Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A nonapeptide that is found in neurons, peripheral organs, and plasma. This neuropeptide induces mainly delta sleep in mammals. In addition to sleep, the peptide has been observed to affect electrophysiological activity, neurotransmitter levels in the brain, circadian and locomotor patterns, hormonal levels, psychological performance, and the activity of neuropharmacological drugs including their withdrawal.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A dopamine D2 agonist. It is used in the treatment of parkinson disease, particularly for alleviation of tremor. It has also been used for circulatory disorders and in other applications as a D2 agonist.
A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.

Subregional hippocampal atrophy predicts Alzheimer's dementia in the cognitively normal. (1/273)

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Structural plasticity of dentate granule cell mossy fibers during the development of limbic epilepsy. (2/273)

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Ectopic growth of hippocampal mossy fibers in a mutated GAP-43 transgenic mouse with impaired spatial memory retention. (3/273)

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Nonlinear modeling of neural population dynamics for hippocampal prostheses. (4/273)

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Age-related changes in glutamate release in the CA3 and dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. (5/273)

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Estradiol and the relationship between dendritic spines, NR2B containing NMDA receptors, and the magnitude of long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. (6/273)

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Axonal sodium channel distribution shapes the depolarized action potential threshold of dentate granule neurons. (7/273)

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CA3 NMDA receptors are required for the rapid formation of a salient contextual representation. (8/273)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal reproducibility of automatically segmented hippocampal subfields. T2 - A multisite European 3T study on healthy elderly. AU - Marizzoni, Moira. AU - Antelmi, Luigi. AU - Bosch, Beatriz. AU - Bartrés-Faz, David. AU - Müller, Bernhard W.. AU - Wiltfang, Jens. AU - Fiedler, Ute. AU - Roccatagliata, Luca. AU - Picco, Agnese. AU - Nobili, Flavio. AU - Blin, Olivier. AU - Bombois, Stephanie. AU - Lopes, Renaud. AU - Sein, Julien. AU - Ranjeva, Jean Philippe. AU - Didic, Mira. AU - Gros-Dagnac, Hélène. AU - Payoux, Pierre. AU - Zoccatelli, Giada. AU - Alessandrini, Franco. AU - Beltramello, Alberto. AU - Bargalló, Núria. AU - Ferretti, Antonio. AU - Caulo, Massimo. AU - Aiello, Marco. AU - Cavaliere, Carlo. AU - Soricelli, Andrea. AU - Salvadori, Nicola. AU - Parnetti, Lucilla. AU - Tarducci, Roberto. AU - Floridi, Piero. AU - Tsolaki, Magda. AU - Constantinidis, Manos. AU - Drevelegas, Antonios. AU - Rossini, Paolo Maria. AU - Marra, Camillo. AU - Hoffmann, Karl ...
The stratum lucidum reduces friction and shear forces between the surrounding layers of the epidermis. About.com explains that the stratum lucidum layer is only present in a few areas of the body...
Video created by デューク大学(Duke University) for the course Medical Neuroscience. It may surprise you to know that in all of our studies of the neural systems for sensation and action, we have yet to properly account for the organization and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yinying Chen, Caixiu Zhou, Yanan Yu, Jun Liu, Zhiwei Jing, Aiping Lv, Fanyun Meng, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang].
Ooh Ooh Ooh, They Finally Did It! This post is about a research article I knew existed because I know the authors and I reviewed it. I have just been waiting for it to come out so I could finally celebrate the work. This research finally looked explicitly at temporal processing in humans using a…
Position: PhD Student. Research focus: Understanding the functional diversity of hippocampal CA3 CCK+ interneurons. email: [email protected] CV. ...
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. It may surprise you to know that in all of our studies of the neural systems for sensation and action, we have yet to properly account for the organization and function of ...
LUniversité Saint-Esprit de Kaslik (USEK) est une institution catholique privée denseignement supérieur fondée en 1961 par lOrdre Libanais Maronite (OLM).
در مخازن شکاف‌دار، میزان برداشت نفت به آشام خودبخودی آب در ماتریس و خارج ساختن نفت موجود در آن به سمت شکاف‌ها، بستگی دارد. اما این فرآیند زمانی امکان‌پذیر است که ماتریس بلوک‌ها، «آب‌تر» باشد. از آنجا که مخازن کربناته غالبا «نفت‌تر» می‌باشند، به کارگیری آشام خودبخودی در مخازن کربناته شکاف‌دار مستلزم تغییر ترشوندگی در حین عملیات سیلاب‌زنی می‌باشد. در این مقاله، تأثیر یون‌های مؤثر بر پتانسیل سطح (SO42- ،Ca2+ ،Mg2+) موجود در آب دریا در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته و همچنین تأثیر دما و غلظت نمک NaCl در فرآیند آشام خودبخودی مورد تحقیق تجربی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 13
Official Google Finance Help Center where you can find tips and tutorials on using Google Finance and other answers to frequently asked questions.
Pattern separation is the process of transforming highly similar sensory inputs into distinct, dissimilar representations. It takes place in the hippocampus and is thought to be used in episodic memory. Impaired pattern separation performance has been recognized as a predictor for the development of cognitive impairments such as dementia in humans and as being present in patients with schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this protocol, we describe how to implement a simple and robust object pattern separation (OPS) task in mice and rats that we have previously established and validated. This two-trial memory task uses specific object locations so differences in performance can be calibrated with the extent of object movement. Changes in performance are indicative of spatial pattern separation. In contrast to other pattern separation tasks, the OPS task allows detection of spatial pattern separation performance bidirectionally. Furthermore, the OPS task is cheaper and easier to use
Over the last few years there has been increasing interest in behavioral pattern separation. This has primarily focused on spatial pattern separation in rats and mice or pattern separation of visual objects as evaluated in humans. What has been overlooked is a vast literature of temporal pattern separation extending into the early 1990s. The manuscript…
Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB) areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC...
The ICAM-1-positive vessels in the hippocampal CA1 in the control, 2VO, HL and HL + 2VO groups at 1, 2 and 4 months post-surgery. Scale bar: 20 µm.Values are e
Definition of olm in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of olm. What does olm mean? Information and translations of olm in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
1998 10 22.35003 02 17 47.55 +16 18 22.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 10 22.48311 02 17 46.87 +16 18 18.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 11 18.07069 02 15 27.92 +16 05 19.9 21.5R 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.14591 02 15 27.54 +16 05 17.6 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.23096 02 15 27.03 +16 05 15.2 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 12 14.83617 02 13 35.14 +15 53 37.6 22.7R 523955 950 Ca3601 1998 12 14.85345 02 13 35.07 +15 53 37.3 523955 950 Ca3601 1999 11 10.16227 02 22 34.50 +16 25 15.5 22.5R 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.18814 02 22 34.40 +16 25 14.7 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.24322 02 22 34.07 +16 25 12.9 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.31381 02 22 33.61 +16 25 10.7 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.37010 02 22 33.30 +16 25 09.0 22.7R 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.41551 02 22 33.04 +16 25 07.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.24109 02 22 28.74 +16 24 43.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.28637 02 22 28.51 +16 24 42.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.33656 02 22 28.17 +16 24 41.3 523955 696 Ca7321 2000 11 23.18416 02 27 52.14 +16 34 03.5 ...
1998 10 22.40628 03 08 48.43 +16 39 15.3 22.8R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 10 22.49369 03 08 47.93 +16 39 12.7 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.13535 03 06 18.37 +16 27 28.1 22.6R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.20454 03 06 18.00 +16 27 26.2 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 12 17.95527 03 03 45.48 +16 15 35.9 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.00257 03 03 45.30 +16 15 35.6 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.03799 03 03 45.12 +16 15 34.0 91205 950 Ca3601 1999 10 06.55934 03 17 46.28 +16 54 48.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.53349 03 17 33.50 +16 53 45.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.57011 03 17 33.32 +16 53 44.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.60427 03 17 33.15 +16 53 43.6 23.4R 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.63619 03 17 33.05 +16 53 42.9 23.3R 91205 568 Ca6740 2000 12 28.31163 03 18 17.672 +16 31 40.74 23.2R 91205 568 Cl4052 2000 12 28.38018 03 18 17.407 +16 31 39.64 23.0R 91205 568 Cl4052 2003 10 01.56099 03 48 19.49 +17 21 57.5 23.1R 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 10 01.59893 03 48 19.38 +17 21 56.8 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 12 21.158989 03 41 29.38 +16 54 ...
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Investitiile publice prezinta doua coordonate principale, care le determina caracterul de netagaduit public: sunt facute in folosul comunitatii si sunt facute din banii publici.
The CA2 region of the mammalian hippocampus is a unique region with its own distinctive properties, inputs and pathologies. Disruption of inhibitory circuits in this region appears to be linked with the pathology of specific psychiatric disorders, promoting interest in its local circuitry, its role in hippocampal function and its dysfunction in disease. In previous studies, CA2 interneurons, including a novel subclass of CA2 dendrite-preferring interneurons that has not been identified in other CA regions, have been shown to display physiological, synaptic and morphological properties unique to this sub-field and may therefore play a crucial role in the hippocampal circuitry. The distributions of immuno-labeled interneurons in dorsal CA2 were studied and compared with those of interneurons in CA1 and CA3. Like those in CA1 and CA3, the somata of CA2 parvalbumin-immunoperoxidase-labeled interneurons were located primarily in Stratum Pyramidale (SP) and Stratum Oriens (SO), with very few cells in Stratum
This paper reviews on results from a million-cell granule cell model of the rat dentate gyrus that was used to explore the efforts of local interneuronal and associational circuits to network-level activity. activity. Outcomes furthermore present that the topography of regional interneuronal circuits can possess simply as solid an influence on the advancement of spatio-temporal groupings in the granule cell inhabitants as the perforant route topography will, both sharpening existing groupings and presenting brand-new types with a better spatial level. Finally, outcomes present that the connections between the inhibitory and associational loops can trigger high regularity oscillations that are modulated by a low-frequency oscillatory sign. These outcomes serve to additional illustrate the importance of topographical restrictions on a global sign digesting feature of a sensory network, while also showing how wealthy spatio-temporal and oscillatory aspect can evolve from a fairly little amount ...
Some insight into the nature and inefficiency of linear polarization can be appreciated by considering the diagram below. Here you can see that a field like B1 (depicted as a big green arrow) oscillating at the resonance frequency (ωo) can be decomposed into two counterrotating subfields (red and blue arrows), each half as large. One of these subfields (red arrow) rotates in the same direction and frequency (ωo) as the spins undergoing NMR; the other subfield (blue arrow) rotates in the opposite direction and frequency (−ωo). Only the subfield associated with red arrow is effective at inducing net nuclear transitions and a change in net nuclear magnetization required for MRI. The other subfield is ineffective for NMR and serves only to deposit unwanted thermal energy into tissue. ...
Declaring the library to be a public forum, defined as an available public space where citizens communicate their ideas through the spoken word, Judge Sarokin declared it covered by the First Amendment. Moreover, a hygiene test has a disparate impact on the poor. In short, the library rules unreasonably frustrate, infringe, or obstruct the expressional and associational rights of individuals. In a classic expression of the vision of the anointed, Judge Sarokin lectured the community on its attitude toward the homeless: If we wish to shield our eyes and noses from the homeless, we should revoke their conditions, not their library cards. ...
الگوریتم دیکدینگ کروی با پیچیدگی کم برای دیکدینگ کد های فرکانس فضا در سیستم MIMO-OFDM سیستمهای مخابراتی بی سیم چند فرستنده چند گیرنده با مدولاسیون OFDM ، ) (MIMO 1 -OFDM 2 ، با بهره گیری از دایورسیتی و بهره حاصل از کدهای فرکانس - فضا امکان ارسال در نرخ بیتهای بسیار بالا را فراهم می آورند . در این مقاله برای یک سیستم MIMO-OFDM روش.... ...
1,0 1,1 Pawoł Völkel: Prawopisny słownik hornjoserbskeje rěče. Hornjoserbsko-němski słownik. Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina, Budyšin 2005, ISBN 3-7420-1920-1, str. 407. ...
MONTREAL †Assistant coach Clement Jodoin is leaving the Montreal Canadiens.. Jodoin, who has been an assistant coach for 10 years in two stints with Montreal, decided on his own to resign, head coach Claude Julien said in a statement.. At our post-season meeting, we offered Clement to remain on our coaching staff, but he indicated to us that at this stage in his career, he would be looking for a change and would like to explore other challenges, Julien said.. Jodoin, 65, served as an assistant coach in Montreal from 1997 to 2003 under Alain Vigneault and Michel Therrien.. He returned when Therrien began his second stint as head coach in 2012 after serving as head coach for one season of the Hamilton Bulldogs, then the Canadiens top farm club.. Julien replaced the fired Therrien on Feb. 14. He was expected to bring in some of his own assistants, as most head coaches do.. Jodoin was an assistant coach with the Pittsburgh Penguins in 1987-88 and for two seasons with the Quebec Nordiques in ...
The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis , an earlier name of the hippocampus. Structure There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex . Another significant output is to the subiculum . CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path . Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus , and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. The mossy fiber pathway ends in the stratum lucidum . The perforant path passes through the stratum lacunosum and ends in
Different events usually contain similar elements that can contribute to interference during memory encoding and retrieval. The hippocampus (HPC), a structure that is critically involved in some forms of memory, has been hypothesized to reduce interference between memories with overlapping content, thus facilitating correct recall. Pattern separation is one hypothetical process whereby input ambiguity is reduced. Here we test the hypothesis that the HPC and/or dentate gyrus (DG) are important for pattern separation by measuring performance by rats with damage in tasks that require discrimination between visual stimuli that share systematically varying numbers of common elements. Rats with HPC damage were slower to resolve discriminations with minimal degrees of overlap. Lesions of the DG did not affect the ability of rats to deal with overlap, suggesting a dissociation between the HPC and DG. Our results provide partial support for the idea that the HPC contributes to the pattern separation ...
accordingly additional adults alterations analyze another assessment automatic brain cell cells clinic cognitive cognitively college combined comprises configuration considered consistent contrast controls correlations crude damping database date dementia derived detected detecting developments differ differential differentiating diffuse disease displayed distinct elasticity enables establish example exhibit exhibited expected flirt focus focused formation functionally general global globally graphs greater health healthy hospital illustrated improvements in vivo include incorporating independent indicating individual influence integrity inversion inversions inverted investigate isotropic john joint kingdom known maps masks measure measured measures mechanical mechanisms memory native neurons nonlinear older organization outcome pathologies patients performance pipelines post prevention prior promise pronounced properties pyramidal quality recent recruited reduction regarding register ...
Difference between revisions of Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons coordinate hippocampal network dynamics required for memory consolidation ...
A frame member for housing a battery cell, frame assembly and frame/battery cell assembly made therefrom, as well as respective methods of making the same, are disclosed. A frame member for housing a battery cell includes an integral frame having a peripheral wall, the peripheral wall having an attachment face and an opposed cooling face, and an attachment feature located on the attachment face and a complementary attachment feature located on the attachment face that is symmetrically opposed to the attachment feature about a plane of symmetry of the frame, the peripheral wall defining an opening that is configured to matingly receive a battery cell therein. A pair of frame members having a cooling member placed therebetween and attached to the respective attachment faces comprises a frame assembly. A frame/battery cell assembly includes a pair of frame assemblies having at least one battery cell placed therebetween.
New neurons are continuously added throughout life to the dentate gyrus of the mammalian hippocampus. During embryonic and early postnatal development, the dentate gyrus is formed in an outside-in layering pattern that may extend through adulthood. In this work, we sought to quantify systematically …
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. We measured the effects of nonselective optogenetic stimulation on the oscillations of the MS and corresponding effects on hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 in three different contexts: (1) With minimal movement while the rats sit in a confined chamber; (2) Exploring a novel open field; and (3) Learning and performing a T‐maze behavioral task. We describe the relationship between animal speed and the efficacy of septal stimulation in the entrainment of hippocampal oscillations as well as possible cognitive enhancements in relation to MS stimulation. ...
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CA2656037A1 CA 2656037 CA2656037A CA2656037A1 CA 2656037 A1 CA2656037 A1 CA 2656037A1 CA 2656037 CA2656037 CA 2656037 CA 2656037 A CA2656037 A CA 2656037A CA 2656037 A1 CA2656037 A1 CA 2656037A1 Authority CA Canada Prior art keywords ink dye netpage c5 c1 Prior art date 2006-07-10 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal ...
Roylan Foam Crt Opn Cell 11x24 Med Ca - Model CA4882 : This product is a non stock item that must be ordered from the manufacturer. As such, will app
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The CA (Cornu Ammonis) fields, too, contain 3 distinct strata and house excitatory neurons known as pyramidal cells. The alveus is the most superficial layer and contains the commissural fibers of pyramidal cells via the fimbria, a major source of output from the hippocampus. Stratum oriens layer contains basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and a large body of basket cells (inhibitory interneurons). This strata includes fibers from the septal and commissural areas that are received from the contralateral hippocampus. This region also contains the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The next layer is the stratum pyramidale, named so because it contains the soma, or cell body, of the pyramidal cell. This layer in CA3 contains the mossy fiber connections and also houses interneurons. The stratum moleculare is divided into sublayers. The stratum lucidum is the thinnest layer and, in CA3, this area receives input from the dentate gyrus mossy fibers. Stratum radiatum contains apical dendrites ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunocytochemical localization of glutaminase-like and aspartate aminotransferase-like immunoreactivities in the rat and guinea pig hippocampus. AU - Altschuler, R. A.. AU - Monaghan, D. T.. AU - Haser, W. G.. AU - Wenthold, R. J.. AU - Curthoys, N. P.. AU - Cotman, C. W.. PY - 1985/3/25. Y1 - 1985/3/25. N2 - There is considerable evidence that pathways of the hippocampus use an excitatory amino acids as transmitter. We have attempted to immunocytochemically identify excitatory amino acid neurons in the hippocampus of the rat and guinea pig using antiserum to glutaminase and antiserum to aspartate aminotransferase, which have been proposed as markers for aspartergic/glutamergic neurons. Glutaminase-like immunoreactivity was seen in granule cells in the dentate gyrus and fibers and puncta associated with the mossy fiber pathway in the hilus and stratum lucidum of the hippocampus. At the ultrastructural level, glutaminase-like immunoreactivity was observed in mossy fiber terminals ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhen Li, Rong Zhou, Shengzhong Cui, Guiqin Xie, Weiyan Cai, Masahiro Sokabe, Ling Chen].
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Slow gamma couples hippocampal subfield CA1 with CA3, a subfield essential for memory retrieval. Still, the functional ... Separate fast (~65-100 Hz) and slow (~25-55 Hz) gamma subtypes differentially route inputs to hippocampus, a brain region ... The proposed work will test the hypothesis that slow and fast gamma perform distinct functions in the hippocampal network, with ... Specific Aim 1 will test whether hippocampal place cells and MEC grid cells code locations differently during slow and fast ...
The model shows that the experimentally reported long temporal delays in the DG, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal regions are due to ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Dentate gyrus granule GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Ca1 pyramidal neuron: reduction model (Marasco et al. 2012). Ca3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Distinct current ...
The model shows that the experimentally reported long temporal delays in the DG, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal regions are due to ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Dentate gyrus granule GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Ca1 pyramidal neuron: reduction model (Marasco et al. 2012). Ca3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Distinct current ...
The model shows that the experimentally reported long temporal delays in the DG, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal regions are due to ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Dentate gyrus granule GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Ca1 pyramidal neuron: reduction model (Marasco et al. 2012). Ca3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Distinct current ...
The model shows that the experimentally reported long temporal delays in the DG, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal regions are due to ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Dentate gyrus granule GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Ca1 pyramidal neuron: reduction model (Marasco et al. 2012). Ca3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Distinct current ...
The model shows that the experimentally reported long temporal delays in the DG, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal regions are due to ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Dentate gyrus granule GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Ca1 pyramidal neuron: reduction model (Marasco et al. 2012). Ca3 ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Distinct current ...
2007). Gamma oscillations dynamically couple hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions during memory task performance. ... In the beta band, we found a power decrease in left anterior regions during LTM rehearsal compared to WM maintenance. Also this ... 2007). Hippocampal and neocortical gamma oscillations predict memory formation in humans. * (2007). Human gamma-frequency ... 2009). Somatosensory working memory performance in humans depends on both engagement and disengagement of regions in a ...
Computer simulations of morphologically reconstructed CA3 hippocampal neurons. J Neurophysiol 73:1157-68 [PubMed] ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; ... CA3 Pyramidal Neuron (Migliore et al 1995). Download zip file Auto-launch. Help downloading and running models *Model ... Computer simulations of morphologically reconstructed CA3 hippocampal neurons, J. Neurophysiol. 73, 1157-1168 (1995). ...
Firing patterns of CA3 hippocampal neurons (Soldado-Magraner et al. 2019). Long time windows from theta modulated inhib. in ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). Ca3 pyramidal neuron: membrane response near rest (Hemond et al. 2009). Distinct ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neurons: Kv1.2 mediates modulation of cortical inputs (Hyun et al ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampal CA1 CR/VIP cell; ... and CA3 regions, respectively, activated in a realistic manner as observed when an animal transverses a linear track. Realistic ... Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit (Cutsuridis et al. 2009). Spine head calcium in a CA1 ... Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit (Cutsuridis et al. 2009). Long time windows from theta ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; ... 1 . Atherton LA, Prince LY, Tsaneva-Atanasova K (2016) Bifurcation analysis of a two-compartment hippocampal pyramidal cell ... CA3_cell_fastslow_Ca.ode #Atherton et al., 2016 # # #Declare parameters param Ca=0.0001 param Is=0.3, Id=0.0, gCa_h=10.0, gKCa_ ... Search NeuronDB for information about: Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; ...
CRH administration increased p-ERK1/2 levels specifically in the CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subfields and basolateral complex of ... Other regions such as hypothalamic nuclei and the central nucleus of the amygdala, also related to central CRH system but ... These findings underscore the fact that CRH activates p-ERK1/2 through CRHR1 only in selected brain regions, pointing to a ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket ... We studied theta-modulated gamma oscillations in a computer model of hippocampal CA3 in vivo with and without simulated ... CA3 Network Model of Epileptic Activity (Sanjay et. al, 2015). Ih tunes oscillations in an In Silico CA3 model (Neymotin et al ... CA3 Network Model of Epileptic Activity (Sanjay et. al, 2015). Ih tunes oscillations in an In Silico CA3 model (Neymotin et al ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket ... We studied theta-modulated gamma oscillations in a computer model of hippocampal CA3 in vivo with and without simulated ... CA3 Network Model of Epileptic Activity (Sanjay et. al, 2015). Ih tunes oscillations in an In Silico CA3 model (Neymotin et al ... CA3 Network Model of Epileptic Activity (Sanjay et. al, 2015). Ih tunes oscillations in an In Silico CA3 model (Neymotin et al ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket ... We investigated oscillatory control using a multiscale computer model of hippocampal CA3, where each cell class (pyramidal, ... Search NeuronDB for information about: Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket GABA cell; GabaA ... CA3 Network Model of Epileptic Activity (Sanjay et. al, 2015). Ketamine disrupts theta modulation of gamma in a computer model ...
Hippocampal hyperactivation associated with cortical thinning in Alzheimers disease signature regions in non-demented elderly ... High-resolution structural and functional MRI of hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive ... D.M., Bertram, L., Mullin, K., Tanzi, R.E., Blacker, D., & Albert, M.S. (2005) Increased hippocampal activation in mild ... Leal, S.L., Landau, S.M., Bell, R.K., & Jagust, W.J. (2017) Hippocampal activation is associated with longitudinal amyloid ...
CA3 cells are the main source of input to CA1. More recently, cells in layer II of the entorhinal cortex (grid cells) have also ... Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in both rodents and humans fire in a spatially selective manner, and are called place cells. ... Can a temporal code be transferred from one brain region to another? Lessons from phase precession. *Omar J Ahmed. 1 & ... CA1 is not alone in showing such phase precession: cells in CA3 and the dentate gyrus have long been known to show phase ...
... that glial loss of Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2 leads to the reduced averaged power of gamma oscillatory activity in the CA3 region of ... We showed that genetic deletion of WWP1 and WWP2 conditionally in neurons leads to enhanced dendrite growth in hippocampal ... Overexpression of CAPZA1 in wild type hippocampal neurons phenocopies the enhanced dendrite growth in WWP1; WWP2 double ... is a novel substrate of Nedd4-2 at postsynapses and Nedd4-2 conjugates K63-linked polyubiquitin chains to cytoplasmic region of ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; Entorhinal ... Development of spiking grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system to represent positions in large spaces ... Search NeuronDB for information about: Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; GabaA; AMPA; ... self-organizing map model can learn to develop spatial and temporal properties of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place ...
Chitwood RA, Hubbard A, Jaffe DB (1999) Passive electrotonic properties of rat hippocampal CA3 interneurones. J Physiol 515 ( ... Perforated patch-clamp analysis of the passive membrane properties of three classes of hippocampal neurons. J Neurophysiol 67: ...
Conductance based model for short term plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses (Mukunda & Narayanan 2017) [Model]. ... novel plasticity that may contribute to hippocampal maturation. J Neurosci 27:4697-706 [PubMed]. ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Thalamus; Cell Type(s):. Thalamus geniculate nucleus/lateral principal GLU cell; Thalamus reticular ... Id: HH2.mod,v 1.6 2004/06/06 16:00:30 billl Exp $ TITLE Hippocampal HH channels : : Fast Na+ and K+ currents responsible for ... CA3 pyramidal cell: rhythmogenesis in a reduced Traub model (Pinsky, Rinzel 1994) ... action potentials : Iterative equations : : Equations modified by Traub, for Hippocampal Pyramidal cells, in: : Traub & Miles, ...
3j). In reverse, in the gamma range, PFC led both hippocampal regions exclusively in the knockouts (Fig. 3j), which is not ... apical dendritic layers of CA1/CA3, CA1 pyramidal cells, dentate gyrus). While we did not conduct statistical analysis given ... theta peak power in the hippocampal regions (Fig. 4a, b). For coherence, the KO-related increase in slopes was limited to the ... in one region exerts on another region by taking recurring pairwise patterns in the time series obtained from both regions into ...
CA3 Pyramidal Neuron (Migliore et al 1995). Coincident glutamatergic depolarization effects on Cl- dynamics (Lombardi et al, ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Amygdala; Cell Type(s):. Hodgkin-Huxley neuron; Channel(s):. I Na,t; I L high threshold; I A; I M; I ... Gamma oscillations in hippocampal interneuron networks (Bartos et al 2002). Gfluct_new_exc.mod. ...
Firing patterns of CA3 hippocampal neurons (Soldado-Magraner et al. 2019). Long time windows from theta modulated inhib. in ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Circadian ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Circadian ...
Firing patterns of CA3 hippocampal neurons (Soldado-Magraner et al. 2019). Long time windows from theta modulated inhib. in ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Circadian ... CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010). CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008). Circadian ...
Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Logothetis, N.; Besserve, M.: Sharp wave-ripple complexes in a reduced model of the hippocampal CA3-CA1 ... entropy and statistical parameterization for support vector-based and neural-based classification of mammographic regions. ... Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Besserve, M.; Murayama, Y.; Evrard, H.; Oeltermann, A.; Logothetis, N.: Coupling of hippocampal theta and ... Ramirez-Villegas, J. F.; Logothetis, N. K.; Besserve, M.: Dynamical source analysis of hippocampal sharp-wave ripple episodes. ...
The dentate gyrus borders with field CA3 of the hippocampal formation.. Stratification. In this description of the ... 2nd and 3rd edition of the hippocampus chapter in the book titles The Rat Nervous System and The Parahippocampal Region. The ... The dentate gyrus (DG) is a "V" shaped structure, situated in the most proximal part of the hippocampal formation.. * ... It lies closest to the hippocampal fissure. Because of the connectional inputs from the entorhinal cortex, this layer is often ...
Cl- homeostasis in immature hippocampal CA3 neurons (Kolbaev et al 2020). Coincident glutamatergic depolarization effects on Cl ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; ... CA3_NKCC1_HCO3 = Cl_List.x[Cl_Step] cli_Start_cldif_CA3_NKCC1_HCO3 = Cl_List.x[Cl_Step] cli_cldif_CA3_NKCC1_HCO3 = Cl_List.x[Cl ... cldif_CA3_NKCC1_HCO3.mod *. Other models using cldif_CA3_NKCC1_HCO3.mod:. Coincident glutamatergic depolarization effects on Cl ...
  • Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. (springer.com)
  • Extensive theorical and experimental data indicate that the well known propensity of CA3 neurons to generate synchronized burst is due to the presence of recurrent excitatory collateral's between pyramidal neurons (Mc Vicar and Dudeck 1980, Wong and Traub 1983, Miles and Wong 1986). (springer.com)
  • Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by glycine and zinc in cultures of mouse hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • Gaiarsa, J.L., Corradetti, R., Cherubini, E. and Ben-Ari, Y. (1990) The allosteric glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate modulates GABAergic-mediated synaptic events in neonatal rat CA3 hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • Mossy fibers make excitatory inputs onto postsynaptic specializations of CA3 pyramidal neurons termed thorny excrescences and these structures were smaller in the absence of SynCAM 1. (nih.gov)
  • Our results support that SynCAM 1 modulates excitatory mossy fiber inputs onto both interneurons and principal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area to balance network excitability. (nih.gov)
  • 1 ) provided early clues when they found that elevating corticosterone stress hormone levels into the high physiological range for an extended period reduced the number of hippocampal neurons in rats. (pnas.org)
  • The sensitivity of hippocampal neurons to stress and glucocorticoids has been confirmed in a host of other species, including nonhuman primates ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Promotes neuritogenesis in developing hippocampal neurons. (uniprot.org)
  • ModelDB: Firing patterns of CA3 hippocampal neurons (Soldado-Magraner et al. (yale.edu)
  • Here we demonstrate that the intrinsic firing patterns of CA3 neurons of the rat hippocampus in vitro undergo rapid long-term plasticity in response to a few minutes of only subthreshold synaptic conditioning. (yale.edu)
  • We conclude that CA3 neurons adapt their conductance profile to the subthreshold activity of their input, so that their intrinsic firing pattern is not a static signature, but rather a reflection of their history of subthreshold activity. (yale.edu)
  • In this way, recurrent output from CA3 neurons may collectively shape the temporal dynamics of their embedding circuits. (yale.edu)
  • Rapid activation of plasticity-associated gene transcription in hippocampal neurons provides a mechanism for encoding of one-trial experience. (uci.edu)
  • Unlike the pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3, the neurons here include mossy cells that primarily receive inputs from the granule cells in the dentate gyrus in the form of mossy fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased duration of cerebral ischemia resulted in a progressive loss of striatal and CA3 hippocampal neurons. (curehunter.com)
  • It remains controversial whether hippocampal neurons exhibit slow-wave oscillations with bistable membrane potentials [20] , [21] . (plos.org)
  • On the cellular level, the disease is characterized by a decrease in synaptic proteins and the loss of synapses and neurons, all of which primarily occur in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex, and some subcortical brain regions [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The activity of hippocampal neurons appears to reflect such a relationship, representing not only instantaneous position but also the path towards a goal location. (nih.gov)
  • A subpopulation of granule neurons that innervated the CA3 region expressed leptin receptors and these cells were not activated by stress.Leptin treatment dampened tail suspension-evoked glutamate release in CA3.On the other hand, intra-CA3 infusion of NMDA blocked the antidepressant-like effect of leptin in reversing behavioral despair in both the tail suspension and forced swim tests, which involved activation of Akt signaling in DG. (nih.gov)
  • A subpopulation of granule neurons that innervated the CA3 region expressed leptin receptors and these cells were not activated by stress. (nih.gov)
  • We have tested a novel class of compounds using a combination of electrophysiology in autaptic hippocampal neurons, a well-characterized model of endogenous cannabinoid signaling, and measurements of IOP in a mouse model. (mdpi.com)
  • Wong, R. K. S. and Prince, D. A., 1978, Participation of calcium spikes during intrinsic burst firing in hippocampal neurons, Brain Res . (springer.com)
  • 2014a) reported that condensed, interstitial and degenerated neurons were observed in fluoride-treated hippocampal CA1 regions of developmental rat. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Concurrently, hippocampal researchers have proposed a system of parallel information processing being carried out among the intertwined circuitry of CA1, where-in preferential interneuron targeting acts to segregate information streams to different sets of principal neurons ( Soltesz and Losonczy, 2018 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Xenon caused death of hippocampal neurons in CA1, CA3, and dentate regions after 1 and 2 MAC exposures, but not at 0.75 MAC. (asahq.org)
  • They saw this increase in neurons of the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions, which die early in Alzheimer's pathogenesis. (alzforum.org)
  • Recordings from tetrodotoxin-treated CA3 neurons revealed a strong postsynaptic component of endogenous adenosinergic inhibition. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • CA3 neurons receive massive glutamatergic inputs from granule neurons in DG. (nih.gov)
  • The axonal terminals of LepRb granule neurons were extended to CA3 (Figure 3A), suggesting that LepRb neurons participate in modulating CA3 activity. (nih.gov)
  • The death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons caused by transient forebrain ischemia in the gerbil was inhibited with the ventricular preadministration of theanine. (prohealth.com)
  • These results show the presence of functional M-current-inhibitory P2Y 1 receptors on hippocampal pyramidal neurons, as predicted from their effects when expressed in sympathetic neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To examine this, we selected rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The neurons expressing caspase‑3, Bax and Bcl‑2 in the cortical area, CA3, CA1, stratum lucidum (Slu) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (MoDG) of the hippocampus were detected using immunohistochemistry or the TUNEL method. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Mint1 mRNA and mint2 mRNA were distributed among hippocampal pyramidal neurons, while mint2 mRNA was especially abundant in CA3. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We report that in aged human temporal lobe, the phospho-Lrp6 (pLrp6) epitope localizes to neurons in the entorhinal cortex (EC), the dentate gyrus (DG), and the hippocampal formation, especially in the CA3 field. (scirp.org)
  • The researchers then determined that osteocalcin binds to a receptor called Gpr158 that is abundant in neurons of the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the brain's memory center. (eurekalert.org)
  • Depolarizing GABAergic responses in neurons downstream to the sclerotic CA1 region contribute to human interictal activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • In slices prepared from this tissue ( 14 ), the size of both CA1 and CA3 regions was reduced and a laminar organization of pyramidal cell bodies was hard to detect ( Fig. 1 A). We recorded neuronal activity with intracellular electrodes and extracellular tungsten electrodes, which detect firing of neurons located within a radius of about 100 μm ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the number of hippocampal neurons and GABAergic neurons between normal and SE+HUMSCs rats. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • To investigate this, a hippocampal slice model, showing spontaneous sharp wave - ripple activity, and a combination of planar multi-electrode array recordings and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of anatomically identified hippocampal neurons were used. (bl.uk)
  • Sharp waves were generated by changing subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region and had characteristics similar to those found in vivo. (bl.uk)
  • A decrease in the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons contributes to the age related decrease in hippocampal function and memory decline. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 0.001) of hippocampal neurons at CA1 and CA3 region in the diabetic rats as compared with healthy controls. (ijpsonline.com)
  • This cognitive decline was found to be associated with an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and loss of hippocampal neurons. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The hippocampal region contained in the black square is enlarged showing (1) neural progenitor cells in the in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus proliferating, (2) migrating into the granule cell layer and (3) maturing into new granule neurons, integrating into the hippocampal circuitry by receiving inputs from the entorhinal cortex, and extend projections into the CA3 (Stangl & Thuret, 2009). (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The next step is to determine how the neurons of the hippocampal CA3 region process the information to re-create a memory from only a portion of the original," said Johnston. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this model, autaptic hippocampal neurons express CB1 receptors, the cellular machinery to synthesize and metabolize the endocannabinoid 2-AG, and several other forms of CB1-mediated neuronal plasticity (Kellogg et al. (fabbs.org)
  • 1076). Neurons were obtained from animals (aged postnatal day 0-2) and plated on a feeder layer of hippocampal astrocytes previously laid down (Levison and McCarthy, 1991). (fabbs.org)
  • Additional immunohistochemical results revealed a significant loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of TBI alone and TBI-PTSD compared to PTSD alone and sham treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • Translational studies show that the key consequences of stress exposure on the hippocampus are suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and dendritic remodeling in the cornu ammonis (CA), particularly the CA3 subfield. (pnas.org)
  • The tissue sections were analyzed for AT8 (AT8 antibody), amino terminus exposure (TNT2 antibody), and amyloid-β (MOAB2 antibody) pathology in hippocampal strata containing the axons and neuronal cell bodies of the CA3-Schaffer collateral and dentate granule-mossy fiber pathways. (nih.gov)
  • a ) AT8 staining in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer (DG) and their corresponding mossy fiber terminal fields in the stratum lucidum of CA3 (Str. (nih.gov)
  • Anatomically, the hippocampus can be divided into several major areas: the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In area CA3, the pyramidal cells, which project to CA1 pyramidal cells via Schäffer collaterals, receive excitatory inputs from three sources: the mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus granule cells, the perforant path axons of the stellate cells in the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex, and the recurrent collaterals of the CA3 pyramidal cells themselves, which are the most numerous type of input to the CA3 pyramidal cells ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus, and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via the Schaffer collaterals. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA4 is often called the hilus or hilar region if considered as a part of the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dentate gyrus-CA3 glutamate release/NMDA transmission mediates behavioral despair and antidepressant-like responses to leptin. (nih.gov)
  • Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3 , then a very small zone called CA2 , then CA1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most anatomists use the term "hippocampus proper" to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and subiculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • These axons arise from layer 2 of the entorhinal cortex (EC), and terminate in the dentate gyrus and CA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The perforant path-to-dentate gyrus-to-CA3-to-CA1 was called the trisynaptic circuit by Per Andersen, who noted that thin slices could be cut out of the hippocampus perpendicular to its long axis, in a way that preserves all of these connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perforant path input from EC layer II enters the dentate gyrus and is relayed to region CA3 (and to mossy cells, located in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, which then send information to distant portions of the dentate gyrus where the cycle is repeated). (wikipedia.org)
  • A. LepRb-tdTomato cells are largely restricted to the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) and extend axonal projections to the CA3 region. (nih.gov)
  • In the dentate gyrus region, no down-regulation of nuclear or total PCNA protein was observed during reperfusion. (lu.se)
  • Spontaneous activity was rarely evident in the CA3 or CA1 regions or in the dentate gyrus ( Fig. 1 , B and C). However, we always detected large extracellular spikes in records from the subiculum, an output region of the hippocampus projecting to the temporal cortex and normally innervated by CA1 pyramidal cell axons ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Rectangles labeled a to c indicate positions of photomicrographs in (A). ( C ) Spontaneous events were never observed from the CA3 and CA1 regions or the dentate gyrus (DG) (positions 1 to 5). (sciencemag.org)
  • Dormant basket cell' hypothesis revisited: relative vulnerabilities of dentate gyrus mossy cells and inhibitory interneurons after hippocampal status epilepticus in the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This process of neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Incoming signals are transmitted by granule cells in the dentate gyrus to pyramid cells in the CA3 region and from these to pyramid cells in the CA1 region. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists studied genetically modified mice lacking NMDA receptors in dentate gyrus granule cells and pyramid cells in the CA1 region. (medindia.net)
  • Mice lacking the NMDA receptors in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 region could not resolve this problem. (medindia.net)
  • In contrast, hypothermia induces neurotrophin mRNA alterations in the ischemia-resistant dentate gyms that may convey protection to sensitive regions. (lu.se)
  • Dentate gyrus (DG), Cornu ammonis fields 3 and 1 (CA3, CA1) and the subiculum are components of the hippocampal formation. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Hippocampal CA3 epileptiform activity was then examined using field potential recordings in brain slices. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Age-related deterioration of long-term potentiation in the CA3 and CA1 regions of hippocampal slices from the senescence-accelerated mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, we carried out electrophysiological studies on hippocampal slices prepared from the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM-P/8), a strain which shows accelerated senescence and failure of certain types of learning in behavioral tests. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We studied the expression of S100B, S100A1, and S100A6 mRNA in the subfield CA1 of rat hippocampal slices after tetanic and low-frequency stimulation by real-time PCR. (hindawi.com)
  • Antiserum against S-100 protein prevents the long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, suggesting a positive role of S100B in the manifestation of LTP [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Conversely, an enhanced LTP was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region of mutant mice devoid of S100B, while the perfusion of hippocampal slices with the recombinant S100B protein reversed the LTP in the slices from mutant mice to the wild-type level [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we have established how these distinct synaptic processes contribute to the expression of LTP in hippocampal slices obtained from young adult rodents. (nature.com)
  • We have used both whole-cell and extracellular recording techniques in hippocampal slices to investigate the actions of both cocaine and dopamine receptor agonists in the CA1 region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. (plos.org)
  • There is also morphological evidence that hippocampal slices undergo a spontaneous and rapid increase in synapses within 2 hr after slicing [13] . (plos.org)
  • By using the newly developed high-sensitivity Zn 2+ indicator ZnAF-2, the spatiotemporal dynamics of Zn 2+ was monitored in rat hippocampal slices. (rupress.org)
  • This was followed by biochemical estimation of acetylcholinesterase and reduced glutathione levels followed by histological evaluation of cortical and hippocampal slices. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Immunohistochemical studies in these animals showed pronounced astrogliosis and microglial activation in the cortical and hippocampal slices suggesting neuroinflammatory changes. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The hippocampal slices in the control and medium-exposed groups generated long-term potentiation after induction by theta burst stimulation, but the low-exposed group did not. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Paired-pulse facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission was investigated in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices using whole-cell patch-clamp. (molecularstation.com)
  • Population spikes evoked in CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal slices by stimulation of the fimbria are subject to an early and a late inhibition. (molecularstation.com)
  • Quantifying the distribution of cells in every brain region is fundamental to attaining a comprehensive census of distinct neuronal and glial types. (bioportfolio.com)
  • a ) tPA immunohistochemistry (red) with superimposed scheme of synaptic input from the amygdala and the three-synaptic hippocampal neuronal circuit (yellow). (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroprotective efficiency of N-methyl D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor (NMDAR) blockade on the neuronal damage in the less studied and allegedly less affected CA3 hippocampus and striatum in the Mongolian gerbil model of global cerebral ischemia . (curehunter.com)
  • The neuronal death of the hippocampal CA3 region by kainate was also prevented by the administration of theanine. (prohealth.com)
  • However, it is clear that an immune response by the peripheral administration of the inflammatory agent, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can result in excitation in specific brain regions by detecting an increase in the expression of the neuronal immediate early gene Fos [ 10 - 16 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In vivo electrophysiological recordings have been used to study neuronal activity and hippocampal dependent learning and memory function since the Nobel Prize winning discovery of " Place Cells " by O'Keefe and Dostrovsky in 1971 . (bu.edu)
  • Activated Lrp6 is detected in neuronal soma and in neuronal processes, particularly in the mossy fiber terminals in the stratum lucidum of CA3. (scirp.org)
  • Oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory changes in the brain of these animals may be responsible for hippocampal neuronal loss, which could be partly reversed upon glibenclamide treatment. (ijpsonline.com)
  • B . Horizontal section through the posterior part of the left hemisphere, taken at the level indicated by the dotter square in A, schematically illustrating the overall neuronal architecture and subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex and the closely associated hippocampal formation. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In the present in vivo study, we assessed chronic neuroinflammation, neuronal cell loss, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in specific brain regions of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats following controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI with or without exposure to PTSD. (blogspot.com)
  • Cotman and Berchtold also suggest that trophic factors, such as BDNF and IGF-1, might mediate the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. (alzforum.org)
  • Luszczki, Jarogniew J. 2015-10-22 00:00:00 Hippocampal neurogenesis plays a very important role in learning and memory functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Hippocampal neurogenesis plays a very important role in learning and memory functions. (deepdyve.com)
  • The central theme of the lab is postnatal or adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), which is implicated in memory formation and mood regulation. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • In the Thuret lab we investigate the molecular mechanisms governing neurogenesis by using human hippocampal cell lines and we use the mouse as animal model to study cognition and mood. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • We study how the systemic milieu modulates hippocampal neurogenesis during ageing and Alzheimer's disease progression. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • We study the molecular mechanisms (including epigenetic changes and modification in microRNA expression) by which diet content and meal frequency impacts on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and subsequently affects cognition and mood. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • We are also investigating if certain bioactives previously shown to have beneficial effect on cognition and mood can regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Overview of physiological and environmental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its impact on learning and memory abilities and mood. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses can be expressed by an increase either in the number (N) of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors or in their single channel conductance (γ). (nature.com)
  • Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors by intra-CA3 infusion of MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reversed behavioral despair. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, we assessed the modulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) nuclear translocation and SNARE complex expression by western blotting. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We now report that activation of endogenous P2Y 1 receptors induces inhibition of the M-current in rat CA1/CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells in primary neuron cultures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Secondly, four major receptor types present in hippocampal CA3, namely NMDA, AMPA, GABAA and GABAB receptors, were investigated for their involvement in sharp wave generation. (bl.uk)
  • the hippocampal NMDA receptors are clearly needed to detect or resolve the conflict. (medindia.net)
  • The NMDA receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus therefore seem to perform a conflict detection or decision-making role in the event of conflicts. (medindia.net)
  • It runs contrary to a textbook tenet that has prevailed for more than 15 years, namely that NMDA receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus are needed to develop spatial memory. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers assume, therefore, that hippocampal NMDA receptors are also significant in other non-spatial conflicts. (medindia.net)
  • Hippocampal plasticity induced by primed burst, but not long-term potentiation, stimulation is impaired in area CA1 of aged Fischer 344 rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. (springer.com)
  • 2007 ) have reported that, 900 MHz exposure (2 h/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks), did enhance spatial memory performance and it did not affect hippocampal morphology in rats. (springer.com)
  • Male Sprague Dawley rats were chronically treated for 21 d with CORT in drinking water (400 μg/ml), and half were given daily injections of phenytoin (40 mg/kg), an antiepileptic drug that prevents CA3 dendritic retraction. (jneurosci.org)
  • Edward Koo on FK960, a potential anti-dementia drug, increases synaptic density in the hippocampal CA3 region of aged rats. (alzforum.org)
  • Trajectory-dependent firing was observed in medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Following, histochemical studies show the severe pyramidal neuron loss in CA1 and CA3 regions in the SE rats compared with the neuron number in normal and SE+HUMSCs rat. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, the responses of hippocampal synaptic structure to estrogens differ between aged and young rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the most prevalent targets of mossy fibers are GABAergic interneurons and SynCAM 1 loss unexpectedly reduced the number of excitatory terminals onto parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in CA3. (nih.gov)
  • These synaptic imbalances in SynCAM 1 KO mice resulted in CA3 disinhibition, in agreement with reduced feedforward inhibition in this network in the absence of SynCAM 1-dependent excitatory drive onto interneurons. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, the study reveals that hippocampal CA3 connectivity is modulated by the synapse-organizing adhesion protein SynCAM 1 and identifies a novel, SynCAM 1-dependent mechanism that controls excitatory inputs onto parvalbumin-positive interneurons. (nih.gov)
  • GABAergic interneurons are known to control activity balance in physiological conditions and to coordinate hippocampal networks during cognitive tasks. (frontiersin.org)
  • We tested this hypothesis in mice by in vivo unilateral epileptogenic hippocampal kainate lesion followed by in vitro recording of extracellular potentials and patch-clamp from GFP-expressing interneurons in CA3, in an optimized recording chamber. (frontiersin.org)
  • [22] , [23] observed slow oscillation-associated firing modulations in both hippocampal pyramidal cells and interneurons in urethane-anesthetized mice, whereas Isomura et al. (plos.org)
  • and rat ( Moran-Jimenez and Matute, 2000 ) hippocampal pyramidal cell layer and adjacent interneurons, strong P2Y 1 receptor immunoreactivity has been reported. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interneuron Diversity series: Fast in, fast out--temporal and spatial signal processing in hippocampal interneurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interneurons are the local targets of hippocampal inhibitory cells which project to the medial septum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Kv3 potassium conductance is necessary and kinetically optimized for high-frequency action potential generation in hippocampal interneurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results further imply that interneurons may play an integral part in the local information processing that takes place in the hippocampal network. (bl.uk)
  • Pharmacological evidence for two kinds of GABA receptor on rat hippocampal pyramidal cells studied in vitro. (springer.com)
  • A pharmacological characterization of chloride-and potassium-dependent inhibitions in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Intracellular recordings were performed on hippocampal CA3 neuronsin vitro to investigate the inhibitory tonus generated by endogenously produced adenosine in this brain region. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Differential involvement of oriens/pyramidale interneurones in hippocampal network oscillations in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We investigate environmental and molecular regulatory mechanisms controlling AHN by using in vitro approaches (human hippocampal stem cells) for molecular focused studies and mice as animal models for behavioural centred investigations. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • We have developed an in vitro model of stress using human hippocampal progenitor cells. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing the human S100B protein exhibited the impaired hippocampal LTP and spatial learning [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In agreement, mossy fiber refinement in CA3 was impaired in SynCAM 1 KO mice. (nih.gov)
  • In turn, mice lacking SynCAM 1 were impaired in memory tasks involving CA3. (nih.gov)
  • We have tested this hypothesis by generating and analyzing a genetically engineered mouse strain in which the N -methyl- d -asparate (NMDA) receptor gene is ablated specifically in the CA3 pyramidal cells of adult mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Similarly, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in mutant mice displayed normal place-related activity in a full-cue environment but showed a reduction in activity upon partial cue removal. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we have examined the role of these synapses in memory storage, retrieval, and pattern completion by generating and analyzing a mouse strain in which the NMDAR subunit 1 (NR1) is specifically and exclusively deleted in the CA3 pyramidal cells of adult mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • CA3 NMDA receptor knockout mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • To generate CA3 pyramidal cell-specific NR1 knockout mice (CA3-NR1 KO mice), we used the bacteriophage P1-derived Cre/ loxP recombination system ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Because the CA3 pyramidal cell layer is a robust site of expression of KA-1, one of the kainate receptor subunits ( 16 ), we created transgenic mice in which the transcriptional regulatory region of the KA-1 gene drives the expression of the Cre transgene ( 17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • To better understand the role of hippocampal aromatase in AD, we studied its expression in postmortem material from patients with AD and in a mouse model for AD (5xFAD mice). (hindawi.com)
  • To determine whether NMDA receptor activation is responsible for behavioral despair, mice received intra-CA3 infusion of MK-801 (1.0 μg), a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, 30 min prior to tail suspension. (nih.gov)
  • This was confirmed by inactivating hippocampal Gpr158 in mice, and subsequently giving them infusions of osteocalcin, which failed to improve their performance on memory tests. (eurekalert.org)
  • Johnston and researchers in his laboratory have measured the electrical activity mediated by the NMDA receptor in the hippocampus of mutant and normal mice to help their colleagues from other institutions demonstrate that a lack of NMDA receptor function within the CA3 region was responsible for the deficits displayed by the mutant animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ye H , Jalini S, Mylvaganam S, Carlen P. Activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels depresses basal synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area in APP (swe/ind) TgCRND8 mice. (luc.edu)
  • In addition, several reports have also described the effects of dopamine on long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral synapse in the CA1 region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Components of these networks function as key regulators of synaptic plasticity, in particular hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). (sciencemag.org)
  • We previously found that chronic stress conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction and spatial memory deficits make the hippocampus vulnerable to the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO). (jneurosci.org)
  • Additionally, spatial recognition memory was assessed using the Y-maze, revealing that conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction failed to impair spatial recognition memory. (jneurosci.org)
  • Caloric restriction and age affect synaptic proteins in hippocampal CA3 and spatial learning ability. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Central tenet of neuroscience regarding the function of hippocampal NMDA receptor-transmitted plasticity in spatial learning refuted by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg and Oxford University. (medindia.net)
  • The hypothesis that maltreatment is associated with volume reductions in 3-T MRI subfields containing the DG and CA3 was assessed and made practical by newly released automatic segmentation routines for FreeSurfer. (pnas.org)
  • The strongest associations between maltreatment and volume were observed in the left CA2-CA3 and CA4-DG subfields, and were not mediated by histories of major depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. (pnas.org)
  • The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of cornu Ammonis, an earlier name of the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A constitutive expression of PCNA mRNA and protein was detected in all hippocampal subfields, as well as in other brain regions. (lu.se)
  • We tested the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease subjects have greater atrophy of the CA1, CA2 and CA3 hippocampal subfields relative to amnestic MCI subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In contrast, there were no changes in neurotrophin and TrkB mRNA in the CA3 and CA1 regions. (lu.se)
  • We conclude that, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, NT3 or TrkB mRNA in ischemia-sensitive hippocampal subregions are not increased by protective hypothermia. (lu.se)
  • In CA3, the strength of the recurrent collateral synapses along with perforant path synapses can be modified in an NMDA receptor (NR)-dependent manner ( 11-14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • To this end, we model a population of CA3 place cells projecting to a single CA1 cell, and we assume that the CA1 input synapses are plastic according to STDP. (mit.edu)
  • Expression of synaptic marker genes, including synaptotagmin, Ves1, and AP17 went up, suggesting that exercise modulates brain physiology via direct effects on hippocampal synapses, the authors write. (alzforum.org)
  • A large number of studies have since shown alterations in hippocampal volume in a multitude of psychiatric disorders, including major depression (MDD), PTSD, borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia, dissociative identity disorder (DID), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the results also demonstrated that NaF exposure caused multiple ultrastructure alterations in hippocampal CA3 region. (fluoridealert.org)
  • CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. (springer.com)
  • Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. (springer.com)
  • The comet assay and hippocampal neuron counting were used to detect the brain cell damage. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Different BPA treatments exerted different effects on the neuron numbers of different regions in the hippocampus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In the CA1 region, the high-exposed group had a significant decrease in neuron numbers. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A non-monotonic relationship was observed between the exposure concentrations and neuron quantity in the CA3 region. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The data suggest that projections from medial prefrontal cortex, via the nucleus reuniens, are crucial for representation of the future path during goal-directed behaviour and point to the thalamus as a key node in networks for long-range communication between cortical regions involved in navigation. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, these heterotopias in area CA1 of the hippocampus have a tendency to fragment the single excitatory principal cell layer (PCL) into multiple pyramidal cell bands, stacked vertically on one another - transitioning the region into what looks like a primitive cortical structure with multiple excitatory layers. (elifesciences.org)
  • A . Schematic lateral view of the left hemisphere of the rat brain , indicating the position and orientation of the entorhinal cortex and adjacent closely associated cortical regions, including the hippocampus. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Under conditions in which GABAergic inhibition is blocked, norepinephrine reduces hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) epileptiform activity through α 2 adrenergic receptor (AR) activation on pyramidal cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Illustrated are the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex (light and dark green respectively) and the main connections of entorhinal cortex with the different hippocampal subdivisions (see text for more details). (scholarpedia.org)
  • MA increased the number of c-Fos and c-Fos/glucocorticoid receptor (GR) dual-labeled cells to a greater extent in males than females in the cingulate and CA3 regions. (wiley.com)
  • This may be mediated by increased neural activation, involving a greater activation of glucocorticoid receptor-positive cells, in males in the CA3 and cingulate brain regions, which are involved in negative feedback functions. (wiley.com)
  • These results provide direct evidence for CA3 NMDA receptor involvement in associative memory recall. (sciencemag.org)
  • We used a transgenic rat with the diphtheria toxin receptor ( Dtr ) inserted into the promoter region of the fractalkine receptor, Cx3cr1 , expressed on microglia and monocytes, to allow temporary ablation of microglia upon application of diphtheria toxin (DT). (springer.com)
  • Neuroprotective efficiency of NMDA receptor blockade in the striatum and CA3 hippocampus after various durations of cerebral ischemia in gerbils. (curehunter.com)
  • Effects of intra-CA3 injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on behavioral despair in the tail suspension test. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that NMDA receptor activation in CA3 may underlie the mechanisms of behavioral despair in the TST. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, these data indicate regional Wnt receptor activation in the human hippocampus that is most prominent in the cells comprising the afferent arm of the major hippocampal circuit that is associated with learning and memory functions. (scirp.org)
  • A ) Sclerotic cell loss was evident in cresyl violet-stained sections of the CA3 (a) and CA1 (b) regions but less pronounced in the subiculum (c). (sciencemag.org)
  • CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The grid cells of the rat medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) show an increased firing frequency when the position of the animal correlates with multiple regions. (molecularstation.com)
  • Figure 1: Schematic representation of the entorhinal cortex and its main connectivity illustrating its pivotal position to mediate the communication between the hippocampal formation and neocortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • D . Schematic illustration of the rat brain, with exposed hippocampal formation of the right hemisphere The dorsoventral extent of the hippocampal formation is represented, showing the longitudinal organization of entorhinal-hippocampal connectivity using a colour-code comparable to that in the entorhinal cortex (latero-to-medial: pink-to-blue gradient in EC related to similarly coloured dorsoventral gradient in hippocampus). (scholarpedia.org)
  • The entorhinal cortex is part of the medial temporal lobe or hippocampal memory system and constitutes the major gateway between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The entorhinal cortex has initially attracted attention because of its strong reciprocal connections with the hippocampal formation and its involvement in certain brain disorders. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Despite these important roles, the extent to which different synapse-organizing mechanisms act across brain regions to establish connectivity and regulate network properties is incompletely understood. (nih.gov)
  • First, the data support that synaptogenic proteins guide connectivity and can function in distinct brain regions even if they are expressed broadly. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of SynCAM 1 affects connectivity in select brain regions. (nih.gov)
  • Where are the hippocampal place cells located in the brain? (brainscape.com)
  • Thus, sex differences in MA-induced plasma corticosterone levels and activation of distinct brain regions and proteins involved in HPA axis regulation may contribute to sex differences in acute effects of MA on the brain. (wiley.com)
  • Cell numbers, distribution, shape, and regional variation throughout the murine hippocampal formation from the adult brain Allen Reference Atlas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • cell analysis in an entire brain region. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Diagram of hippocampal regions in a rat brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A protocol for entorhino-hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, which allows reproducing many aspects of ischemic brain injury, is presented. (jove.com)
  • Brain edema, hippocampal morphology changes and hippocampal volume were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging, a non-invasive imaging technology, and Nissl staining, respectively. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • These apparently random remembrances, triggered by a sensory cue representing only a portion of the original memory, appear to be dependent on a particular region of the brain--the CA3 region of the hippocampus, say researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, collaborating with others from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, and Hokkaido University School of Medicine in Sapporo Japan. (eurekalert.org)
  • He believes that those memories can remain there for up to a year before being transferred to other brain regions, specifically the cortex. (eurekalert.org)
  • We apply our methods on a dataset obtained from MEA-measurements in an acute hippocampal brain slice from a rat. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The multi-electrode arrays (MEA) system is becoming an increasingly important tool for investigations of neural activity, both in ex vivo brain tissue (e.g., a hippocampal slice preparation from rat or mouse Egert et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Eight weeks post-TBI, stereology-based histological analyses revealed no significant differences between sham and PTSD alone treatment across all brain regions examined, whereas significant exacerbation of OX6-positive activated microglial cells in the striatum, thalamus, and cerebral peduncle, but not cerebellum, in animals that received TBI alone and combined TBI-PTSD compared with PTSD alone and sham treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • 0.001) acetylcholinesterase activity as compared to control animals suggesting type 2 diabetes-associated oxidative stress and decrease in hippocampal Ach activity. (ijpsonline.com)
  • These results suggest that, under conditions of impaired GABAergic inhibition, activation of α 2A ARs is primarily responsible for the antiepileptic actions of norepinephrine in the rat hippocampal CA3 region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Excitatory Synaptic Drive and Feedforward Inhibition in the Hippocampal CA3 Circuit Are Regulated by SynCAM 1. (nih.gov)
  • Granule cells of the DG send their axons (called "mossy fibers") to CA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that LepRb-tdTomato cells were largely restricted to the granule cell layer in DG with sparse cells observed in CA3 (Figure 3A). (nih.gov)
  • The extensive recurrent connectivity of the CA3 area of hippocampus has led to suggestions that it might provide this function. (sciencemag.org)
  • The prominence of these recurrent collaterals has led to suggestions that CA3 might serve as an associative memory network. (sciencemag.org)
  • There are also a significant number of recurrent connections that terminate in CA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using an innovative surface-based hippocampal analytic technique we analysed the structural magnetic resonance hippocampal data of 31 amnestic MCI and 34 Alzheimer's disease subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our study suggests that as Alzheimer's disease progresses, subregional hippocampal atrophy spreads in a pattern that follows the known trajectory of neurofibrillary tangle dissemination. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the DG, cells positive for pLrp6 include Type 1 and Type 2 hippocampal progenitor cells. (scirp.org)
  • We then investigate the roles of the hippocampal theta modulation and phase precession on the inheritance process. (mit.edu)
  • Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to chronic corticosterone (CORT) under conditions that produce CA3 dendritic retraction would enhance CA3 susceptibility to IBO. (jneurosci.org)
  • Conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction (CORT and vehicle) exacerbated IBO-induced CA3 damage compared with conditions in which CA3 dendritic retraction was not observed (vehicle and vehicle, vehicle and phenytoin, CORT and phenytoin). (jneurosci.org)
  • These data are the first to show that conditions with prolonged glucocorticoid elevations leading to structural changes in hippocampal dendritic arbors can make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic challenges. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, CA3 dendritic retraction may increase vulnerability to concurrent life events. (jneurosci.org)
  • If dendritic retraction contributes to hippocampal damage after neurotoxin challenge, then producing dendritic retraction using glucocorticoids should also exacerbate neurotoxin-induced hippocampal damage. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, we hypothesized that conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction would exacerbate neurotoxin-induced hippocampal damage. (jneurosci.org)
  • The onset of tail suspension stress evoked a rapid increase in glutamate release in hippocampal field CA3, which declined gradually after its offset. (nih.gov)
  • Leptin treatment dampened tail suspension-evoked glutamate release in CA3. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of LepRb cells in the hippocampus and effect of leptin on glutamate release in CA3. (nih.gov)
  • Using postnatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, the authors demonstrated that xenon used at 1 minimum alveolar concentration-equivalent concentration increased apoptosis similar to sevoflurane and isoflurane at equipotent concentrations, and that this effect was abolished by preconditioning the tissue with a subtoxic concentration of isoflurane. (asahq.org)
  • Subsequently, the ionic basis for action potential generation in the hippocampal pyramidal cells has been extensively studied in the hippocampal slice. (springer.com)
  • Motivated by the anatomical connectivity between these two regions and by the evidence for synaptic plasticity at these connections, we study how a place field in CA1 can be inherited from an upstream region such as CA3 through a Hebbian learning rule, in particular, through spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). (mit.edu)
  • It seems possible, if not likely, that these crude laminar structures resulting from faulty cellular migration in the Lis1 mutant mouse, might reflect natural underlying patterns in local circuit connectivity upon which normal hippocampal function is critically dependent. (elifesciences.org)
  • These three regions and their connectivity represent the afferent arm of the major hippocampal circuit. (scirp.org)
  • The burst firing pattern of the hippocampal pyramidal cells was first described by Kandel and Spencer in their intracellular studies using the in vivo cat preparation (Kandel and Spencer, 1961). (springer.com)
  • b ) Schematic representation of a hippocampal synapse, showing the putative mechanism of tPA action at that site. (jci.org)
  • Age-related synapse loss in hippocampal CA3 is not reversed by caloric restriction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although Zn 2+ is contained in large amounts in the synaptic terminals of hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs), its physiological role in synaptic transmission is poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • As judged by morphological and neurological data, the effect of ischemia is also apparent in the presumed less vulnerable regions (CA3 and striatum) which are functionally important in stroke plasticity. (curehunter.com)
  • suggesting that endogenous dopamine facilitates synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This age-related decrease and CR-induced stabilization are likely to affect CA3 synaptic plasticity and, as a result, hippocampal function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • a form of synaptic plasticity), isolated the CA1 region, and then performed both a proteomic analysis and a protein-protein interaction analysis of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a cellular compartment containing more than 1500 proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The selective αAR agonist 6-fluoronorepinephrine caused a reduction of CA3 epileptiform activity, as measured by decreased frequency of spontaneous epileptiform bursts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Finally, equilibrium dissociation constants ( K b ) of selective αAR antagonists were functionally determined to confirm the specific α 2 AR subtype inhibiting CA3 epileptiform activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Much of the synchronous bursting activity associated with interictal epileptiform activity appears to be generated in CA3. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA3 uniquely, has pyramidal cell axon collaterals that ramify extensively with local regions and make excitatory contacts with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using two independent image processing pipelines and the adult mouse reference atlas, we report the first cellular-level soma segmentation in every sub-region and non-principal layer of the left hippocampal formation through the full rostral-caudal extent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • With both numerical and analytical methods, we show that in the case of overlapping CA3 input place fields, the STDP learning rule leads to the formation of a place field in CA1. (mit.edu)
  • The hippocampal formation is thought to contribute to both addictive behaviors and to psychotic disorders, and the actions of the neurotransmitter dopamine are intimately involved with these disease states. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The understanding of the actions of dopamine as a neurotransmitter in the hippocampal formation has evolved over the past 3 decades, from the presumption that dopamine had no significant role (except as a precursor to norepinephrine), to the current appreciation that dopamine can act via multiple signaling pathways in the hippocampus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here we examine the formation of synaptic circuitry under cellular heterotopia in hippocampal CA1, using a mouse model of the human neurodevelopmental disorder Type I Lissencephaly. (elifesciences.org)
  • Unilateral resection of part of this structure, including the hippocampal formation, was indicated because seizures were poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs ( 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Brodmann, 1909) constitutes the major gateway between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Together with the hippocampal formation and neighboring portions of the parahippocampal region it forms a major substrate mediating conscious (declarative) memory. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Childhood maltreatment or abuse is a major risk factor for mood, anxiety, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders, and it is associated with reduced adult hippocampal volume, particularly on the left side. (pnas.org)
  • D-amino-phosphonovaleric acid-sensitive spontaneous giant EPSPs in immature rat hippocampal neurones. (springer.com)
  • The main purpose of this study was to determine whether a history of chronic glucocorticoid elevations mediate the chronic stress exacerbation of CA3 damage after neurotoxin challenge. (jneurosci.org)
  • This activity pattern can be visualized in the video below of the Dancing Place Cells which was made from actual data recordings of hippocampal place cells. (bu.edu)
  • In each patient, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hippocampal atrophy suggestive of sclerosis ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Following hypothermic ischemia, the PCNA protein levels did not decrease in any of the hippocampal subregions. (lu.se)
  • Using immediate-early genes to map hippocampal subregional functions. (uci.edu)
  • Intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) records from hippocampal structures usually reveal interictal spikes, lasting 50 to 300 ms, which occur between seizures. (sciencemag.org)
  • C-Fos was elevated in both sexes following MA in HPA axis-associated regions, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala, cingulate, and CA3 hippocampal region. (wiley.com)
  • MA also increased the number of c-fos/vasopressin dual-labeled cells in the PVN as well as the number and percentage of c-Fos/GR dual-labeled cells in the PVN and central amygdala, although no sex differences in dual labeling were found in these regions. (wiley.com)
  • Thus, the decrease in key synaptic proteins in CA3 and cognitive decline occurring across lifespan are stabilized by CR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • While CR attenuates age-related cognitive deficits in tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, the cellular mechanisms by which CR improves this cognitive decline are poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Circulating estrogen levels and hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions decline with aging. (biomedsearch.com)

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