious side effect are experienced while taking cephalexin.

A symporter is a type of transmembrane protein that functions to transport two or more molecules or ions across a biological membrane in the same direction, simultaneously. This process is called co-transport and it is driven by the concentration gradient of one of the substrates, which is usually an ion such as sodium (Na+) or proton (H+).

Symporters are classified based on the type of energy that drives the transport process. Primary active transporters, such as symporters, use the energy from ATP hydrolysis or from the electrochemical gradient of ions to move substrates against their concentration gradient. In contrast, secondary active transporters use the energy stored in an existing electrochemical gradient of one substrate to drive the transport of another substrate against its own concentration gradient.

Symporters play important roles in various physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, neurotransmitter reuptake, and ion homeostasis. For example, the sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is a symporter that co-transports glucose and sodium ions across the intestinal epithelium and the renal proximal tubule, contributing to glucose absorption and regulation of blood glucose levels. Similarly, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is a symporter that co-transports dopamine and sodium ions back into presynaptic neurons, terminating the action of dopamine in the synapse.

Anthozoa is a major class of marine animals, which are exclusively aquatic and almost entirely restricted to shallow waters. They are classified within the phylum Cnidaria, which also includes corals, jellyfish, sea anemones, and hydroids. Anthozoans are characterized by their lack of medusa stage in their life cycle, as they exist solely as polyps.

This class is divided into two main subclasses: Hexacorallia (also known as Zoantharia) and Octocorallia (also known as Alcyonaria). The primary differences between these subclasses lie in the structure of their polyps and the composition of their skeletons.

1. Hexacorallia: These are commonly referred to as 'stony' or 'hard' corals, due to their calcium carbonate-based skeletons. They have a simple polyp structure with six-fold symmetry (hence the name Hexacorallia), featuring 6 tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Hexacorallia include reef-building corals, sea fans, and black corals.
2. Octocorallia: These are also called 'soft' corals or 'leather' corals because they lack a calcium carbonate skeleton. Instead, their supporting structures consist of proteins and other organic compounds. Octocorallia polyps exhibit eight-fold symmetry (hence the name Octocorallia), with eight tentacles around the mouth opening. Examples of Octocorallia include sea fans, sea whips, and blue corals.

Anthozoa species are primarily found in tropical and subtropical oceans, but some can be found in colder, deeper waters as well. They play a crucial role in marine ecosystems by providing habitats and shelter for various other marine organisms, particularly on coral reefs. Additionally, they contribute to the formation of limestone deposits through their calcium carbonate-based skeletons.

Dietary calcium is a type of calcium that is obtained through food sources. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, including bone formation and maintenance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

The recommended daily intake of dietary calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, the recommended daily intake for adults aged 19-50 is 1000 mg, while women over 50 and men over 70 require 1200 mg per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt; leafy green vegetables like broccoli and kale; fortified cereals and juices; and certain types of fish, such as salmon and sardines. It is important to note that some foods can inhibit the absorption of calcium, including oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb, and phytates found in whole grains and legumes.

If a person is unable to get enough calcium through their diet, they may need to take calcium supplements. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, as excessive intake of calcium can lead to negative health effects.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Invertebrates" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a vast group of animals that do not have a vertebral column or spinal cord. This includes creatures such as insects, worms, starfish, and shellfish, among many others. They are classified as invertebrates because they lack a backbone, which is a characteristic of vertebrates, or animals that include humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Plankton is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of marine biology. Plankton are tiny organisms that live in water and are unable to move independently against the current or tide. They include both plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton). Phytoplankton are photosynthetic and serve as the base of the ocean food chain, while zooplankton consume phytoplankton and in turn serve as a food source for larger animals. Plankton are important for understanding the health and productivity of aquatic ecosystems.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Polyamines are organic compounds with more than one amino group (-NH2) and at least one carbon atom bonded to two or more amino groups. They are found in various tissues and fluids of living organisms and play important roles in many biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Polyamines are also involved in the regulation of ion channels and transporters, DNA replication and gene expression. The most common polyamines found in mammalian cells are putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. They are derived from the decarboxylation of amino acids such as ornithine and methionine. Abnormal levels of polyamines have been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands due to hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood). This condition is usually a result of chronic kidney disease, where the kidneys fail to convert vitamin D into its active form, leading to decreased absorption of calcium in the intestines. The body responds by increasing PTH production to maintain normal calcium levels, but over time, this results in high PTH levels and associated complications such as bone disease, kidney stones, and cardiovascular calcification.

Hypercalcemia is a medical condition characterized by an excess of calcium ( Ca2+ ) in the blood. While the normal range for serum calcium levels is typically between 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) or 2.14 to 2.55 mmol/L (millimoles per liter), hypercalcemia is generally defined as a serum calcium level greater than 10.5 mg/dL or 2.6 mmol/L.

Hypercalcemia can result from various underlying medical disorders, including primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy (cancer), certain medications, granulomatous diseases, and excessive vitamin D intake or production. Symptoms of hypercalcemia may include fatigue, weakness, confusion, memory loss, depression, constipation, nausea, vomiting, increased thirst, frequent urination, bone pain, and kidney stones. Severe or prolonged hypercalcemia can lead to serious complications such as kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and calcification of soft tissues. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

Crystallization is a process in which a substance transitions from a liquid or dissolved state to a solid state, forming a crystal lattice. In the medical context, crystallization can refer to the formation of crystals within the body, which can occur under certain conditions such as changes in pH, temperature, or concentration of solutes. These crystals can deposit in various tissues and organs, leading to the formation of crystal-induced diseases or disorders.

For example, in patients with gout, uric acid crystals can accumulate in joints, causing inflammation, pain, and swelling. Similarly, in nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), minerals in the urine can crystallize and form stones that can obstruct the urinary tract. Crystallization can also occur in other medical contexts, such as in the formation of dental calculus or plaque, and in the development of cataracts in the eye.

Cell polarity refers to the asymmetric distribution of membrane components, cytoskeleton, and organelles in a cell. This asymmetry is crucial for various cellular functions such as directed transport, cell division, and signal transduction. The plasma membrane of polarized cells exhibits distinct domains with unique protein and lipid compositions that define apical, basal, and lateral surfaces of the cell.

In epithelial cells, for example, the apical surface faces the lumen or external environment, while the basolateral surface interacts with other cells or the extracellular matrix. The establishment and maintenance of cell polarity are regulated by various factors including protein complexes, lipids, and small GTPases. Loss of cell polarity has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

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... cationic block copolymers for the delivery of nucleic acids into a cell (known today as "polyplexes") and developed core-shell ... "Effects of pluronic P85 unimers and micelles on drug permeability in polarized BBMEC and Caco-2 cells". Pharmaceutical Research ... foreign nucleic acid transfer from macrophages to muscle cells and gene expression in the muscle tissue. His papers and ... hypersensitization of multidrug resistant cancer cells, increased drug permeability across brain microvessel endothelial and ...
J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 292 (1): C332-41. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00634.2005. PMID 16956961. v t e (Articles with short ... "Regulation of the human taurine transporter by TNF-alpha and an anti-inflammatory function of taurine in human intestinal Caco- ... 1992). "Molecular cloning of the cDNA for an MDCK cell Na(+)- and Cl(−)-dependent taurine transporter that is regulated by ... Han X, Patters AB, Chesney RW (2002). "Transcriptional repression of taurine transporter gene (TauT) by p53 in renal cells". J ...
... inhibits the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell line In Vitro". Phytotherapy Research. 21 (8): 757-761. doi:10.1002/ptr.2159. ... "Anti-Cancer Activity of Gedunin by Induction of Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer AGS Cells". Applied Biochemistry and ... 15 (2): 201-209. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(86)90156-X. PMID 3520157. Mitsui, Kumiko; Saito, Hiroaki; Yamamura, Ryota; Fukaya, ...
"Human myeloid dendritic cells treated with supernatants of rotavirus infected Caco-2 cells induce a poor Th1 response". ... Most immune cells (or leukocytes) secrete TGF-β1. Some T cells (e.g. regulatory T cells) release TGF-β1 to inhibit the actions ... It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including the control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell ... However, as with other cell types, TGF-β1 can also have the opposite effect on cells of myeloid origin. For example, TGF-β1 ...
"Transport and metabolism of flavonoids from Chinese herbal remedy Xiaochaihu-tang across human intestinal Caco-2 cell ...
A method for high-throughput Caco-2 permeability screening of drug candidates has been developed using thirteen generic drugs ... High-throughput caco-2 cell permeability screening by cassette dosing and sample pooling approaches using direct injection/on- ... A method for high-throughput Caco-2 permeability screening of drug candidates has been developed using thirteen generic drugs ... However, the apparent permeability coefficients of the test drugs across Caco-2 monolayers measured by the sample pooling or ...
Cell culture models such as TC7 provide qualitative information on drug interactions involving intestinal CYP3A and Pgp. ... Caco-2p) cell monolayers using RT-PCR. The CYP3A kinetics was determined in microsomes from both cell lines. The transport, ... Results: Both TC7 and Caco-2p cells expressed mRNA for Pgp and several important CYPs. However, mRNA for CYP3A4 was detectable ... Conclusions: Cell culture models such as TC7 provide qualitative information on drug interactions involving intestinal CYP3A ...
Monocarboxylate Transporter-Mediated Transport of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. Wing Ki Lam, Melanie ... Monocarboxylate Transporter-Mediated Transport of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. Wing Ki Lam, Melanie ... Monocarboxylate Transporter-Mediated Transport of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. Wing Ki Lam, Melanie ... Monocarboxylate Transporter-Mediated Transport of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells ...
Cell Culture Techniques, Cell Survival:drug effects, Diffusion, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Intestinal Absorption, ... OBJECTIVES: The Caco-2 cell monolayer model is widely used as a standard screening tool for studying the mechanisms of cellular ... METHODS: Caffeine transport (0.1, 0.3, 1 and 10 mmol/l) was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer in apical to basolateral (AP-BL) ... Caco-2 cells and Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) for prediction of transepithelial transport of xenobiotics (model ...
Inhibition of Candida albicans kex delta CNA1 mutant adhesion to the Caco-2 cell line. ...
... a commonly used gastrointestinal cell line, and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293), an epithelial immortalised cell line. Caco-2 ... Cell culture. The Caco-2 and HEK-293 cell lines used in the study were obtained from Highveld Biologicals (Pty) Ltd., ... Cell numbers (percent of control) for the Caco-2 and HEK-293 cells are shown for each oil concentration. The assays were ... Cell numbers (percent of control) for the Caco-2 and HEK-293 cells are shown for each oil concentration. The assays were ...
Evidence for an enhancing effect of alginate on iron availability in Caco-2 cells. Anna A Wawer, Paul A Sharp, Natalia Perez- ... Evidence for an enhancing effect of alginate on iron availability in Caco-2 cells. / Wawer, Anna A; Sharp, Paul A; Perez-Moral ... Evidence for an enhancing effect of alginate on iron availability in Caco-2 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. ... Cell monolayers were exposed to alginates with various mannuronic to guluronic acid ratios at three different concentrations, ...
Ainslie Lab , 4229 Marsico Hall , 125 Mason Farm Road , Chapel Hill, NC 27599. ...
Effects of lymphocytes, macrophages and microparticles on tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cells ... Effects of lymphocytes, macrophages and microparticles on tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cells ...
... goblet cells, transit amplifying cells, paneth cells and intestinal stem cells. Over time, the characteristics of the cells ... Hidalgo IJ, Raub TJ, Borchardt RT (March 1989). "Characterization of the human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) as a model ... Pinto M (1983). "Enterocyte-like differentiation and polarization of the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 in culture". ... Transwell diagram Cell culture Drug development Pre-clinical development PAMPA - a non cell-based permeability assay Lea, Tor ( ...
Return to Article Details Caco-2 cells monolayer as an in-vitro model for probiotic strain translocation Download Download PDF ...
Transport of Leuprolide across Rat Intestines, Rabbit Intestine and Caco-2 Cell Monolayer ... Rabbit Intestine and Caco-2 Cell Monolayer. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 278. ISSN 0378-5173 ...
in Caco-2 Cell Model. Bioorg.Med Chem Lett 2-15-2007;17:1107-1111. View abstract. ... Overholser, C. D., Meiller, T. F., DePaola, L. G., Minah, G. E., and Niehaus, C. Comparative effects of 2 chemotherapeutic ... Eucalyptus microcorys leaf extract derived HPLC-fraction reduces the viability of MIA PaCa-2 cells by inducing apoptosis and ... arresting cell cycle. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;105:449-460. View abstract.. *Soonwera M, Wongnet O, Sittichok S. Ovicidal ...
The effect of nicotine in vitro on the integrity of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology ... The effect of nicotine in vitro on the integrity of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Food and Chemical Toxicology. ... The effect of nicotine in vitro on the integrity of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers. / McGilligan, Victoria; Wallace ... The integrity of Caco-2 tight junctions was analysed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and by ...
This work thus demonstrated a possible competition between LGG adhesion to MFGM and to epithelial intestinal cells. This ... Adhesive interactions between milk fat globule membrane and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG inhibit bacterial attachment to Caco-2 ... the presence of MFGM in the dairy matrix was found to decrease significantly the bacterial attachment ability to Caco-2 TC7 ... competition could negatively impact the adhesion capacity of LGG to intestinal cells in vivo, but requires further ...
... and protective effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae peptide fractions against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells. ...
T1 - The expression of most UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) is increased significantly during Caco-2 cell differentiation, ... The expression of most UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) is increased significantly during Caco-2 cell differentiation, ... The expression of most UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) is increased significantly during Caco-2 cell differentiation, ... title = "The expression of most UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) is increased significantly during Caco-2 cell ...
... cells. Confluent C2 cells expressing NHE2 and NHE3 were treated with IFN-γ for 2, 24, and 48 h. Adult rats were injected with ... IFN-γ downregulates expression of Na+/H+ exchangers NHE2 and NHE3 in rat intestine and human Caco-2/bbe cells. / Rocha, Flavio ... cells. Confluent C2 cells expressing NHE2 and NHE3 were treated with IFN-γ for 2, 24, and 48 h. Adult rats were injected with ... cells. Confluent C2 cells expressing NHE2 and NHE3 were treated with IFN-γ for 2, 24, and 48 h. Adult rats were injected with ...
Return to Article Details Protective Effects of Punicalagin on Caco-2 Intestine Cell Line under Oxidative Stress Caused by Tert ...
The Caco-2 cell monolayer model is a popular surrogate in predicting the in vitro human intestinal permeability of a drug due ... N2 - The Caco-2 cell monolayer model is a popular surrogate in predicting the in vitro human intestinal permeability of a drug ... AB - The Caco-2 cell monolayer model is a popular surrogate in predicting the in vitro human intestinal permeability of a drug ... abstract = "The Caco-2 cell monolayer model is a popular surrogate in predicting the in vitro human intestinal permeability of ...
When the chlorella was microfluidized at the pressure of over 10,000 psi, the disruption of cell surface in chlorella was ... Effect of Chlorella Pulverization by Microfluidization on Lutein Micellization in Vitro and Uptake by Caco-2 Cells. Authors. ... chlorella; lutein; microfluidization; bioavailability; in vitro digestion; micellization; Caco-2 cells. Issue Date. 2011-06. ... Effect of Chlorella Pulverization by Microfluidization on Lutein Micellization in Vitro and Uptake by Caco-2 Cells ...
... the apparent permeability of MC-RR across a differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer was investigated. We observed a ... from 2 to 37 × 10−8 cm·s−1). Our results suggested that MC-RR would be poorly absorbed orally. As similar low permeability was ... microcystin-RR Caco-2 cells intestinal permeability cyanotoxin toxicology toxicologic test toxin caco-2 cell pharmacokinetic ... Permeability of the Cyanotoxin Microcystin-RR across a Caco-2 Cells Monolayer. Toxins, 2021, 13 (3), pp.178. ⟨10.3390/ ...
Transepithelial glycylsarcosine transport in intestinal Caco-2 cells mediated by expression of H+-coupled carriers at both ...
K-ATPase expression and activity in two epithelial cell culture lines, Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 cells. RNA ... K-ATPase expression and activity in two epithelial cell culture lines, Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 cells. RNA ... K-ATPase expression and activity in two epithelial cell culture lines, Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 cells. RNA ... K-ATPase expression and activity in two epithelial cell culture lines, Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 cells. RNA ...
Methods: The uptake rate of vigabatrin was measured in Caco-2 cells at pH 6.0 or 7.4 for 15 min after application of 0.1 - 25.0 ... Results: The uptake rate of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells was pH-dependent. The uptake of vigabatrin was saturable at pH 6.0 with ... The aim of the project was to identify if transporters are involved in cellular uptake of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells.. ... The inhibitory effect of selected amino acids and -derivatives on the apical vigabatrin uptake in Caco-2 cells was investigated ...
Caco-2 cells are models of absorptive enterocytes. The net transport of fluid from apical to basolateral surfaces results in ... N2 - Caco-2 cells are models of absorptive enterocytes. The net transport of fluid from apical to basolateral surfaces results ... AB - Caco-2 cells are models of absorptive enterocytes. The net transport of fluid from apical to basolateral surfaces results ... abstract = "Caco-2 cells are models of absorptive enterocytes. The net transport of fluid from apical to basolateral surfaces ...
Cell Culture.. Caco-2 cells were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and grown in Dulbeccos ... LLC-PK1 cells (porcine kidney epithelial cell line) and LLC-GA5-COL300 cells (a transformant cell line derived by transfecting ... 105 for LLC-PK1 cells and 3.125 × 105 for LLC-GA5-COL300 cells. The cells were grown for 3 days, and the culture medium was ... vinblastine uptake by LLC-PK1 cells and LLC-GA5-COL300 cells. In LLC-PK1 cells, the uptake of [3H]vinblastine at steady state ...
... analysed by ICP-MS in a long-term Caco-2 TC7 cell model. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Furthermore, this accumulation was more marked in cells exposed long-term to cadmium compared with controls, and that this ... Results showed that Caco-2 TC7 cells incubated long-term with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 micromol Cd/l for 5 ... Results showed that Caco-2 TC7 cells incubated long-term with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 micromol Cd/l for 5 ...
Ablation of DNMT3A in Caco-2 cells results in global DNA hypomethylation, which is linked to impaired regenerative capacity, ... Genetic deletion of Dnmt3a in intestinal epithelial cells (Dnmt3aΔIEC) in mice confirms the phenotype of an altered epithelial ... DNMT3A expression is downregulated in intestinal epithelial cells from IBD patients and upon tumor necrosis factor treatment in ... ultrastructure with shortened apical-junctional complexes, reduced Goblet cell numbers and increased intestinal permeability in ...
  • However, the apparent permeability coefficients of the test drugs across Caco-2 monolayers measured by the sample pooling or cassette dosing (up to five drugs co-administered in this study) strategy were in good conformity with the data obtained by single-drug dosing followed by discrete sample analysis. (
  • To further characterize cytochrome P450 (CYP) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression in monolayers of the Caco-2 cell clone TC7, a cell culture model of the human intestinal epithelium. (
  • mRNA expression of eight CYPs and Pgp was investigated in TC7 and parental Caco-2 (Caco-2p) cell monolayers using RT-PCR. (
  • Cell monolayers were exposed to alginates with various mannuronic to guluronic acid ratios at three different concentrations, and cellular ferritin was measured as a surrogate marker of iron uptake into the cell. (
  • A correlation between the in vitro apparent permeability across Caco-2 monolayers and the in vivo fraction absorbed has been reported. (
  • The aim of this study was thus to determine the effect of nicotine, the major constituent in cigarettes and its metabolites on the integrity of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers. (
  • C. jejuni caused no changes in short-circuit current upon infection of Caco-2 cell monolayers in Ussing chambers. (
  • C. jejuni infection of fluid-transporting ('doming') Caco-2 cells resulted in a significant reduction in dome number, which correlated with a decrease in tight junction integrity in infected monolayers, when measured as transepithelial electrical resistance. (
  • C. jejuni also altered the distribution of the tight junction protein occludin within cell monolayers. (
  • Thus, tight junction integrity is required for fluid transport in Caco-2 cell monolayers as leaky tight junctions cannot maintain support of transported fluid at the basolateral surface of infected cell monolayers. (
  • 1 Monolayers of Caco‐2 cells, a transformed cell line derived from human colorectal carcinoma, have been widely used by pharmaceutical companies as a standard intestinal barrier model for the prediction of intestinal permeability for drug candidates. (
  • The cell monolayers also displayed tight junctions and electrical resistance. (
  • Inhibitory effects of Galega officinalis on glucose transport across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). (
  • Effects of nonionic surfactants on membrane transporters in Caco-2 cell monolayers. (
  • The Caco-2 cell monolayer model is widely used as a standard screening tool for studying the mechanisms of cellular drug transport. (
  • Caffeine transport (0.1, 0.3, 1 and 10 mmol/l) was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer in apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral to apical (BL-AP) direction, under iso-pH 7.4 and pH-gradient (6/7.4) conditions. (
  • Caco-2 cells may be used as a confluent monolayer on a cell culture insert filter (e.g. (
  • In this format, Caco-2 cells form a polarized epithelial cell monolayer that provides a physical and biochemical barrier to the passage of ions and small molecules. (
  • The Caco-2 monolayer can be used as an in vitro model of the human small intestinal mucosa to predict the absorption of orally administered drugs. (
  • The Caco-2 cell monolayer model is a popular surrogate in predicting the in vitro human intestinal permeability of a drug due to its morphological and functional similarity with human enterocytes. (
  • As intestinal permeability is a key parameter of oral toxicokinetics, the apparent permeability of MC-RR across a differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer was investigated. (
  • Nonheme eiron bioavailability was assessed by Caco-2 cell monolayer 59Fe uptake using an extrinsic labeling method. (
  • Polarized caco-2 cells express tight junctions, microvilli, and a number of enzymes and transporters that are characteristic of such enterocytes: peptidases, esterases, P-glycoprotein, uptake transporters for amino acids, bile acids, carboxylic acids, etc. (
  • The aim of the project was to identify if transporters are involved in cellular uptake of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells. (
  • Methods: The uptake rate of vigabatrin was measured in Caco-2 cells at pH 6.0 or 7.4 for 15 min after application of 0.1 - 25.0 mM vigabatrin. (
  • The inhibitory effect of selected amino acids and -derivatives on the apical vigabatrin uptake in Caco-2 cells was investigated. (
  • Results: The uptake rate of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells was pH-dependent. (
  • The presences of hPAT1 ligands significantly inhibited the uptake of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells at pH 6.0, whereas hPAT1 non-ligands did not. (
  • The uptake of [ 3 H]vinblastine, a substrate of P-gp, by Caco-2 cells was measured. (
  • No significant effect on the uptake of 3- O -[ 3 H]methylglucose or [ 14 C]phenylalanine by Caco-2 cells was found, compared with the control. (
  • The ethyl acetate extract of orange juice and these methoxyflavones also increased steady-state [ 3 H]vinblastine uptake by LLC-GA5-COL300 cells (a cell line transfected with human MDR1 cDNA). (
  • Poor relationship between Caco-2 permeability and log Ko/w r2 = 0.097 THESE THEORIES OF DRUG UPTAKE WERE BIOPHYSICAL, 'LIPID-ONLY' THEORIES Corti et al. (
  • The team assessed the bioavailability of minerals in vitro based on gastrointestinal simulations concerning food digestion, and the mineral uptake was evaluated by exposing the human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cell line to the burger samples. (
  • Although derived from a colon (large intestine) carcinoma, when cultured under specific conditions the cells become differentiated and polarized such that their phenotype, morphologically and functionally, resembles the enterocytes lining the small intestine. (
  • Microscopically, Caco-2 cell cultures show obvious heterogeneity likely reflecting the complex mixture of cells found in the epithelial lining of the large and small intestine i.e. enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, transit amplifying cells, paneth cells and intestinal stem cells. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic stimulation of intestinal mucosa by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) affects expression and function of the apical membrane Na + /H + exchangers NHE2 and NHE3 in rat intestine and Caco-2/bbe (C2) cells. (
  • Additionally, all three sweeteners caused the pathogenic gut bacteria to invade Caco-2 cells found in the wall of the intestine, with the exception of saccharin which had no significant effect on E. coli ​ invasion. (
  • We therefore undertook a preliminary screening study of the three IFBTS seed oils in vitro using human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2), a commonly used gastrointestinal cell line, and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293), an epithelial immortalised cell line. (
  • In this study, the bioavailability of lutein from chlorella during chlorella digestion was evaluated by using the coupled in vitro digestion and human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. (
  • In vitro characterization revealed that the strains tolerate gastric and bile challenges and display a great adhesion capacity to human intestinal cells. (
  • Use of transporter knockdown Caco-2 cells to investigate the in vitro efflux of statin drugs. (
  • Their pathogenicity and changes in interactions with Caco-2 cells were measured using in vitro studies. (
  • Caco-2 cells and Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) for prediction of transepithelial transport of xenobiotics (model drug: caffeine). (
  • Smetanova I, Stetinova E, Kholova A, Kvetina A, Smetana A, Svoboda B, Caco-2 cells and Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) for prediction of transepithelial transport of xenobiotics (model drug: caffeine). (
  • Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells were maintained and treated with various concentrations (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120 mg/l) of K. africana, M. zehyeri and X. caffra seed oil. (
  • Caco-2 (from Cancer coli, "colon cancer") is an immortalized cell line of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. (
  • Genetic deletion of Dnmt3a in intestinal epithelial cells ( Dnmt3a ΔIEC ) in mice confirms the phenotype of an altered epithelial ultrastructure with shortened apical-junctional complexes, reduced Goblet cell numbers and increased intestinal permeability in the colon in vivo. (
  • 2013. Epigenetic inactivation of endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 in colon cancer. . (
  • Cytotoxic effects of five compounds (flavopiridol, loperamide, paracetamol, ketoprofen and alosetron) on human colon organoids using the CellTiter-Glo ® 3D Cell Viability Reagent. (
  • Here we demonstrate the use of highly-characterized human iPS cell-derived colon organoids as an alternative cell model for traditional Caco-2 cell drug toxicity assays for drug screening applications. (
  • 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina In the present work, we examined the role of ATP in the activation of the MAP kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 and their involvement in the modulation of transcription factors and proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells. (
  • These findings provide new molecular basis for further understanding the mechanisms involved in ATP functions, as a signal transducer and activator of MAP kinase cascades, in Caco-2 cells derived from human colon adenocarcinoma. (
  • Transport of ambroxol (100, 300 and 1000 µmol/l) was studied in a human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 in apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical direction, under iso-pH 7.4 and pH-gradient (6 vs. 7.4) conditions. (
  • Breast, colon, and ovarian cancer cell lines were maintained under ATCC recommended growth conditions. (
  • Therefore, we studied global gene expression by an extensive time series (0.08, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h) analyses in human colon cancer (caco-2) cells after exposure to H(2)O(2) or the superoxide anion donor menadione . (
  • However, irrespective of the loaded concentration and exposure time, the permeabilities were very low from apical to basolateral compartments (from 4 to 15 × 10−8 cm·s−1) and from basolateral to apical compartments (from 2 to 37 × 10−8 cm·s−1). (
  • Cells displayed many of the properties that characterize enterocytes, such as apical microvilli, basolateral basement membrane, and glycogen. (
  • The integrity of Caco-2 tight junctions was analysed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and by tracing the flux of the fluorescent marker fluorescein, after treatment with various concentrations of nicotine or nicotine metabolites over 48 h. (
  • The asymmetric distribution of the Na,K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of epithelial cells is essential to the establishment of the transepithelial Na + gradient that supports the vectorial transport of ions and solutes. (
  • Ablation of DNMT3A in Caco-2 cells results in global DNA hypomethylation, which is linked to impaired regenerative capacity, transepithelial resistance and intercellular junction formation. (
  • In this study, we determined the effects of the Kigelia africana, the Mimusops zeyheri and the Ximenia caffra seed-oil on cell proliferation in culture. (
  • The suppression of Caco-2 and HEK-293 cell proliferation by K. africana, M. zeyheri and X. caffra seed oils suggest a potential antiproliferative effect of these tree seed oils on the two cell lines. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of K. africana, M. zeyheri and X. caffra seed oils on Caco-2 and HEK-293 cell proliferation. (
  • For apoptotic inducing activity, human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cell proliferation, chromosomal DNA degradation and changes in apoptosis-related protein levels were measured. (
  • Ellagic acid significantly reduced HOS cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis evidenced by chromosomal DNA degradation and apoptotic body appearance. (
  • In the synthetic niche, interactions with the functionalized scaffold are expected to provide the signals needed for T-cell activation (with or without antigen specificity), lineage selection, proliferation, and survival. (
  • We demonstrate, by confocal microscopy, that stimulation of Caco-2 cells with ATP results in the translocation of active MAPKs to the nucleous where they induce the expression of c-Fos and Jun family proteins, the phosphorylation of ATF-1, ATF-2 and JunD transcription factors and stimulate Caco-2 cell proliferation. (
  • Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa L), has proven to be a modulator of multiple intercellular signalling pathways linked to inflammation, to proliferation, growth, invasion, drug sensitivity, angiogenesis and metastasis of cancer cells. (
  • We've got beforehand proven that Cd induces ERK1/2 activation in differentiated however not proliferative human enterocytic-like Caco-2 cells. (
  • These pathogenic changes include greater formation of biofilms and increased adhesion and invasion of bacteria into human gut cells. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether multiwalled carbon nanotube s (MWNCT) are taken up by and are toxic to human intestinal enterocytes using the Caco-2 cell model. (
  • Secretion of IL-2 by activated T-cells induces an autocrine- and paracrine-induced proliferative effect on adjacent T-cells. (
  • Global gene expression analysis reveals differences in cellular responses to hydroxyl- and superoxide anion radical-induced oxidative stress in caco-2 cells. (
  • To investigate the changes that occur during the development of polarity, we have characterized Na,K-ATPase expression and activity in two epithelial cell culture lines, Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 cells. (
  • Epithelial Cell Biology , 4 (1), 17-24. (
  • Several functional components of the epithelium contribute to this unique role, among them the secretion of a mucus layer and life-long regeneration of the different epithelial cell types from a stem cell compartment, allowing for quick repair of barrier defects 2 . (
  • K. africana oil significantly suppressed Caco-2 cell growth compared to HEK-293 cell growth at all oil concentrations, whereas M. zeyheri and X. caffra seed oils significantly suppressed HEK-293 and Caco-2 cell growth, only at a concentration of 80 mg/l. (
  • Ferritin concentrations were significantly higher when the cells were treated with ferric ammonium citrate and 0.5 and 1% w/v (but not 0.1%) alginate, but were unaffected by mannuronic/guluronic acid ratios. (
  • Moreover, the presence of MFGM in the dairy matrix was found to decrease significantly the bacterial attachment ability to Caco-2 TC7 cells. (
  • Finally, an exploratory, observational, pilot study involving 36 infants diagnosed with at least one FGID (infant colic and/or functional constipation) showed the probiotic formula was well tolerated and FGID severity was significantly reduced after 14 days of treatment with the 2 strains. (
  • SOD, CAT and GPX activities were significantly increased in ellagic acid-treated V79-4 cells. (
  • This work thus demonstrated a possible competition between LGG adhesion to MFGM and to epithelial intestinal cells. (
  • This competition could negatively impact the adhesion capacity of LGG to intestinal cells in vivo, but requires further substantiation. (
  • The two strains mediate adhesion by different mechanisms and, when combined, synergically induce the expression of Caco-2 tight junction proteins. (
  • Prominent among the molecular adhesion components are integrins (β1 and β2), that mediate the interactions of a variety of immune cells to extracellular matrices, and to other immune cells, respectively. (
  • The study found concentrations of all three artificial sweeteners equivalent to two cans of diet soft drink, could increase the adhesion of E. coli and E. faecalis to intestinal Caco-2 cells, and increase biofilm formation. (
  • Caco-2 cells are models of absorptive enterocytes. (
  • Inhibition of absorptive cell function, changes in epithelial resistance and rearrangement of tight junctional proteins such as occludin represent a potential diarrhoeal mechanism of C. jejuni. (
  • Everest, Paul H. / Campylobacter jejuni inhibits the absorptive transport functions of Caco-2 cells and disrupts cellular tight junctions . (
  • Animal-derived oils and purified fatty acids, but not indigenous fruit-tree-derived seed oils, have been used to study cell growth and differentiation. (
  • NHE2 and NHE3 activities were measured by unidirectional 22 Na influx across C2 cells and in rat brush-border membrane vesicles. (
  • Mechanisms of toxicity include inhibition of enzyme activity and protein synthesis, alterations in nucleic acid function, and changes in cell membrane permeability. (
  • Poor correlation between Caco-2 cells and artificial membrane (PAMPA) assays Note axis scales Balimane et al. (
  • Compared with the reported QSAR/QSPR models about Caco-2 cell permeability, our model exhibits certain advantage in database size and prediction accuracy to some extent. (
  • American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology , 280 (5 49-5), C1224-C1232. (
  • 2 Despite their convenience and accessibility, Caco-2 cells have a single homogeneous phenotype, and therefore fail to recapitulate lineage development into the diverse cell phenotypes that constitute the physiology of the native intestinal epithelium, leading to inconclusive experimental results. (
  • The patient is further monitored for IBD, especially because preliminary experiments showed a Caco-2 cell cycle arrest after incubation with the H. trogontum isolate and this effect may be involved in the early stage of IBD. (
  • In this work, we analyze expression patterns of DNMT3A in patients with IBD, perform loss of function experiments using Caco-2 cell line and generate a conditional Dnmt3a ΔIEC mouse line. (
  • Wild-type and St2 −/− mice were used in wound healing experiments and in two experimental models of IBD triggered by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid or dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). (
  • Caco-2 cells were exposed to 50 µg/ml MWCNT (oxidized or pristine) for 24 h, and experiments were repeated in the presence of 2.5 mg/L natural organic matter. (
  • Further evaluation revealed that ellagic acid was a potent antiestrogen in MCF-7 breast cancer-derived cells, increasing, like the pure estrogen antagonist ICI182780, IGFBP-3 levels. (
  • Myeloma cancer cell responding to shear flow (by scanning electron microscope). (
  • The potential use of alginates as a vehicle for water-soluble (bioavailable) iron for fortifying food products was examined using a Caco-2 cell model system. (
  • The best Boosting model was obtained finally with R 2 = 0.97, RMSE F = 0.12, Q 2 = 0.83, RMSE CV = 0.31 for the training set and R T 2 = 0.81, RMSE T = 0.31 for the test set. (
  • Our study was conducted 1) to characterize the mechanisms of caffeine transport across the intestinal barrier, 2) to classify caffeine according to BCS, 3) to predict drugs intestinal absorption in humans. (
  • Despite such heterogeneity, Caco-2 cells are used in cell invasion studies, viral transfection research, and lipid transport. (
  • Epithelial transport of drugs in cell culture. (
  • Caco-2 cells are known to form tight junctions ( 13 - 14 ), have structural properties similar to those of ileal enterocytes ( 15 ) and are hence useful models as they mimic the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Our study suggests that intestinal enterocytes cells do not take up MWCNT. (
  • The HEK-293 cell line has been used extensively ( 16 - 17 ) as a laboratory work-horse in several cell culture studies. (
  • RT-PCR studies and PCR product sequencing supported the expression of P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors in this cell line. (
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) specific inhibitor AG1478 decreased ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation by ATP, suggesting that EGFR transactivation is important for ATP-mediated stimulation of MAPKs in this intestinal cell line. (
  • Results showed that Caco-2 TC7 cells incubated long-term with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 micromol Cd/l for 5 weeks exhibited a significant increase in cadmium accumulation. (
  • Cells co-transfected with an estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase (Luc) reporter gene and an ERalpha- or ERbeta-expression vector were exposed to graded concentrations of ellagic acid. (
  • The team used models of microbiota ( E. coli ​ NCTC10418 and E. faecalis ​ ATCC19433) and the intestinal epithelium (Caco-2 cells), that were exposed to concentrations of saccharin, sucralose, and aspartame. (
  • Cell culture models such as TC7 provide qualitative information on drug interactions involving intestinal CYP3A and Pgp. (
  • Evaluation of the interactions between multiwalled carbon nanotube s and Caco-2 cells. (
  • Over time, the characteristics of the cells used in different laboratories have diverged, introducing inter-laboratory variation. (
  • Metabolism of carbohydrates and fats generates 15,000 to 20,000 mmol of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) daily. (
  • DNMT3A expression is downregulated in intestinal epithelial cells from IBD patients and upon tumor necrosis factor treatment in murine intestinal organoids. (
  • Stem cell- and tissue- derived organoids have more complex 3D tissue-like architecture and structure. (
  • Incubate organoids for 1 day at 37 °C, 5% CO 2 . (
  • Interestingly, α1 and β1 message increases in MDCK cells with the development of polarity, yet there is little change in the amount of protein for either subunit. (
  • In addition, the protein content in the Caco-2 cell lysate was determined using bovine serum albumin as a reference. (
  • Next to gene expression , correlations with related phenotypic markers ( 8-oxodG levels and cell cycle arrest ) were investigated. (
  • Spectrofluorimetric measurements showed that cell stimulation with ATP induced transient elevations in intracellular calcium concentration. (
  • In addition, western blot analysis revealed that ATP-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs in Caco-2 cells was dependent on calcium influx and intracellular calcium release, Src-family tyrosine kinases, and partially dependent on the cAMP/PKA and PKC pathways. (
  • The finding of higher calcium content in plant-based burgers than beef burgers followed the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) findings and could be due to the calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) incorporation in plant-based burgers to improve firmness and wheat flour fortification with calcium. (
  • Afin d'étudier l'effet de l'adoucissement de l'eau du robinet (extraction du calcium) sur les colorations à l'hématoxyline et à l'éosine, cinq (5) séries de lames issues de 30 blocs de tissus pathologiques humains différents inclus en paraffine ont été préparées de la même manière, sauf pour le lavage qui a été effectué avec cinq types d'eau différents. (
  • La teneur faible en ions calcium et magnésium et élevée en ions sodium de l'eau douce affecte négativement les résultats de la coloration de routine à l'hématoxyline-éosine. (
  • In these studies, we tailor extracellular nanopatterns that can provide specific stimulation of cytokines, and reduce the rate of cell death. (
  • Furthermore, we aim at creating conditions that will enable us to develop an effective ex vivo stimulation system, tailored for different subclasses of T cells, including helper CD4 + cells, cytotoxic (CD8 + ) T cells, and T regulatory (T-Reg) cells. (
  • Dispense 100 µL/well CellTiter-Glo ® 3D Cell Viability Reagent. (
  • Cell viability of five compounds were tested: two compounds (flavopiridol and loperamide) had negative effects on cell viability, three compounds (paracetamol, ketoprofen, alosetron) had no effects on cell viability. (
  • Endometrium-derived epithelial cells (Ishikawa) showed no response to the natural compound by using a cell viability assay (MTT). (
  • A method for high-throughput Caco-2 permeability screening of drug candidates has been developed using thirteen generic drugs as test compounds. (
  • RNA and immunoblot analysis of both cell lines demonstrate that only the α1 and β1 isoforms are expressed in nonpolarized and polarized cultures. (
  • Transwell diagram Cell culture Drug development Pre-clinical development PAMPA - a non cell-based permeability assay Lea, Tor (2015). (
  • Chronic exposure of intestinal epithelial cells to IFN-γresults in selective downregulation of NHE2 and NHE3 expression and activity, a potential cause of inflammation-associated diarrhea. (
  • The influence of long-term exposure to cadmium (Cd) on essential minerals was investigated using a Caco-2 TC7 cells and a multi-analytical tool: microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (
  • Furthermore, this accumulation was more marked in cells exposed long-term to cadmium compared with controls, and that this exposure resulted in a significant accumulation of copper and zinc but not of the other elements measured. (
  • These results demonstrate that the regulation of Na,K-ATPase α1 and β1 isoform expression is mediated by a combination of transcriptional and translational events during the development of polarity in both cell lines. (
  • Caco-2 cells labeled for tight junction molecule cingulin (green), actin (red), vinculin (pink) and DNA (blue). (
  • To study the interplay between CYP3A and Pgp as barriers to intestinal drug absorption in TC7 cells using terfenadine and its metabolites as substrates. (
  • It is concluded that the proton-coupled amino acid transporter hPAT1 is the main transporter responsible for absorption of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells. (
  • In contrast, α1 and β1 polypeptide expression increases in Caco-2 cells with the development of polarity, even though the amount of both transcripts decreases. (
  • Differences in gene expression were investigated by hybridization on two- color microarrays against nonexposed time -matched control cells . (
  • Gene expression analysis resulted in 1404 differentially expressed genes upon H(2)O(2) challenge and 979 genes after menadione treatment . (
  • Time -dependent coregulated genes immediately showed a pulse -like response to H(2)O(2), while the menadione -induced expression is not restored over 24 h. (
  • A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was carried out to predict Caco-2 cell permeability of a large data set consisting of 1272 compounds. (