Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseCA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.CA3 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CA2 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Aniline CompoundsMuscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Calcium Channels, T-Type: A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Estrenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.HydroquinonesReceptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Excitation Contraction Coupling: A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Dantrolene: Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cytophotometry: A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Apamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Macrocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.ThiazepinesAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Sugar PhosphatesIslets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.EthylenediaminesProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

Subregional hippocampal atrophy predicts Alzheimer's dementia in the cognitively normal. (1/273)

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Structural plasticity of dentate granule cell mossy fibers during the development of limbic epilepsy. (2/273)

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Ectopic growth of hippocampal mossy fibers in a mutated GAP-43 transgenic mouse with impaired spatial memory retention. (3/273)

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Nonlinear modeling of neural population dynamics for hippocampal prostheses. (4/273)

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Age-related changes in glutamate release in the CA3 and dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus. (5/273)

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Estradiol and the relationship between dendritic spines, NR2B containing NMDA receptors, and the magnitude of long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. (6/273)

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Axonal sodium channel distribution shapes the depolarized action potential threshold of dentate granule neurons. (7/273)

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CA3 NMDA receptors are required for the rapid formation of a salient contextual representation. (8/273)

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The stratum lucidum reduces friction and shear forces between the surrounding layers of the epidermis. About.com explains that the stratum lucidum layer is only present in a few areas of the body...
Video created by デューク大学(Duke University) for the course Medical Neuroscience. It may surprise you to know that in all of our studies of the neural systems for sensation and action, we have yet to properly account for the organization and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yinying Chen, Caixiu Zhou, Yanan Yu, Jun Liu, Zhiwei Jing, Aiping Lv, Fanyun Meng, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang].
Ooh Ooh Ooh, They Finally Did It! This post is about a research article I knew existed because I know the authors and I reviewed it. I have just been waiting for it to come out so I could finally celebrate the work. This research finally looked explicitly at temporal processing in humans using a…
Position: PhD Student. Research focus: Understanding the functional diversity of hippocampal CA3 CCK+ interneurons. email: [email protected] CV. ...
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. It may surprise you to know that in all of our studies of the neural systems for sensation and action, we have yet to properly account for the organization and function of ...
LUniversité Saint-Esprit de Kaslik (USEK) est une institution catholique privée denseignement supérieur fondée en 1961 par lOrdre Libanais Maronite (OLM).
در مخازن شکاف‌دار، میزان برداشت نفت به آشام خودبخودی آب در ماتریس و خارج ساختن نفت موجود در آن به سمت شکاف‌ها، بستگی دارد. اما این فرآیند زمانی امکان‌پذیر است که ماتریس بلوک‌ها، «آب‌تر» باشد. از آنجا که مخازن کربناته غالبا «نفت‌تر» می‌باشند، به کارگیری آشام خودبخودی در مخازن کربناته شکاف‌دار مستلزم تغییر ترشوندگی در حین عملیات سیلاب‌زنی می‌باشد. در این مقاله، تأثیر یون‌های مؤثر بر پتانسیل سطح (SO42- ،Ca2+ ،Mg2+) موجود در آب دریا در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته و همچنین تأثیر دما و غلظت نمک NaCl در فرآیند آشام خودبخودی مورد تحقیق تجربی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 13
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Over the last few years there has been increasing interest in behavioral pattern separation. This has primarily focused on spatial pattern separation in rats and mice or pattern separation of visual objects as evaluated in humans. What has been overlooked is a vast literature of temporal pattern separation extending into the early 1990s. The manuscript…
Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB) areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC...
The ICAM-1-positive vessels in the hippocampal CA1 in the control, 2VO, HL and HL + 2VO groups at 1, 2 and 4 months post-surgery. Scale bar: 20 µm.Values are e
Definition of olm in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of olm. What does olm mean? Information and translations of olm in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
1998 10 22.35003 02 17 47.55 +16 18 22.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 10 22.48311 02 17 46.87 +16 18 18.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 11 18.07069 02 15 27.92 +16 05 19.9 21.5R 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.14591 02 15 27.54 +16 05 17.6 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.23096 02 15 27.03 +16 05 15.2 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 12 14.83617 02 13 35.14 +15 53 37.6 22.7R 523955 950 Ca3601 1998 12 14.85345 02 13 35.07 +15 53 37.3 523955 950 Ca3601 1999 11 10.16227 02 22 34.50 +16 25 15.5 22.5R 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.18814 02 22 34.40 +16 25 14.7 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.24322 02 22 34.07 +16 25 12.9 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.31381 02 22 33.61 +16 25 10.7 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.37010 02 22 33.30 +16 25 09.0 22.7R 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.41551 02 22 33.04 +16 25 07.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.24109 02 22 28.74 +16 24 43.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.28637 02 22 28.51 +16 24 42.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.33656 02 22 28.17 +16 24 41.3 523955 696 Ca7321 2000 11 23.18416 02 27 52.14 +16 34 03.5 ...
1998 10 22.40628 03 08 48.43 +16 39 15.3 22.8R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 10 22.49369 03 08 47.93 +16 39 12.7 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.13535 03 06 18.37 +16 27 28.1 22.6R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.20454 03 06 18.00 +16 27 26.2 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 12 17.95527 03 03 45.48 +16 15 35.9 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.00257 03 03 45.30 +16 15 35.6 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.03799 03 03 45.12 +16 15 34.0 91205 950 Ca3601 1999 10 06.55934 03 17 46.28 +16 54 48.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.53349 03 17 33.50 +16 53 45.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.57011 03 17 33.32 +16 53 44.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.60427 03 17 33.15 +16 53 43.6 23.4R 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.63619 03 17 33.05 +16 53 42.9 23.3R 91205 568 Ca6740 2000 12 28.31163 03 18 17.672 +16 31 40.74 23.2R 91205 568 Cl4052 2000 12 28.38018 03 18 17.407 +16 31 39.64 23.0R 91205 568 Cl4052 2003 10 01.56099 03 48 19.49 +17 21 57.5 23.1R 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 10 01.59893 03 48 19.38 +17 21 56.8 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 12 21.158989 03 41 29.38 +16 54 ...
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Investitiile publice prezinta doua coordonate principale, care le determina caracterul de netagaduit public: sunt facute in folosul comunitatii si sunt facute din banii publici.
This paper reviews on results from a million-cell granule cell model of the rat dentate gyrus that was used to explore the efforts of local interneuronal and associational circuits to network-level activity. activity. Outcomes furthermore present that the topography of regional interneuronal circuits can possess simply as solid an influence on the advancement of spatio-temporal groupings in the granule cell inhabitants as the perforant route topography will, both sharpening existing groupings and presenting brand-new types with a better spatial level. Finally, outcomes present that the connections between the inhibitory and associational loops can trigger high regularity oscillations that are modulated by a low-frequency oscillatory sign. These outcomes serve to additional illustrate the importance of topographical restrictions on a global sign digesting feature of a sensory network, while also showing how wealthy spatio-temporal and oscillatory aspect can evolve from a fairly little amount ...
Some insight into the nature and inefficiency of linear polarization can be appreciated by considering the diagram below. Here you can see that a field like B1 (depicted as a big green arrow) oscillating at the resonance frequency (ωo) can be decomposed into two counterrotating subfields (red and blue arrows), each half as large. One of these subfields (red arrow) rotates in the same direction and frequency (ωo) as the spins undergoing NMR; the other subfield (blue arrow) rotates in the opposite direction and frequency (−ωo). Only the subfield associated with red arrow is effective at inducing net nuclear transitions and a change in net nuclear magnetization required for MRI. The other subfield is ineffective for NMR and serves only to deposit unwanted thermal energy into tissue. ...
Declaring the library to be a "public forum, defined as "an available public space where citizens communicate their ideas through the spoken word, Judge Sarokin declared it covered by the First Amendment. Moreover, a hygiene test has "a disparate impact on the poor. In short, the library rules "unreasonably frustrate, infringe, or obstruct the expressional and associational rights of individuals." In a classic expression of the vision of the anointed, Judge Sarokin lectured the community on its attitude toward the homeless: "If we wish to shield our eyes and noses from the homeless, we should revoke their conditions, not their library cards. ...
MONTREAL â€" Assistant coach Clement Jodoin is leaving the Montreal Canadiens.. Jodoin, who has been an assistant coach for 10 years in two stints with Montreal, decided on his own to resign, head coach Claude Julien said in a statement.. "At our post-season meeting, we offered Clement to remain on our coaching staff, but he indicated to us that at this stage in his career, he would be looking for a change and would like to explore other challenges," Julien said.. Jodoin, 65, served as an assistant coach in Montreal from 1997 to 2003 under Alain Vigneault and Michel Therrien.. He returned when Therrien began his second stint as head coach in 2012 after serving as head coach for one season of the Hamilton Bulldogs, then the Canadiens top farm club.. Julien replaced the fired Therrien on Feb. 14. He was expected to bring in some of his own assistants, as most head coaches do.. Jodoin was an assistant coach with the Pittsburgh Penguins in 1987-88 and for two seasons with the Quebec Nordiques in ...
The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis , an earlier name of the hippocampus. Structure There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex . Another significant output is to the subiculum . CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path . Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus , and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. The mossy fiber pathway ends in the stratum lucidum . The perforant path passes through the stratum lacunosum and ends in
Different events usually contain similar elements that can contribute to interference during memory encoding and retrieval. The hippocampus (HPC), a structure that is critically involved in some forms of memory, has been hypothesized to reduce interference between memories with overlapping content, thus facilitating correct recall. Pattern separation is one hypothetical process whereby input ambiguity is reduced. Here we test the hypothesis that the HPC and/or dentate gyrus (DG) are important for pattern separation by measuring performance by rats with damage in tasks that require discrimination between visual stimuli that share systematically varying numbers of common elements. Rats with HPC damage were slower to resolve discriminations with minimal degrees of overlap. Lesions of the DG did not affect the ability of rats to deal with overlap, suggesting a dissociation between the HPC and DG. Our results provide partial support for the idea that the HPC contributes to the pattern separation ...
accordingly additional adults alterations analyze another assessment automatic brain cell cells clinic cognitive cognitively college combined comprises configuration considered consistent contrast controls correlations crude damping database date dementia derived detected detecting developments differ differential differentiating diffuse disease displayed distinct elasticity enables establish example exhibit exhibited expected flirt focus focused formation functionally general global globally graphs greater health healthy hospital illustrated improvements in vivo include incorporating independent indicating individual influence integrity inversion inversions inverted investigate isotropic john joint kingdom known maps masks measure measured measures mechanical mechanisms memory native neurons nonlinear older organization outcome pathologies patients performance pipelines post prevention prior promise pronounced properties pyramidal quality recent recruited reduction regarding register ...
A frame member for housing a battery cell, frame assembly and frame/battery cell assembly made therefrom, as well as respective methods of making the same, are disclosed. A frame member for housing a battery cell includes an integral frame having a peripheral wall, the peripheral wall having an attachment face and an opposed cooling face, and an attachment feature located on the attachment face and a complementary attachment feature located on the attachment face that is symmetrically opposed to the attachment feature about a plane of symmetry of the frame, the peripheral wall defining an opening that is configured to matingly receive a battery cell therein. A pair of frame members having a cooling member placed therebetween and attached to the respective attachment faces comprises a frame assembly. A frame/battery cell assembly includes a pair of frame assemblies having at least one battery cell placed therebetween.
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. We measured the effects of nonselective optogenetic stimulation on the oscillations of the MS and corresponding effects on hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 in three different contexts: (1) With minimal movement while the rats sit in a confined chamber; (2) Exploring a novel open field; and (3) Learning and performing a T‐maze behavioral task. We describe the relationship between animal speed and the efficacy of septal stimulation in the entrainment of hippocampal oscillations as well as possible cognitive enhancements in relation to MS stimulation. ...
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CA2656037A1 CA 2656037 CA2656037A CA2656037A1 CA 2656037 A1 CA2656037 A1 CA 2656037A1 CA 2656037 CA2656037 CA 2656037 CA 2656037 A CA2656037 A CA 2656037A CA 2656037 A1 CA2656037 A1 CA 2656037A1 Authority CA Canada Prior art keywords ink dye netpage c5 c1 Prior art date 2006-07-10 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal ...
... : This product is a non stock item that must be ordered from the manufacturer. As such, will app
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The CA (Cornu Ammonis) fields, too, contain 3 distinct strata and house excitatory neurons known as pyramidal cells. The alveus is the most superficial layer and contains the commissural fibers of pyramidal cells via the fimbria, a major source of output from the hippocampus. Stratum oriens layer contains basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and a large body of basket cells (inhibitory interneurons). This strata includes fibers from the septal and commissural areas that are received from the contralateral hippocampus. This region also contains the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The next layer is the stratum pyramidale, named so because it contains the soma, or cell body, of the pyramidal cell. This layer in CA3 contains the mossy fiber connections and also houses interneurons. The stratum moleculare is divided into sublayers. The stratum lucidum is the thinnest layer and, in CA3, this area receives input from the dentate gyrus mossy fibers. Stratum radiatum contains apical dendrites ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhen Li, Rong Zhou, Shengzhong Cui, Guiqin Xie, Weiyan Cai, Masahiro Sokabe, Ling Chen].
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Fernando Buarque de Lima Neto; Fernando B de Lima Neto; Fernando B de L Neto; Fernando B D L Neto; F B D L Neto; Fernando de Lima Neto; F. Buarque L Neto; F Buarque de Lima Neto ...
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Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronised discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e. a positive role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e. negative) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were. For instance, if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they
The cells we identify here as primary precursors for new neurons in the adult hippocampus have the characteristics of astrocytes at the light and electron microscope. They contain multiple processes with intermediate filaments rich in GFAP. Results from three independent experiments support this conclusion. First, many proliferating SGL astrocytes rapidly convert to a cell type that is GFAP negative and that possesses characteristics of D cells. Second, anti-mitotic treatment resulted in the elimination of D cells from the SGL, but neurogenesis returned. Because new neurons are born at a time when [3H]thymidine-labeled astrocytes were observed, we infer that astrocytes function as primary precursors. Finally, we show that SGL astrocytes, specifically labeled with an avian retrovirus, give rise to granule neurons. We observed granule neurons at different stages of maturation by killing animals at different survivals after retroviral infection. Some SGL astrocytes remain labeled with thymidine ...
This project examines the neural circuitry of the CA2 region of the hippocampus and its role in hippocampal-dependent learning and behavior. Although the hippoc...
Downloadable! The social capital literature attributes association members a key role in propagating inter-personal trust in the society. It has been posited that participating in associations instils pro-social attitudes in their members, and that the decline in associational membership is the main cause of the faltering rates of inter-personal trust in the US. However, the extent to which association members are indeed inclined to extend their presumed higher pro-social attitudes from within associations to the society at large is still an open question. The survey evidence on the issue is scant, and recent laboratory evidence with minimal groups assigns no value to groups as such. We investigate these issues in the first field experiment measuring trust and trustworthiness of members of real-life associations and of a demographically comparable sample of non-members. The sample was stratified with respect to age, gender, educational level. Members have played an anonymous Trust Game either with
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본 연구는 나이를 달리하여 4개월과 12개월 된 흰쥐에게 casein, gluten, 북어를 식이의 40% 수준으로 공급하여 5주간 사육하였을 때 체내 Ca 및 단백질 대사에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 계획되었다. 혈청, 간과 근육의 단백질함량과 뇨, 변의 질소배설량을 측정하였으며 실험식이를 먹인 후 제 2일, 9일, 23일, 35일에 수집한 뇨와 변중의 Ca 배설량을 측정하여 시간에 따른 변화를 살펴보았다. 5주간의 실험기간이 끝난 후 식이 섭취량, 체중증가량은 나이와 단백질급원에 따른 차이가 없었으며 혈청. 간, 장총지신근(E,D.L.), 가자미근(soleus), 족지근(plantaris)의 단백질 함량 역시 차이가 없었다. 그러나 뇨 중의 질소 배설량은 4개월된 쥐에서는 gluten군이 높은 경향을 보였고, 따라서 질소 보유율은 낮았으나 12개월된 쥐는 이런 경향이 나타나지 않았다. 혈청 Ca함량은 나이와 ...
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Spatial memory deficits have been well documented in older adults and may serve as an early indicator of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimers disease in some individuals. Pattern separation is a critical mechanism for reducing potential interference among similar memory representations to enhance memory accuracy. A small but growing literature indicates that spatial pattern separation may become less efficient as a result of normal aging, possibly due to age-related changes in subregions of the hippocampus. This decreased efficiency in spatial pattern separation may be a critical processing deficit that could be a contributing factor to spatial memory deficits and episodic memory impairment associated with aging. The present paper will review recently published studies in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents that have examined age-related changes in spatial pattern separation. The potential basic science, translational, and clinical implications from these studies are discussed to illustrate the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamically detuned oscillations account for the coupled rate and temporal code of place cell firing. AU - Lengyel, Máté. AU - Szatmáry, Zoltán. AU - Érdi, Péter. PY - 2003/9/22. Y1 - 2003/9/22. N2 - Firing of place cells in the exploring rat conveys doubly coded spatial information: both the rate of spikes and their timing relative to the phase of the ongoing field theta oscillation are correlated with the location of the animal. Specifically, the firing rate of a place cell waxes and wanes, while the timing of spikes precesses monotonically as the animal traverses the portion of the environment preferred by the cell. We propose a mechanism for the generation of this firing pattern that can be applied for place cells in all three hippocampal subfields and that encodes spatial information in the output of the cell without relying on topographical connections or topographical input. A single pyramidal cell was modeled so that the cell received rhythmic inhibition in phase ...
Dr Valerie Carr earned her PhD in Neuroscience from UCLA in 2008 where she examined strategic factors influencing memory in both younger and older adults. Afterwards she pursued an NIH postdoctoral fellowship at Stanford University where she investigated neural mechanisms of memory and how these mechanisms change with age. She is currently an Assistant Professor in the Psychology department where an overarching goal of her research is to understand the factors that influence the content, quality, and durability of memories across the lifespan. She aims to leverage her knowledge of cognitive neuroscience to develop strategies for improving memory, with an emphasis on developing exercise interventions that improve memory performance and brain health in populations such as older adults and individuals with anxiety and depression. Recent Publications. Wisse, L. E. M., Daugherty, A. M., Olsen, R. K., Berron, D., Carr, V. A., … la Joie, R., for the Hippocampal Subfields Group (2017). A harmonized ...
English, McKenzie, et al. identify, validate, and quantify monosynaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons, using the spike timing of pre- and postsynaptic neurons in vivo. Their large-scale method uncovers a backbone of connectivity rules in the hippocampus CA1 circuit.. ...
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link) Jensen, Ole; Lisman, John E. (1996). "Hippocampal CA3 region predicts memory sequences: accounting for the phase ... Jahangiri, A; Durand D. (April 2011). "Phase resetting analysis of high potassium epileptiform activity in CA3 region of the ... Type II Phase Response Curves can have negative and positive regions. Due to this characteristic, Type II PRCs are able to ... full citation needed] Wang, S.G.; Musharoff M; Canavier C; Gasparini S (June 2013). "Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibit ...
Commissural fibers that originate from CA3 Pyramidal cells go to CA3, CA2 and CA1 regions. Like mossy cells, a single CA3 ... They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... Region CA3 combines this input with signals from EC layer II and sends extensive connections within the region and also sends ... Region CA1 receives input from the CA3 subfield, EC layer III and the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus (which project only to ...
There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal ... CA3 also sends a small set of output fibers to the lateral septum. The region is conventionally divided into three divisions. ... The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via ... CA3 has been implicated in a number of working theories on memory and hippocampal learning processes. Slow oscillatory rhythms ...
The CA3 hippocampal region is affected differently by decreased plasticity than the CA1 region just discussed. Decreased ... However, while the size of place fields in the hippocampal CA3 region remains the same between young and aged rats, average ... This form of mRNA is decreased in both the CA1 and CA2 hippocampal regions, these reduced levels causing spatial learning ... Place field properties are similar between young and aged rats in the CA1 hippocampal region: rate of firing and spike ...
Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ... One study has found that the CA3 plays an essential role in the consolidation of memories when examining CA3 regions using the ... the innermost area of the hippocampal formation, and region CA2. The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal ... The CA3 pyramidal neurons have been analogized as the "pacemaker" of the trisynaptic loop in the generation of hippocampal ...
Commissural fibers that originate from CA3 Pyramidal cells go to CA3, CA2 and CA1 regions. Like mossy cells, a single CA3 ... Hippocampal commissuresEdit. Hilar mossy cells and CA3 Pyramidal cells are the main origins of hippocampal commissural fibers. ... They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... Region CA3 combines this input with signals from EC layer II and sends extensive connections within the region and also sends ...
In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, basket cells can often form recurrent inhibition loops with pyramidal cells. Projections ... Hippocampal basket cells target somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal neurons. Similar to their counterparts in the cortex ... Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the brain, found throughout different regions of the cortex and ... hippocampal basket cells are also parvalbumin-expressing and fast-spiking. ...
They are both produced as the response of CA1 region to inputs from CA3 region. Ripples are only present in the absence of ... The most famous human patient with hippocampal lesion is H.M., whose hippocampus has been removed from both sides of his brain ... Population burst of pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus via CA3 collaterals cause depolarization of pyramidal ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1 dendritic layer region are important in generating these waves, and they affect the subiculum, ...
When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... They are dependent on IPSPs and started in either CA3 by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and within C1 by the activation of ... "Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells ...
Epilepsy has also been linked to dysfunction in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. A Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a type ... researchers look to replace compromised hippocampal regions and restore function. Treatment for several conditions that impact ... A Nonlinear Model for Hippocampal Cognitive Prosthesis: Memory Facilitation by Hippocampal Ensemble Stimulation. Ieee ... This region is a "neuronal network that coordinates mental processes in the service of explicit intentions or tasks," driving ...
The Schaffer collateral is located between the CA3 region and CA1 region in the hippocampus. Schaffer collaterals are the axons ... As a part of the hippocampal structures, Schaffer collaterals develop the limbic system, which plays a critical role in the ... connections are made to the CA3 regions of the hippocampus via mossy fibers. CA3 sends the information signals to CA1 pyramidal ... The contralateral CA3 region sends information through Schaffer collateral to the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Plastic changes ...
Chronic stress in the male rat showed dendritic retraction and cell loss in the CA3 region but this was not shown in the female ... Theories of hippocampal functions[edit]. Over the years, three main ideas of hippocampal function have dominated the literature ... Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ...
... marked by the extension of dendrites into the molecular layer of the DG and the growth of axons into the CA3 region, and ... The main function of the SGZ is to carry out hippocampal neurogenesis, the process by which new neurons are bred and ... The subgranular zone (SGZ) is a brain region in the hippocampus where adult neurogenesis occurs. The other major site of adult ... Although more work needs to be done to solidify the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and memory, it is clear from ...
... mature into granule cells whose axons project to and synapse onto dendrites on the CA3 region. NPs in the hippocampus have been ... Twitchell W, Brown S, Mackie K (1997). "Cannabinoids inhibit N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in cultured rat hippocampal ... In humans, cannabinoid receptors exist in much lower concentration in these regions, which helps explain why cannabinoids ... In the adult brain, the endocannabinoid system facilitates the neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells. In the subgranular ...
Information is then directed back to the para-hippocampal region and finally to the same areas of the cerebral cortex that were ... continuing to area CA3, then CA1, and finally through to the subiculum. ... that is projected from nearly all neocortical areas come together onto one or more subdivisions of the para-hippocampal region ... Similarly, hippocampal lesions severely impacted all three components (what, where, and when) suggesting that the hippocampus ...
Most mossy fiber axons are perpendicular to the CA3 pyramidal region where they project and synapse to either the CA3 pyramidal ... The stratum pyramidale is the third deepest hippocampal layer, and in relation to the stratum lucidum, is located underneath it ... In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the stratum pyramidale connects with the stratum lucidum by mossy fibers that run though ... This situation is described in the mossy fiber axon connection in the CA3 stratum lucidum region of the hippocampus as is in ...
As with all regions of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus also receives GABAergic and cholinergic input from the medial septum ... The fascia dentata is the earliest stage of the hippocampal circuit. Its primary input is the perforant path from the ... neurons are tiny granule cells which give rise to unmyelinated axons called the mossy fibers which project to the hilus and CA3 ...
Chronic stress in the male rat showed dendritic retraction and cell loss in the CA3 region but this was not shown in the female ... The dorsal hippocampus also has more place cells than both the ventral and intermediate hippocampal regions. The intermediate ... Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Hippocampus animation Pigeon hippocampus (HP) Morphology in four rodent species Main hippocampal regions in marmoset Cell ...
In TLE, there is loss of neurons in region CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. There is also damage to mossy cells and inhibitory ... 1993). "Hippocampal neuron loss and memory scores before and after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy". Archives of Neurology. ... They project into the hilus of the dentate gyrus and stratum lucidum in the CA3 region giving inputs to both excitatory and ... 1974). "The hippocampal-dentate complex in temporal lobe epilepsy". Epilepsia. 15 (1): 55-80. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1974. ...
... a human gene Cornu Ammonis region 3, one of the hippocampal subfields CA-3 may refer to: Buhl-Verville CA-3 Airster Buhl CA-3 ... CA3 may refer to: Carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific, ... Airsedan CAC CA-3 Wirraway California's 3rd congressional ...
Next, they had to determine whether a chip could be used as a prosthesis, or implant, for a damaged region in the hippocampus. ... These subregions, CA1 and CA3, interact to create long-term memories. The rats were unable to remember which lever they needed ... successfully tested a hippocampal prosthesis on non-human primates. While the device does not yet consist of a fully ... Sam A. Deadwyler and Robert E. Hampson at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, a proof-of-concept hippocampal prosthesis was ...
Kunec, S; Hasselmo, ME; Kopell, N (2005). "Encoding and Retrieval in the CA3 Region of the Hippocampus: A Model of Theta-Phase ... In the Hippocampal Encoding/Retrieval (HIPER) model, episodic encoding is found to take place within the rostral region of the ... GABAergic activity within the septum inhibits certain classes of CA3 cells (a region of the hippocampus), the divide often ... Hippocampal sclerosis involves neural loss and a selective mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) danger and is likely caused by an ...
"Identification of the kainate receptor subunits underlying modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA3 region of ... Schmitz D, Mellor J, Nicoll RA (2001). "Presynaptic kainate receptor mediation of frequency facilitation at hippocampal mossy ... This segment then passes through the cell membrane, forming the first of three membrane-spanning regions, M1. The M2 segment ...
A Functional Circuit from Hippocampal CA3 to Ventral Tegmental Area". Science. 333 (6040): 353-357. doi:10.1126/science.1204622 ... Other axons arising from these cells descend through the medial forebrain bundle to terminate in a region dorsal to the ... The lateral septum is a relay center for connections from the CA3 of the hippocampus to the ventral tegmental area. These ... Other fibers from this region project through the stria medullaris to the medial and lateral habenular nuclei, the paratenial ...
CA3) region of the hippocampus. Fibers arising in the lateral portions of the entorhinal cortex show enkephalin ... Remondes, Miguel; Schuman, Erin M. (2004). "Role for a cortical input to hippocampal area CA1 in the consolidation of a long- ... 2011 Science 334:1415) the projection to CA3 and dentate gyrus in mice is primarily from layer II of entorhinal cortex, and ... project to the dentate gyrus and CA3, whereas layer III (and possibly layer V) cells project to CA1 and the subiculum via the ...
Evidence of decreased complexity in the CA1 and CA3 region of the hippocampus in terms of dendritic length and spine density ... Additionally, investigation of post mortem hippocampal tissue indicates decreased levels of neuron-specific glucocorticoid ... Stress can also result in inheritable changes DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ... Maternal separation and postnatal maternal abuse also increases DNA methylation at regulatory regions of BDNF genes in the ...
The CA3 of the hippocampus plays an especially important role in the encoding and retrieval of spatial memories. The CA3 is ... Sleep has been found to benefit spatial memory, by enhancing hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation. Hippocampal areas ... Lesions to this region are also known to create retention deficits for tasks learned up to 4 weeks but not 6 weeks prior to the ... Inactivation of this region accounts for impaired navigation in the dark and thus it is implicated to be involved in the ...
This prepares the relevant data for storage in the hippocampal CA3 section. Studies have shown that after destroying about 90% ... The oldest granule cells are generated in a specific region of the hippocampal neuroepithelium and migrate into the primordial ... Angevine Jr, J. (1965). "Time of neuron origin in the hippocampal region. An autoradiographic study in the mouse". Experimental ... the hippocampal circuit. The dentate gyrus is composed of unidirectional projections dispersed towards CA3 pyramidal cells of ...
... and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser Synaptic mechanisms of pattern completion in the hippocampal CA3 ... Referral regions for time-sensitive acute care conditions in the United States Genome-wide somatic variant calling using ... and hippocampal volume in early aging Bioengineering T cells to target carbohydrate to treat opportunistic fungal infection A ... region-specific signatures and response to excitotoxic neuronal injury PDGFB-based stem cell gene therapy increases bone ...
2007) Rhythmic synaptic activity induced by mechanical injury of rat CA3 hippocampal area. J Neurotrauma 24:1536-1542, doi: ... For Figure 8D, the same region was imaged every 15 min for a total of not ,3 h per animal: confocal images from 15 min to 3 h ...
... mice were less vulnerable to seizures induced close kainic acid and to neuronal extinction in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas ... The relations a given input stimulus has to closest percepts held either in the earlier processing regions in cortex and/or in ... In the entorhinal cortical-hippocampal slices of rats, LRDs induced past 4-aminopyridine (4-AP 100 ВµM, which is well known to ... The indicated activation of T-cells and their cytokines, the insufficiency of malaise, and the job of specific wisdom regions ...
The detached retinal region was computed as a share of total retinal region without compensating for concave form of the eyecup ... Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PCs) express many GABAAR subunit types and receive. November 29, 2016 10:30 pm ⋅ admin ... In CA3 Personal computers 90 of the perisomatic synapses are immunopositive for the ?1 subunit and all synapses are positive ... West Nile disease (WNV) has remained epidemic in Kern Region CA. November 29, 2016 4:52 am ⋅ admin ...
CA1, CA1 region of the hippocampus; CA3, CA3 region of the hippocampus; DG, dentate gyrus; hi, hilus;str. m., stratum ... We next examined the distribution of psyn1A/B in the hippocampal region and in the cortex, again comparing P9 animals with ... In the hippocampus of P9 animals we detected intense labeling with αPsyn in the CA3 region (Fig.8A,B). In the cortex the ... A highly enriched staining in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in P9 animals was followed by a very strong and widespread ...
Holistic recollection via pattern completion involves hippocampal subfield CA3. In: The journal of neuroscience - Washington, ... Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory. In: Frontiers in human ... Hippocampal vascular reserve associated with cognitive performance and hippocampal volume. In: Brain: a journal of neurology - ... CSF total tau levels are associated with hippocampal novelty irrespective of hippocampal volume. In: Alzheimer\s & ...
Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit (Cutsuridis et al. 2009). Long time windows from theta ... Amyloid-beta effects on release probability and integration at CA3-CA1 synapses (Romani et al. 2013). CA1 pyramidal neuron ( ... Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; ... Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit (Cutsuridis et al. 2009). Long time windows from theta ...
Mossy fiber-evoked subthreshold responses induce timing-dependent plasticity at hippocampal CA3 recurrent synapses * F ... with electrodes positioned within LOT regions of the same branch (electrodes 1,2), or at IC-receiving dendritic regions at ... Yes, we used Dot gradient contrast video microscopy to identify the LOT region. An example is provided in the new Figure 2- ... The Projections of Mitral Cells from Small Local Regions of the Olfactory Bulb: An Anterograde Tracing Study Using PHA-L ( ...
... the most swayed regions are the CA1 and CA3 subfields and hilar region of the DG, while the CA2 subfield and granule cells of ... Compared to PUMA- expressing mice, PUMA-deficient mice had significantly smaller hippocampal lesions after SEIt is a instrument ... More than that there are also strapping inputs to the cingulate from the retribution regions in the orbito-frontal cortex, ... the fundamental superior Notice pThe Schuchardt action is second-hand as a service to reconstruction of the labiomental region ...
Effects of beta-cypermethrin on voltage-gated potassium channels in rat hippocampal CA3 neurons Furthermore a decrease of ... of protein-like region (P I,n) and the P i,n of microbial byproduct-like region (P II,n) of DOM EEMs, while it is correlated ... Owing to the complex bony architecture of the acetabulum, CT affords better definition of fracture patterns in this region than ... Demonstration and characterization of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP) processing enzyme activity in rat ...
Combined optogenetics and electrophysiology in vivo identified the cellular substrate of hippocampal drive that initiates the ... Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones * Y Ben-Ari ... i) Photomicrographs depicting tDimer2-expressing pyramidal neurons (red) in the CA1 region of dHP (left) and i/vHP (right) when ... Coupling between neonatal PFC and HP during hippocampal SPWs.. (A) Power changes in the PL during hippocampal SPWs. (i) Color- ...
3D comparison of hippocampal atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease. Download Prime PubMed App ... 3D hippocampal maps localized the main group differences to the CA1 region bilaterally and the CA2 and CA3 region on the left [ ... 3D hippocampal maps localized the main group differences to the CA1 region bilaterally and the CA2 and CA3 region on the left [ ... We tested the hypothesis that Alzheimers disease subjects have greater atrophy of the CA1, CA2 and CA3 hippocampal subfields ...
LTP expression • CA3-CA1 synapse: • (5) increase of functional AMPA • (4) P of AMPA receptor: increased conductance • (4) TARPs ... Responsible for information storage in several brain regions, different animal models • No uniform mechanism for inducing LTP ... centre and receives signals that are relayed to it via the enthorhinal cortex and its cells project to cells in the hippocampal ... All brain regions show some form of plasticity, even in adulthood ...
4B). Axon spheroids were encountered both in gray matter - e.g. in the hippocampal CA3 region - as well as among the perikarya ... Hippocampus of Fuca1-deficient mouse (−/−)Hip (CA3 region): the perikarya contain numerous empty cytoplasmic vacuoles. Arrow ... CA3 region): the perikarya contain some dense bodies, and cytoplasmic vacuoles are absent. ... immunoreactivity for the GM2 ganglioside was already prominent in vesicular structures of the CA3 region of the hippocampus, ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 basket cell; Hippocampus CA1 ... Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit (Cutsuridis et al. 2009). Spine head calcium in a CA1 ... Amyloid-beta effects on release probability and integration at CA3-CA1 synapses (Romani et al. 2013). CA1 pyramidal neuron: as ... Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit (Cutsuridis et al. 2009). Long time windows from theta ...
... glutamate binding was apparent in the sclerotic regions CA3, hilus, and CA1. In the subiculum and molecular layer of the denate ... Within the hippocampal formation, loss of [3H]KA and NMDA-sensitive L-[3H] ...
The four groups presented similar increases in the strength of field EPSPs (fEPSPs) evoked at the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse ... II and IV in both regions characterizes PDD. Dementia in the context of PD is linked to region-specific deregulation of genomic ... Here, we will focus on their roles in the hippocampal formation that plays a crucial role in memory and learning as it is a ... For this function, PrPC should contain the aa32-93 region and needs to be linked to the membrane. In addition, some ...
Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neural recording in the human brain: validation of depth electrode placement through high-resolution ... Paraparesis can occur as a primary presentation of brain pathology at the motor strip along the parasagittal region. It could ... Neurosurgery in the storm of COVID-19: suggestions from the Lombardy region, Italy (ex malo bonum) ... in a size appropriate to cover the cavity and region of susceptible falcine dura. Following resection the vicryl mesh was ...
It was apparent from the histologic observations that the bone volume in the metaphyseal region of the tibiae was reduced in ... Transient high-frequency oscillations (150-600 Hz) in local field potential generated by human hippocampal and parahippocampal ... They commonly co-occur with large amplitude sharp-waves that originate from the synchronized firing of CA3 cells and pass on ... Introduction Ripple oscillations (~200 Hz) are observed in hippocampal-entorhinal networks of rodents, monkeys and humans ...
... and CA3 hippocampal region. (Experiment 2) Compared to mice receiving their first dose of MA, mice chronically treated with MA ... and CA3 hippocampal region. (Experiment 2) Compared to mice receiving their first dose of MA, mice chronically treated with MA ... and CA3 hippocampal region. (Experiment 2) Compared to mice receiving their first dose of MA, mice chronically treated with MA ... and CA3 hippocampal region. (Experiment 2) Compared to mice receiving their first dose of MA, mice chronically treated with MA ...
... elevations of intracellular calcium concentration in pyramidal and nonpyramidal cells of the CA3 region of rat hippocampal ...
Hippocampal dependent learning ability correlates with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor levels in CA3 neurons of young and ... and is abundantly expressed in several brain regions. Journal of molecular neuroscience: MN. 2010;41(2):230-42. doi: 10.1007/ ... On the role of hippocampal connections in the performance of place and cue tasks: comparisons with damage to hippocampus. Behav ... Multiple effects of spermine on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor responses of rat cultured hippocampal neurones. J Physiol. ...
Electrophysiological recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons showed that in Ts65Dn mice the frequency of both mEPSCs and mIPSCs ... We have mapped the disease gene in the candidate region to approximately 230kb on 19q13.33 in 8 interrelated families including ... The results show that the postsynaptic discharge of dorsal pyramidal neurons is transferred to more ventral hippocampal ... Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses performed herein revealed that the onset of region-specific changes in AR ...
... and interneurons mainly in CA1 and CA3 regions of the primate and rodent hippocampus [54,56,70,71]. The manifestation design of ... Here, we display that NMDA-induced excitotoxicity elicits the degradation of drebrin in main hippocampal and cortical neurons ... During advancement, each region from the GI system will acquire its exclusive mesodermal and endodermal morphology that are ... This hypothesis is usually supported from the discovering that when AIP endoderm is usually grafted in to the CIP region, ...
  • Furthermore, we found that MuSK also plays an important role in mediating hippocampal oscillatory activity in the theta frequency as well as in the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation, two synaptic responses that correlate with memory formation. (nih.gov)
  • In this unvarying study, impale firing was aligned with the dissentious ripple of the extracellular flurry in a cell type-specific, time-dependent manner almost identical to the firing gauge of pyramidal cells and some interneurons during standard rodent hippocampal ripples (Klausberger et al. (dragonlance.ru)
  • Experiment 2) Compared to mice receiving their first dose of MA, mice chronically treated with MA, withdrawn, and re-administered MA, showed decreased c-Fos expressing cells within the central and basolateral amygdala, BNST, and CA3. (elsevier.com)
  • We have reported that hippocampal CA3 regions of epileptic Kv1.1α knockout (KO) mice generate pathologic sharp waves (SPWs) and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) that have higher incidence, longer duration, and fast ripples compared to wild-type (WT). (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we determined whether 10- to 14-day in vivo KD treatment exerts disease-modifying effects that alter the spontaneous SPW-HFO complexes generated by the hippocampal CA3 region of KO mice in vitro using extracellular multielectrode array recordings. (elsevier.com)
  • Using in situ hybridization as subunits 2 and 3, increased pronouncement of the several mRNAs was detected in DGCs of patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis. (dragonlance.ru)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy, characterized by hippocampal sclerosis and memory deficits. (pnas.org)
  • Results: (Experiment 1) Compared to exposure to a single dose of MA (5 mg/kg), chronic MA exposure decreased the number of c-Fos expressing cells in the paraventricular hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, central amygdala, basolateral amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and CA3 hippocampal region. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: HPA axis-associated amygdala, extended amygdala, and hippocampal regions endure lasting effects following chronic MA exposure and therefore may be linked to stress-related withdrawal symptoms. (elsevier.com)
  • A ) Sclerotic cell loss was evident in cresyl violet-stained sections of the CA3 (a) and CA1 (b) regions but less pronounced in the subiculum (c). (sciencemag.org)
  • Subsequent to theoretical predictions of 'boundary vector cells' (Burgess et al, 2000, Hartley et al, 2000), we actually discovered boundary vector cells (BVCs) in the subiculum of the hippocampal formation (Lever et al, 2009, our first report in Barry et al, 2006). (dur.ac.uk)
  • The electrophysiological phenotype of γ-aminobutyrate A receptors (GABA-Rs) of single hippocampal neuron was detected by perforated patch-clamp recordings. (bvsalud.org)
  • This role results in the hippocampal system recording the identities of groups of cortical receptive fields that changed at the same time. (hindawi.com)
  • Using direct patch clamp recordings and voltage-sensitive dye/protein imaging of single small axon terminals we investigate the functional contributions of the axonal excitability properties of the four major glutamatergic inputs to the DG region. (koki.hu)
  • It has been proposed that mTLE is associated with an alteration in the balance of inhibition and excitation in hippocampal networks. (pnas.org)
  • Unilateral resection of part of this structure, including the hippocampal formation, was indicated because seizures were poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs ( 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Then, we performed an in vitro study by inducing embryonic hippocampal cell differentiation with vitamin D. Interestingly, vitamin D stimulates the expression of its receptor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further, perhaps a novelty-sensitive neuromodulating switch can turn down one input stream relative to the other, dependent on the memory system's requirement for encoding (bias towards entorhinal input) or retrieving (bias towards CA3 input). (dur.ac.uk)
  • Similar anatomical and synaptic changes were apparent in postmortem hippocampal samples from people who had died with FTD. (alzforum.org)
  • Although impaired hippocampal rhythmogenesis resulting from changes in anatomical connectivity, as well as intrinsic and synaptic properties of neuronal circuits, could contribute to the memory deficits, the behavioral consequences of KA have so far been interpreted solely as a consequence of the KA-induced seizures ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our research questions addressed the elementary components of this interaction: the synaptic projections from the DG to CA3 and the essential neuronal mechanisms of GCs that link their exceptional and universal electrophysiological and synaptic properties to their specific physiological functions. (koki.hu)
  • Using an innovative surface-based hippocampal analytic technique we analysed the structural magnetic resonance hippocampal data of 31 amnestic MCI and 34 Alzheimer's disease subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) records from hippocampal structures usually reveal interictal spikes, lasting 50 to 300 ms, which occur between seizures. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dysfunction in emotional circuits located in these regions have been hypothesized as a mechanism for bipolar disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the expression and subcellular localization of the multidomain protein POSH (plenty of SH3s) by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, as well as its role in the selective activation of mixed-lineage kinases (MLKs) 3, MAP kinase kinase (MKK) 4, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and the c-Jun signalling cascade in the rat hippocampal CA1 region following cerebral ischaemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results suggest that POSH might serve as a scaffold mediating JNK signalling activation in the hippocampal CA1 region following cerebral ischaemia, and POSH AS-ODNs exerts its protective effects on ischaemic injury through a mechanism of inhibition of the MLK3-MKK4-JNK signalling pathway, involving c-Jun and caspase 3 activation. (elsevier.com)
  • Changes of hippocampal single-cell activity in emotion and motivation-active stimuli Echocardiography is a widely used and versatile technique that can provide comprehensive information concerning thromboembolic risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. (pianolarge.ml)
  • In normal controls, after downregulation of negative emotion, the mean P300 amplitude in response to negative words was much lower than after neutral words, and this was significant in both the left and right regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Overall, 32 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in the denervated hippocampal niche, which could interact with miR-30e-3p, miR-431, and miR-147. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have mapped the disease gene in the candidate region to approximately 230kb on 19q13.33 in 8 interrelated families including a total of 12 patients and 39 unaffected individuals. (storysteel.ml)
  • A neomycin resistance cassette replaced the entire coding region of the gene. (jax.org)
  • A mouse fusion cDNA of GFP KIF17 (3.8 kb) ( 6 ) was subcloned into the Not I site of the 8.5-kb upstream region of the CaMKII α gene with the pCMVβ vector (a gift from S. Okabe) ( 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Chromatin remodeling in rodent offspring and altered gene expression within the limbic brain regions that may contribute to depression, stress, and anxiety-related disorders in future generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In supination, however, higher average strain was seen in the distal region of the IOL. (statescale.tk)
  • Results We found that postmenopause and lower E2 levels were associated with lower DNA methylation of a distal regulatory region, but not with DNA methylation of proximal promoters. (mdpi.com)
  • It receives direct odor information from the olfactory bulb, as well as contextual information from higher brain regions, and is thought to be the brain's primary site for odor discrimination and recognition ( Gottfried, 2010 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • However, effects of chronic MA exposure or acute MA exposure following withdrawal on neural activation patterns within brain regions that regulate the HPA axis are unknown. (elsevier.com)