One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.

The epileptic human hippocampal cornu ammonis 2 region generates spontaneous interictal-like activity in vitro. (1/24)

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Reduced ratio of afferent to total vascular density in mesial temporal sclerosis. (2/24)

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Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task. (3/24)

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Afferent-specific properties of interneuron synapses underlie selective long-term regulation of feedback inhibitory circuits in CA1 hippocampus. (4/24)

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Strong CA2 pyramidal neuron synapses define a powerful disynaptic cortico-hippocampal loop. (5/24)

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RGS14 is a natural suppressor of both synaptic plasticity in CA2 neurons and hippocampal-based learning and memory. (6/24)

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Morphological and electrophysiological properties of pyramidal-like neurons in the stratum oriens of Cornu ammonis 1 and Cornu ammonis 2 area of Proechimys. (7/24)

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Mild cognitive impairment: differential atrophy in the hippocampal subfields. (8/24)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal reproducibility of automatically segmented hippocampal subfields. T2 - A multisite European 3T study on healthy elderly. AU - Marizzoni, Moira. AU - Antelmi, Luigi. AU - Bosch, Beatriz. AU - Bartrés-Faz, David. AU - Müller, Bernhard W.. AU - Wiltfang, Jens. AU - Fiedler, Ute. AU - Roccatagliata, Luca. AU - Picco, Agnese. AU - Nobili, Flavio. AU - Blin, Olivier. AU - Bombois, Stephanie. AU - Lopes, Renaud. AU - Sein, Julien. AU - Ranjeva, Jean Philippe. AU - Didic, Mira. AU - Gros-Dagnac, Hélène. AU - Payoux, Pierre. AU - Zoccatelli, Giada. AU - Alessandrini, Franco. AU - Beltramello, Alberto. AU - Bargalló, Núria. AU - Ferretti, Antonio. AU - Caulo, Massimo. AU - Aiello, Marco. AU - Cavaliere, Carlo. AU - Soricelli, Andrea. AU - Salvadori, Nicola. AU - Parnetti, Lucilla. AU - Tarducci, Roberto. AU - Floridi, Piero. AU - Tsolaki, Magda. AU - Constantinidis, Manos. AU - Drevelegas, Antonios. AU - Rossini, Paolo Maria. AU - Marra, Camillo. AU - Hoffmann, Karl ...
Neurons in a micro-circuit connected by chemical synapses can have their connectivity affected by the prior activity of the cells. The number of synapses available for releasing neurotransmitter can be decreased by repetitive activation through depletion of readily releasable neurotransmitter (NT), or increased through facilitation, where the probability of release of NT is increased by prior activation. These competing effects can create a complicated and subtle range of time-dependent connectivity. Here we investigate the probabilistic properties of facilitation and depression (FD) for a presynaptic neuron that is receiving a Poisson spike train of input. We use a model of FD that is parameterized with experimental data from a hippocampal basket cell and pyramidal cell connection, for fixed frequency input spikes at frequencies in the range of theta (3-8 Hz) and gamma (20-100 Hz) oscillations. Hence our results will apply to micro-circuits in the hippocampus that are responsible for the interaction of
The retina is about as complicated as any other part of the vertebrate central nervous system, but its accessibility makes it especially suitable for elucidating mechanisms that govern neural circuit assembly and function. Visual information is passed from retinal photoreceptors to interneurons to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and then on to the rest of the brain. In mouse, each of >40 RGC types responds to specific visual features, depending on which of the >70 types of interneurons synapse on it. The first part of the lecture will take direction-selective, RGCs as an example, describing some recognition molecules that underlie assembly of the circuitry that generates their responses. Generalizing this approach to other cell types, to the rest of the brain, and to primates will require a complete cell atlas and a full inventory of the recognition molecules that each cell type expressed. The second part will summarize progress in a single-cell transcriptomic approach aimed at addressing these ...
Paraskevopoulou S, Pirzer F, Goldmann N, Schmid J, Corman VM, Gottula LT, Schroeder S, Rasche A, Muth D, Drexler JF, Heni AC, Eibner GJ, Page RA, Jones TC, Müller MA, Sommer S, Glebe D, Drosten C. 2020. Mammalian deltavirus without hepadnavirus coinfection in the neotropical rodent, Proechimys semispinosus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117: 17977-17983. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2006750117. PDF ...
The Famous (not Great) Otto Frederik Müller was indeed a well-trained scientist, but he was not the one who named Cornu copiae. That service came from the Austrian Ignatius Born (1778) , http://www.jaxshells.org/cornu.htm,, who, at least in the 1780 work, gave no indication that it was anything but a genuine species in a genuine genus (the only non-Linnaean one he employed) as he described both in the same sober format, style, and rank as he did Helix, Nerita, and Murex; Helix polygyrata, Nerita polita Linnaeus, and Murex rapiformis. Born was certainly a pioneer as you infer, but I think any reviser would be on very tenuous ground to infer that he was anything but serious about the taxonomic standing, as he saw it in those pioneer days, of Cornu copiae. I think the issue is: upon whom is the burden of proof: those who think that a retrospective analysis of an aberrant specimen, or those who see Born as honestly ignorant of this quirk of nature. The key passage in the Article ICZN 1.3.2 is the ...
Some insight into the nature and inefficiency of linear polarization can be appreciated by considering the diagram below. Here you can see that a field like B1 (depicted as a big green arrow) oscillating at the resonance frequency (ωo) can be decomposed into two counterrotating subfields (red and blue arrows), each half as large. One of these subfields (red arrow) rotates in the same direction and frequency (ωo) as the spins undergoing NMR; the other subfield (blue arrow) rotates in the opposite direction and frequency (−ωo). Only the subfield associated with red arrow is effective at inducing net nuclear transitions and a change in net nuclear magnetization required for MRI. The other subfield is ineffective for NMR and serves only to deposit unwanted thermal energy into tissue. ...
Eicha (Lamentations) 2 - AIN fecit Dominus quae cogitavit conplevit sermonem suum quem praeceperat a diebus antiquis destruxit et non pepercit et laetificavit super te inimicum et exaltavit cornu hostium tuorum
Background Isoflurane can induce anterograde amnesia. Hippocampal ripples are high-frequency oscillatory events occurring in the local field potentials of cornu ammonis 1 involved in memory processes. The authors hypothesized that isoflurane suppresses hippocampal ripples at a subanesthetic concentration by modulating the excitability of cornu ammonis 1 neurons. Methods The potencies of isoflurane for memory impairment and anesthesia were measured in mice. Hippocampal ripples were measured by placing recording electrodes in the cornu ammonis 1. Effects of isoflurane on the excitability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and interneurons were measured. A simulation model of ripples based on the firing frequency of hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 neurons was used to validate the effects of isoflurane on neuronal excitability in vitro and on ripples in vivo . Results Isoflurane at 0.5%, which did not induce loss of righting reflex, impaired hippocampus-dependent fear memory by 97.4 ± 3.1% (mean ± SD; n ...
The mechanisms regulating the highly ordered neuroarchitecture of the mammalian brain are largely unknown. The present study took advantage of hippocampal pyramidal-like neurons that arose from a common progenitor cell in cell culture (sister neurons) to ascertain the contribution of intrinsic factors to both the generation and degeneration of neuroarchitecture. Sister neurons were similar in overall cell form and dendritic numbers and lengths. Control non-sister neurons that grew in contact did not generate similar morphologies, indicating that the similarity of sister cells did not result from influences of the local microenvironment or cell interactions. These results suggest that intrinsic factors related to mitotic history play a role in the generation of neuroarchitecture. Since particular groups of hippocampal neurons are sensitive to glutamate neurotoxicity in situ and are vulnerable in neurodegenerative disorders, it was of interest to test glutamate sensitivity in the neuronal ...
We quantified the occurrence of these SLEs in a population of slices exposed to the in vitro seizure protocol for an hour, versus a population subjected only to normal bath perfusate at 35-37°C for an hour (sham protocol). We found that 68% of slices (n = 28 in total) subjected to the seizure protocol demonstrated SLEs (on average 3.2 ± 0.3 per hour, n = 19) as well as frequent interictal-like spiking. Slices exposed to the sham protocol of high perfusate temperature only infrequently (9% of total) showed an SLE (these were discarded from further analysis), and no interictal spiking.. We then analyzed HCN channel properties in dendritic cell-attached patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in slices subjected to the seizure protocol with confirmed SLEs. We compared these values to recordings taken from slices undergoing the sham protocol, in which no SLEs were observed, and to data from control, untreated slices. Similar to what was seen in vivo, dendritic recordings from slices in which ...
Cornu aspersum Wikipedia+ article with 103 related articles and pictures. Contents: Description, Taxonomy, Life cycle, Distribution, Ecology, Behavior, Human relevance.
Find and save images from the quotes collection by Celine Cornu (celine_cornu) on We Heart It, your everyday app to get lost in what you love. | See more about quote, love and sad
accordingly additional adults alterations analyze another assessment automatic brain cell cells clinic cognitive cognitively college combined comprises configuration considered consistent contrast controls correlations crude damping database date dementia derived detected detecting developments differ differential differentiating diffuse disease displayed distinct elasticity enables establish example exhibit exhibited expected flirt focus focused formation functionally general global globally graphs greater health healthy hospital illustrated improvements in vivo include incorporating independent indicating individual influence integrity inversion inversions inverted investigate isotropic john joint kingdom known maps masks measure measured measures mechanical mechanisms memory native neurons nonlinear older organization outcome pathologies patients performance pipelines post prevention prior promise pronounced properties pyramidal quality recent recruited reduction regarding register ...
The hippocampus is well known for its roles in spatial navigation and memory, but it is organized into regions that have different connections and functional specializations. Notably, the region CA2 has a role in social and not spatial cognition, as is the case for the regions CA1 and CA3 that surround it. Here, we investigated the evolution of the hippocampus in terms of its size and organization in relation to the evolution of social and ecological variables in primates, namely home range, diet and different measures of group size. We found that the volumes within the whole cornu ammonis coevolve with group size, while only the volume of CA1 and subiculum can also be predicted by home range. On the other hand, diet, expressed as a shift from folivory towards frugivory, was shown to not be related to hippocampal volume. Interestingly, CA2 was shown to exhibit phylogenetic signal only against certain measures of group size, but not with ecological factors. We also found that sex differences in ...
The hippocampus consists of the complex interfolded layers of the dentate gyrus (1) and cornu ammonis (2). Their three layered cortex is continuous below with the subiculum (3) which has four, five then six layers as it merges with the parahippocampal gyrus (4 ...
We report an unusual case of a young woman with chondrosarcoma affecting the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. Only a handful of reports of primary chondrosarcoma involving the hyoid exist in the world literature. The case described presented as a swe
Childhood maltreatment or abuse is a major risk factor for mood, anxiety, substance abuse, psychotic, and personality disorders, and it is associated with reduced adult hippocampal volume, particularly on the left side. Translational studies show that the key consequences of stress exposure on the hippocampus are suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and dendritic remodeling in the cornu ammonis (CA), particularly the CA3 subfield. The hypothesis that maltreatment is associated with volume reductions in 3-T MRI subfields containing the DG and CA3 was assessed and made practical by newly released automatic segmentation routines for FreeSurfer. The sample consisted of 193 unmedicated right-handed subjects (38% male, 21.9 ± 2.1 y of age) selected from the community. Maltreatment was quantified using the Adverse Childhood Experience study and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire scores. The strongest associations between maltreatment and volume were observed in the left CA2-CA3 and CA4-DG ...
The concealed implications of the studies by Garrison and colleagues were enormous. This approximate permits aggregation of pre- and post-chemotherapy exposure tumor tissue and blood and allows working imaging studies to be performed, which could be used to pinpoint break of dawn signals of platinum- taxane defences underground and markers of response. This should be finished 10 15 present in apiece sitting himcolin 30gm with mastercard erectile dysfunction pills south africa. Research has shown that liposomal lidocaine 4% cream was highly stuff in reducing the ache associated with intravenous cannulation (Zempsky, 2008). Higher hippocampal sign and another deployment of endocannabinoid receptors CB1 were also encountered in the Proechimys rodents (Araujo et al. Acne rosacea/skin: Apply request order viagra professional 100 mg otc how to fix erectile dysfunction causes. To the superior of our knowl- sharpness the influence of stressors on diurnal cytokine variations set up not been assessed, ...
Starting at the dentate gyrus and working inward along the S-curve of the hippocampus means traversing a series of narrow zones. The first of these, the dentate gyrus (DG), is actually a separate structure, a tightly packed layer of small granule cells wrapped around the end of the hippocampus proper, forming a pointed wedge in some cross-sections, a semicircle in others. Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3, then a very small zone called CA2, then CA1. The CA areas are all filled with densely packed Pyramidal cells similar to those found in the neocortex. After CA1 comes an area called the subiculum. After this comes a pair of ill-defined areas called the presubiculum and parasubiculum, then a transition to the cortex proper (mostly the entorhinal area of the cortex). Most anatomists use the term hippocampus proper to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and ...
Movement coordination between opposite body sides relies on neuronal circuits capable of controlling muscle contractions according to motor commands. Trunk and limb muscles engage in distinctly lateralized behaviors, yet how regulatory spinal circuitry differs is less clear. Here, we intersect virus technology and mouse genetics to unravel striking distribution differences of interneurons connected to functionally distinct motor neurons. We find that premotor interneurons conveying information to axial motor neurons reside in symmetrically balanced locations while mostly ipsilateral premotor interneurons synapse with limb-innervating motor neurons, especially those innervating more distal muscles. We show that observed distribution differences reflect specific premotor interneuron subpopulations defined by genetic and neurotransmitter identity. Synaptic input across the midline reaches axial motor neurons preferentially through commissural axon arborization, and to a lesser extent, through ...
Our goods lines classify respiratory supplies, CPAP products and accessories, oxygen treatment supplies and a full solidus of convalescent home gradient native persistent medical furnishings and supplies. Humour do not include petulant personal information in the word box, such as your appellation, approach devote, Popular Protection Host, particular finances, medical or magnum opus antiquity or any other information past which you or anyone else can be identified close to your comments or views. I besides check others to eff cheap 135 mg colospa overnight delivery esophageal spasms xanax. The thalamus of the Amazon spiny rat Proechimys guyannensis, an brute dummy of obstruction to epilepsy, and pilocarpine- induced longterm changes of protein expression. The pediatric nurse uses and integrates into findings to found evidence-based practice, managing the execution of be concerned in a cost-effective mien to publicize continuity of keeping and an optimal outcome looking for the lassie and family. ...
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. We measured the effects of nonselective optogenetic stimulation on the oscillations of the MS and corresponding effects on hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 in three different contexts: (1) With minimal movement while the rats sit in a confined chamber; (2) Exploring a novel open field; and (3) Learning and performing a T‐maze behavioral task. We describe the relationship between animal speed and the efficacy of septal stimulation in the entrainment of hippocampal oscillations as well as possible cognitive enhancements in relation to MS stimulation. ...
The effect of various concentrations of l-glutamate on neurotransmission in the CA1 hippocampal area was studied using hippocampal slices. Three intervals of l-glutamate concentration were...
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A string of glucose molecules: starch. It sounds simple, but it isnt. Dominique Cornuéjols and Serge Pérez explore the intricacies of its structure - and show that the mystery is by no means solved.
Rationale - Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. Objectives - The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. Methods - A total of 35 healthy controls (HC), 22 non-dependent (CB-nondep), and 39 dependent (CB-dep) cannabis users were recruited. We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. Results - The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but
Worldwide expansion of mobile phones and electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure has raised question of their possible biological effects on the brain and nervous system. Radiofrequency (RF) radiation might alter intracellular signaling pathways through changes in calcium (Ca(2+)) permeability across cell membranes. Changes in the expression of calcium binding proteins (CaBP) like calbindin D28-k (CB) and calretinin (CR) could indicate impaired Ca(2+)homeostasis due to EMF exposure. CB and CR expression were measured with immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus of mice after EMF exposure at 835 MHz for different exposure times and absorption rates, 1 h/day for 5 days at a specific absorption rate (SAR)=1.6 W/kg, 1 h/day for 5 days at SAR=4.0 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=1.6 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=4.0 W/kg, daily exposure for 1 month at SAR=1.6 W/kg. Body weights did not change significantly. CB immunoreactivity (IR) displayed moderate staining of cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) areas and ...
Dr Valerie Carr earned her PhD in Neuroscience from UCLA in 2008 where she examined strategic factors influencing memory in both younger and older adults. Afterwards she pursued an NIH postdoctoral fellowship at Stanford University where she investigated neural mechanisms of memory and how these mechanisms change with age. She is currently an Assistant Professor in the Psychology department where an overarching goal of her research is to understand the factors that influence the content, quality, and durability of memories across the lifespan. She aims to leverage her knowledge of cognitive neuroscience to develop strategies for improving memory, with an emphasis on developing exercise interventions that improve memory performance and brain health in populations such as older adults and individuals with anxiety and depression. Recent Publications. Wisse, L. E. M., Daugherty, A. M., Olsen, R. K., Berron, D., Carr, V. A., … la Joie, R., for the Hippocampal Subfields Group (2017). A harmonized ...
The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis , an earlier name of the hippocampus. Structure There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex . Another significant output is to the subiculum . CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path . Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus , and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. The mossy fiber pathway ends in the stratum lucidum . The perforant path passes through the stratum lacunosum and ends in
Chronic stress has been associated with degenerative changes in the rodent and primate hippocampus, presumably mediated in part via neuronal glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In the rat brain, GRs are widely distributed and are particularly dense in the hippocampus. The distribution of GRs in the primate brain, however, has not been fully characterized. In this study, we used in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to map the distribution of GR mRNA and GR protein, respectively, in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In contrast to its well established distribution in the rat brain, GR mRNA was only weakly detected in the dentate gyrus (DG) and Cornu Ammonis (CA) of the macaque hippocampus, whereas it was abundant in the pituitary (PIT), cerebellum (CBL), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and, to a lesser extent, the neocortex. Immunohistochemical staining indicated a very low density of GR-like immunoreactive cells within the macaque hippocampal formation in ...
Anders Retzius (1796-1860), a renowned Swedish scientist, left important contributions to human and animal anatomy. He was the first to discover, in 1856, two small bulges as part of the medial segment of the hippocampal tail. These convolutions were named gyri Andreae Retzii by his son, Gustaf Retzius (1842-1919), in honor of their discoverer, his father. The gyri of Anders Retzius consist of a CA1 subfield and the subiculum. These areas feature marked connections with the entorhinal cortex and other hippocampal subfields. Only assumptions can be made at present regarding the physiological role of the gyri of Anders Retzius, in conjunction with the involvement of the CA1 hippocampal field in neuropathological conditions ...
CONCLUSIONSThis study found no effect of intraoperative hyperglycemia on postoperative brain structures and volumes including volumes of hippocampus and hippocampal subfields, frontal lobe, and frontal cortical thickness. Further studies investigating the impact of intraoperatively elevated glucose levels should consider a tighter or even continuous glycemic measurement and the determination of ce...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
After an acute UMN-predominant SCI, initial development of the UMN syndrome is delayed by a process called spinal shock, whereby there is a transient suppression and gradual return of reflex activity below the level of injury. Ditunno et al.150 have proposed a four-phase model of spinal shock. During phase 1, occurring 0 to 24 hours postinjury, there is motor neuron hyperpolarization, manifesting clinically as hyporeflexia. During phase 2, occurring on days 1 to 3 postinjury, there is denervation supersensitivity and receptor upregulation, manifesting clinically with reflex return. During phase 3, occurring 1 to 4 weeks postinjury, there is interneuron synapse growth, manifesting clinically as early hyperreflexia. And finally, during phase 4, occurring 1 to 12 months postinjury, there is long axon synapse growth, manifesting clinically as late hyperreflexia.. Blood is supplied to the spinal cord through two posterior spinal arteries, a single anterior spinal artery, and several segmental ...
Neuronal injury due to seizures may result from a mismatch of energy demand and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, ATP demand and oxygen consumption rates have not been accurately determined, yet, for different patterns of epileptic activity, such as interictal and ictal events. We studied interictal-like and seizure-like epileptiform activity induced by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline alone, and with co-application of the M-current blocker XE-991, in rat hippocampal slices. Metabolic changes were investigated based on recording partial oxygen pressure, extracellular potassium concentration, and intracellular flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox potential. Recorded data were used to calculate oxygen consumption and relative ATP consumption rates, cellular ATP depletion, and changes in FAD/FADH2 ratio by applying a reactive-diffusion and a two compartment metabolic model. Oxygen-consumption rates were ca. five times higher during seizure activity than interictal activity. Additionally,
The human hippocampal formation is characterized by anterior-posterior gradients of cell density, neurochemistry, and hemodynamics. In addition, some functions are associated with specific subfields (subiculum, CA1-4, dentate gyrus) and regions (anterior and posterior). We performed contrast-enhanced, high-resolution T1-weighted 3T steady state (SS) imaging to investigate cerebral blood volume (CBV) gradients of the hippocampal formation. We studied 14 healthy subjects and found significant CBV gradients (anterior , posterior) in the subiculum but not in other hippocampal subfields. Since CBV is a marker of basal metabolism, these results indicate a greater baseline activity in the anterior compared with the posterior subiculum. This gradient might be related to the role of the subiculum as the main outflow station of the hippocampal formation and might have implications for the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ...
I am interested in the evolution of human social behaviour and wonder if there is any literature on a cognitive centre for the modelling of social status. It has occured to me that the ability to model relative social status i.e. where we stand in relation to others must be a central brain function for social primates, like ourselves. Social primates need to be able to learn the relative social status of other individuals and then react to them appropriately, either with submissive or dominant behaviour. I see that brain mapping techniques have revealed that the hippocampus (the cornu ammonis and the dentate gyrus) is involved in learning face/name pairs. Does anyone know of experiments to discover which part of the brain is active when the faces presented are of individuals with social status that is important to the subject? It seems likely to me that a social status centre exists and that it would have exert a high degree of control over other behavioural centres, especially mood etc e.g. ...
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Bee Venom (BV) and Cervi Cornu Parvum pharmacoacupuncture (CC) in monosodium iodide induced arthritis rats. Methods : The subjects were divided into 5 groups ; Normal, Control (no treatment after MIA), BV (Bee Venom pharmacoacupuncture |TEX|$100{\mu}{\ell}$|/TEX| daily at Dokbi (ST35) after inducing MIA), CC (Cervi Cornu Parvum pharmacoacupuncture |TEX|$100{\mu}{\ell}$|/TEX| dailyat Dokbi (ST35) after inducing MIA) and BV+CC (Bee Venom pharmacoacupuncture and Cervi Cornu Parvum pharmacoacupuncture |TEX|$100{\mu}{\ell}$|/TEX|daily at Dokbi (ST35) after inducing MIA). After each operation, the present author observed the motor behavior recovery, hematological (Prostaglandin E2, AST, ALT), histological and immunological changes. Rats were tested at the 7th, 14th and 21st day. Results : Results are as follows. 1. All the experimental groups were improved compared with control group in plantar test. 2. All the experimental groups
Sam Le Cornu, senior portfolio manager of Asia listed equities at Macquarie Asset Management, discusses the wave of measures rolled out by Beijing over the weekend thats aimed at stabilizing the stock market.
The CA (Cornu Ammonis) fields, too, contain 3 distinct strata and house excitatory neurons known as pyramidal cells. The alveus is the most superficial layer and contains the commissural fibers of pyramidal cells via the fimbria, a major source of output from the hippocampus. Stratum oriens layer contains basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and a large body of basket cells (inhibitory interneurons). This strata includes fibers from the septal and commissural areas that are received from the contralateral hippocampus. This region also contains the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The next layer is the stratum pyramidale, named so because it contains the soma, or cell body, of the pyramidal cell. This layer in CA3 contains the mossy fiber connections and also houses interneurons. The stratum moleculare is divided into sublayers. The stratum lucidum is the thinnest layer and, in CA3, this area receives input from the dentate gyrus mossy fibers. Stratum radiatum contains apical dendrites ...
The dentate gyrus (DG), an important part of the hippocampus, plays a critical role in consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory, and also in spatial navigation. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) exist throughout life in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the DG, where they develop into granular cells and establish synaptic connections with nearby cells. Granular cells of the DG sprout axons targeting neurons in the cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) area of the hippocampus, forming a neural trisynaptic circuit, an important part of the neural network in the hippocampus. Thus, the DG and the neurogenic cells it contains are of importance in controlling formation of memories, learned behaviors, and also in the maintenance and restoration of functions of the hippocampus. According to reports, both in vivo and in vitro neurogenesis in the DG are regulated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors at different stages. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors in NSPC niches and the
This directive provides the phytosanitary requirements for plants for planting originating from areas of the continental United States where the European brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum [Müller], syn. Helix aspersa [Müller]) is known to occur, in order to prevent the introduction and spread of this pest within Canada.
The hippocampal area CA1 of a wild type mouse, immunolabeled for mGluR5 (red), alpha synuclein (green) and counterstained with DAPI (blue) to reveal c...
This book provides an overview of the state of the art of several of the subfields of electroresponsive polymer science. It also provides a sufficiently broad p
They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... Commissural fibers that originate from CA3 Pyramidal cells go to CA3, CA2 and CA1 regions. Like mossy cells, a single CA3 ... Hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because the ... Fimbria-fornix fibers are the hippocampal and subicular gateway to and from subcortical brain regions. Different parts of this ...
... the innermost area of the hippocampal formation, and region CA2. The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal ... The hippocampal relay involves 3 main regions within the hippocampus which are classified according to their cell type and ... Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ... a large bundle of axon that connects the left and right hippocampal formations. The fornix plays a key role in hippocampal ...
CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the ... Diagram of hippocampal regions in a rat brain. Jerome Engel TAP, ed. Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook in Three Volumes. ... The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via ... CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex ...
The SuM projects it's afferent signals exclusively to the dentate gyrus and CA2 region of the hippocampus. These SuM neurons ... Because of its role in modulating hippocampal theta, it is implicated in spatial and emotional memory formation.The axons of ... KIRK, I (March 1998). "Frequency Modulation of Hippocampal Theta by the Supramammillary Nucleus, and Other Hypothalamo- ... Hippocampal Interactions: Mechanisms and Functional Implications". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 22 (2): 291-302. doi: ...
CA2 differs from other regions because it is one of the few areas to survive Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Kainic acid, used to model ... In neocortical and hippocampal foci, a decrease in length and branching complexity of dendritic arbors and a reduction in the ... CA2 and CA3 can be distinguished using histological stains because the proximal apical dendrites of CA2 do not possess ... The most proximal regions of CA3 pyramidal dendrites receive mossy fiber input exclusively, mid-dendritic regions (strata ...
The dorsal hippocampus also has more place cells than both the ventral and intermediate hippocampal regions. The intermediate ... Its abbreviation CA is used in naming the hippocampal subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4. It can be distinguished as an area ... of the hippocampal population These two hippocampal activity modes can be seen in primates as well as rats, with the exception ... Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to memory formation. Progress in Brain ...
Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Its abbreviation CA is used in naming the hippocampal subfields: CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4.[16] It can be distinguished as an area ... Theories of hippocampal functions[edit]. Over the years, three main ideas of hippocampal function have dominated the literature ... Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ...
The stratum lucidum is located within the CA3 region of the hippocampus distally to the dentate gyrus and proximally to the CA2 ... The stratum pyramidale is the third deepest hippocampal layer, and in relation to the stratum lucidum, is located underneath it ... In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the stratum pyramidale connects with the stratum lucidum by mossy fibers that run through ... This situation is described in the mossy fiber axon connection in the CA3 stratum lucidum region of the hippocampus as is in ...
Young WS, Li J, Wersinger SR, Palkovits M (2006). "The Vasopressin 1b Receptor is Prominent in the Hippocampal Area CA2 Where ... AVPR1B maps to chromosome region 1q32 and is a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin family subfamily. AVPR1B was initially ...
In alcoholics, certain regions of the amygdala are associated with higher levels of DNA methyltransferases. 5-azacitidine (5- ... Misra, K., Roy, A., Pandey, S.C. (2001). Effects of voluntary ethanol intake on the expression of Ca2?/calmodulin-dependent ... Lovinger, D.M., White, G., Weight, F.F. (1989). Ethanol inhibits NMDA-activated ion current in hippocampal neurons. Science, ... CREB binds a DNA sequence called CREB Response Element (CRE) in promoter regions and activates transcription via recruitment of ...
In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, basket cells can often form recurrent inhibition loops with pyramidal cells. Projections ... Hippocampal basket cells target somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal neurons. Similar to their counterparts in the cortex ... Tan, Y. P.; Llano, I. (1999). "Modulation by K+channels of action potential-evoked intracellular Ca2+concentration rises in rat ... Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the brain, found throughout different regions of the cortex and ...
... there is experience-dependent modulation of activity during NREM sleep in the hippocampal regions, but not during REM sleep ... As many as 15-30 percent of neurons in 50-200 ms fire synchronously in the CA3-CA2-CA1, subicular complex and entorhinal cortex ... Increased sleepiness was also correlated with activation in a ventral prefrontal region, but only one region. The divided ... Therefore, brain regions that take part in a learning process are modulated by both the sequential structure of the learned ...
Under increased acidic conditions, a proton binds to the channel in the extracellular region, activating the ion channel to go ... Baron, A.; Waldmann, R.; Lazdunski, M. (2002). "ASIC-like, proton-activated currents in rat hippocampal neurons. The Journal of ... to pH 5.0-6.9 and contribute to the pathology of ischemic brain injury because their activation causes a small increase in Ca2+ ... ASIC's have a large, fist-like extracellular region that consumes most of the proteins structure. Within its "fist-like" ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... Calleja, C. (1893). La region olfactoria del cerebro. Madrid: Nicolas Moya.. *^ Meyer, G.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, T.; Carrillo- ... Brain Regions: Olfactory Tubercle Basic info about the tubercle at NeuroLex.. *Sections Containing Olfactory Tubercle ... Similar studies were done by several authors to find the cell composition and innervations to and from other regions in the OT ...
Based on this, it has been suggested that reduced limbic regulation by prefrontal regions plays a role in bipolar. Findings ... Hajek, T; Kopecek, M; Höschl, C; Alda, M (September 2012). "Smaller hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder are ... People with bipolar demonstrate reduced expression of GAD67 in CA3/CA2 subregion of the hippocampus. More extensive reductions ... Although unipolar depression was associated with reductions in the ventral most and dorsal most regions of the mPFC and bipolar ...
Served as Representative of International Society of Biometeorology in World Health Organisation (South East Asian Region) ( ... 1996 Involvement of protease in tert-butylhydroperoxide mediated activation of Ca2+ATPases in microsomes of pulmonary smooth ... 1975 Frequency modulation of hippocampal stimulation effects on cardiorespiratory responses in monkeys R. A. Dhume, W. ... 1992 Peripheral vascular responses to local cold stress of tropical men during sojourn in the Arctic cold region S. S. ...
The distribution of axonal islands is widespread in the lateral region of the thalamus. The innervation of the central region ... Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... The function of adult neurogenesis in this region remains a matter of study. The survival of immature neurons as they enter the ... These hippocampal changes due to olfactory bulb removal are associated with behavioral changes characteristic of depression, ... The accessory olfactory bulb resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb and forms a parallel pathway. ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... Thalamocortical axons project primarily from the Medial geniculate Body (MGB) via sublenticular region of the internal capsule ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... though large regions of the middle cortical layers were innervated through collaterally connected CIR neurons.[23] Past ...
Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ... Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... Gray JA, McNaughton N (2000). The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System. ...
The distribution of axonal islands is widespread in the lateral region of the thalamus. The innervation of the central region ... Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ...
Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ... Its abbreviation CA is used in naming the hippocampal subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4.[16] It can be distinguished as an area ... Theories of hippocampal functionsEdit. Over the years, three main ideas of hippocampal function have dominated the literature: ... Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to memory formation. Progress in Brain ...
They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... CA2 and CA1 regions. Like mossy cells, a single CA3 Pyramidal cell contributes to both commissural and associational fibers, ... The hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because ... Fimbria-fornix fibers are the hippocampal and subicular gateway to and from subcortical brain regions.[10][11] Different parts ...
... existed in the pyramidal cell layer of the putative CA2 subarea prior to the appearance of the CA2 region, which was defined by ... existed in the pyramidal cell layer of the putative CA2 subarea prior to the appearance of the CA2 region, which was defined by ... However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated. This study found ... However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated. This study found ...
... its role in hippocampal function and its dysfunction in disease. In previous studies, CA2 interneurons, including a novel ... In previous studies, CA2 interneurones, including a novel subclass of CA2 dendrite-preferring interneurones that has not been ... a greater proportion of GAD-positive cells were immunopositive for PV in SP in CA2 than in CA1 or CA3. CA2 SP also contained a ... a greater proportion of GAD-positive cells were immunopositive for PV in SP in CA2 than in CA1 or CA3. CA2 SP also contained a ...
... and the CA2 region was isolated carefully under a dissection microscope at 4 °C. Total protein from the CA2 regions was ... The hippocampal area Cornu Ammonis (CA) CA2 is a small region interposed between CA1 and CA3. For a long time, there has been a ... 2014) The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 508:88-92. ... The CA2 area is a small region interposed between CA1 and CA3. Although its function remained unknown for many years, CA2 has ...
Circuits linked to another hippocampal region, CA2, have only recently come to light. Using highly cell type-specific ... Cell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits.. Kohara K1, Pignatelli M2, Rivest AJ2, Jung ... Mapping inputs to hippocampal CA2 neurons using the rabies virus-based monosynaptic tracing reveals MECII and LECII as the ... i-k, Images showing extent and direction of MFs (green) within the RGS14-positive (red) CA2 region for dorsal (i), intermediate ...
Decreased basic activity and induced activity of ERK1/2 pathway in hippocampal CA1/CA2 region of ovariectomized rats / 中国应用生理学杂 ... Decreased basic activity and induced activity of ERK1/2 pathway in hippocampal CA1/CA2 reg ... with the decreased basic and induced activity of ERK1/2 pathway and increased expression of RKIP in the CA1/CA2 region of ... p,,b,AIM,/b,To investigate the relationship between the spatial learning and memory and hippocampal ERK1/2 pathway activity in ...
Synchronized burst discharge in disinhibited hippocampal slice. I. Initiation in CA2-CA3 region. J Neurophysiol 1983; 49: 442- ... Carbenoxolone depresses spontaneous epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Neuroscience 2000; 100: ... Biphasic response of hippocampal pyramidal neurons to GABA. Neurosci Lett 1981; 21: 319-324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Excitation of hippocampal pyramidal cells by an electrical field effect. J Neurophysiol 1984; 52: 126-142.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
I. initiation in the CA2-CA3 region. J. Neurophysiol. 49, 442-458.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Alger, B.E. and Nicoll, R.A. (1982). Pharmacological evidence for two kinds of GABA receptor on rat hippocampal pyramidal cells ... Neuman, R., Cherubini, E. and Ben-Ari, Y. (1988b). Epileptiform burst elicited in CA3 hippocampal neurons by a variety of ... Taube, J.S. and Schwartzkroin, P.A. (1987). Hyperpolarizing responses to application of glutamate in hippocampal CAl pyramidal ...
1983) Synchronized burst discharge in disinhibited hippocampal slice. I. Initiation in CA2-CA3 region. J Neurophysiol 49:442- ... 1990) Model of synchronized epileptiform bursts induced by high potassium in CA3 region of rat hippocampal slice. Role of ... 1993) The hippocampal CA3 network: an in vivo intracellular labeling study. J Comp Neurol 338:1-29. ... 1988) Spread of synchronous firing in longitudinal slices from the CA3 region of the hippocampus. J Neurophysiol 60:1481-1496. ...
The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 508, 88-92 (2014).. ... Lesions to the CA2 region of the hippocampus impair social memory in mice. Eur. J. Neurosci. 40, 3294-3301 (2014).. ... Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory. Mol. Psychiatry 21, 1137-1144 (2016).. ... Hippocampal replay in the awake state: A potential substrate for memory consolidation and retrieval. Nat. Neurosci. 14, 147-153 ...
2014 Apr 3; 508(7494):88-92; The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. ... and the function of single brain regions in responses to unimodal stimuli. At the same time, an area of comparatively untapped ... 10-14 and to extend beyond a region-based, modular, static and sequential view of social and emotional information processing. ...
Hitti, F. L. & Siegelbaum, S. A. The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 508, 88-92 (2014). ... Possible implication of the CA2 hippocampal circuit in social cognition deficits observed in the neuroligin 3 knock-out mouse, ... n = 5 mice per brain region. b, c, Proteomic analysis of wild-type and Nlgn3KO VTA, n = 5 mice per genotype. b, Enrichment of ... Convergence of hippocampal pathophysiology in Syngap +/− and Fmr1 −/y mice. J. Neurosci. 35, 15073-15081 (2015). ...
We prepared hippocampal slices from adult mice (7-9 weeks old) and induced LTD in the CA1 region by stimulating the Schaffer ... The stimulating electrode was placed on the stratum radiatum in the CA2 area. Recording pipettes (1-2 MΩ) were filled with the ... In addition, our behavioral tests suggest that Bax in the hippocampal CA1 region contributes to depressive behavior. ... In contrast to hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, low-frequency stimulation induced no LTD in hippocampal slices taken ...
Yellow ellipsoids mark hippocampal CA3 areas with reduced FA in KO brains. B, 3D rendering of regions with significant FA ... Bilateral FA reduction was measured in the hippocampal CA3/CA2 areas (yellow; KO 78 ± 7% of WT, p , 0.00004, two-tailed t test ... A, Immunostaining of hippocampal sections from WT (left) and SynCAM 1 KO mice (right) at P28 with anti-vGlut1 (red) and anti-PV ... Loss of SynCAM 1 affects connectivity in select brain regions. A, Left, diagram from the Paxinos atlas () for anatomic overlay ...
Quantifying the distribution of cells in every brain region is fundamental to attaining a comprehensive census of distinct ... we report the first cellular-level soma segmentation in every sub-region and non-principal layer of the left hippocampal ... CA2, and CA1; and dorsal and ventral subiculum. Using two independent image processing pipelines and the adult mouse reference ... While this strategy is directly applicable to any regions of the mouse brain, we first deploy it here on the closed-loop ...
... across different brain regions. Early in AD progression, tau pathology is found in the locus coeruleus (LC) prior to amyloid- ... Strikingly, hippocampal CA1 coherence and Eglob measures were impaired in K18-treated animals. Estimation of instantaneous EEG ... The ability of the K18 seed in the brainstem LC to elicit such robust functional alterations in distant hippocampal structures ... The present results demonstrate early dysfunctional hippocampal networks, despite no spreading tau pathology to the hippocampus ...
Ventral midbrain-evoked rapid monoamine release in the dorsal hippocampal CA2 and surrounding regions. *P1-021 ... For example, the hippocampal CA2 is enriched in dopamine D1 receptors relative to surrounding areas, yet there is no evidence ... To understand the extent and type of functional monoamine input within CA2 and surrounding regions, we recorded rapid monoamine ... Our results hold relevance for the precise influence of monoamines within the hippocampal circuit, including CA2, and the ...
... but from area CA2, a region that has historically been thought to merely be a transitional zone between CA3 and CA1. We ... Transgenically Targeted Rabies Virus Demonstrates a Major Monosynaptic Projection from Hippocampal Area CA2 to Medial ... "Transgenically Targeted Rabies Virus Demonstrates a Major Monosynaptic Projection from Hippocampal Area CA2 to Medial ... Interestingly, the vast majority of these direct hippocampal inputs arise not from the major hippocampal subfields of CA1 and ...
Hitti, F. L., & Siegelbaum, S. A. (2014). The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature, 508, 88-92. ... 2004). Mapping hippocampal and ventricular change in Alzheimer disease. Neuroimage, 22, 1754-1766.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... 2010). Subregional hippocampal deformations in major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 126, 272-277.CrossRef ... 2005). Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression. British Journal of ...
The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Hitti FL, Siegelbaum SA. Nature. 2014 Apr 3;508(7494):88-92. doi: ... Inducing theta oscillations in the entorhinal hippocampal network in vitro. Gu Z, Yakel JL. Brain Struct Funct. 2016 Jul 1. ... Timing-dependent septal cholinergic induction of dynamic hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Gu Z, Yakel JL. Neuron. 2011 Jul 14; ... Cholinergic coordination of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity induces timing-dependent hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Gu ...
The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 508, 88-92 (2014).. ... B) SDPS increased the number of PNN+ cells in the CA1 region but not in CA2/3 or the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the ... C and D) The increase in PNN number was specific for PV+ interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 stratum pyramidale region (C) and ... 5, D and E). First, we confirmed that SDPS reduced the frequency of sIPSCs onto pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region ...
... hippocampal CA1 region, amygdala, dentate gyrus and frontal cortex. Moderate expression in hippocampal CA2-3 regions, piriform ... Regions. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ,p>This subsection of the Function section ... Extracellular region or secreted. Cytosol. Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton. Lysosome. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. ... The term domain is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a ...
They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... Commissural fibers that originate from CA3 Pyramidal cells go to CA3, CA2 and CA1 regions. Like mossy cells, a single CA3 ... Hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because the ... Fimbria-fornix fibers are the hippocampal and subicular gateway to and from subcortical brain regions. Different parts of this ...
The burst firing pattern of the hippocampal pyramidal cells was first described by Kandel and Spencer in their intracellular ... I. Initiation in the CA2-CA3 region, J. Neurophysiol. 48: 938-951.Google Scholar ... Schwartzkroin, P. A. and Slawsky, M., 1977, Probable calcium spikes in hippocampal neurons, Brain Res. 135: 157-161.PubMed ... Alger, B. E. and Nicoll, R. A., 1982, Feed-forward dendritic inhibition in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells studied in vitro, J ...
CA2/3; sections between bregma −1.46 to −2.18 mm); the S1 barrel cortex (S1BF) and dorsal hippocampal regions. For each mouse, ... Hippocampal CA1 region was dissected from vehicle and CP2-treated NTG and APP/PS1 mice, cut into 2 mm3 pieces, and immersion- ... Levels of proteins were determined from the cortico-hippocampal region of the brain of vehicle and CP2-treated NTG and APP/PS1 ... We examined dendritic spine morphology in the CA1 hippocampal region of vehicle-treated and CP2-treated APP/PS1 and NTG mice ...
Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal ... CA2 (. = 29.08, ), CA3 (. = 6.72, ), and DG hippocampal regions (. = 6.93, ) (Table 3). There were significant stress-honey ... and CA2 hippocampal region (. = 21.69, ). One-way ANOVA shows that stressed control rats possessed significantly (. ) lower ... Two-way ANOVA revealed significant effect of stress on the number of Nissl-positive cells in CA2 hippocampal region (. = 20.14 ...
The region in the body containing a lung. Often, lung field refers to the section of a medical image (e.g., chest xray) that ... hippocampal field. Any of the three contiguous, but histologically distinguishable, sheets of cells that form the cortex of the ... hippocampus; the fields are usually called CA1, CA2, and CA3.. low-power field. The portion of an object seen when the low- ... The spatial region in which a given person can hear sounds.. cortical field. A segment of the cerebral cortex that carries out ...
The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature ;2014 (Apr 3) ;508(7494):88-92. Lien vers Pubmed ... Xq28 duplication overlapping the int22h-1/int22h-2 region and including RAB39B and CLIC2 in a family with intellectual and ...
... the innermost area of the hippocampal formation, and region CA2. The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal ... The hippocampal relay involves 3 main regions within the hippocampus which are classified according to their cell type and ... Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ... a large bundle of axon that connects the left and right hippocampal formations. The fornix plays a key role in hippocampal ...
Oliva A, Fernandez-Ruiz A, Buzsaki G, Berenyi A: Role of Hippocampal CA2 Region in Triggering Sharp-Wave Ripples., NEURON 91: ( ... Investigation of neorcortical and hippocampal oscillatory processes using high resolution in-vivo electrophysiological methods. ... Theta Phase Segregation of Input-Specific Gamma Patterns in Entorhinal-Hippocampal Networks., NEURON 84: pp. 470-485.. type of ...
In one study, TBI induced in adult rats led to significant neuronal death in the hippocampal CA2 and CA3 regions.53 Treatment ... Rat hippocampal slice cultures received 2 stretch injuries 24 hours apart in one study60; injury resulted in significant cell ... of rats with memantine immediately after the injury significantly prevented the neuronal loss in both CA2 and CA3 regions.53 ... Effects of memantine and galantamine given separately or in association, on memory and hippocampal neuronal loss after ...
  • More specifically, the distribution of PNNs, primarily in inhibitory interneurons, differs between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus ( Yamada and Jinno, 2013 ), but differences along the anterior-posterior axis were not investigated in the CA2 pyramidal cell layer. (frontiersin.org)
  • The CA2 region of the mammalian hippocampus is a unique region with its own distinctive properties, inputs and pathologies. (frontiersin.org)
  • The hippocampus consists of Cornu Ammonis (CA) areas CA1, CA2, and CA3, containing pyramidal neurons and the dentate gyrus, containing granule cells. (pnas.org)
  • Spatial learning and memory deficits in ovariectomized rats might be correlated with the decreased basic and induced activity of ERK1/2 pathway and increased expression of RKIP in the CA1/CA2 region of hippocampus . (bvsalud.org)
  • A pharmacological characterization of chloride-and potassium-dependent inhibitions in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The present results demonstrate early dysfunctional hippocampal networks, despite no spreading tau pathology to the hippocampus and frontal cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent studies demonstrate significant modulation of hippocampal activity and hippocampus-dependent behaviors by monoamines, including dopamine (DA). (jnss.org)
  • Most anatomists use the term "hippocampus proper" to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and subiculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regions such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, NGF and BDNF supplementation protects neurons against experimentally induced damage from procedures [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The hippocampal relay involves 3 main regions within the hippocampus which are classified according to their cell type and projection fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CA1 is the region within the hippocampus between the subiculum, the innermost area of the hippocampal formation, and region CA2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fimbria section of the fornix is directly connected to the alveus, which is a portion of the hippocampal formation that arises from the subiculum and the hippocampus (specifically the CA1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, these heterotopias in area CA1 of the hippocampus have a tendency to fragment the single excitatory principal cell layer (PCL) into multiple pyramidal cell bands, stacked vertically on one another - transitioning the region into what looks like a primitive cortical structure with multiple excitatory layers. (elifesciences.org)
  • Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) researchers have determined that a small region of the hippocampus known as CA2 is essential for social memory, the ability of an animal to recognize another of the same species. (technologynetworks.com)
  • However, the role of CA2, a relatively small region of the hippocampus sandwiched between CA3 and CA1, has remained largely unknown," said senior author Steven A. Siegelbaum, PhD, professor of neuroscience and pharmacology, chair of the Department of Neuroscience, a member of the Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute and Kavli Institute for Brain Science, and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. (technologynetworks.com)
  • To learn more about this part of the hippocampus, the researchers created a transgenic mouse in which CA2 neurons could be selectively inhibited in adult animals. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Hippocampus is a brain region responsible for the formation of spatial memories, facts and events. (nus.edu.sg)
  • It is only recently that a small area of hippocampus, area CA2, has been identified as a critical brain region for the formation of social memory and interaction. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The HS-like distribution of atrophy and the restriction of HA to the ipsilateral hippocampus in HYP patients are consistent with focal hippocampal onsets, and suggest a mechanism utilizing intrahippocampal circuitry. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 10 Memory impairments are known to be associated with hypoxic damage to the hippocampus, especially the CA1 and CA2 subregions. (asahq.org)
  • NET expression decreased with age in the locus coeruleus and increased with age in several terminal regions (e.g., the cornu ammonis CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recent work indicates that the hippocampus in general, and the CA2 region in particular, is a crucial neural component in mediating social recognition and aggression. (noldus.com)
  • a second Avp receptor (Avpr1b) is expressed almost exclusively in the CA2 region of the hippocampus. (noldus.com)
  • In a continuation of their earlier work, new research from the Young lab has further investigated the role of Avp in regulating social aggression, acting at the Avpr1b receptor in the CA2 hippocampus. (noldus.com)
  • Lentivirus was injected in 6 locations throughout the CA2 hippocampus, covering 60-100% of the CA2 hippocampus, as observed by in situ hybridization of the subjects' brain tissue after behavior testing. (noldus.com)
  • Finally, the lab showed that during whole cell recordings in the pyramidal cells of the CA2 hippocampus, applying a selective Avpr1b receptor agonist induced a significant potentiation of excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSCs) in WTs, but not in Avpr1b KOs. (noldus.com)
  • Damage to the hippocampus does not affect some aspects of memory, such as the ability to learn new skills (playing a musical instrument, for example), suggesting that such abilities depend on a different type of memory ( procedural memory ) and different brain regions. (bionity.com)
  • This image shows distinct neural connections in a cross section of a mouse's hippocampus, a region of the brain involved in the memory of facts and events. (nih.gov)
  • The brain area, called CA2, is part of the hippocampus , a larger brain structure known to be critical for our memory of people, places, things and events. (reliawire.com)
  • Although a great deal is known about the other regions of the hippocampus, the small size of CA2, coupled with its inaccessible location sandwiched between larger, neighboring areas, make it challenging to study. (reliawire.com)
  • The SuM region is unique in that it not only responds broadly to novel stimuli, but also segregates and selectively routes different types of information to discrete cortical targets-the dentate gyrus and CA2 fields of the hippocampus-for the modulation of mnemonic processing. (inserm.fr)
  • The output is carried in an axon which becomes a mossy fiber as it arrives in CA3 and CA2 of the hippocampus to make glutamatergic synapes onto the spinous excrecenses of hippocampal pyramidal cells in those regions. (yale.edu)
  • The pyramidal cell layer (stratum pyramidale) of the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD. (bvsalud.org)
  • Little is known, however, about the different phenotypes of microglia and how they change during disease progression, in the SN or in another brain region, like the hippocampus (HC), which is implicated in dementia and depression, important non-motor symptoms in PD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The result showed that the functional connectivity between EC layer II and hippocampus parcellated the hippocampus into proximal and distal regions along perforant pathway. (auburn.edu)
  • In the third study, we employed selected clustering methods on functional connectivity between the hippocampus and different layers of the dorsal attention network and the default mode network to investigate HERNET (hippocampal encoding/retrieval and network) model, which proposed an encoding/retrieval dichotomy with the anterior hippocampus more connected to the dorsal attention network during memory encoding, and the posterior portions more connected to the default mode network during retrieval. (auburn.edu)
  • The information from the visual, auditory, and somatic associative cortexes arrives first at the parahippocampal region of the cortex, then passes through the enthorinal cortex and on to the hippocampus proper. (mcgill.ca)
  • Within the hippocampus, the information passes through three distinct regions in succession. (mcgill.ca)
  • The hippocampus proper is composed of regions with tightly packed pyramidal neurons, mainly areas CA1, CA2, and CA3. (mcgill.ca)
  • This region also displays a high propensity for long-term potentiation (LTP), though this same phenomenon is also observed in many other parts of the hippocampus as well as in the cortex. (mcgill.ca)
  • A critical brain region is the hippocampus (HC), where there is a striking intersection between high concentrations of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors and age-related pathology. (cannabis-med.org)
  • A second project examines the role of the CA2 subregion of the hippocampus, an area first identified in 1934 but which has received little attention over the past 80 years. (columbia.edu)
  • The numbers of caspase-3 immunoreactive cells in the cornu ammonis regions of the hippocampus were significantly higher in the HI, PTX60 and PTX100 groups than in the sham group. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This project examines the neural circuitry of the CA2 region of the hippocampus and its role in hippocampal-dependent learning and behavior. (grantome.com)
  • Although the hippocampus has been one of the most intensively studied brain areas, based on its importance for declarative memory, relatively little is known about the CA2 region since its initial description by Lorente de N? (grantome.com)
  • In contrast there is a wealth of information about th functional properties and synaptic connections of the other major regions of hippocampus including dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1. (grantome.com)
  • This situation has impeded our understanding of how hippocampus encodes memories and how alterations in hippocampal function contribute to psychiatric and neurological disorders as CA2 has been implicated schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as in epilepsy. (grantome.com)
  • In this proposal we aim to explore for the first time the role of the CA2 region of the hippocampus in various forms of learning and memory. (grantome.com)
  • PNNs are also present around excitatory neurons in some brain regions and prevent plasticity in these neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • A recent study demonstrated that PNNs also exist around mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are the principle type of excitatory neurons, in the CA2 subregion and modulate the excitability and plasticity of these neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The hippocampal area Cornu Ammonis (CA) CA2 is important for social interaction and is innervated by Substance P (SP)-expressing supramammillary (SuM) nucleus neurons. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, this SP-induced potentiation and associative interaction between the EC and SC inputs of CA2 neurons is independent of the GABAergic system. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, afferents from SuM neurons are ideally situated to prime CA2 synapses for the formation of long-lasting plasticity and associativity. (pnas.org)
  • Modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission by glycine and zinc in cultures of mouse hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • Gaiarsa, J.L., Corradetti, R., Cherubini, E. and Ben-Ari, Y. (1990) The allosteric glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate modulates GABAergic-mediated synaptic events in neonatal rat CA3 hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have identified the hippocampal projection neurons and related pathways that encode and keep social information about familiar conspecifics. (pnas.org)
  • Electrophysiology of hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • Our results support that SynCAM 1 modulates excitatory mossy fiber inputs onto both interneurons and principal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area to balance network excitability. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, ratios of labeled neurons in different regions are largely consistent between animals, suggesting that label reflects density of innervation. (mit.edu)
  • While the results mostly confirm prior anatomical work, they also reveal a novel major direct input to MEC-LII from hippocampal pyramidal neurons. (mit.edu)
  • Wong, R. K. S. and Prince, D. A., 1978, Participation of calcium spikes during intrinsic burst firing in hippocampal neurons, Brain Res . (springer.com)
  • The CA3 pyramidal neurons have been analogized as the "pacemaker" of the trisynaptic loop in the generation of hippocampal theta rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • A decrease in the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons contributes to the age related decrease in hippocampal function and memory decline. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Concurrently, hippocampal researchers have proposed a system of parallel information processing being carried out among the intertwined circuitry of CA1, where-in preferential interneuron targeting acts to segregate information streams to different sets of principal neurons ( Soltesz and Losonczy, 2018 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Tau VLW mice had fewer post-synapses in newborn dentate gyrus neurons, and smaller presynaptic terminals in hippocampal CA2 and CA3, the regions innervated by these cells. (alzforum.org)
  • This possibility is supported by findings of a decreased number of CA2 inhibitory neurons in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and altered vasopressin signaling in autism. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Using newly generated conditional knock-in and knockout mice, we show in this study that latrophilin-2 (Lphn2), a cell-adhesion G protein-coupled receptor and presumptive α-latrotoxin receptor, controls the numbers of a specific subset of synapses in CA1-region hippocampal neurons, suggesting that Lphn2 acts as a synaptic target-recognition molecule. (rupress.org)
  • In cultured hippocampal neurons, Lphn2 maintained synapse numbers via a postsynaptic instead of a presynaptic mechanism, which was surprising given its presumptive role as an α-latrotoxin receptor. (rupress.org)
  • In CA1-region neurons in vivo, Lphn2 was specifically targeted to dendritic spines in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare, which form synapses with presynaptic entorhinal cortex afferents. (rupress.org)
  • In fact, the red staining indicates the presence of a protein, RGS14, that's uniquely made by CA2 neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Hipposeq: a comprehensive RNA-seq database of gene expression in hippocampal principal neurons. (janelia.org)
  • Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a new transgenic mouse line, SuM-Cre, we found that SuM neurons that project to the dentate gyrus are activated by contextual novelty, whereas the SuM-CA2 circuit is preferentially activated by novel social encounters. (inserm.fr)
  • Ischemic preconditioning maintains the immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in neurons of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post‑ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post‑ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • Genetically targeted inactivation of CA2 pyramidal neurons triggered a pronounced lack of cultural memory, the power of an pet to keep in mind a conspecific, without obvious modification in sociability or other hippocampal-dependent manners, including spatial and contextual storage. (bioskinrevive.com)
  • A , Amigo2-EGFP fluorescence (green) labels CA2 pyramidal neurons as shown by overlap with another CA2 molecular marker PCP4 (red). (eneuro.org)
  • A , Representative post hoc immunostaining to delineate hippocampal region CA2 region after imaging biolistically transfected neurons. (eneuro.org)
  • Microglia attenuate the kainic acid-induced death of hippocampal neurons in slice cultures. (gaya.jp)
  • Auxin-mediated rapid degradation of target proteins in hippocampal neurons. (gaya.jp)
  • 2014). Dendritic Na(+) spikes enable cortical input to drive action potential output from hippocampal CA2 pyramidal neurons. (columbia.edu)
  • Moreover, CA2 pyramidal neurons exhibit some of the highest levels of expression in the brain of the vasopressin 1b receptor, which has been implicated in both normal social behavior and autism. (grantome.com)
  • These molecular studies have enabled us to generate a mouse line that expresses Cre recombinase in CA2 pyramidal neurons, thereby allowing us to selectively label and manipulate CA2 excitatory output. (grantome.com)
  • Our initial experiments have used this mouse to identify some of the major inputs and outputs of the CA2 pyramidal neurons. (grantome.com)
  • Here we propose to employ this mouse line to examine in more detail both the anatomical and functional synaptic connectivity of CA2 pyramidal neurons and to explore more deeply the role of CA2 in various social and non-social forms of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. (grantome.com)
  • The intrinsic hippocampal circuitry was for many years considered to involve three main functional subregions: the dentate gyrus, the CA3 and the CA1 regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using highly cell type-specific transgenic mouse lines, optogenetics and patch-clamp recordings, we found that dentate gyrus cells, long believed to not project to CA2, send functional monosynaptic inputs to CA2 pyramidal cells through abundant longitudinal projections. (nih.gov)
  • Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3, then a very small zone called CA2, then CA1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perforant path input from EC layer II enters the dentate gyrus and is relayed to region CA3 (and to mossy cells, located in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, which then send information to distant portions of the dentate gyrus where the cycle is repeated). (wikipedia.org)
  • Layers II and III project to the CA3 area of the hippocampal formation (via the perforant path) and to the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dentate gyrus (DG) is the innermost section of the hippocampal formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CA3 is a portion of the hippocampal formation adjacent to the dentate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal sulcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives - The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. (edu.au)
  • One hundred and seventy-eight surgically resected specimens were microscopically examined with respect to neuronal cell loss in hippocampal subfields CA1-CA4 and dentate gyrus. (nih.gov)
  • Global ischemia led to extensive cell death in the striatum, thalamus, and in the CA1 and CA2, and less-pronounced cell death in the CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) hippocampal subfields. (lu.se)
  • namely, granule cells and mossy cells of the dentate gyrus, and pyramidal cells of areas CA3, CA2, and CA1. (janelia.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that workout decreased AR immunoreactivity in every hippocampal locations and elevated the ER appearance in the CA1, dentate gyrus (DG), and total hippocampal areas, however, not in the CA2/3 area. (bioskinrevive.com)
  • The receiving portion of the hippocampal formation thus consists of the dentate gyrus, while the sending portion consists of the subiculum. (mcgill.ca)
  • Previous human fMRI studies at 3 T have successfully detected differences in activation between hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) field CA1, combined CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) region (CA23DG), and the subiculum during associative memory tasks. (escholarship.org)
  • Interestingly, the vast majority of these direct hippocampal inputs arise not from the major hippocampal subfields of CA1 and CA3, but from area CA2, a region that has historically been thought to merely be a transitional zone between CA3 and CA1. (mit.edu)
  • We tested the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease subjects have greater atrophy of the CA1, CA2 and CA3 hippocampal subfields relative to amnestic MCI subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This parcellation was based on our observation of stronger connectivity between layer II of EC with hippocampal subfields such as DG/CA4/CA3/CA2 which are proximal to the EC along the perforant pathway, compared to subfields such as CA1/Subiculum which are distal. (auburn.edu)
  • High-resolution 7T fMRI of Human Hippocampal Subfields during Associative Learning. (escholarship.org)
  • Examining the function of individual human hippocampal subfields remains challenging because of their small sizes and convoluted structures. (escholarship.org)
  • The SP-induced effects on Schaffer collateral-CA2 synapses transform entorhinal cortical-CA2 short-term potentiation into long-term potentiation, thereby expressing synaptic tagging and capture, an associative property of neuronal populations that engage in consolidation. (pnas.org)
  • Here we provide evidence that SP can induce a slowly developing NMDA receptor- and protein synthesis-dependent potentiation of synaptic transmission that can be induced not only at entorhinal cortical (EC)-CA2 synapses but also at long-term potentiation (LTP)-resistant Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA2 synapses. (pnas.org)
  • Although entorhinal cortical (EC) inputs to CA2 display long-term potentiation (LTP), a type of synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation, the Schaffer collateral (SC) inputs to CA2 are apparently resistant to it. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), treatment with rapamycin suppresses mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and specific components of hippocampal synaptic reorganization associated with altered cortical excitability and seizure susceptibility. (eneuro.org)
  • Current pathophysiological theories of schizophrenia emphasize that hypofunction of NMDA receptors at critical sites in local circuits modulate the function of a given brain region or control projections from one region to another (e.g., hippocampal-cortical or thalamocortical projections). (genes2cognition.org)
  • The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because hippocampal cortical loss underlies and exacerbates age-related cognitive decline, these findings have profound implications for aging adults with a history of early life usage. (cannabis-med.org)
  • We show that SP induces an NMDA receptor- and protein synthesis-dependent potentiation of CA2 synapses that requires kinases such as CaMKIV and PKMζ. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, SP-induced potentiation of SC-CA2 synapses transforms a short-term potentiation of EC-CA2 synaptic transmission into LTP, consistent with the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, CaMKIV and PKMζ play a critical role in the SP-induced effects on SC-CA2 and EC-CA2 synapses. (pnas.org)
  • Synchronous neural after discharges in rat hippocampal slices without active chemical synapses. (springer.com)
  • Konnerth A, Heinemann U, Yaari Y. Slow transmission of neural activity in hippocampal area CAl in absence of active chemical synapses. (springer.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of synapses and disrupted functional connectivity (FC) across different brain regions. (hindawi.com)
  • Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor inhibition facilitates synaptic plasticity in the plasticity-resistant synapses of hippocampal area CA2, a brain region critical for social memory. (elifesciences.org)
  • RGS14 KO mice exhibit plasticity of CA2 synapses into adulthood. (eneuro.org)
  • The difference in the degree of LTP induced in RGS14 WT and KO CA2 synapses was significant, whereas no difference was detected between RGS14 WT and KO synapses recorded in CA1. (eneuro.org)
  • 2010). Strong CA2 pyramidal neuron synapses define a powerful disynaptic cortico-hippocampal loop. (columbia.edu)
  • However, no study has examined the effects of hypoxemia resulting from ARDS on the hippocampal CA1 and CA2 subregions. (asahq.org)
  • Therefore, we designed a laboratory animal study in an established acute lung injury (ALI) model to investigate the effects of hypoxemia at a degree that might frequently occur in the clinical setting of ARDS on the hippocampal CA1 and CA2 subregions. (asahq.org)
  • We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. (edu.au)
  • Design: We investigated whether older adults (average age=66.6+7.2 years old) with a history of early life CB use show morphological differences in hippocampal subregions compared with older, nonusers. (cannabis-med.org)
  • We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregions, controlling for age, sex, and intelligence (as measured by the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading), years of education, and cigarette use. (cannabis-med.org)
  • The distributions of immuno-labeled interneurons in dorsal CA2 were studied and compared with those of interneurons in CA1 and CA3. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, for the canonical cell classes of the trisynaptic loop, we profiled transcriptomes at both dorsal and ventral poles, producing a cell-class- and region-specific transcriptional description for these populations. (janelia.org)
  • Specifically, the study reveals that hippocampal CA3 connectivity is modulated by the synapse-organizing adhesion protein SynCAM 1 and identifies a novel, SynCAM 1-dependent mechanism that controls excitatory inputs onto parvalbumin-positive interneurons. (nih.gov)
  • This region displays unique molecular, structural and physiological properties and receives multiple intra- and extra-hippocampal neuromodulatory inputs. (nus.edu.sg)
  • However, in the present study we have found that higher concentrations of 4-AP (1 m m ) in combination with 5 m m tetraethylammonium (TEA) induce spontaneous synchronized discharges in rat hippocampal slices that are resistant to blockade by TTX. (jneurosci.org)
  • In hippocampal slices from these knock-out mice, while long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission, basal synaptic transmission, and paired-pulse ratio are intact, LTD in both young and fear-conditioned adult mice is obliterated. (jneurosci.org)
  • Like those in CA1 and CA3, the somata of CA2 parvalbumin-immunoperoxidase-labeled interneurons were located primarily in Stratum Pyramidale (SP) and Stratum Oriens (SO), with very few cells in Stratum Radiatum (SR) and none in Stratum Lacunosum Moleculare (SLM). (frontiersin.org)
  • CA2 basket cell axons arborized in stratum pyramidale (SP) of all three CA regions, while the axons of CA2 bistratified cells were very strongly polarized, ramifying in SO and SR of the CA2 and CA1 regions but stopping abruptly at the CA2/CA3 border. (frontiersin.org)
  • Increasing evidence, however, suggests that the CA2 region is a distinctive subregion that may play a unique role in social memory ( Hitti and Siegelbaum, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the hippocampal CA2 is enriched in dopamine D1 receptors relative to surrounding areas, yet there is no evidence detailing functional DA release upon this subregion. (jnss.org)
  • We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. (edu.au)
  • To understand the extent and type of functional monoamine input within CA2 and surrounding regions, we recorded rapid monoamine release evoked by stimulation of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in mice with GFP expression driven by the CA2-specific molecular marker CACNG5. (jnss.org)
  • In our experiment, however, mice with an inactivated CA2 region showed no preference for a novel mouse versus a previously encountered mouse, indicating a lack of social memory. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In two separate novel-object recognition tests, the CA2-deficient mice showed a normal preference for an object they had not previously encountered, showing that the mice did not have a global lack of interest in novelty. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Here, rapamycin was studied for its effects on hippocampal circuit reorganization in a model of focal brain injury that leads to spontaneous seizures in a subset of mice. (eneuro.org)
  • By using lentiviral injections to partially restore the Avpr1b receptor back into the CA2 of Avp KO mice, Pagani et al were able to test the idea that Avpr1b receptor in the CA2 is necessary for proper social aggression. (noldus.com)
  • Furthermore, the P2Y 1 KO mice showed neither a hippocampal glial neuroinflammatory response (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) nor a change in hippocampal MD value after MCAO. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Today's study in mice shows us that diminutive CA2, which is made up of just a few thousand cells, acts as a nexus of social behaviors, allowing memory to influence the decision to engage in social aggression. (reliawire.com)
  • In 2016 , Dr. Siegelbaum and fellow Zuckerman Institute Principal Investigator Joseph Gogos, MD, Ph.D., found that mice carrying a human mutation linked to schizophrenia have a dysfunctional CA2. (reliawire.com)
  • Right here, we record a book transgenic mouse range that allowed us to selectively examine the synaptic cable connections and behavioral function from the CA2 area in adult mice. (bioskinrevive.com)
  • C , Summary graph of field potential recordings from acute hippocampal slices prepared from adult RGS14 WT and KO mice (both Amigo2-EGFP+) validate that RGS14 KO mice possess a capacity for LTP in CA2 in adulthood (red), which is absent in WT mice (purple). (eneuro.org)
  • Insets (top) are representative traces of field potentials recorded from areas CA2 and CA1 from slices of RGS14 WT and KO mice before (light line) and after (heavy line) LTP induction. (eneuro.org)
  • The nascent CA2 LTP in RGS14 KO mice requires Ca 2+ -activated pathways. (eneuro.org)
  • A , Summary graph of LTP induction experiments performed in area CA2 of RGS14 KO (Amigo2-EGFP+) mice either in the presence (blue) or absence (gray) of bath-applied NMDA receptor antagonist APV (50 μM). (eneuro.org)
  • B , Summary graph of LTP induction experiments performed in area CA2 of RGS14 KO (Amigo2-EGFP+) mice either in the presence (yellow) or absence (gray) of bath-applied CaMK inhibitor KN-62 (10 μM). (eneuro.org)
  • Maternal immune activation in pregnant mice produces offspring with altered hippocampal ripples. (gaya.jp)
  • Disruption of inhibitory circuits in this region appears to be linked with the pathology of specific psychiatric disorders, promoting interest in its local circuitry, its role in hippocampal function and its dysfunction in disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because several neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with altered social behaviors, our findings raise the possibility that CA2 dysfunction may contribute to these behavioral changes," said Dr. Siegelbaum. (technologynetworks.com)
  • And because CA2 dysfunction has been implicated in psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder , these results provide further support that altered CA2 function may contribute to abnormal social behaviors associated with such illnesses. (reliawire.com)
  • As vasopressin levels are altered in people with schizophrenia and autism , the researchers hope to further explore whether and how such disorders are tied to CA2 dysfunction. (reliawire.com)
  • Involvement of L-Lactate in Hippocampal Dysfunction of Type I Diabetes. (gaya.jp)
  • Role of Hippocampal CA2 Region in Triggering Sharp-Wave Ripples. (doktori.hu)
  • Variable specificity of memory trace reactivation during hippocampal sharp wave ripples RA Swanson, D Levenstein, K McClain, D Tingley, G Buzsáki. (buzsakilab.com)
  • As data from individuals with schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders suggest the presence of alterations in the CA2 region, we are using mouse models of neuropsychiatric disease to explore the possible role of altered CA2 function in the social endophenotypes of these disorders. (columbia.edu)
  • 2008). Hippocampal morphology and distinguishing late-onset from early-onset elderly depression. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system. (hindawi.com)
  • Influence of electric fields on the excitability of granule cells in guinea-pig hippocampal slices. (springer.com)
  • These granule cells are the major source of input of the hippocampal formation, receiving most of their information from layer II of the entorhinal cortex, via the perforant pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adult brains, the gamma2 and gamma7 subunit mRNAs were widely expressed in various grey matter regions with the highest level in cerebellar Purkinje cells and granule cells. (nih.gov)
  • Mean counts of KA1 positive DG granule cells, hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells, and layer 1 of the frontal cortex were significantly increased in subjects with the deletion allele (P¼0.0005, 0.018, and 0.0058, respectively) compared to subjects homozygous for the insertion. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The ability of the K18 seed in the brainstem LC to elicit such robust functional alterations in distant hippocampal structures in the absence of pathology challenges the classic view that tau pathology spread to an area is necessary to elicit functional impairments in that area. (hindawi.com)
  • Cholinergic coordination of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity induces timing-dependent hippocampal synaptic plasticity. (addgene.org)
  • Several studies have shown that noise induces hippocampal dependent memory deficits and volumetric reduction in all layers of hippocampal field [ 15 - 17 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Optogenetic identification of an intrinsic cholinergically driven inhibitory oscillator sensitive to cannabinoids and opioids in hippocampal CA1. (addgene.org)
  • The incomplete suppression of synaptic reorganization in inhibitory circuits after brain injury could contribute to hippocampal hyperexcitability and the eventual reemergence of the epileptogenic process upon cessation of mTOR inhibition. (eneuro.org)
  • A cortico-hippocampal learning rule shapes inhibitory microcircuit activity to enhance hippocampal information flow. (columbia.edu)
  • Age-related synapse loss in hippocampal CA3 is not reversed by caloric restriction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The fornix plays a key role in hippocampal outputs, specifically in connecting CA3 to a variety of subcortical structures, and connecting CA1 and the subiculum to a variety of parahippocampal regions, via the fimbria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locally sequential synaptic reactivation during hippocampal ripples. (gaya.jp)
  • First, the principal cells in the brain region must be capable of generating all-or-none responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • NIMH's basic neuroscience investment in complex social and affective behaviors has a strong foundation in several areas, including classical and operant conditioning, face-processing, emotion regulation, and the function of single brain regions in responses to unimodal stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Despite these important roles, the extent to which different synapse-organizing mechanisms act across brain regions to establish connectivity and regulate network properties is incompletely understood. (nih.gov)
  • First, the data support that synaptogenic proteins guide connectivity and can function in distinct brain regions even if they are expressed broadly. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of SynCAM 1 affects connectivity in select brain regions. (nih.gov)
  • Cell numbers, distribution, shape, and regional variation throughout the murine hippocampal formation from the adult brain Allen Reference Atlas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Quantifying the distribution of cells in every brain region is fundamental to attaining a comprehensive census of distinct neuronal and glial types. (bioportfolio.com)
  • cell analysis in an entire brain region. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These findings indicate that mTOR inhibition fails to ubiquitously suppress recurrent excitatory synaptic reorganization after brain injury, and suggests that rapamycin's effects on reactive axonal plasticity in the hippocampal formation are cell-type specific. (eneuro.org)
  • 13-15 Because ARDS is characterized by profound arterial hypoxemia, which is often resistant to increases in inspired oxygen fraction (Fio 2 ), 16 it might be possible that this condition results in damage of this vulnerable brain region. (asahq.org)
  • At the top right, you can see a portion of another brain region, the cerebral cortex. (nih.gov)
  • As Basu notes, less is always more when photographing any of the cell-dense regions of the brain that block and badly distort light. (nih.gov)
  • Histopathological examination of brain sections showed no protective effect on hippocampal cells by AAE and nifedipine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A brain region that helps tell an animal when to attack an intruder and when to accept it into its home has been identified by researchers at Columbia University. (reliawire.com)
  • Surprisingly, today's findings reveal that a single brain region can control both higher-order cognition, like social memory, and an innate, instinctual behavior like social aggression. (reliawire.com)
  • As a first step to determine whether CA2 may regulate other social behaviors, the researchers examined the brain regions that receive information from CA2. (reliawire.com)
  • They found that CA2 sends a strong connection to the lateral septum , a brain region that had been known for some time to play an important role in limiting aggression. (reliawire.com)
  • But why would a brain region that controls memory also be used to regulate aggression? (reliawire.com)
  • Based on data from the Allen Brain Atlas-Mouse Brain, a project of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, these reports are compilations of neuroanatomic and gene expression characteristics of key regions in the mammalian brain. (brain-map.org)
  • They include detailed descriptions of each region, the characteristics of 50 genes that are selective for the region, and correlation tables showing the genetic relationship of the region to the rest of the brain. (brain-map.org)
  • As such, microglia are thought to contribute to local inflammatory responses, not in a uniform, but rather in a brain region-specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the number of necrotic cells in all regions of brain were significantly lower PTX60 than HI and PTX100 groups. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A key challenge in neuroscience is to define the role of specific brain regions in mental processes, in both health and disease. (grantome.com)
  • Results - The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but not in CB-nondep users, relative to HC. (edu.au)
  • AASs administration elevated AR appearance in every hippocampal regions, while not the full total hippocampal section in the TE group and didn't significantly lower ER. (bioskinrevive.com)
  • These findings not only highlight the importance of hippocampal interneurons in social memory, but also contribute to establish the relationship between PVIs' deficits and impaired social memory in some psychiatric illnesses. (pnas.org)
  • While CR attenuates age-related cognitive deficits in tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, the cellular mechanisms by which CR improves this cognitive decline are poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • FCSRT could help in disentangling hippocampal memory deficits from memory impairment due to ineffective recall strategies. (j-alz.com)
  • We have developed a mouse like that enables us to selectively inactivate CA2, which we find produces a very specific deficit in the encoding of social memory, the ability of an animal to recognize and remember a conspecific. (columbia.edu)
  • Moreover by expressing tetanus toxin selectively in CA2 we have been able to inactivate its synaptic output and explore the behavioral consequences of CA2 silencing. (grantome.com)
  • The principal neuron of the fascia dentata of the hippocampal region. (yale.edu)
  • This study found that a main component of PNNs, aggrecan, existed in the pyramidal cell layer of the putative CA2 subarea prior to the appearance of the CA2 region, which was defined by the CA2 marker protein regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14). (frontiersin.org)
  • E , Signaling diagram of a CA2 spine from a RGS14 KO mouse depicting mechanistic targets of the pharmacological inhibitors used in A-C . (eneuro.org)
  • RGS14 suppresses CA2 spine structural plasticity. (eneuro.org)
  • In addition, damage to hippocampal cells was assessed in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Novel hippocampal analytic techniques that can track the spread of hippocampal pathology in 3D with such precision are a promising research tool. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 3 years) as important predictor of hippocampal pathology, i.e. (nih.gov)
  • But in 2014 , the Siegelbaum lab developed a genetic approach for turning CA2 on or off and discovered that this region is essential for social memory. (reliawire.com)
  • We found that the ability of CA2 cells to efficiently activate the lateral septum is greatly enhanced when vasopressin is released in the lateral septum," said Dr. Siegelbaum. (reliawire.com)
  • Hippocampal synaptic plasticity, spatial memory and anxiety. (springer.com)
  • Behaviorally, loss of Lphn2 from the CA1 region increased spatial memory retention but decreased learning of sequential spatial memory tasks. (rupress.org)
  • Surprisingly, we find that inactivation of CA2 has little effect on a number of mouse behaviors, with no significant change in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory (Morris water maze), contextual fear conditioning, or novel object recognition. (grantome.com)
  • A better grasp of the function of CA2 could prove useful in understanding and treating disorders characterized by altered social behaviors, such as autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Understanding this region could be useful in understanding and treating disorders characterized by altered social behaviors such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. (nnmh.ca)
  • Propagation of hippocampal ripples to the neocortex by way of a subiculum-retrosplenial pathway Noam Nitzan, Sam McKenzie, Prateep Beed, Daniel Fine English, Silvia Oldani, John J. Tukker, György Buzsáki & Dietmar Schmitz. (buzsakilab.com)
  • Routing of Hippocampal Ripples to Subcortical Structures via the Lateral Septum David Tingley, György Buzsáki. (buzsakilab.com)
  • The hippocampal area Cornu Ammonis (CA) CA2 is a small region interposed between CA1 and CA3. (pnas.org)
  • Low-calcium field burst discharges of CAl pyramidal neurones in rat hippocampal slices. (springer.com)
  • Excitatory Synaptic Drive and Feedforward Inhibition in the Hippocampal CA3 Circuit Are Regulated by SynCAM 1. (nih.gov)
  • Region CA1 receives input from the CA3 subfield, EC layer III and the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus (which project only to the terminal apical dendritic tufts in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gamma5 subunit mRNA was abundant in the olfactory bulb, hippocampal CA2, thalamus, inferior colliculus and Bergmann glia. (nih.gov)
  • Timing-dependent septal cholinergic induction of dynamic hippocampal synaptic plasticity. (addgene.org)
  • Region CA3 combines this input with signals from EC layer II and sends extensive connections within the region and also sends connections to strata radiatum and oriens of ipsilateral and contralateral CA1 regions through a set of fibers called the Schaffer collaterals, and commissural pathway, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also found that aggrecan immunoreactivity was more evident in the anterior sections of the CA2 area than the posterior sections, which suggests that the function of CA2 PNNs varies along the anterior-posterior axis. (frontiersin.org)
  • No previous study investigated the detailed distribution of PNNs, especially in the CA2 area. (frontiersin.org)
  • This identified reduced fractional anisotropy in the hippocampal CA3 area in absence of SynCAM 1. (nih.gov)
  • mantle field in radiation therapy , such as for malignant lymphoma , a circumscribed area of irradiation around the shoulders and chest, including the neck, clavicular regions, axillae, and mediastinum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The large, crescent-shaped area in green is hippocampal zone CA1. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the cellular mechanisms of plasticity and associativity processes in CA2 may account for the future therapeutic interventions for socio-cognitive and emotional decline in various neurological disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy and autism. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones. (springer.com)
  • D-amino-phosphonovaleric acid-sensitive spontaneous giant EPSPs in immature rat hippocampal neurones. (springer.com)
  • Our findings indicate that glial P2Y 1 receptors are involved in the hippocampal inflammatory response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results recommend a potential function from the numerical romantic relationship between two sex human hormones receptors (more powerful correlation than for each individual receptor) in the regulation of depressive-like behavior the hippocampal GABAergic system in rats, which allow better understanding of the hippocampal sex hormones receptors role in modulation of depressive-like behavior. (bioskinrevive.com)
  • Using a special transgenic mouse, researchers have now pinpointed a hippocampal region called CA2 that is important for social memory, the ability of animal to recognize another of the same species. (nnmh.ca)
  • A few studies have suggested that CA2 might be involved in social memory, as this region has a high level of expression of a receptor for vasopressin, a hormone linked to sexual motivation, bonding, and other social behaviors. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Circuit-based manipulation showed that divergent novelty channelling in these projections modifies hippocampal contextual or social memory. (inserm.fr)
  • We focus on how ion channels and synaptic transmission regulate information flow in the cortico-hippocampal circuit, which plays a critical role in learning and memory. (columbia.edu)
  • Subregional Hippocampal Thickness Abnormalities in Older Adults with a History of Heavy Cannabis Use. (cannabis-med.org)
  • Excitation of hippocampal pyramidal cells by an electrical field effect. (springer.com)
  • It seems possible, if not likely, that these crude laminar structures resulting from faulty cellular migration in the Lis1 mutant mouse, might reflect natural underlying patterns in local circuit connectivity upon which normal hippocampal function is critically dependent. (elifesciences.org)
  • Defects in hippocampal function caused by the progression of cerebrovascular disorders or Alzheimer's disease can lead to memory loss. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results provide insight into more specific human hippocampal subfield functions underlying learning and memory and a unique opportunity for future investigations of hippocampal subfield function in healthy individuals as well as those suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. (escholarship.org)
  • For a long time, there has been a lack of information on the CA2 area's role in memory formation. (pnas.org)
  • The formation and recall of episodic memory requires precise information processing by the entorhinal-hippocampal network. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the relationship between the spatial learning and memory and hippocampal ERK1/2 pathway activity in ovariectomized rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. (nih.gov)
  • Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The CA1 region is critical for all forms of memory. (technologynetworks.com)
  • CA2 was already known to specialize in social memory , the ability to remember encounters with others. (reliawire.com)
  • This difference strongly suggested that CA2 normally acts to drive aggressive behavior , in addition to regulating social memory. (reliawire.com)
  • It appears that, at the beginning of a social interaction-such as when the resident mouse meets an intruder - the animal's CA2 forms a social memory, a sort of social ID tag, of the other mouse. (reliawire.com)
  • We are now examining the CA2 neural circuitry in more detail to determine how this region participates in memory encoding. (columbia.edu)
  • In stark contrast, silencing of CA2 results in a profound loss of social memory, the ability of a mouse to recognize a previously encountered mouse. (grantome.com)
  • Given the changes in social behavior associated with various neurological and psychiatric disorders, some of which have been linked to CA2, our experiments offer potential insights into both basic mechanisms of memory storage and the neural bases of altered cognitive processing important for social interactions. (grantome.com)
  • We are particularly interested in the importance of CA2 for social memory, the ability of an individual to recognize and remember another, which is thought to be perturbed in various neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. (grantome.com)
  • We report here a functional map of VTA-driven hippocampal monoamine release with high spatial precision. (jnss.org)
  • We used three-dimensional (3D) hippocampal mapping to quantify HA and determine whether each onset group exhibited a unique distribution of atrophy consistent with the functional differences that distinguish the two onset morphologies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This protein serves as a kind of molecular glue that likely imparts specific functional properties to this region. (nih.gov)
  • Using two independent image processing pipelines and the adult mouse reference atlas, we report the first cellular-level soma segmentation in every sub-region and non-principal layer of the left hippocampal formation through the full rostral-caudal extent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We found that aggrecan immunoreactivity was evident in the putative CA2 region at postnatal day (P) 5. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits. (nih.gov)
  • Circuits linked to another hippocampal region, CA2, have only recently come to light. (nih.gov)
  • Certainly the best known of these networks are the circuits of the hippocampal formation, which are involved in establishing explicit long-term memories . (mcgill.ca)
  • Circulating estrogen levels and hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions decline with aging. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Changes in the hippocampal tissue were detected by DTI as the mean diffusivity (MD) value, which corresponded with the cognitive decline at 4 days, 1 week, 3 weeks, and 2 months after MCAO. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deciphering CA2 connectivity. (nih.gov)
  • Over the past several years it has become increasingly clear that CA2 does indeed form a separate region with its own molecular identity and distinct electrophysiological properties (as shown, in part, by recent data from our laboratory). (grantome.com)
  • The most common genetic cause is the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion upstream of the C9orf72 coding region affecting about 10% of all patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, the bilateral distribution of nonspecific atrophy in the LVF group may reflect mechanisms involving both hippocampal and extrahippocampal networks. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • What CA2-specific mechanisms allow for such regulation? (noldus.com)
  • Biological mechanisms whichmay contribute to this protective effect include KA1 involvement in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, HPA axis activation, or plasticity processes affecting neuronal circuitry. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Here we examine the formation of synaptic circuitry under cellular heterotopia in hippocampal CA1, using a mouse model of the human neurodevelopmental disorder Type I Lissencephaly. (elifesciences.org)
  • Therefore, a better understanding of the factors in NSPC niches and the intracellular molecules regulating/directing adult DG neurogenesis is needed to fully realize the potential of NSPCs in the treatment of hippocampal-related disorders. (intechopen.com)
  • In the ischemia group, GK immunoreactivity was altered in the CA1 region, but not in the CA2/3 region. (nih.gov)
  • However, in the CA2/3 region, no significant changes in GK immunoreactivity were observed following ischemia-reperfusion (Table II). (nih.gov)
  • Supplementary MaterialsFIGURE S1: The representative photomicrographs for the most prominent effects of exercise and AASs on evaluated hippocampal immunoreactivity. (bioskinrevive.com)
  • The hippocampal AR/ER appearance index was reduced while parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactivity was improved by workout. (bioskinrevive.com)
  • The cross-linked region in profilin is homologous with sequences in the larger actin filament capping proteins fragmin and gelsolin. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • There was, however, a greater proportion of GAD-positive cells were immunopositive for PV in SP in CA2 than in CA1 or CA3. (frontiersin.org)
  • So far, only three types of interneurons have been characterized morphologically and physiologically in the CA2 region: basket cells, bistratified cells and SP-SR interneurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some CA2 PV-immunopositive basket and bistratified cells had partly spiny horizontal dendrites that extended horizontally along stratum oriens (SO) into both CA1 and CA3. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pharmacological evidence for two kinds of GABA receptor on rat hippocampal pyramidal cells studied in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The burst firing pattern of the hippocampal pyramidal cells was first described by Kandel and Spencer in their intracellular studies using the in vivo cat preparation (Kandel and Spencer, 1961). (springer.com)
  • Subsequently, the ionic basis for action potential generation in the hippocampal pyramidal cells has been extensively studied in the hippocampal slice. (springer.com)
  • Carbamazepine offered better preservation of hippocampal cells in the CA1, CA2 and CA3 regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Integration of goal-directed signals onto spatial maps of hippocampal place cells. (gaya.jp)
  • Recurrent connections between CA2 pyramidal cells. (gaya.jp)
  • However, interneurons in this region displayed different features. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, the responses of hippocampal synaptic structure to estrogens differ between aged and young rats. (biomedsearch.com)