One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.

Subregional hippocampal atrophy predicts Alzheimer's dementia in the cognitively normal. (1/273)

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Structural plasticity of dentate granule cell mossy fibers during the development of limbic epilepsy. (2/273)

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Ectopic growth of hippocampal mossy fibers in a mutated GAP-43 transgenic mouse with impaired spatial memory retention. (3/273)

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Nonlinear modeling of neural population dynamics for hippocampal prostheses. (4/273)

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Age-related changes in glutamate release in the CA3 and dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. (5/273)

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Estradiol and the relationship between dendritic spines, NR2B containing NMDA receptors, and the magnitude of long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. (6/273)

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Axonal sodium channel distribution shapes the depolarized action potential threshold of dentate granule neurons. (7/273)

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CA3 NMDA receptors are required for the rapid formation of a salient contextual representation. (8/273)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal reproducibility of automatically segmented hippocampal subfields. T2 - A multisite European 3T study on healthy elderly. AU - Marizzoni, Moira. AU - Antelmi, Luigi. AU - Bosch, Beatriz. AU - Bartrés-Faz, David. AU - Müller, Bernhard W.. AU - Wiltfang, Jens. AU - Fiedler, Ute. AU - Roccatagliata, Luca. AU - Picco, Agnese. AU - Nobili, Flavio. AU - Blin, Olivier. AU - Bombois, Stephanie. AU - Lopes, Renaud. AU - Sein, Julien. AU - Ranjeva, Jean Philippe. AU - Didic, Mira. AU - Gros-Dagnac, Hélène. AU - Payoux, Pierre. AU - Zoccatelli, Giada. AU - Alessandrini, Franco. AU - Beltramello, Alberto. AU - Bargalló, Núria. AU - Ferretti, Antonio. AU - Caulo, Massimo. AU - Aiello, Marco. AU - Cavaliere, Carlo. AU - Soricelli, Andrea. AU - Salvadori, Nicola. AU - Parnetti, Lucilla. AU - Tarducci, Roberto. AU - Floridi, Piero. AU - Tsolaki, Magda. AU - Constantinidis, Manos. AU - Drevelegas, Antonios. AU - Rossini, Paolo Maria. AU - Marra, Camillo. AU - Hoffmann, Karl ...
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The stratum lucidum reduces friction and shear forces between the surrounding layers of the epidermis. About.com explains that the stratum lucidum layer is only present in a few areas of the body...
Video created by デューク大学(Duke University) for the course Medical Neuroscience. It may surprise you to know that in all of our studies of the neural systems for sensation and action, we have yet to properly account for the organization and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yinying Chen, Caixiu Zhou, Yanan Yu, Jun Liu, Zhiwei Jing, Aiping Lv, Fanyun Meng, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang].
Ooh Ooh Ooh, They Finally Did It! This post is about a research article I knew existed because I know the authors and I reviewed it. I have just been waiting for it to come out so I could finally celebrate the work. This research finally looked explicitly at temporal processing in humans using a…
Position: PhD Student. Research focus: Understanding the functional diversity of hippocampal CA3 CCK+ interneurons. email: [email protected] CV. ...
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. It may surprise you to know that in all of our studies of the neural systems for sensation and action, we have yet to properly account for the organization and function of ...
LUniversité Saint-Esprit de Kaslik (USEK) est une institution catholique privée denseignement supérieur fondée en 1961 par lOrdre Libanais Maronite (OLM).
Order Brighten Your Day flower arrangement from San Mateo Florist, your local San Mateo, CA florist. Send Brighten Your Day floral arrangement throughout San Mateo and surrounding areas.
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در مخازن شکاف‌دار، میزان برداشت نفت به آشام خودبخودی آب در ماتریس و خارج ساختن نفت موجود در آن به سمت شکاف‌ها، بستگی دارد. اما این فرآیند زمانی امکان‌پذیر است که ماتریس بلوک‌ها، «آب‌تر» باشد. از آنجا که مخازن کربناته غالبا «نفت‌تر» می‌باشند، به کارگیری آشام خودبخودی در مخازن کربناته شکاف‌دار مستلزم تغییر ترشوندگی در حین عملیات سیلاب‌زنی می‌باشد. در این مقاله، تأثیر یون‌های مؤثر بر پتانسیل سطح (SO42- ،Ca2+ ،Mg2+) موجود در آب دریا در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته و همچنین تأثیر دما و غلظت نمک NaCl در فرآیند آشام خودبخودی مورد تحقیق تجربی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 13
Official Google Finance Help Center where you can find tips and tutorials on using Google Finance and other answers to frequently asked questions.
2020-4-1 · 10 Parameter Urine Test Strips - 100 Pack. Collect urine mid-stream using a collection container. Dip the strip into the sample for no longer than 2 seconds and remove any excess by wiping the test strip on the side of the container. Read the results after 60 seconds (for testing for Leukocytes, read after 90-120 seconds). What does uro mean on .... Get Price ...
Pattern separation is the process of transforming highly similar sensory inputs into distinct, dissimilar representations. It takes place in the hippocampus and is thought to be used in episodic memory. Impaired pattern separation performance has been recognized as a predictor for the development of cognitive impairments such as dementia in humans and as being present in patients with schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this protocol, we describe how to implement a simple and robust object pattern separation (OPS) task in mice and rats that we have previously established and validated. This two-trial memory task uses specific object locations so differences in performance can be calibrated with the extent of object movement. Changes in performance are indicative of spatial pattern separation. In contrast to other pattern separation tasks, the OPS task allows detection of spatial pattern separation performance bidirectionally. Furthermore, the OPS task is cheaper and easier to use
Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the
Over the last few years there has been increasing interest in behavioral pattern separation. This has primarily focused on spatial pattern separation in rats and mice or pattern separation of visual objects as evaluated in humans. What has been overlooked is a vast literature of temporal pattern separation extending into the early 1990s. The manuscript…
Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB) areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC...
The ICAM-1-positive vessels in the hippocampal CA1 in the control, 2VO, HL and HL + 2VO groups at 1, 2 and 4 months post-surgery. Scale bar: 20 µm.Values are e
Definition of olm in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of olm. What does olm mean? Information and translations of olm in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
1998 10 22.35003 02 17 47.55 +16 18 22.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 10 22.48311 02 17 46.87 +16 18 18.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 11 18.07069 02 15 27.92 +16 05 19.9 21.5R 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.14591 02 15 27.54 +16 05 17.6 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.23096 02 15 27.03 +16 05 15.2 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 12 14.83617 02 13 35.14 +15 53 37.6 22.7R 523955 950 Ca3601 1998 12 14.85345 02 13 35.07 +15 53 37.3 523955 950 Ca3601 1999 11 10.16227 02 22 34.50 +16 25 15.5 22.5R 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.18814 02 22 34.40 +16 25 14.7 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.24322 02 22 34.07 +16 25 12.9 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.31381 02 22 33.61 +16 25 10.7 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.37010 02 22 33.30 +16 25 09.0 22.7R 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.41551 02 22 33.04 +16 25 07.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.24109 02 22 28.74 +16 24 43.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.28637 02 22 28.51 +16 24 42.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.33656 02 22 28.17 +16 24 41.3 523955 696 Ca7321 2000 11 23.18416 02 27 52.14 +16 34 03.5 ...
1998 10 22.40628 03 08 48.43 +16 39 15.3 22.8R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 10 22.49369 03 08 47.93 +16 39 12.7 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.13535 03 06 18.37 +16 27 28.1 22.6R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.20454 03 06 18.00 +16 27 26.2 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 12 17.95527 03 03 45.48 +16 15 35.9 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.00257 03 03 45.30 +16 15 35.6 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.03799 03 03 45.12 +16 15 34.0 91205 950 Ca3601 1999 10 06.55934 03 17 46.28 +16 54 48.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.53349 03 17 33.50 +16 53 45.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.57011 03 17 33.32 +16 53 44.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.60427 03 17 33.15 +16 53 43.6 23.4R 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.63619 03 17 33.05 +16 53 42.9 23.3R 91205 568 Ca6740 2000 12 28.31163 03 18 17.672 +16 31 40.74 23.2R 91205 568 Cl4052 2000 12 28.38018 03 18 17.407 +16 31 39.64 23.0R 91205 568 Cl4052 2003 10 01.56099 03 48 19.49 +17 21 57.5 23.1R 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 10 01.59893 03 48 19.38 +17 21 56.8 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 12 21.158989 03 41 29.38 +16 54 ...
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The CA2 region of the mammalian hippocampus is a unique region with its own distinctive properties, inputs and pathologies. Disruption of inhibitory circuits in this region appears to be linked with the pathology of specific psychiatric disorders, promoting interest in its local circuitry, its role in hippocampal function and its dysfunction in disease. In previous studies, CA2 interneurons, including a novel subclass of CA2 dendrite-preferring interneurons that has not been identified in other CA regions, have been shown to display physiological, synaptic and morphological properties unique to this sub-field and may therefore play a crucial role in the hippocampal circuitry. The distributions of immuno-labeled interneurons in dorsal CA2 were studied and compared with those of interneurons in CA1 and CA3. Like those in CA1 and CA3, the somata of CA2 parvalbumin-immunoperoxidase-labeled interneurons were located primarily in Stratum Pyramidale (SP) and Stratum Oriens (SO), with very few cells in Stratum
A popular current view is that place fields are shaped by very specific prior experiences of animals. That is, memory (or memory retrieval) plays an important role in determining the way place fields ... More. A popular current view is that place fields are shaped by very specific prior experiences of animals. That is, memory (or memory retrieval) plays an important role in determining the way place fields respond to current sensory and behavioral information. This chapter considers a role for the hippocampus in memory in terms of the processes it contributes to a broader neural system. This perspective assumes that the hippocampus potentially contributes to multiple forms of learning and memory. The extent to which memory relies on hippocampal processing per se depends on the extent to which context discrimination (i.e., context-based pattern completion and pattern separation) is required to perform the task. This view contrasts with the traditional view of assigning specific types of memories ...
This paper reviews on results from a million-cell granule cell model of the rat dentate gyrus that was used to explore the efforts of local interneuronal and associational circuits to network-level activity. activity. Outcomes furthermore present that the topography of regional interneuronal circuits can possess simply as solid an influence on the advancement of spatio-temporal groupings in the granule cell inhabitants as the perforant route topography will, both sharpening existing groupings and presenting brand-new types with a better spatial level. Finally, outcomes present that the connections between the inhibitory and associational loops can trigger high regularity oscillations that are modulated by a low-frequency oscillatory sign. These outcomes serve to additional illustrate the importance of topographical restrictions on a global sign digesting feature of a sensory network, while also showing how wealthy spatio-temporal and oscillatory aspect can evolve from a fairly little amount ...
Some insight into the nature and inefficiency of linear polarization can be appreciated by considering the diagram below. Here you can see that a field like B1 (depicted as a big green arrow) oscillating at the resonance frequency (ωo) can be decomposed into two counterrotating subfields (red and blue arrows), each half as large. One of these subfields (red arrow) rotates in the same direction and frequency (ωo) as the spins undergoing NMR; the other subfield (blue arrow) rotates in the opposite direction and frequency (−ωo). Only the subfield associated with red arrow is effective at inducing net nuclear transitions and a change in net nuclear magnetization required for MRI. The other subfield is ineffective for NMR and serves only to deposit unwanted thermal energy into tissue. ...
Declaring the library to be a public forum, defined as an available public space where citizens communicate their ideas through the spoken word, Judge Sarokin declared it covered by the First Amendment. Moreover, a hygiene test has a disparate impact on the poor. In short, the library rules unreasonably frustrate, infringe, or obstruct the expressional and associational rights of individuals. In a classic expression of the vision of the anointed, Judge Sarokin lectured the community on its attitude toward the homeless: If we wish to shield our eyes and noses from the homeless, we should revoke their conditions, not their library cards. ...
الگوریتم دیکدینگ کروی با پیچیدگی کم برای دیکدینگ کد های فرکانس فضا در سیستم MIMO-OFDM سیستمهای مخابراتی بی سیم چند فرستنده چند گیرنده با مدولاسیون OFDM ، ) (MIMO 1 -OFDM 2 ، با بهره گیری از دایورسیتی و بهره حاصل از کدهای فرکانس - فضا امکان ارسال در نرخ بیتهای بسیار بالا را فراهم می آورند . در این مقاله برای یک سیستم MIMO-OFDM روش.... ...
1,0 1,1 Pawoł Völkel: Prawopisny słownik hornjoserbskeje rěče. Hornjoserbsko-němski słownik. Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina, Budyšin 2005, ISBN 3-7420-1920-1, str. 407. ...
《眼科学报》创刊于1985年,是由中华人民共和国教育部主管、中山大学主办、中山大学中山眼科中心承办的一本国家级医学期刊(季刊,刊号:ISSN:1000-4432; CN:44-1119/R)。由中山大学中山眼科中心前院长葛坚,中山大学中山眼科中心主任、院长刘奕志担任主编。 主要报道国内外眼科领域新进展,新动态,着重报道眼科学基础研究,临床经验,以及流行病等相关的理论知识与技术操作。 目前已被Chemical Abstract(CA)、中国期刊全文数据库(知网)、中国核心期刊(遴选)数据库(万方)、中文科技期刊数据库(维普)等国内外重要数据库收录。
MONTREAL †Assistant coach Clement Jodoin is leaving the Montreal Canadiens.. Jodoin, who has been an assistant coach for 10 years in two stints with Montreal, decided on his own to resign, head coach Claude Julien said in a statement.. At our post-season meeting, we offered Clement to remain on our coaching staff, but he indicated to us that at this stage in his career, he would be looking for a change and would like to explore other challenges, Julien said.. Jodoin, 65, served as an assistant coach in Montreal from 1997 to 2003 under Alain Vigneault and Michel Therrien.. He returned when Therrien began his second stint as head coach in 2012 after serving as head coach for one season of the Hamilton Bulldogs, then the Canadiens top farm club.. Julien replaced the fired Therrien on Feb. 14. He was expected to bring in some of his own assistants, as most head coaches do.. Jodoin was an assistant coach with the Pittsburgh Penguins in 1987-88 and for two seasons with the Quebec Nordiques in ...
The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis , an earlier name of the hippocampus. Structure There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex . Another significant output is to the subiculum . CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path . Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus , and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. The mossy fiber pathway ends in the stratum lucidum . The perforant path passes through the stratum lacunosum and ends in
Different events usually contain similar elements that can contribute to interference during memory encoding and retrieval. The hippocampus (HPC), a structure that is critically involved in some forms of memory, has been hypothesized to reduce interference between memories with overlapping content, thus facilitating correct recall. Pattern separation is one hypothetical process whereby input ambiguity is reduced. Here we test the hypothesis that the HPC and/or dentate gyrus (DG) are important for pattern separation by measuring performance by rats with damage in tasks that require discrimination between visual stimuli that share systematically varying numbers of common elements. Rats with HPC damage were slower to resolve discriminations with minimal degrees of overlap. Lesions of the DG did not affect the ability of rats to deal with overlap, suggesting a dissociation between the HPC and DG. Our results provide partial support for the idea that the HPC contributes to the pattern separation ...
accordingly additional adults alterations analyze another assessment automatic brain cell cells clinic cognitive cognitively college combined comprises configuration considered consistent contrast controls correlations crude damping database date dementia derived detected detecting developments differ differential differentiating diffuse disease displayed distinct elasticity enables establish example exhibit exhibited expected flirt focus focused formation functionally general global globally graphs greater health healthy hospital illustrated improvements in vivo include incorporating independent indicating individual influence integrity inversion inversions inverted investigate isotropic john joint kingdom known maps masks measure measured measures mechanical mechanisms memory native neurons nonlinear older organization outcome pathologies patients performance pipelines post prevention prior promise pronounced properties pyramidal quality recent recruited reduction regarding register ...
Difference between revisions of Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons coordinate hippocampal network dynamics required for memory consolidation ...
A frame member for housing a battery cell, frame assembly and frame/battery cell assembly made therefrom, as well as respective methods of making the same, are disclosed. A frame member for housing a battery cell includes an integral frame having a peripheral wall, the peripheral wall having an attachment face and an opposed cooling face, and an attachment feature located on the attachment face and a complementary attachment feature located on the attachment face that is symmetrically opposed to the attachment feature about a plane of symmetry of the frame, the peripheral wall defining an opening that is configured to matingly receive a battery cell therein. A pair of frame members having a cooling member placed therebetween and attached to the respective attachment faces comprises a frame assembly. A frame/battery cell assembly includes a pair of frame assemblies having at least one battery cell placed therebetween.
New neurons are continuously added throughout life to the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus. During embryonic and early postnatal development, the dentate gyrus is formed in an outside-in layering pattern that may extend through adulthood. In this work, we sought to quantify systematically …
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. We measured the effects of nonselective optogenetic stimulation on the oscillations of the MS and corresponding effects on hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 in three different contexts: (1) With minimal movement while the rats sit in a confined chamber; (2) Exploring a novel open field; and (3) Learning and performing a T‐maze behavioral task. We describe the relationship between animal speed and the efficacy of septal stimulation in the entrainment of hippocampal oscillations as well as possible cognitive enhancements in relation to MS stimulation. ...
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Roylan Foam Crt Opn Cell 11x24 Med Ca - Model CA4882 : This product is a non stock item that must be ordered from the manufacturer. As such, will app
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Childhood maltreatment or abuse is a major risk factor for mood, anxiety, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders, and it is associated with reduced adult hippocampal volume, particularly on the left side. Translational studies show that the key consequences of stress exposure on the hippocampus are suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and dendritic remodeling in the cornu ammonis (CA), particularly the CA3 subfield. The hypothesis that maltreatment is associated with volume reductions in 3-T MRI subfields containing the DG and CA3 was assessed and made practical by newly released automatic segmentation routines for FreeSurfer. The sample consisted of 193 unmedicated right-handed subjects (38% male, 21.9 ± 2.1 y of age) selected from the community. Maltreatment was quantified using the Adverse Childhood Experience study and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire scores. The strongest associations between maltreatment and volume were observed in the left CA2-CA3 and CA4-DG ...
The CA (Cornu Ammonis) fields, too, contain 3 distinct strata and house excitatory neurons known as pyramidal cells. The alveus is the most superficial layer and contains the commissural fibers of pyramidal cells via the fimbria, a major source of output from the hippocampus. Stratum oriens layer contains basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and a large body of basket cells (inhibitory interneurons). This strata includes fibers from the septal and commissural areas that are received from the contralateral hippocampus. This region also contains the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The next layer is the stratum pyramidale, named so because it contains the soma, or cell body, of the pyramidal cell. This layer in CA3 contains the mossy fiber connections and also houses interneurons. The stratum moleculare is divided into sublayers. The stratum lucidum is the thinnest layer and, in CA3, this area receives input from the dentate gyrus mossy fibers. Stratum radiatum contains apical dendrites ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunocytochemical localization of glutaminase-like and aspartate aminotransferase-like immunoreactivities in the rat and guinea pig hippocampus. AU - Altschuler, R. A.. AU - Monaghan, D. T.. AU - Haser, W. G.. AU - Wenthold, R. J.. AU - Curthoys, N. P.. AU - Cotman, C. W.. PY - 1985/3/25. Y1 - 1985/3/25. N2 - There is considerable evidence that pathways of the hippocampus use an excitatory amino acids as transmitter. We have attempted to immunocytochemically identify excitatory amino acid neurons in the hippocampus of the rat and guinea pig using antiserum to glutaminase and antiserum to aspartate aminotransferase, which have been proposed as markers for aspartergic/glutamergic neurons. Glutaminase-like immunoreactivity was seen in granule cells in the dentate gyrus and fibers and puncta associated with the mossy fiber pathway in the hilus and stratum lucidum of the hippocampus. At the ultrastructural level, glutaminase-like immunoreactivity was observed in mossy fiber terminals ...
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CA3 also sends a small set of output fibers to the lateral septum. The region is conventionally divided into three divisions. ... Diagram of hippocampal regions in a rat brain. Jerome Engel TAP, ed. Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook in Three Volumes. ... The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via ... CA3 has been implicated in a number of working theories on memory and hippocampal learning processes. Slow oscillatory rhythms ...
Jensen, Ole; Lisman, John E. (1996). "Hippocampal CA3 region predicts memory sequences: accounting for the phase precession of ... Jahangiri, A; Durand D. (April 2011). "Phase resetting analysis of high potassium epileptiform activity in CA3 region of the ... Type II Phase Response Curves can have negative and positive regions. Due to this characteristic, Type II PRCs are able to ... Wang, S.G.; Musharoff M; Canavier C; Gasparini S (June 2013). "Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibit type 1 phase-response ...
The same cells subsequently project excitatory mossy fibers to pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region. One of the two ... For instance, proximal regions have thrice as many axo-axonic synapses than the central regions. These synapses are proposed to ... In efforts to quantify the occurrence of axo-axonic synapses in the SGR region in rats, 54 such synapses were found among the ... "Properties of horizontal axo-axonic cells in stratum oriens of the hippocampal CA1 area of rats in vitro". Hippocampus. 14 (2 ...
In addition, older monkeys displayed a lower density of inhibitory somatostatin positive interneurons in the CA3 sub-region of ... This finding relates to the increased hippocampal activity shown in imaging studies of older human adults. Both a decrease in ... When observing cell activity and the number of cells of the hippocampus of rats, it was found that the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal ... Thus, Barnes and her team suggest that changes in the prefrontal cortex can result from aging but different sub-regions within ...
Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ... One study has found that the CA3 plays an essential role in the consolidation of memories when examining CA3 regions using the ... The CA1 is the region within the hippocampus between the subiculum, the innermost area of the hippocampal formation, and region ... pyramidal neurons in CA3, and pyramidal neurons in CA1. The hippocampal relay involves 3 main regions within the hippocampus ...
In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, basket cells can often form recurrent inhibition loops with pyramidal cells. Projections ... Hippocampal basket cells target somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal neurons. Similar to their counterparts in the cortex ... Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the brain, found throughout different regions of the cortex and ... hippocampal basket cells are also parvalbumin-expressing and fast-spiking. ...
Commissural fibers that originate from CA3 Pyramidal cells go to CA3, CA2 and CA1 regions. Like mossy cells, a single CA3 ... They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... Region CA3 combines this input with signals from EC layer II and sends extensive connections within the region and also sends ... Region CA1 receives input from the CA3 subfield, EC layer III and the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus (which project only to ...
Epilepsy has also been linked to dysfunction in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. A Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a type ... researchers look to replace compromised hippocampal regions and restore function. Treatment for several conditions that impact ... "A Nonlinear Model for Hippocampal Cognitive Prosthesis: Memory Facilitation by Hippocampal Ensemble Stimulation". IEEE ... This region is a "neuronal network that coordinates mental processes in the service of explicit intentions or tasks," driving ...
They are both produced as the response of the CA1 region to inputs from the CA3 region. Ripples are only present when theta ... The most famous human patient with hippocampal lesion is H.M., whose hippocampus has been removed from both sides of his brain ... Population bursts of pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus via CA3 collaterals cause depolarization of pyramidal ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1 dendritic layer region are important in generating these waves, and they affect the subiculum, ...
... to synapse on the pyramidal cells of the CA3 region. Finally, the axons of the pyramidal cells in the CA3 regions, the Schaffer ... "Blockade of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal CA1 region by inhibitors of protein synthesis". J. Neurosci. 4 (12): 3080 ... collateral pathway (CA1), terminate on the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region. Damage to any of these hippocampal pathways is ... Huerta P.T., Tonegawa S., Tsien J.Z. (1996). "The essential role of hippocampal CA1 NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity ...
... s are the axons of the neurons in the CA3 regions of the hippocampus that form synapses in the CA1 regions. ... As a part of the hippocampal structures, Schaffer collaterals develop the limbic system, which plays a critical role in the ... The Schaffer collateral is located between the CA3 region and CA1 region in the hippocampus. Schaffer collaterals are the axons ... connections are made to the CA3 regions of the hippocampus via mossy fibers. CA3 sends the information signals to CA1 pyramidal ...
Layer II projects primarily to dentate gyrus and hippocampal region CA3; layer III projects primarily to hippocampal region CA1 ... Alterations in the neural activity across the brain region results in an observed "traveling wave" phenomena across the MEC ... An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. ... It is usually divided into medial and lateral regions with three bands with distinct properties and connectivity running ...
Commissural fibers that originate from CA3 Pyramidal cells go to CA3, CA2 and CA1 regions. Like mossy cells, a single CA3 ... Hippocampal commissuresEdit. Hilar mossy cells and CA3 Pyramidal cells are the main origins of hippocampal commissural fibers. ... They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... Region CA3 combines this input with signals from EC layer II and sends extensive connections within the region and also sends ...
When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... They are dependent on IPSPs and started in either CA3 by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and within C1 by the activation of ... "Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells ...
In this way long term episodic functioning moves away from the CA3 region of the Hippocampal formation into the neocortex, ... Among the various regions, the two most active areas during the constructive processes are the medial temporal lobe (including ... effectively freeing up the CA3 area for more initial processing. Studies have also consistently linked the activity of the ...
... marked by the extension of dendrites into the molecular layer of the DG and the growth of axons into the CA3 region, and ... The main function of the SGZ is to carry out hippocampal neurogenesis, the process by which new neurons are bred and ... The subgranular zone (SGZ) is a brain region in the hippocampus where adult neurogenesis occurs. The other major site of adult ... Although more work needs to be done to solidify the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and memory, it is clear from ...
... mature into granule cells whose axons project to and synapse onto dendrites on the CA3 region. NPs in the hippocampus have been ... Results from rat hippocampal gene chip data after acute administration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) showed an increase in the ... Twitchell W, Brown S, Mackie K (1997). "Cannabinoids inhibit N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in cultured rat hippocampal ... In humans, cannabinoid receptors exist in much lower concentration in these regions, which helps explain why cannabinoids ...
CA3 projects Schaffer collaterals to apical dendrites in CA1. Individual pyramidal cells in the CA3 region have burst ... Hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells have complex dendritic arbors which receive a stratified pattern of synaptic input from a ... The most proximal regions of CA3 pyramidal dendrites receive mossy fiber input exclusively, mid-dendritic regions (strata ... These results are in contrast to the changes in the hippocampal CA3 dendritic arbors, in which only regressive changes were ...
... environmental enrichment on synapse number and hippocampal network structure are mediated by wnt signalling in the CA3 region ... Gogolla then began to explore the insular cortex (IC), a brain region that is a part of the cerebral cortex, that seems to play ... Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; Depaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico (2006). "Staining protocol for organotypic hippocampal slice ... Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; DePaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico (August 2006). "Preparation of organotypic hippocampal slice ...
Information is then directed back to the para-hippocampal region and finally to the same areas of the cerebral cortex that were ... continuing to area CA3, then CA1, and finally through to the subiculum. ... that is projected from nearly all neocortical areas come together onto one or more subdivisions of the para-hippocampal region ... Similarly, hippocampal lesions severely impacted all three components (what, where, and when) suggesting that the hippocampus ...
As with all regions of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus also receives GABAergic and cholinergic input from the medial septum ... The fascia dentata is the earliest stage of the hippocampal circuit. Its primary input is the perforant path from the ... neurons are tiny granule cells which give rise to unmyelinated axons called the mossy fibers which project to the hilus and CA3 ...
Most mossy fiber axons are perpendicular to the CA3 pyramidal region where they project and synapse to either the CA3 pyramidal ... The stratum pyramidale is the third deepest hippocampal layer, and in relation to the stratum lucidum, is located underneath it ... In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the stratum pyramidale connects with the stratum lucidum by mossy fibers that run through ... This situation is described in the mossy fiber axon connection in the CA3 stratum lucidum region of the hippocampus as is in ...
Chronic stress in the male rat showed dendritic retraction and cell loss in the CA3 region but this was not shown in the female ... The dorsal hippocampus also has more place cells than both the ventral and intermediate hippocampal regions. The intermediate ... Its abbreviation CA is used in naming the hippocampal subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4. It can be distinguished as an area ... of the hippocampal population These two hippocampal activity modes can be seen in primates as well as rats, with the exception ...
Chronic stress in the male rat showed dendritic retraction and cell loss in the CA3 region but this was not shown in the female ... Theories of hippocampal functions[edit]. Over the years, three main ideas of hippocampal function have dominated the literature ... Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ...
... a human gene Cornu Ammonis region 3, one of the hippocampal subfields CA-3 may refer to: Buhl-Verville CA-3 Airster Buhl CA-3 ... CA3 may refer to: Carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific, ... Airsedan CAC CA-3 Wirraway California's 3rd congressional ...
In TLE, there is loss of neurons in region CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. There is also damage to mossy cells and inhibitory ... 1993). "Hippocampal neuron loss and memory scores before and after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy". Archives of Neurology. ... They project into the hilus of the dentate gyrus and stratum lucidum in the CA3 region giving inputs to both excitatory and ... 1974). "The hippocampal-dentate complex in temporal lobe epilepsy". Epilepsia. 15 (1): 55-80. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1974. ...
... and tried to tag these memory traces in the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. She was able to develop a genetic ... Denny first explored hippocampal neurogenesis and published a first author paper in 2010 showing that inhibiting neurogenesis ... She used this technique to probe what happens to hippocampal memory traces in different disease states. Denny grew up in New ... Drew MR, Denny CA, and Hen R. (2010) Arrest of adult hippocampal neurogenesis impairs single- but not multiple-trial contextual ...
Next, they had to determine whether a chip could be used as a prosthesis, or implant, for a damaged region in the hippocampus. ... These subregions, CA1 and CA3, interact to create long-term memories. The rats were unable to remember which lever they needed ... successfully tested a hippocampal prosthesis on non-human primates. While the device does not yet consist of a fully ... We have developed and applied methods for quantifying the nonlinear dynamics of hippocampal neurons (Berger et al., 1988a,b, ...
"Identification of the kainate receptor subunits underlying modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA3 region of ... Schmitz D, Mellor J, Nicoll RA (March 2001). "Presynaptic kainate receptor mediation of frequency facilitation at hippocampal ... This segment then passes through the cell membrane, forming the first of three membrane-spanning regions, M1. The M2 segment ... as well as the explanation for why the polarization and distribution of KARs varies so much across neurons and brain regions. ...
CA3) region of the hippocampus. Fibers arising in the lateral portions of the entorhinal cortex show enkephalin ... Remondes, Miguel; Schuman, Erin M. (2004). "Role for a cortical input to hippocampal area CA1 in the consolidation of a long- ... 2011 Science 334:1415) the projection to CA3 and dentate gyrus in mice is primarily from layer II of entorhinal cortex, and ... project to the dentate gyrus and CA3, whereas layer III (and possibly layer V) cells project to CA1 and the subiculum via the ...
The CA3 of the hippocampus plays an especially important role in the encoding and retrieval of spatial memories. The CA3 is ... Sleep has been found to benefit spatial memory, by enhancing hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation. Hippocampal areas ... Lesions to this region are also known to create retention deficits for tasks learned up to 4 weeks but not 6 weeks prior to the ... Inactivation of this region accounts for impaired navigation in the dark and thus it is implicated to be involved in the ...
Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Hippocampal formation (CA3 → CA1 → Subiculum) → Fornix → ... 2014). Space, Time and Memory in the Hippocampal Formation. ... Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ... Gray JA, McNaughton N (2000). The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System. ...
... and hippocampal subfields such as the combined dentate gyrus/CA3, CA1, and subiculum.[30] ... In regions that are more deliberative, such as the lateral frontal and lateral parietal lobes, it seems that incoming flow is ... Some regions just a few millimeters in size, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, which relays visual ... To demarcate regions of interest in the functional image, one needs to align it with the structural one. Even when whole-brain ...
hippocampal mossy fiber to CA3 synapse. Biological process. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • negative ... perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • cytoskeleton. • cell nucleus. • cell projection. • mitochondrial membrane. • keratin ...
The distribution of axonal islands is widespread in the lateral region of the thalamus. The innervation of the central region ... Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... Calleja, C. (1893). La region olfactoria del cerebro. Madrid: Nicolas Moya.. *^ Meyer, G.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, T.; Carrillo- ... Brain Regions: Olfactory Tubercle Basic info about the tubercle at NeuroLex.. *Sections Containing Olfactory Tubercle ... Similar studies were done by several authors to find the cell composition and innervations to and from other regions in the OT ...
Hippocampal formation (CA3 → CA1 → Subiculum) → Fornix → ... to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous ... to all fields of the hippocampal formation, including the dentate gyrus, all CA fields (including CA1),[3] and the subiculum. ... "Cortico-hippocampal communication by way of parallel parahippocampal-subicular pathways". Hippocampus. 10 (4): 398-410. doi: ...
Glucocorticoids that are released during stress, damage neurons that are located in the hippocampal region of the brain. ... "A process analysis of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus". Front Cell Neurosci. 7: 78. doi:10.3389/fncel.2013.00078. PMC ... Hippocampal damage may also cause memory loss and problems with memory storage.[59] This memory loss includes retrograde ... Jensen O.; Lisman J.E. (2005). "Hippocampal sequence-encoding driven by a cortical multi-item working memory buffer". Trends in ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... Thalamocortical axons project primarily from the Medial geniculate Body (MGB) via sublenticular region of the internal capsule ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... though large regions of the middle cortical layers were innervated through collaterally connected CIR neurons.[23] Past ...
Chronic stress in the male rat showed dendritic retraction and cell loss in the CA3 region but this was not shown in the female ... Theories of hippocampal functionsEdit. Over the years, three main ideas of hippocampal function have dominated the literature: ... Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ... Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to memory formation. Progress in Brain ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... The function of adult neurogenesis in this region remains a matter of study. The survival of immature neurons as they enter the ... These hippocampal changes due to olfactory bulb removal are associated with behavioral changes characteristic of depression, ... The accessory olfactory bulb resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb and forms a parallel pathway. ...
... blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro". Brain Research. 452 (1-2): 57-65. doi:10.1016/0006 ... "Presynaptic BDNF required for a presynaptic but not postsynaptic component of LTP at hippocampal CA1-CA3 synapses". Neuron. 39 ... Wigström H, Gustafsson B (1986). "Postsynaptic control of hippocampal long-term potentiation". Journal de Physiologie. 81 (4): ... For example, some types of hippocampal LTP depend on the NMDA receptor, others may depend upon the metabotropic glutamate ...
When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... They are dependent on IPSPs and started in either CA3 by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and within C1 by the activation of ... "Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells ...
Evidence of decreased complexity in the CA1 and CA3 region of the hippocampus in terms of dendritic length and spine density ... Additionally, investigation of post mortem hippocampal tissue indicates decreased levels of neuron-specific glucocorticoid ... Stress can also result in inheritable changes DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ... Maternal separation and postnatal maternal abuse also increases DNA methylation at regulatory regions of BDNF genes in the ...
Using a computer model, subthreshold currents were simulated in the CA3 region that directly correlated with increased CA1 ... Stacey, William C.; Durand, Dominique M. (2001). "Synaptic Noise Improves Detection of Subthreshold Signals in Hippocampal CA1 ... The hippocampus is a region of the forebrain in the medial temporal lobe closely associated with memory formation and ... Common injuries in the hippocampus region can result in schizophrenia, epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Synaptic ...
Requirement for hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors in associative memory recall. Science, 297(5579), 211-218. Liu, X., Ramirez, S ... and deleted to form the diversity of the variable region of antibodies. In 1983, Tonegawa also discovered a transcriptional ... In 2012, his lab demonstrated that the activation of a specific sub-population of mouse hippocampal neurons, labelled during a ... Silva, A. J., Stevens, C. F., Tonegawa, S., & Wang, Y. (1992). Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium- ...
... showed higher levels of CREB-mediated transcription in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus when compared to untrained ... two hippocampal-dependent learning tasks. Also, hippocampal electrophysiological studies revealed that the CREB mutation ... Guzowski, JF; McGaugh, JL (March 18, 1997). "Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated disruption of hippocampal cAMP response ... against hippocampal CREB mRNA can lower levels of CREB within 6 hours of infusion and impair spatial memory. Tests given ...
In mammals, the complexity of pyramidal cells increases from posterior to anterior brain regions. The degree of complexity of ... Wong, R. K. S.; Traub, R. D. (2009-01-01), "NETWORKS , Cellular Properties and Synaptic Connectivity of CA3 Pyramidal Cells: ... Pyramidal neuron visualized by green fluorescent protein (gfp) A hippocampal pyramidal cell One of the main structural features ... Magee J, Hoffman D, Colbert C, Johnston D (1998). "Electrical and calcium signaling in dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal ...
Based on this, it has been suggested that reduced limbic regulation by prefrontal regions plays a role in bipolar. Findings ... Hajek, T; Kopecek, M; Höschl, C; Alda, M (September 2012). "Smaller hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder are ... People with bipolar demonstrate reduced expression of GAD67 in CA3/CA2 subregion of the hippocampus. More extensive reductions ... Although unipolar depression was associated with reductions in the ventral most and dorsal most regions of the mPFC and bipolar ...
... blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro". Brain Research. 452 (1-2): 57-65. doi:10.1016/0006 ... "Presynaptic BDNF required for a presynaptic but not postsynaptic component of LTP at hippocampal CA1-CA3 synapses". Neuron. 39 ... So-called place cells located in this region become active only when the rat is in a particular location - called a place field ... Volk LJ, Bachman JL, Johnson R, Yu Y, Huganir RL (January 2013). "PKM-ζ is not required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity, ...
Nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in region CA3 of the hippocampus. Giocomo LM, Hasselmo ME. Eur J ... During her PhD, Giocomo published a first author paper in 2005 showing that application of nicotine to hippocampal slices ... Giocomo, Lisa M.; Hasselmo, Michael E. (2005). "Nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in region CA3 of ... "Nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in region CA3 of the hippocampus". The European Journal of ...
CA3), a region involved in encoding short-term memory. These axons were first described as mossy fibers by Santiago Ramón y ... Ohura S, Kamiya H (January 2018). "Short-Term Depression of Axonal Spikes at the Mouse Hippocampal Mossy Fibers and Sodium ... Hilar thorny excrescences are more dense and complex than those in CA3. It has been shown that the axons of granule cells from ... Mossy fibers in the hippocampus project from the dentate gyrus to CA3. The pathway consists of varicose granule cell axons that ...
α2A Adrenergic Receptor Activation Inhibits Epileptiform Activity in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region. Chris W. D. Jurgens, Hana ... α2A Adrenergic Receptor Activation Inhibits Epileptiform Activity in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region. Chris W. D. Jurgens, Hana ... α2A Adrenergic Receptor Activation Inhibits Epileptiform Activity in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region. Chris W. D. Jurgens, Hana ... α2A Adrenergic Receptor Activation Inhibits Epileptiform Activity in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region ...
In the present study, we carried out electrophysiological studies on hippocampal slices prepared from the senescence- ... Age-related deterioration of long-term potentiation in the CA3 and CA1 regions of hippocampal slices from the senescence- ... Age-related deterioration of long-term potentiation in the CA3 and CA1 regions of hippocampal slices from the senescence- ... Hippocampal plasticity induced by primed burst, but not long-term potentiation, stimulation is impaired in area CA1 of aged ...
... exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old... ... Analysis of dorsal hippocampal CA3 neurons. Six H&E stained sections of dorsal hippocampal regions were used for qualitative ... Analysis of dorsal hippocampal CA3 neurons. Analysis of the H&E stained hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons did not reveal the ... We believe that altered structural integrity in various brain regions (especially hippocampal CA3 region) led to altered ...
These findings support the hypothesis that conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction make the hippocampal CA3 region ... 2004) Chronic stress enhances ibotenic acid-induced damage selectively within the hippocampal CA3 region of male, but not ... 1998) Morphological changes in the hippocampal CA3 region induced by non-invasive glucocorticoid administration: a paradox. ... Damage to the CA3 region was determined by identifying the absence of CA3 pyramidal cells in the subregion CA3c, which ...
Figure 1: The region of the hippocampal slice (CA1) used for mRNA sample preparation. CA1, CA3, DG-hippocampus subfields. ... an enhanced LTP was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region of mutant mice devoid of S100B, while the perfusion of hippocampal ... Antiserum against S-100 protein prevents the long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, ... We studied the expression of S100B, S100A1, and S100A6 mRNA in the subfield CA1 of rat hippocampal slices after tetanic and low ...
Yellow ellipsoids mark hippocampal CA3 areas with reduced FA in KO brains. B, 3D rendering of regions with significant FA ... Excitatory Synaptic Drive and Feedforward Inhibition in the Hippocampal CA3 Circuit Are Regulated by SynCAM 1.. Park KA1, Ribic ... SynCAM 1-dependent changes in mossy fiber projections and target innervation in the hippocampal CA3 area. A, Calbindin ... Loss of SynCAM 1 reduces excitatory inputs onto PV-positive inhibitory interneurons in CA3. A, Immunostaining of hippocampal ...
Bar = 10 μm.) (G) GFPKIF17 localization in forebrain region of mice. Neocortex and hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3, DG). (Bar ... A mouse fusion cDNA of GFPKIF17 (3.8 kb) (6) was subcloned into the NotI site of the 8.5-kb upstream region of the CaMKIIα gene ... 2A) and percentage of time spent on margin region from the wall (P , 0.5, ANOVA) (Fig. 2B), percentage of time spent in the ... 1 E and F). In both sets of mice, we found no major difference between mutant and WT mice in hippocampal CA1 synapse morphology ...
I. initiation in the CA2-CA3 region. J. Neurophysiol. 49, 442-458.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Neuman, R., Cherubini, E. and Ben-Ari, Y. (1988b). Epileptiform burst elicited in CA3 hippocampal neurons by a variety of ... Ben-Ari, Y., Cherubini, E., Corradetti, R. and Gaiarsa, J.L. (1989). Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal ... A pharmacological characterization of chloride-and potassium-dependent inhibitions in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus in ...
The subiculum and presubiculum are modified six-layered cortical regions that form part of the hippocampal complex and lay ... Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum. Martin ... Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum ... Childhood maltreatment is associated with reduced volume in the hippocampal subfields CA3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum ...
CA3) hippocampal region and the lateral septum increased hippocampus-dependent memory and social behavior, respectively [22,23 ... This suggests that the central region is necessary as a spacer for accurate positioning of the two actin binding regions for ... Figure 2. DRR1 enhances actin bundling via its two actin binding regions and potentially through homo-dimerization. (A) DRR1 ... Figure 2. DRR1 enhances actin bundling via its two actin binding regions and potentially through homo-dimerization. (A) DRR1 ...
2007) Gamma oscillations dynamically couple hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions during memory task performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... 9A,B). The fraction of significantly phase-modulated neurons were higher in the CA1 and CA3 regions but lower in other regions ... Of all hippocampal layers, gamma power is largest in the hilar region. B, Mean LFP wavelet maps from the CA1 pyramidal layer ... 4A,B; p , 0.05, except CA3 and EC2 regions), demonstrating a stronger phase locking of spikes to spindles of a minority of ...
CA1 region depicted) as previously demonstrated []. (b) Neurites within the CA3 Str. Luc., the axonal region for mossy fibers, ... The only Aβ pathologies observed in these hippocampal regions were extracellular plaques. Scale bar is 50 μm and applies to ... in the CA3 Str. Luc. region of the hippocampus in a Braak stage III case. (b and c) Crossectional analysis of z-stack images ( ... pathology in hippocampal strata containing the axons and neuronal cell bodies of the CA3-Schaffer collateral and dentate ...
Increasing hippocampal neurogenesis weakens existing memories and, in doing so, facilitates the encoding of new, conflicting ( ... Here the authors provide evidence that adult hippocampal neurogenesis weakens existing memories, and facilitates the encoding ... By manipulating levels of hippocampal neurogenesis, here we show that neurogenesis regulates this form of proactive ... Suppression of adult neurogenesis impairs population coding of similar contexts in hippocampal CA3 region. Nat. Commun. 3, 1253 ...
Guzowski, J., Knierim, J. J., and Moser, E. I. (2004). Ensemble dynamics of hippocampal regions CA3 and CA1. Neuron 44, 581-584 ... 2008) found gamma band signals decreased in power in one region and increased in another as attention shifted. Ray et al. ( ... Wang, X.-J., and Buzsaki, G. (1996). Gamma oscillation by synaptic inhibition in a hippocampal interneuronal network model. J. ... For example Tsodyks (1999) described a theory of hippocampal function that used attractors to define place maps in the ...
Promotes neuritogenesis in developing hippocampal neurons. Plays a role in acute neuroprotection against NMDA-induced ... hippocampal mossy fiber to CA3 synapse Source: Ensembl. *intracellular Source: UniProtKB. *perinuclear region of cytoplasm ... It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel ... Extracellular region or secreted. Cytosol. Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton. Lysosome. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. ...
Edward Koo on FK960, a potential anti-dementia drug, increases synaptic density in the hippocampal CA3 region of aged rats.. ...
... field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus; CA1, field CA1 of the hippocampus; th, thalamus, whole region; hi, hippocampal region; ec ... hy, hypothalamus, whole region; ic, internal capsule; cc, corpus callosum; CA1, field CA1 of the hippocampus; CA2∕CA3, field ... C, D) Major regions of the basal ganglia. (E, F) Hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. (G, H) Selected sub-regions of the thalamus ... CA3, field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus; CA1, field CA1 of the hippocampus; LEnt, lateral entorhinal cortex; MEnt, medial ...
abnormal hippocampal mossy fiber morphology(MGI Ref ID J:12029). *abnormal hippocampus CA3 region morphology*there is abnormal ... Neurochemical measurement of adenosine in discrete brain regions of five strains of inbred mice. PLoS One 9(3):e92422PubMed: ... Hippocampal lamination defect = Hld. Mouse News Lett 71:35MGI: J:13989 ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; ... Firing patterns of CA3 hippocampal neurons (Soldado-Magraner et al. 2019). Download zip file Help downloading and running ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Channel density ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Channel density ...
2005), and a role of the CA1 region of the hippocampus (Li et al. 2005) and/or of CA3 (Daumas et al. 2005) in contextual fear ... Encoding, consolidation and retrieval of contextual memory: differential involvement of dorsal CA3 and CA1 hippocampal ... A link between the hippocampal and the striatal memory systems of the brain ... Competing for memory: hippocampal LTP under regimes of reduced protein synthesis. Neuron 44: 1011-1120. [ Links ]. FRANKLAND PW ...
Three divisions of the hippocampal formation?. - Subicular cortex/subiculum - Hippocampus (CA regions, esp CA3 and CA1)- ... Long term potentiation (e.g. CA3 input to CA1 neuron). - Brief high frequency stimulation results in strong and long term ... Alvear pathway- forms fornix going to other regions of limbic system and cortex ... Implicated in addiction (e.g. cocaine induces release of dopamine into this region) ...
Neuronal Ensemble Reactivation in the CA3 Hippocampal Region in Memory Formation due to Pattern Completion  Korte, Marissa ( ... The interaction of a-helices in the transmembrane region of certain proteins is important for the function of these proteins. ... The goal of our project is to study the self-association propensity of the transmembrane region ... ...
VU0403602 and Metabolite M1 Induce Epileptiform Activity in the Rat Hippocampal CA3 Region In Vitro.. Having demonstrated that ... which can include an induction of epileptiform activity in distinct hippocampal regions (e.g., CA3) (Lee et al., 2002; Wong et ... detected by extracellular field potential recordings in the pyramidal cell body layer of area CA3 in the hippocampal slices ( ... It is also possible that VU0403602 and M1 may have differential effects in varied brain regions that are known to express mGlu5 ...
CA3 Region, Hippocampal / cytology * CA3 Region, Hippocampal / physiology* * Decision Trees * Dentate Gyrus / cytology ...
... decreased plasma corticosterone responses paralleled increased c-Fos expression in the CA3 region. The CA3 hippocampal region ... Methamphetamine causes sex-specific increases in c-Fos in the cingulate cortex and CA3 hippocampal region. (a) Treatment with 1 ... e) Representative images of methamphetamine effects on c-Fos expression in the CA3 hippocampal region and cingulate cortex in ... Colocalization of c-Fos with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the cingulate cortex and CA3 hippocampal region following ...
Where are the hippocampal place cells located in the brain? CA1 - CA3 regions and dentate gyrus ...
E and F) The hippocampal regions of (C) and (D), respectively, are enlarged. (G and H) The areas of the facial nerve nuclei are ... would be impaired at C/A-CA3 synapses in CA3-NR1 KO mice (Fig. 4). At the mossy fiber-CA3 synapse (MF-CA3), in which LTP does ... CA3 NMDA receptor knockout mice.. To generate CA3 pyramidal cell-specific NR1 knockout mice (CA3-NR1 KO mice), we used the ... such as that in hippocampal area CA3, could provide this pattern completion ability (5-10). The impairment exhibited by CA3-NR1 ...
Ensemble dynamics of hippocampal regions CA3 and CA1. Neuron. 2004 Nov 18;44(4):581-4. Review. PubMed PMID: 15541306.. 18: ... coupling between cell activity and Arc gene transcription in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 24;103 ... Differences in hippocampal neuronal population responses to modifications of an environmental context: evidence for distinct, ... Mutational analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 strict late UL38 promoter/leader reveals two regions critical in ...
Place cells are found in two regions of the rodent hippocampus: CA3 and CA1. Motivated by the anatomical connectivity between ... we study how a place field in CA1 can be inherited from an upstream region such as CA3 through a Hebbian learning rule, in ... Inheritance of Hippocampal Place Fields Through Hebbian Learning: Effects of Theta Modulation and Phase Precession on Structure ... With both numerical and analytical methods, we show that in the case of overlapping CA3 input place fields, the STDP learning ...
Jensen, O., & Lisman, J. E. (1996c). Hippocampal Region CA3 Predicts Memory Sequences: Accounting for the Phase Precession of ... John (2002) argued that the most probable invariant level of neural activity or coherent interaction among brain regions that ... Jensen, O., & Lisman, J. E. (2005). Hippocampal Sequence-Encoding Driven by a Cortical Multi-Item Working Memory Buffer. Trends ... Moreover, the characteristic phase-locking at 40 Hz displays coherence not only across brain regions during focussed arousal, ...
  • Mossy fibers make excitatory inputs onto postsynaptic specializations of CA3 pyramidal neurons termed thorny excrescences and these structures were smaller in the absence of SynCAM 1. (nih.gov)
  • Our results support that SynCAM 1 modulates excitatory mossy fiber inputs onto both interneurons and principal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area to balance network excitability. (nih.gov)
  • 1 ) provided early clues when they found that elevating corticosterone stress hormone levels into the high physiological range for an extended period reduced the number of hippocampal neurons in rats. (pnas.org)
  • The sensitivity of hippocampal neurons to stress and glucocorticoids has been confirmed in a host of other species, including nonhuman primates ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Neurons, numbers and the hippocampal network. (springer.com)
  • Distance-dependent increase in AMPA receptor number in the dendrites of adult hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (springer.com)
  • Cable properties of cultured hippocampal neurons determined from sucrose-evoked miniature EPSCs. (springer.com)
  • Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. (springer.com)
  • ModelDB: Firing patterns of CA3 hippocampal neurons (Soldado-Magraner et al. (yale.edu)
  • Here we demonstrate that the intrinsic firing patterns of CA3 neurons of the rat hippocampus in vitro undergo rapid long-term plasticity in response to a few minutes of only subthreshold synaptic conditioning. (yale.edu)
  • We conclude that CA3 neurons adapt their conductance profile to the subthreshold activity of their input, so that their intrinsic firing pattern is not a static signature, but rather a reflection of their history of subthreshold activity. (yale.edu)
  • In this way, recurrent output from CA3 neurons may collectively shape the temporal dynamics of their embedding circuits. (yale.edu)
  • Unlike the pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3, the neurons here include mossy cells that primarily receive inputs from the granule cells in the dentate gyrus in the form of mossy fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promotes neuritogenesis in developing hippocampal neurons. (uniprot.org)
  • Recordings from tetrodotoxin-treated CA3 neurons revealed a strong postsynaptic component of endogenous adenosinergic inhibition. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Rapid activation of plasticity-associated gene transcription in hippocampal neurons provides a mechanism for encoding of one-trial experience. (uci.edu)
  • It remains controversial whether hippocampal neurons exhibit slow-wave oscillations with bistable membrane potentials [20] , [21] . (plos.org)
  • Increased duration of cerebral ischemia resulted in a progressive loss of striatal and CA3 hippocampal neurons. (curehunter.com)
  • The activity of hippocampal neurons appears to reflect such a relationship, representing not only instantaneous position but also the path towards a goal location. (nih.gov)
  • We have tested a novel class of compounds using a combination of electrophysiology in autaptic hippocampal neurons, a well-characterized model of endogenous cannabinoid signaling, and measurements of IOP in a mouse model. (mdpi.com)
  • A subpopulation of granule neurons that innervated the CA3 region expressed leptin receptors and these cells were not activated by stress.Leptin treatment dampened tail suspension-evoked glutamate release in CA3.On the other hand, intra-CA3 infusion of NMDA blocked the antidepressant-like effect of leptin in reversing behavioral despair in both the tail suspension and forced swim tests, which involved activation of Akt signaling in DG. (nih.gov)
  • A subpopulation of granule neurons that innervated the CA3 region expressed leptin receptors and these cells were not activated by stress. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we have investigated the effect during the rat growth spurt period of CeA fresh leaf extract treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions of the brain concerned with learning and memory. (hindawi.com)
  • After the treatment period the rats were killed, their brains were removed and the hippocampal neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). (hindawi.com)
  • Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using a camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. (hindawi.com)
  • Wong, R. K. S. and Prince, D. A., 1978, Participation of calcium spikes during intrinsic burst firing in hippocampal neurons, Brain Res . (springer.com)
  • 2014a) reported that condensed, interstitial and degenerated neurons were observed in fluoride-treated hippocampal CA1 regions of developmental rat. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Concurrently, hippocampal researchers have proposed a system of parallel information processing being carried out among the intertwined circuitry of CA1, where-in preferential interneuron targeting acts to segregate information streams to different sets of principal neurons ( Soltesz and Losonczy, 2018 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Xenon caused death of hippocampal neurons in CA1, CA3, and dentate regions after 1 and 2 MAC exposures, but not at 0.75 MAC. (asahq.org)
  • They saw this increase in neurons of the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions, which die early in Alzheimer's pathogenesis. (alzforum.org)
  • CA3 neurons receive massive glutamatergic inputs from granule neurons in DG. (nih.gov)
  • The axonal terminals of LepRb granule neurons were extended to CA3 (Figure 3A), suggesting that LepRb neurons participate in modulating CA3 activity. (nih.gov)
  • The death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons caused by transient forebrain ischemia in the gerbil was inhibited with the ventricular preadministration of theanine. (prohealth.com)
  • These results show the presence of functional M-current-inhibitory P2Y 1 receptors on hippocampal pyramidal neurons, as predicted from their effects when expressed in sympathetic neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To examine this, we selected rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The neurons expressing caspase‑3, Bax and Bcl‑2 in the cortical area, CA3, CA1, stratum lucidum (Slu) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (MoDG) of the hippocampus were detected using immunohistochemistry or the TUNEL method. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Mint1 mRNA and mint2 mRNA were distributed among hippocampal pyramidal neurons, while mint2 mRNA was especially abundant in CA3. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We report that in aged human temporal lobe, the phospho-Lrp6 (pLrp6) epitope localizes to neurons in the entorhinal cortex (EC), the dentate gyrus (DG), and the hippocampal formation, especially in the CA3 field. (scirp.org)
  • The researchers then determined that osteocalcin binds to a receptor called Gpr158 that is abundant in neurons of the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the brain's memory center. (eurekalert.org)
  • Depolarizing GABAergic responses in neurons downstream to the sclerotic CA1 region contribute to human interictal activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • In slices prepared from this tissue ( 14 ), the size of both CA1 and CA3 regions was reduced and a laminar organization of pyramidal cell bodies was hard to detect ( Fig. 1 A). We recorded neuronal activity with intracellular electrodes and extracellular tungsten electrodes, which detect firing of neurons located within a radius of about 100 μm ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the number of hippocampal neurons and GABAergic neurons between normal and SE+HUMSCs rats. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • To investigate this, a hippocampal slice model, showing spontaneous sharp wave - ripple activity, and a combination of planar multi-electrode array recordings and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of anatomically identified hippocampal neurons were used. (bl.uk)
  • Sharp waves were generated by changing subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region and had characteristics similar to those found in vivo. (bl.uk)
  • A decrease in the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons contributes to the age related decrease in hippocampal function and memory decline. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Additional immunohistochemical results revealed a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • 0.001) of hippocampal neurons at CA1 and CA3 region in the diabetic rats as compared with healthy controls. (ijpsonline.com)
  • This cognitive decline was found to be associated with an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and loss of hippocampal neurons. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The hippocampal region contained in the black square is enlarged showing (1) neural progenitor cells in the in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus proliferating, (2) migrating into the granule cell layer and (3) maturing into new granule neurons, integrating into the hippocampal circuitry by receiving inputs from the entorhinal cortex, and extend projections into the CA3 (Stangl & Thuret, 2009). (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The next step is to determine how the neurons of the hippocampal CA3 region process the information to re-create a memory from only a portion of the original," said Johnston. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this model, autaptic hippocampal neurons express CB1 receptors, the cellular machinery to synthesize and metabolize the endocannabinoid 2-AG, and several other forms of CB1-mediated neuronal plasticity (Kellogg et al. (fabbs.org)
  • 1076). Neurons were obtained from animals (aged postnatal day 0-2) and plated on a feeder layer of hippocampal astrocytes previously laid down (Levison and McCarthy, 1991). (fabbs.org)
  • Translational studies show that the key consequences of stress exposure on the hippocampus are suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and dendritic remodeling in the cornu ammonis (CA), particularly the CA3 subfield. (pnas.org)
  • Exposure to the self-administration environment enhanced Fos expression in the no extinction group relative to control and extinction groups in the anterior cingulate, basolateral amygdala, hippocampal CA1 region, dentate gyrus, nucleus accumbens shell and core, and central gray area, regardless of whether or not priming injections were given. (jneurosci.org)
  • The tissue sections were analyzed for AT8 (AT8 antibody), amino terminus exposure (TNT2 antibody), and amyloid-β (MOAB2 antibody) pathology in hippocampal strata containing the axons and neuronal cell bodies of the CA3-Schaffer collateral and dentate granule-mossy fiber pathways. (nih.gov)
  • a ) AT8 staining in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer (DG) and their corresponding mossy fiber terminal fields in the stratum lucidum of CA3 (Str. (nih.gov)
  • Anatomically, the hippocampus can be divided into several major areas: the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In area CA3, the pyramidal cells, which project to CA1 pyramidal cells via Schäffer collaterals, receive excitatory inputs from three sources: the mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus granule cells, the perforant path axons of the stellate cells in the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex, and the recurrent collaterals of the CA3 pyramidal cells themselves, which are the most numerous type of input to the CA3 pyramidal cells ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus, and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via the Schaffer collaterals. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA4 is often called the hilus or hilar region if considered as a part of the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dentate gyrus-CA3 glutamate release/NMDA transmission mediates behavioral despair and antidepressant-like responses to leptin. (nih.gov)
  • Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3 , then a very small zone called CA2 , then CA1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most anatomists use the term "hippocampus proper" to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and subiculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • These axons arise from layer 2 of the entorhinal cortex (EC), and terminate in the dentate gyrus and CA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The perforant path-to-dentate gyrus-to-CA3-to-CA1 was called the trisynaptic circuit by Per Andersen, who noted that thin slices could be cut out of the hippocampus perpendicular to its long axis, in a way that preserves all of these connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perforant path input from EC layer II enters the dentate gyrus and is relayed to region CA3 (and to mossy cells, located in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, which then send information to distant portions of the dentate gyrus where the cycle is repeated). (wikipedia.org)
  • A. LepRb-tdTomato cells are largely restricted to the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) and extend axonal projections to the CA3 region. (nih.gov)
  • In the dentate gyrus region, no down-regulation of nuclear or total PCNA protein was observed during reperfusion. (lu.se)
  • Spontaneous activity was rarely evident in the CA3 or CA1 regions or in the dentate gyrus ( Fig. 1 , B and C). However, we always detected large extracellular spikes in records from the subiculum, an output region of the hippocampus projecting to the temporal cortex and normally innervated by CA1 pyramidal cell axons ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Rectangles labeled a to c indicate positions of photomicrographs in (A). ( C ) Spontaneous events were never observed from the CA3 and CA1 regions or the dentate gyrus (DG) (positions 1 to 5). (sciencemag.org)
  • Dormant basket cell' hypothesis revisited: relative vulnerabilities of dentate gyrus mossy cells and inhibitory interneurons after hippocampal status epilepticus in the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dentate gyrus (DG), Cornu ammonis fields 3 and 1 (CA3, CA1) and the subiculum are components of the hippocampal formation. (scholarpedia.org)
  • This process of neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Age-related deterioration of long-term potentiation in the CA3 and CA1 regions of hippocampal slices from the senescence-accelerated mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hippocampal plasticity induced by primed burst, but not long-term potentiation, stimulation is impaired in area CA1 of aged Fischer 344 rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antiserum against S-100 protein prevents the long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, suggesting a positive role of S100B in the manifestation of LTP [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, several reports have also described the effects of dopamine on long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral synapse in the CA1 region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Components of these networks function as key regulators of synaptic plasticity, in particular hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). (sciencemag.org)
  • The hippocampal slices in the control and medium-exposed groups generated long-term potentiation after induction by theta burst stimulation, but the low-exposed group did not. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Hippocampal CA3 epileptiform activity was then examined using field potential recordings in brain slices. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we carried out electrophysiological studies on hippocampal slices prepared from the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM-P/8), a strain which shows accelerated senescence and failure of certain types of learning in behavioral tests. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Action of brief pulses of glutamate on AMPA/kainate receptors in patches from different neurones of rat hippocampal slices. (springer.com)
  • We studied the expression of S100B, S100A1, and S100A6 mRNA in the subfield CA1 of rat hippocampal slices after tetanic and low-frequency stimulation by real-time PCR. (hindawi.com)
  • Conversely, an enhanced LTP was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region of mutant mice devoid of S100B, while the perfusion of hippocampal slices with the recombinant S100B protein reversed the LTP in the slices from mutant mice to the wild-type level [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We have used both whole-cell and extracellular recording techniques in hippocampal slices to investigate the actions of both cocaine and dopamine receptor agonists in the CA1 region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. (plos.org)
  • There is also morphological evidence that hippocampal slices undergo a spontaneous and rapid increase in synapses within 2 hr after slicing [13] . (plos.org)
  • By using the newly developed high-sensitivity Zn 2+ indicator ZnAF-2, the spatiotemporal dynamics of Zn 2+ was monitored in rat hippocampal slices. (rupress.org)
  • This was followed by biochemical estimation of acetylcholinesterase and reduced glutathione levels followed by histological evaluation of cortical and hippocampal slices. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Immunohistochemical studies in these animals showed pronounced astrogliosis and microglial activation in the cortical and hippocampal slices suggesting neuroinflammatory changes. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Paired-pulse facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission was investigated in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices using whole-cell patch-clamp. (molecularstation.com)
  • Population spikes evoked in CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal slices by stimulation of the fimbria are subject to an early and a late inhibition. (molecularstation.com)
  • Quantifying the distribution of cells in every brain region is fundamental to attaining a comprehensive census of distinct neuronal and glial types. (bioportfolio.com)
  • a ) tPA immunohistochemistry (red) with superimposed scheme of synaptic input from the amygdala and the three-synaptic hippocampal neuronal circuit (yellow). (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroprotective efficiency of N-methyl D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor (NMDAR) blockade on the neuronal damage in the less studied and allegedly less affected CA3 hippocampus and striatum in the Mongolian gerbil model of global cerebral ischemia . (curehunter.com)
  • The neuronal death of the hippocampal CA3 region by kainate was also prevented by the administration of theanine. (prohealth.com)
  • However, it is clear that an immune response by the peripheral administration of the inflammatory agent, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can result in excitation in specific brain regions by detecting an increase in the expression of the neuronal immediate early gene Fos [ 10 - 16 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Activated Lrp6 is detected in neuronal soma and in neuronal processes, particularly in the mossy fiber terminals in the stratum lucidum of CA3. (scirp.org)
  • In vivo electrophysiological recordings have been used to study neuronal activity and hippocampal dependent learning and memory function since the Nobel Prize winning discovery of " Place Cells " by O'Keefe and Dostrovsky in 1971 . (bu.edu)
  • B . Horizontal section through the posterior part of the left hemisphere, taken at the level indicated by the dotter square in A, schematically illustrating the overall neuronal architecture and subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex and the closely associated hippocampal formation. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. (blogspot.com)
  • In summary, we provide novel information on the pre- and postsynaptic plasticity mechanisms operating at hippocampal CA3 CA1 synapses during the critical period of activity-dependent maturation of glutamatergic neuronal circuitry in rodents. (helsinki.fi)
  • Oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory changes in the brain of these animals may be responsible for hippocampal neuronal loss, which could be partly reversed upon glibenclamide treatment. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In CA3, the strength of the recurrent collateral synapses along with perforant path synapses can be modified in an NMDA receptor (NR)-dependent manner ( 11-14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we have examined the role of these synapses in memory storage, retrieval, and pattern completion by generating and analyzing a mouse strain in which the NMDAR subunit 1 (NR1) is specifically and exclusively deleted in the CA3 pyramidal cells of adult mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • To this end, we model a population of CA3 place cells projecting to a single CA1 cell, and we assume that the CA1 input synapses are plastic according to STDP. (mit.edu)
  • In addition, unlike synapses in the CA1 region, there are few NMDA receptors located within the PSD. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • LTP in this synapse is NMDA receptor-independent and must follow a different mechanism to those found in other hippocampal synapses (eg. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • CA3-CA1 synapses). (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Expression of synaptic marker genes, including synaptotagmin, Ves1, and AP17 went up, suggesting that exercise modulates brain physiology via direct effects on hippocampal synapses, the authors write. (alzforum.org)
  • Next, we explore the physiological functions of GluA4 subunit-containing AMPA type glutamate receptors, predominantly expressed at developing CA3 CA1 synapses. (helsinki.fi)
  • By manipulating levels of hippocampal neurogenesis, here we show that neurogenesis regulates this form of proactive interference. (nature.com)
  • Increasing hippocampal neurogenesis weakens existing memories and, in doing so, facilitates the encoding of new, conflicting (but not non-conflicting) information in mice. (nature.com)
  • The finding that increasing neurogenesis promotes forgetting suggests a revised view of the role of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, with ongoing neurogenesis impacting hippocampal memory function in two interdependent ways. (nature.com)
  • Since higher levels of hippocampal neurogenesis are typically associated with improved cognitive function 11 , 12 , in what way might neurogenesis-mediated clearance improve memory function? (nature.com)
  • Here, we manipulated levels of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice and examined how it modulates interactions between previously acquired memories (or old information) and encoding of new information in the same behavioural task. (nature.com)
  • Cotman and Berchtold also suggest that trophic factors, such as BDNF and IGF-1, might mediate the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. (alzforum.org)
  • Luszczki, Jarogniew J. 2015-10-22 00:00:00 Hippocampal neurogenesis plays a very important role in learning and memory functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Hippocampal neurogenesis plays a very important role in learning and memory functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • The central theme of the lab is postnatal or adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), which is implicated in memory formation and mood regulation. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • In the Thuret lab we investigate the molecular mechanisms governing neurogenesis by using human hippocampal cell lines and we use the mouse as animal model to study cognition and mood. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • We study how the systemic milieu modulates hippocampal neurogenesis during ageing and Alzheimer's disease progression. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • We study the molecular mechanisms (including epigenetic changes and modification in microRNA expression) by which diet content and meal frequency impacts on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and subsequently affects cognition and mood. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • We are also investigating if certain bioactives previously shown to have beneficial effect on cognition and mood can regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Overview of physiological and environmental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its impact on learning and memory abilities and mood. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Male Sprague Dawley rats were chronically treated for 21 d with CORT in drinking water (400 μg/ml), and half were given daily injections of phenytoin (40 mg/kg), an antiepileptic drug that prevents CA3 dendritic retraction. (jneurosci.org)
  • The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. (springer.com)
  • 2007 ) have reported that, 900 MHz exposure (2 h/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks), did enhance spatial memory performance and it did not affect hippocampal morphology in rats. (springer.com)
  • Edward Koo on FK960, a potential anti-dementia drug, increases synaptic density in the hippocampal CA3 region of aged rats. (alzforum.org)
  • Trajectory-dependent firing was observed in medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Following, histochemical studies show the severe pyramidal neuron loss in CA1 and CA3 regions in the SE rats compared with the neuron number in normal and SE+HUMSCs rat. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, the responses of hippocampal synaptic structure to estrogens differ between aged and young rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have tested this hypothesis by generating and analyzing a genetically engineered mouse strain in which the N -methyl- d -asparate (NMDA) receptor gene is ablated specifically in the CA3 pyramidal cells of adult mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results provide direct evidence for CA3 NMDA receptor involvement in associative memory recall. (sciencemag.org)
  • CA3 NMDA receptor knockout mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neuroprotective efficiency of NMDA receptor blockade in the striatum and CA3 hippocampus after various durations of cerebral ischemia in gerbils. (curehunter.com)
  • Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors by intra-CA3 infusion of MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reversed behavioral despair. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, intra-CA3 infusion of NMDA blocked the antidepressant-like effect of leptin in reversing behavioral despair in both the tail suspension and forced swim tests, which involved activation of Akt signaling in DG. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of intra-CA3 injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on behavioral despair in the tail suspension test. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether NMDA receptor activation is responsible for behavioral despair, mice received intra-CA3 infusion of MK-801 (1.0 μg), a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, 30 min prior to tail suspension. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that NMDA receptor activation in CA3 may underlie the mechanisms of behavioral despair in the TST. (nih.gov)
  • Secondly, four major receptor types present in hippocampal CA3, namely NMDA, AMPA, GABAA and GABAB receptors, were investigated for their involvement in sharp wave generation. (bl.uk)
  • Johnston and researchers in his laboratory have measured the electrical activity mediated by the NMDA receptor in the hippocampus of mutant and normal mice to help their colleagues from other institutions demonstrate that a lack of NMDA receptor function within the CA3 region was responsible for the deficits displayed by the mutant animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Additionally, we assessed the modulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) nuclear translocation and SNARE complex expression by western blotting. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We have also demonstrated that this effect on MF-LTP is due to a selective inhibition of pre-synaptic kainate receptors located in the CA3 region if the hippocampus (Lauri et al, 2001a, ). (bristol.ac.uk)
  • We now report that activation of endogenous P2Y 1 receptors induces inhibition of the M-current in rat CA1/CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells in primary neuron cultures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We previously found that chronic stress conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction and spatial memory deficits make the hippocampus vulnerable to the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO). (jneurosci.org)
  • Additionally, spatial recognition memory was assessed using the Y-maze, revealing that conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction failed to impair spatial recognition memory. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing the human S100B protein exhibited the impaired hippocampal LTP and spatial learning [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Caloric restriction and age affect synaptic proteins in hippocampal CA3 and spatial learning ability. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Interneuron Diversity series: Fast in, fast out--temporal and spatial signal processing in hippocampal interneurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Under conditions in which GABAergic inhibition is blocked, norepinephrine reduces hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) epileptiform activity through α 2 adrenergic receptor (AR) activation on pyramidal cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that, under conditions of impaired GABAergic inhibition, activation of α 2A ARs is primarily responsible for the antiepileptic actions of norepinephrine in the rat hippocampal CA3 region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Excitatory Synaptic Drive and Feedforward Inhibition in the Hippocampal CA3 Circuit Are Regulated by SynCAM 1. (nih.gov)
  • These synaptic imbalances in SynCAM 1 KO mice resulted in CA3 disinhibition, in agreement with reduced feedforward inhibition in this network in the absence of SynCAM 1-dependent excitatory drive onto interneurons. (nih.gov)
  • However, the most prevalent targets of mossy fibers are GABAergic interneurons and SynCAM 1 loss unexpectedly reduced the number of excitatory terminals onto parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in CA3. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, the study reveals that hippocampal CA3 connectivity is modulated by the synapse-organizing adhesion protein SynCAM 1 and identifies a novel, SynCAM 1-dependent mechanism that controls excitatory inputs onto parvalbumin-positive interneurons. (nih.gov)
  • [22] , [23] observed slow oscillation-associated firing modulations in both hippocampal pyramidal cells and interneurons in urethane-anesthetized mice, whereas Isomura et al. (plos.org)
  • and rat ( Moran-Jimenez and Matute, 2000 ) hippocampal pyramidal cell layer and adjacent interneurons, strong P2Y 1 receptor immunoreactivity has been reported. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interneurons are the local targets of hippocampal inhibitory cells which project to the medial septum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Kv3 potassium conductance is necessary and kinetically optimized for high-frequency action potential generation in hippocampal interneurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results further imply that interneurons may play an integral part in the local information processing that takes place in the hippocampal network. (bl.uk)
  • The hypothesis that maltreatment is associated with volume reductions in 3-T MRI subfields containing the DG and CA3 was assessed and made practical by newly released automatic segmentation routines for FreeSurfer. (pnas.org)
  • The strongest associations between maltreatment and volume were observed in the left CA2-CA3 and CA4-DG subfields, and were not mediated by histories of major depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. (pnas.org)
  • The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of cornu Ammonis, an earlier name of the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A constitutive expression of PCNA mRNA and protein was detected in all hippocampal subfields, as well as in other brain regions. (lu.se)
  • We tested the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease subjects have greater atrophy of the CA1, CA2 and CA3 hippocampal subfields relative to amnestic MCI subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In agreement, mossy fiber refinement in CA3 was impaired in SynCAM 1 KO mice. (nih.gov)
  • In turn, mice lacking SynCAM 1 were impaired in memory tasks involving CA3. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in mutant mice displayed normal place-related activity in a full-cue environment but showed a reduction in activity upon partial cue removal. (sciencemag.org)
  • To generate CA3 pyramidal cell-specific NR1 knockout mice (CA3-NR1 KO mice), we used the bacteriophage P1-derived Cre/ loxP recombination system ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Because the CA3 pyramidal cell layer is a robust site of expression of KA-1, one of the kainate receptor subunits ( 16 ), we created transgenic mice in which the transcriptional regulatory region of the KA-1 gene drives the expression of the Cre transgene ( 17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Across the course of training, mice found the platform with decreasing latency ( Supplementary Fig. 1a ) and, in a probe test conducted at training completion, searched selectively in the region of the pool that formerly contained the platform ( Supplementary Fig. 1b ). (nature.com)
  • This was confirmed by inactivating hippocampal Gpr158 in mice, and subsequently giving them infusions of osteocalcin, which failed to improve their performance on memory tests. (eurekalert.org)
  • We investigate environmental and molecular regulatory mechanisms controlling AHN by using in vitro approaches (human hippocampal stem cells) for molecular focused studies and mice as animal models for behavioural centred investigations. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Ye H , Jalini S, Mylvaganam S, Carlen P. Activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels depresses basal synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area in APP (swe/ind) TgCRND8 mice. (luc.edu)
  • Intracellular recordings were performed on hippocampal CA3 neuronsin vitro to investigate the inhibitory tonus generated by endogenously produced adenosine in this brain region. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Differential involvement of oriens/pyramidale interneurones in hippocampal network oscillations in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have developed an in vitro model of stress using human hippocampal progenitor cells. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • A pharmacological characterization of chloride- and potassium-dependent inhibitions in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus in vitro. (molecularstation.com)
  • A large number of studies have since shown alterations in hippocampal volume in a multitude of psychiatric disorders, including major depression (MDD), PTSD, borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia, dissociative identity disorder (DID), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the results also demonstrated that NaF exposure caused multiple ultrastructure alterations in hippocampal CA3 region. (fluoridealert.org)
  • CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. (springer.com)
  • Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. (springer.com)
  • The comet assay and hippocampal neuron counting were used to detect the brain cell damage. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Different BPA treatments exerted different effects on the neuron numbers of different regions in the hippocampus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In the CA1 region, the high-exposed group had a significant decrease in neuron numbers. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A non-monotonic relationship was observed between the exposure concentrations and neuron quantity in the CA3 region. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The data suggest that projections from medial prefrontal cortex, via the nucleus reuniens, are crucial for representation of the future path during goal-directed behaviour and point to the thalamus as a key node in networks for long-range communication between cortical regions involved in navigation. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, these heterotopias in area CA1 of the hippocampus have a tendency to fragment the single excitatory principal cell layer (PCL) into multiple pyramidal cell bands, stacked vertically on one another - transitioning the region into what looks like a primitive cortical structure with multiple excitatory layers. (elifesciences.org)
  • A . Schematic lateral view of the left hemisphere of the rat brain , indicating the position and orientation of the entorhinal cortex and adjacent closely associated cortical regions, including the hippocampus. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Illustrated are the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex (light and dark green respectively) and the main connections of entorhinal cortex with the different hippocampal subdivisions (see text for more details). (scholarpedia.org)
  • MA increased the number of c-Fos and c-Fos/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) dual-labeled cells to a greater extent in males than females in the cingulate and CA3 regions. (wiley.com)
  • This may be mediated by increased neural activation, involving a greater activation of glucocorticoid receptor-positive cells, in males in the CA3 and cingulate brain regions, which are involved in negative feedback functions. (wiley.com)
  • We used a transgenic rat with the diphtheria toxin receptor ( Dtr ) inserted into the promoter region of the fractalkine receptor, Cx3cr1 , expressed on microglia and monocytes, to allow temporary ablation of microglia upon application of diphtheria toxin (DT). (springer.com)
  • Overall, these data indicate regional Wnt receptor activation in the human hippocampus that is most prominent in the cells comprising the afferent arm of the major hippocampal circuit that is associated with learning and memory functions. (scirp.org)
  • A ) Sclerotic cell loss was evident in cresyl violet-stained sections of the CA3 (a) and CA1 (b) regions but less pronounced in the subiculum (c). (sciencemag.org)
  • CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 1: Schematic representation of the entorhinal cortex and its main connectivity illustrating its pivotal position to mediate the communication between the hippocampal formation and neocortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • D . Schematic illustration of the rat brain, with exposed hippocampal formation of the right hemisphere The dorsoventral extent of the hippocampal formation is represented, showing the longitudinal organization of entorhinal-hippocampal connectivity using a colour-code comparable to that in the entorhinal cortex (latero-to-medial: pink-to-blue gradient in EC related to similarly coloured dorsoventral gradient in hippocampus). (scholarpedia.org)
  • The entorhinal cortex is part of the medial temporal lobe or hippocampal memory system and constitutes the major gateway between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The entorhinal cortex has initially attracted attention because of its strong reciprocal connections with the hippocampal formation and its involvement in certain brain disorders. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The grid cells of the rat medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) show an increased firing frequency when the position of the animal correlates with multiple regions. (molecularstation.com)
  • Despite these important roles, the extent to which different synapse-organizing mechanisms act across brain regions to establish connectivity and regulate network properties is incompletely understood. (nih.gov)
  • b ) Schematic representation of a hippocampal synapse, showing the putative mechanism of tPA action at that site. (jci.org)
  • The MF-CA3 synapse is unusual in that it contains multiple sites for the release of glutamate, each of which has a corresponding post-synaptic density (see animation). (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Age-related synapse loss in hippocampal CA3 is not reversed by caloric restriction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Childhood maltreatment or abuse is a major risk factor for mood, anxiety, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders, and it is associated with reduced adult hippocampal volume, particularly on the left side. (pnas.org)
  • Cell numbers, distribution, shape, and regional variation throughout the murine hippocampal formation from the adult brain Allen Reference Atlas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Using two independent image processing pipelines and the adult mouse reference atlas, we report the first cellular-level soma segmentation in every sub-region and non-principal layer of the left hippocampal formation through the full rostral-caudal extent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • First, the data support that synaptogenic proteins guide connectivity and can function in distinct brain regions even if they are expressed broadly. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of SynCAM 1 affects connectivity in select brain regions. (nih.gov)
  • Diagram of hippocampal regions in a rat brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where are the hippocampal place cells located in the brain? (brainscape.com)
  • Thus, sex differences in MA-induced plasma corticosterone levels and activation of distinct brain regions and proteins involved in HPA axis regulation may contribute to sex differences in acute effects of MA on the brain. (wiley.com)
  • cell analysis in an entire brain region. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A protocol for entorhino-hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, which allows reproducing many aspects of ischemic brain injury, is presented. (jove.com)
  • Brain edema, hippocampal morphology changes and hippocampal volume were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging, a non-invasive imaging technology, and Nissl staining, respectively. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • These apparently random remembrances, triggered by a sensory cue representing only a portion of the original memory, appear to be dependent on a particular region of the brain--the CA3 region of the hippocampus, say researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, collaborating with others from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, and Hokkaido University School of Medicine in Sapporo Japan. (eurekalert.org)
  • He believes that those memories can remain there for up to a year before being transferred to other brain regions, specifically the cortex. (eurekalert.org)
  • We apply our methods on a dataset obtained from MEA-measurements in an acute hippocampal brain slice from a rat. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The multi-electrode arrays (MEA) system is becoming an increasingly important tool for investigations of neural activity, both in ex vivo brain tissue (e.g., a hippocampal slice preparation from rat or mouse Egert et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 0.001) acetylcholinesterase activity as compared to control animals suggesting type 2 diabetes-associated oxidative stress and decrease in hippocampal Ach activity. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Using an innovative surface-based hippocampal analytic technique we analysed the structural magnetic resonance hippocampal data of 31 amnestic MCI and 34 Alzheimer's disease subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our study suggests that as Alzheimer's disease progresses, subregional hippocampal atrophy spreads in a pattern that follows the known trajectory of neurofibrillary tangle dissemination. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This transitory memory enhancement is associated with an ameboid morphology in the newly repopulated microglial cells and increased astrocyte density that are linked with a higher density of mature hippocampal synaptic spines and differences in pre- and post-synaptic markers. (springer.com)
  • In the DG, cells positive for pLrp6 include Type 1 and Type 2 hippocampal progenitor cells. (scirp.org)
  • Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. (springer.com)
  • Motivated by the anatomical connectivity between these two regions and by the evidence for synaptic plasticity at these connections, we study how a place field in CA1 can be inherited from an upstream region such as CA3 through a Hebbian learning rule, in particular, through spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). (mit.edu)
  • suggesting that endogenous dopamine facilitates synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As judged by morphological and neurological data, the effect of ischemia is also apparent in the presumed less vulnerable regions (CA3 and striatum) which are functionally important in stroke plasticity. (curehunter.com)
  • This age-related decrease and CR-induced stabilization are likely to affect CA3 synaptic plasticity and, as a result, hippocampal function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • a form of synaptic plasticity), isolated the CA1 region, and then performed both a proteomic analysis and a protein-protein interaction analysis of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a cellular compartment containing more than 1500 proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The onset of tail suspension stress evoked a rapid increase in glutamate release in hippocampal field CA3, which declined gradually after its offset. (nih.gov)
  • Leptin treatment dampened tail suspension-evoked glutamate release in CA3. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of LepRb cells in the hippocampus and effect of leptin on glutamate release in CA3. (nih.gov)
  • The three-dimensional organization of the hippocampal formation: a review of anatomical data. (springer.com)
  • With both numerical and analytical methods, we show that in the case of overlapping CA3 input place fields, the STDP learning rule leads to the formation of a place field in CA1. (mit.edu)
  • The hippocampal formation is thought to contribute to both addictive behaviors and to psychotic disorders, and the actions of the neurotransmitter dopamine are intimately involved with these disease states. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The understanding of the actions of dopamine as a neurotransmitter in the hippocampal formation has evolved over the past 3 decades, from the presumption that dopamine had no significant role (except as a precursor to norepinephrine), to the current appreciation that dopamine can act via multiple signaling pathways in the hippocampus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here we examine the formation of synaptic circuitry under cellular heterotopia in hippocampal CA1, using a mouse model of the human neurodevelopmental disorder Type I Lissencephaly. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mossy fibres (MF) are axons of granule cells in the dendate gyrus of the hippocampal formation that project to the CA3 region of the hippocampus. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Unilateral resection of part of this structure, including the hippocampal formation, was indicated because seizures were poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs ( 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Brodmann, 1909) constitutes the major gateway between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Together with the hippocampal formation and neighboring portions of the parahippocampal region it forms a major substrate mediating conscious (declarative) memory. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Using postnatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, the authors demonstrated that xenon used at 1 minimum alveolar concentration-equivalent concentration increased apoptosis similar to sevoflurane and isoflurane at equipotent concentrations, and that this effect was abolished by preconditioning the tissue with a subtoxic concentration of isoflurane. (asahq.org)
  • Subsequently, the ionic basis for action potential generation in the hippocampal pyramidal cells has been extensively studied in the hippocampal slice. (springer.com)
  • The extensive recurrent connectivity of the CA3 area of hippocampus has led to suggestions that it might provide this function. (sciencemag.org)
  • It seems possible, if not likely, that these crude laminar structures resulting from faulty cellular migration in the Lis1 mutant mouse, might reflect natural underlying patterns in local circuit connectivity upon which normal hippocampal function is critically dependent. (elifesciences.org)
  • These three regions and their connectivity represent the afferent arm of the major hippocampal circuit. (scirp.org)
  • its hippocampal biochemical mechanisms have been partly identified (Riedel et al. (scielo.br)
  • While CR attenuates age-related cognitive deficits in tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, the cellular mechanisms by which CR improves this cognitive decline are poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We then investigate the roles of the hippocampal theta modulation and phase precession on the inheritance process. (mit.edu)
  • CA3 uniquely, has pyramidal cell axon collaterals that ramify extensively with local regions and make excitatory contacts with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prominence of these recurrent collaterals has led to suggestions that CA3 might serve as an associative memory network. (sciencemag.org)
  • There are also a significant number of recurrent connections that terminate in CA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The selective αAR agonist 6-fluoronorepinephrine caused a reduction of CA3 epileptiform activity, as measured by decreased frequency of spontaneous epileptiform bursts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Finally, equilibrium dissociation constants ( K b ) of selective αAR antagonists were functionally determined to confirm the specific α 2 AR subtype inhibiting CA3 epileptiform activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Much of the synchronous bursting activity associated with interictal epileptiform activity appears to be generated in CA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data are the first to show that conditions with prolonged glucocorticoid elevations leading to structural changes in hippocampal dendritic arbors can make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic challenges. (jneurosci.org)
  • The main purpose of this study was to determine whether a history of chronic glucocorticoid elevations mediate the chronic stress exacerbation of CA3 damage after neurotoxin challenge. (jneurosci.org)
  • This activity pattern can be visualized in the video below of the Dancing Place Cells which was made from actual data recordings of hippocampal place cells. (bu.edu)
  • In each patient, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hippocampal atrophy suggestive of sclerosis ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Using immediate-early genes to map hippocampal subregional functions. (uci.edu)
  • Although Zn 2+ is contained in large amounts in the synaptic terminals of hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs), its physiological role in synaptic transmission is poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • Intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) records from hippocampal structures usually reveal interictal spikes, lasting 50 to 300 ms, which occur between seizures. (sciencemag.org)
  • The burst firing pattern of the hippocampal pyramidal cells was first described by Kandel and Spencer in their intracellular studies using the in vivo cat preparation (Kandel and Spencer, 1961). (springer.com)
  • C-Fos was elevated in both sexes following MA in HPA axis-associated regions, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala, cingulate, and CA3 hippocampal region. (wiley.com)
  • MA also increased the number of c-fos/vasopressin dual-labeled cells in the PVN as well as the number and percentage of c-Fos/GR dual-labeled cells in the PVN and central amygdala, although no sex differences in dual labeling were found in these regions. (wiley.com)
  • Granule cells of the DG send their axons (called "mossy fibers") to CA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyramidal cells of CA3 send their axons to CA1. (wikipedia.org)
  • H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. (springer.com)