Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseCA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.CA3 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CA2 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Aniline CompoundsMuscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Calcium Channels, T-Type: A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Estrenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.HydroquinonesReceptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Excitation Contraction Coupling: A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Dantrolene: Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cytophotometry: A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Apamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Macrocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.ThiazepinesAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Sugar PhosphatesIslets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.EthylenediaminesProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

The epileptic human hippocampal cornu ammonis 2 region generates spontaneous interictal-like activity in vitro. (1/24)

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Reduced ratio of afferent to total vascular density in mesial temporal sclerosis. (2/24)

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Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task. (3/24)

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Afferent-specific properties of interneuron synapses underlie selective long-term regulation of feedback inhibitory circuits in CA1 hippocampus. (4/24)

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Strong CA2 pyramidal neuron synapses define a powerful disynaptic cortico-hippocampal loop. (5/24)

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RGS14 is a natural suppressor of both synaptic plasticity in CA2 neurons and hippocampal-based learning and memory. (6/24)

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Morphological and electrophysiological properties of pyramidal-like neurons in the stratum oriens of Cornu ammonis 1 and Cornu ammonis 2 area of Proechimys. (7/24)

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Mild cognitive impairment: differential atrophy in the hippocampal subfields. (8/24)

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*Trisynaptic circuit

... the innermost area of the hippocampal formation, and region CA2. The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal ... Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ... a large bundle of axon that connects the left and right hippocampal formations. The fornix plays a key role in hippocampal ... Hippocampal theta has also been linked to the activation of the anterior medial and the anterior dorsal areas of the thalamus. ...

*Hippocampus proper

CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the ... CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex ... The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis, an earlier name of the hippocampus. There are four ... The region is conventionally divided into three divisions. CA3a is the part of the cell band that is most distant from the ...

*Hippocampus anatomy

The hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because ... CA2, CA3, and CA4. However, the region known as CA4 is in fact the "deep, polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus" (as clarified ... Blackstad, TW (1956). "Commissural connections of the hippocampal region in the rat, with special reference to their mode of ... BLACKSTAD, TW (October 1956). "Commissural connections of the hippocampal region in the rat, with special reference to their ...

*Place cell

The CA3 hippocampal region is affected differently by decreased plasticity than the CA1 region just discussed. Decreased ... This form of mRNA is decreased in both the CA1 and CA2 hippocampal regions, these reduced levels causing spatial learning ... However, while the size of place fields in the hippocampal CA3 region remains the same between young and aged rats, average ... Place field properties are similar between young and aged rats in the CA1 hippocampal region: rate of firing and spike ...

*Hippocampus

Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Its abbreviation CA is used in naming the hippocampal subfields: CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4. It can be distinguished as an area ... of the hippocampal population These two hippocampal activity modes can be seen in primates as well as rats, with the exception ... Cell Centered Database Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region Search ...

*Stratum lucidum of hippocampus

The stratum lucidum is located within the CA3 region of the hippocampus distally to the dentate gyrus and proximally to the CA2 ... The stratum pyramidale is the third deepest hippocampal layer, and in relation to the stratum lucidum, is located underneath it ... In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the stratum pyramidale connects with the stratum lucidum by mossy fibers that run though ... This situation is described in the mossy fiber axon connection in the CA3 stratum lucidum region of the hippocampus as is in ...

*Vasopressin receptor 1B

Young WS, Li J, Wersinger SR, Palkovits M (2006). "The Vasopressin 1b Receptor is Prominent in the Hippocampal Area CA2 Where ... AVPR1B maps to chromosome region 1q32 and is a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin family subfamily. AVPR1B was initially ...

*Basket cell

In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, basket cells can often form recurrent inhibition loops with pyramidal cells. Projections ... Hippocampal basket cells target somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal neurons. Similar to their counterparts in the cortex ... Tan, Y. P.; Llano, I. (1999). "Modulation by K+channels of action potential-evoked intracellular Ca2+concentration rises in rat ... hippocampal basket cells are also parvalbumin-expressing and fast-spiking. ...

*P-type calcium channel

The S1-S2 loop and the S6 region are thought to be responsible for the channel's inactivation, the S4 region serves as the ... ω-Conotoxin MVIIC acts within the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons to block the P-type channels. Also, within the hippocampal ... Currie, Kevin (2010). "G Protein Modulation of Ca2 Voltage-gated Calcium Channels". Channels. 4 (6): 497-509. Nair, Asha; ... The tottering mutation substitutes a single proline instead of a leucine within the P-region of the channel. The P-region is ...

*Molecular and epigenetic mechanisms of alcoholism

Misra, K., Roy, A., Pandey, S.C. (2001). Effects of voluntary ethanol intake on the expression of Ca2?/calmodulin-dependent ... Lovinger, D.M., White, G., Weight, F.F. (1989). Ethanol inhibits NMDA-activated ion current in hippocampal neurons. Science, ... and brain region-specific manner. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 29, 672-682. Hwang, B.H., Zhang, J.K., Ehlers, C.L., Lumeng, L., Li, T. ... 2007). Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is mediated by p38 MAPK pathway in mouse hippocampal cells. Neurosci Lett., 419, 64-7. ...

*CAMK2A

Tokui T, Yamauchi T, Yano T, Nishi Y, Kusagawa M, Yatani R, Inagaki M (1990). "Ca2(+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... The alpha chain encoded by this gene is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning(needs ... "Mice expressing activated CaMKII lack low frequency LTP and do not form stable place cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus ...

*Biology of bipolar disorder

Hajek, T; Kopecek, M; Höschl, C; Alda, M (September 2012). "Smaller hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder are ... People with bipolar demonstrate reduced expression of GAD67 in CA3/CA2 subregion of the hippocampus. More extensive reductions ... which is congruent with the abnormal structural connectivity observed in the region. The orbitofrontal cortex demonstrates ... One meta analysis reported that when correcting for lithium treatment, which was associated with increased hippocampal volume, ...

*W. Selvamurthy

Served as Representative of International Society of Biometeorology in World Health Organisation (South East Asian Region) ( ... 1996 Involvement of protease in tert-butylhidroperoxide mediated activation of Ca2+ATPases in microsomes of pulmonary smooth ... 1975 Frequency modulation of hippocampal stimulation effects on cardiorespiratory responses in monkeys R. A. Dhume, W. ... 1992 Peripheral vascular responses to local cold stress of tropical men during sojourn in the Arctic cold region S. S. ...
Neurons in a micro-circuit connected by chemical synapses can have their connectivity affected by the prior activity of the cells. The number of synapses available for releasing neurotransmitter can be decreased by repetitive activation through depletion of readily releasable neurotransmitter (NT), or increased through facilitation, where the probability of release of NT is increased by prior activation. These competing effects can create a complicated and subtle range of time-dependent connectivity. Here we investigate the probabilistic properties of facilitation and depression (FD) for a presynaptic neuron that is receiving a Poisson spike train of input. We use a model of FD that is parameterized with experimental data from a hippocampal basket cell and pyramidal cell connection, for fixed frequency input spikes at frequencies in the range of theta (3-8 Hz) and gamma (20-100 Hz) oscillations. Hence our results will apply to micro-circuits in the hippocampus that are responsible for the interaction of
The retina is about as complicated as any other part of the vertebrate central nervous system, but its accessibility makes it especially suitable for elucidating mechanisms that govern neural circuit assembly and function. Visual information is passed from retinal photoreceptors to interneurons to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and then on to the rest of the brain. In mouse, each of >40 RGC types responds to specific visual features, depending on which of the >70 types of interneurons synapse on it. The first part of the lecture will take direction-selective, RGCs as an example, describing some recognition molecules that underlie assembly of the circuitry that generates their responses. Generalizing this approach to other cell types, to the rest of the brain, and to primates will require a complete cell atlas and a full inventory of the recognition molecules that each cell type expressed. The second part will summarize progress in a single-cell transcriptomic approach aimed at addressing these ...
The Famous (not Great) Otto Frederik Müller was indeed a well-trained scientist, but he was not the one who named Cornu copiae. That service came from the Austrian Ignatius Born (1778) , http://www.jaxshells.org/cornu.htm,, who, at least in the 1780 work, gave no indication that it was anything but a genuine species in a genuine genus (the only non-Linnaean one he employed) as he described both in the same sober format, style, and rank as he did Helix, Nerita, and Murex; Helix polygyrata, Nerita polita Linnaeus, and Murex rapiformis. Born was certainly a pioneer as you infer, but I think any reviser would be on very tenuous ground to infer that he was anything but serious about the taxonomic standing, as he saw it in those pioneer days, of Cornu copiae. I think the issue is: upon whom is the burden of proof: those who think that a retrospective analysis of an aberrant specimen, or those who see Born as honestly ignorant of this quirk of nature. The key passage in the Article ICZN 1.3.2 is the ...
Some insight into the nature and inefficiency of linear polarization can be appreciated by considering the diagram below. Here you can see that a field like B1 (depicted as a big green arrow) oscillating at the resonance frequency (ωo) can be decomposed into two counterrotating subfields (red and blue arrows), each half as large. One of these subfields (red arrow) rotates in the same direction and frequency (ωo) as the spins undergoing NMR; the other subfield (blue arrow) rotates in the opposite direction and frequency (−ωo). Only the subfield associated with red arrow is effective at inducing net nuclear transitions and a change in net nuclear magnetization required for MRI. The other subfield is ineffective for NMR and serves only to deposit unwanted thermal energy into tissue. ...
Eicha (Lamentations) 2 - AIN fecit Dominus quae cogitavit conplevit sermonem suum quem praeceperat a diebus antiquis destruxit et non pepercit et laetificavit super te inimicum et exaltavit cornu hostium tuorum
The mechanisms regulating the highly ordered neuroarchitecture of the mammalian brain are largely unknown. The present study took advantage of hippocampal pyramidal-like neurons that arose from a common progenitor cell in cell culture (sister neurons) to ascertain the contribution of intrinsic factors to both the generation and degeneration of neuroarchitecture. Sister neurons were similar in overall cell form and dendritic numbers and lengths. Control non-sister neurons that grew in contact did not generate similar morphologies, indicating that the similarity of sister cells did not result from influences of the local microenvironment or cell interactions. These results suggest that intrinsic factors related to mitotic history play a role in the generation of neuroarchitecture. Since particular groups of hippocampal neurons are sensitive to glutamate neurotoxicity in situ and are vulnerable in neurodegenerative disorders, it was of interest to test glutamate sensitivity in the neuronal ...
We quantified the occurrence of these SLEs in a population of slices exposed to the in vitro seizure protocol for an hour, versus a population subjected only to normal bath perfusate at 35-37°C for an hour ("sham protocol"). We found that 68% of slices (n = 28 in total) subjected to the seizure protocol demonstrated SLEs (on average 3.2 ± 0.3 per hour, n = 19) as well as frequent interictal-like spiking. Slices exposed to the sham protocol of high perfusate temperature only infrequently (9% of total) showed an SLE (these were discarded from further analysis), and no interictal spiking.. We then analyzed HCN channel properties in dendritic cell-attached patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in slices subjected to the seizure protocol with confirmed SLEs. We compared these values to recordings taken from slices undergoing the sham protocol, in which no SLEs were observed, and to data from control, untreated slices. Similar to what was seen in vivo, dendritic recordings from slices in which ...
Find and save images from the quotes collection by Celine Cornu (celine_cornu) on We Heart It, your everyday app to get lost in what you love. | See more about quote, love and sad
accordingly additional adults alterations analyze another assessment automatic brain cell cells clinic cognitive cognitively college combined comprises configuration considered consistent contrast controls correlations crude damping database date dementia derived detected detecting developments differ differential differentiating diffuse disease displayed distinct elasticity enables establish example exhibit exhibited expected flirt focus focused formation functionally general global globally graphs greater health healthy hospital illustrated improvements in vivo include incorporating independent indicating individual influence integrity inversion inversions inverted investigate isotropic john joint kingdom known maps masks measure measured measures mechanical mechanisms memory native neurons nonlinear older organization outcome pathologies patients performance pipelines post prevention prior promise pronounced properties pyramidal quality recent recruited reduction regarding register ...
The hippocampus consists of the complex interfolded layers of the dentate gyrus (1) and cornu ammonis (2). Their three layered cortex is continuous below with the subiculum (3) which has four, five then six layers as it merges with the parahippocampal gyrus (4 ...
We report an unusual case of a young woman with chondrosarcoma affecting the greater cornu of the hyoid bone. Only a handful of reports of primary chondrosarcoma involving the hyoid exist in the world literature. The case described presented as a swe
The concealed implications of the studies by Garrison and colleagues were enormous. This approximate permits aggregation of pre- and post-chemotherapy exposure tumor tissue and blood and allows working imaging studies to be performed, which could be used to pinpoint break of dawn signals of platinum- taxane defences underground and markers of response. This should be finished 10 15 present in apiece sitting himcolin 30gm with mastercard erectile dysfunction pills south africa. Research has shown that liposomal lidocaine 4% cream was highly stuff in reducing the ache associated with intravenous cannulation (Zempsky, 2008). Higher hippocampal sign and another deployment of endocannabinoid receptors CB1 were also encountered in the Proechimys rodents (Araujo et al. Acne rosacea/skin: Apply request order viagra professional 100 mg otc how to fix erectile dysfunction causes. To the superior of our knowl- sharpness the influence of stressors on diurnal cytokine variations set up not been assessed, ...
Movement coordination between opposite body sides relies on neuronal circuits capable of controlling muscle contractions according to motor commands. Trunk and limb muscles engage in distinctly lateralized behaviors, yet how regulatory spinal circuitry differs is less clear. Here, we intersect virus technology and mouse genetics to unravel striking distribution differences of interneurons connected to functionally distinct motor neurons. We find that premotor interneurons conveying information to axial motor neurons reside in symmetrically balanced locations while mostly ipsilateral premotor interneurons synapse with limb-innervating motor neurons, especially those innervating more distal muscles. We show that observed distribution differences reflect specific premotor interneuron subpopulations defined by genetic and neurotransmitter identity. Synaptic input across the midline reaches axial motor neurons preferentially through commissural axon arborization, and to a lesser extent, through ...
Our goods lines classify respiratory supplies, CPAP products and accessories, oxygen treatment supplies and a full solidus of convalescent home gradient native persistent medical furnishings and supplies. Humour do not include petulant personal information in the word box, such as your appellation, approach devote, Popular Protection Host, particular finances, medical or magnum opus antiquity or any other information past which you or anyone else can be identified close to your comments or views. I besides check others to eff cheap 135 mg colospa overnight delivery esophageal spasms xanax. The thalamus of the Amazon spiny rat Proechimys guyannensis, an brute dummy of obstruction to epilepsy, and pilocarpine- induced longterm changes of protein expression. The pediatric nurse uses and integrates into findings to found evidence-based practice, managing the execution of be concerned in a cost-effective mien to publicize continuity of keeping and an optimal outcome looking for the lassie and family. ...
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. We measured the effects of nonselective optogenetic stimulation on the oscillations of the MS and corresponding effects on hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 in three different contexts: (1) With minimal movement while the rats sit in a confined chamber; (2) Exploring a novel open field; and (3) Learning and performing a T‐maze behavioral task. We describe the relationship between animal speed and the efficacy of septal stimulation in the entrainment of hippocampal oscillations as well as possible cognitive enhancements in relation to MS stimulation. ...
The effect of various concentrations of l-glutamate on neurotransmission in the CA1 hippocampal area was studied using hippocampal slices. Three intervals of l-glutamate concentration were...
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A string of glucose molecules: starch. It sounds simple, but it isnt. Dominique Cornuéjols and Serge Pérez explore the intricacies of its structure - and show that the mystery is by no means solved.
Worldwide expansion of mobile phones and electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure has raised question of their possible biological effects on the brain and nervous system. Radiofrequency (RF) radiation might alter intracellular signaling pathways through changes in calcium (Ca(2+)) permeability across cell membranes. Changes in the expression of calcium binding proteins (CaBP) like calbindin D28-k (CB) and calretinin (CR) could indicate impaired Ca(2+)homeostasis due to EMF exposure. CB and CR expression were measured with immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus of mice after EMF exposure at 835 MHz for different exposure times and absorption rates, 1 h/day for 5 days at a specific absorption rate (SAR)=1.6 W/kg, 1 h/day for 5 days at SAR=4.0 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=1.6 W/kg, 5 h/day for 1 day at SAR=4.0 W/kg, daily exposure for 1 month at SAR=1.6 W/kg. Body weights did not change significantly. CB immunoreactivity (IR) displayed moderate staining of cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) areas and ...
Dr Valerie Carr earned her PhD in Neuroscience from UCLA in 2008 where she examined strategic factors influencing memory in both younger and older adults. Afterwards she pursued an NIH postdoctoral fellowship at Stanford University where she investigated neural mechanisms of memory and how these mechanisms change with age. She is currently an Assistant Professor in the Psychology department where an overarching goal of her research is to understand the factors that influence the content, quality, and durability of memories across the lifespan. She aims to leverage her knowledge of cognitive neuroscience to develop strategies for improving memory, with an emphasis on developing exercise interventions that improve memory performance and brain health in populations such as older adults and individuals with anxiety and depression. Recent Publications. Wisse, L. E. M., Daugherty, A. M., Olsen, R. K., Berron, D., Carr, V. A., … la Joie, R., for the Hippocampal Subfields Group (2017). A harmonized ...
The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis , an earlier name of the hippocampus. Structure There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex . Another significant output is to the subiculum . CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path . Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus , and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. The mossy fiber pathway ends in the stratum lucidum . The perforant path passes through the stratum lacunosum and ends in
Chronic stress has been associated with degenerative changes in the rodent and primate hippocampus, presumably mediated in part via neuronal glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In the rat brain, GRs are widely distributed and are particularly dense in the hippocampus. The distribution of GRs in the primate brain, however, has not been fully characterized. In this study, we used in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to map the distribution of GR mRNA and GR protein, respectively, in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In contrast to its well established distribution in the rat brain, GR mRNA was only weakly detected in the dentate gyrus (DG) and Cornu Ammonis (CA) of the macaque hippocampus, whereas it was abundant in the pituitary (PIT), cerebellum (CBL), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and, to a lesser extent, the neocortex. Immunohistochemical staining indicated a very low density of GR-like immunoreactive cells within the macaque hippocampal formation in ...
After an acute UMN-predominant SCI, initial development of the UMN syndrome is delayed by a process called spinal shock, whereby there is a transient suppression and gradual return of reflex activity below the level of injury. Ditunno et al.150 have proposed a four-phase model of spinal shock. During phase 1, occurring 0 to 24 hours postinjury, there is motor neuron hyperpolarization, manifesting clinically as hyporeflexia. During phase 2, occurring on days 1 to 3 postinjury, there is denervation supersensitivity and receptor upregulation, manifesting clinically with reflex return. During phase 3, occurring 1 to 4 weeks postinjury, there is interneuron synapse growth, manifesting clinically as early hyperreflexia. And finally, during phase 4, occurring 1 to 12 months postinjury, there is long axon synapse growth, manifesting clinically as late hyperreflexia.. Blood is supplied to the spinal cord through two posterior spinal arteries, a single anterior spinal artery, and several segmental ...
The human hippocampal formation is characterized by anterior-posterior gradients of cell density, neurochemistry, and hemodynamics. In addition, some functions are associated with specific subfields (subiculum, CA1-4, dentate gyrus) and regions (anterior and posterior). We performed contrast-enhanced, high-resolution T1-weighted 3T steady state (SS) imaging to investigate cerebral blood volume (CBV) gradients of the hippocampal formation. We studied 14 healthy subjects and found significant CBV gradients (anterior , posterior) in the subiculum but not in other hippocampal subfields. Since CBV is a marker of basal metabolism, these results indicate a greater baseline activity in the anterior compared with the posterior subiculum. This gradient might be related to the role of the subiculum as the main outflow station of the hippocampal formation and might have implications for the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ...
Sam Le Cornu, senior portfolio manager of Asia listed equities at Macquarie Asset Management, discusses the wave of measures rolled out by Beijing over the weekend thats aimed at stabilizing the stock market.
The CA (Cornu Ammonis) fields, too, contain 3 distinct strata and house excitatory neurons known as pyramidal cells. The alveus is the most superficial layer and contains the commissural fibers of pyramidal cells via the fimbria, a major source of output from the hippocampus. Stratum oriens layer contains basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and a large body of basket cells (inhibitory interneurons). This strata includes fibers from the septal and commissural areas that are received from the contralateral hippocampus. This region also contains the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The next layer is the stratum pyramidale, named so because it contains the soma, or cell body, of the pyramidal cell. This layer in CA3 contains the mossy fiber connections and also houses interneurons. The stratum moleculare is divided into sublayers. The stratum lucidum is the thinnest layer and, in CA3, this area receives input from the dentate gyrus mossy fibers. Stratum radiatum contains apical dendrites ...
This directive provides the phytosanitary requirements for plants for planting originating from areas of the continental United States where the European brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum [Müller], syn. Helix aspersa [Müller]) is known to occur, in order to prevent the introduction and spread of this pest within Canada.
The hippocampal area CA1 of a wild type mouse, immunolabeled for mGluR5 (red), alpha synuclein (green) and counterstained with DAPI (blue) to reveal c...

Resveratrol attenuates cortical neuron activity: roles of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and voltage...Resveratrol attenuates cortical neuron activity: roles of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and voltage...

These findings suggested that its binding site should not be located in the pore region of the BKCa channels. In addition, ... Resveratrol inhibits neuronal discharges in rat hippocampal CA1 area. Acta Physiologica Sinica. 2005;57(3):355-60.PubMedGoogle ... Diosgenin, a plant-derived sapogenin, stimulates Ca2 + −activated K+ current in human cortical HCN-1A neuronal cells. Planta ... This compound can inhibit neuronal discharges in rat hippocampal CA1 area [25] and suppress epileptiform discharges mediated by ...
more infohttps://jbiomedsci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12929-016-0259-y

Frontiers | Juvenile Hippocampal CA2 Region Expresses Aggrecan | Frontiers in NeuroanatomyFrontiers | Juvenile Hippocampal CA2 Region Expresses Aggrecan | Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

... existed in the pyramidal cell layer of the putative CA2 subarea prior to the appearance of the CA2 region, which was defined by ... existed in the pyramidal cell layer of the putative CA2 subarea prior to the appearance of the CA2 region, which was defined by ... However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated. This study found ... However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated. This study found ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2017.00041/full

Parvalbumin interneuron in the ventral hippocampus functions as a discriminator in social memory | PNASParvalbumin interneuron in the ventral hippocampus functions as a discriminator in social memory | PNAS

The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 508, 88-92 (2014).. ... Lesions to the CA2 region of the hippocampus impair social memory in mice. Eur. J. Neurosci. 40, 3294-3301 (2014).. ... Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory. Mol. Psychiatry 21, 1137-1144 (2016).. ... Hippocampal replay in the awake state: A potential substrate for memory consolidation and retrieval. Nat. Neurosci. 14, 147-153 ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/116/33/16583

NIMH » The Neural Mechanisms of Integrated Social and Emotional RepresentationNIMH » The Neural Mechanisms of Integrated Social and Emotional Representation

2014 Apr 3; 508(7494):88-92; The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. ... 10-14 and to extend beyond a region-based, modular, static and sequential view of social and emotional information processing. ...
more infohttps://www.nimh.nih.gov/funding/grant-writing-and-application-process/concept-clearances/2015/the-neural-mechanisms-of-integrated-social-and-emotional-representation.shtml

Cell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits.  - PubMed - NCBICell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits. - PubMed - NCBI

Circuits linked to another hippocampal region, CA2, have only recently come to light. Using highly cell type-specific ... Cell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits.. Kohara K1, Pignatelli M2, Rivest AJ2, Jung ... Mapping inputs to hippocampal CA2 neurons using the rabies virus-based monosynaptic tracing reveals MECII and LECII as the ... i-k, Images showing extent and direction of MFs (green) within the RGS14-positive (red) CA2 region for dorsal (i), intermediate ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336151

Morphological changes in subregions of hippocampus and amygdala in major depressive disorder patients | Springer for Research &...Morphological changes in subregions of hippocampus and amygdala in major depressive disorder patients | Springer for Research &...

Hitti, F. L., & Siegelbaum, S. A. (2014). The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature, 508, 88-92. ... 2004). Mapping hippocampal and ventricular change in Alzheimer disease. Neuroimage, 22, 1754-1766.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... 2010). Subregional hippocampal deformations in major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 126, 272-277.CrossRef ... 2005). Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression. British Journal of ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11682-018-0003-1

Antal Berényi - ODT Personal data sheetAntal Berényi - ODT Personal data sheet

Oliva A, Fernandez-Ruiz A, Buzsaki G, Berenyi A: Role of Hippocampal CA2 Region in Triggering Sharp-Wave Ripples., NEURON 91: ( ... Investigation of neorcortical and hippocampal oscillatory processes using high resolution in-vivo electrophysiological methods. ... Theta Phase Segregation of Input-Specific Gamma Patterns in Entorhinal-Hippocampal Networks., NEURON 84: pp. 470-485.. type of ...
more infohttps://doktori.hu/index.php?menuid=192&lang=EN&sz_ID=10356

Researchers Pinpoint Brain Region Essential for Social MemoryResearchers Pinpoint Brain Region Essential for Social Memory

The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature, Published Online February 23 2014. doi: 10.1038/nature13028 ... A few studies have suggested that CA2 might be involved in social memory, as this region has a high level of expression of a ... "However, the role of CA2, a relatively small region of the hippocampus sandwiched between CA3 and CA1, has remained largely ... In our experiment, however, mice with an inactivated CA2 region showed no preference for a novel mouse versus a previously ...
more infohttps://www.technologynetworks.com/proteomics/news/researchers-pinpoint-brain-region-essential-social-memory-282007

AM 251 ≥99% (HPLC) | 1117 | Tocris BioscienceAM 251 ≥99% (HPLC) | 1117 | Tocris Bioscience

Leroy et al (2017) Input-Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA2 Region and Its Potential Role in Social Memory. ... Nasrallah et al (2019) Routing Hippocampal Information Flow through Parvalbumin Interneuron Plasticity in Area CA2. Cell Rep 27 ... Gibson et al (2008) TRPV1 channels mediate long-term depression at synapses on hippocampal interneurons. Neuron 57 746 PMID: ... Xu et al (2014) Hippocampal metaplasticity is required for the formation of temporal associative memories. J Neurosci 34 16762 ...
more infohttps://www.tocris.com/products/am-251_1117

Frontiers | Why Neurons Have Thousands of Synapses, a Theory of Sequence Memory in Neocortex | Frontiers in Neural CircuitsFrontiers | Why Neurons Have Thousands of Synapses, a Theory of Sequence Memory in Neocortex | Frontiers in Neural Circuits

Pyramidal cells in hippocampal region CA2 have several times the number of synapses as pyramidal cells in neocortex (Megías et ... If most of these synapses were silent it would be evidence to suggest that region CA2 is also implementing a variant of our ... For example cells in region V1 receive feedforward input from only a small part of the retina and receive lateral input only ... The basal zone receives contextual input, mostly from nearby cells in the same cortical region (Yoshimura et al., 2000; ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncir.2016.00023/full

鍋島 俊隆 - 研究成果
     - 藤田医科大学鍋島 俊隆 - 研究成果 - 藤田医科大学

Hippocampal CA2 Region * cresyl violet 50 引用 (Scopus) Activation of both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors necessary for ...
more infohttps://pure.fujita-hu.ac.jp/ja/persons/toshitaka-nabeshima/publications/?ordering=type&descending=false

GRIK4/KA1 protein expression in human brain and correlation with bipolar disorder risk variant status<...GRIK4/KA1 protein expression in human brain and correlation with bipolar disorder risk variant status<...

In the hippocampus, strong KA1 expression was observed in the stratum pyramidale and stratum lucidum of CA3 and CA2, in cell ... Mean counts of KA1 positive DG granule cells, hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells, and layer 1 of the frontal cortex were ... in the neuropil of the CA4 region, in polymorphic cells including mossy fiber neurons in the hilus, and dentate gyrus(DG) ... In the hippocampus, strong KA1 expression was observed in the stratum pyramidale and stratum lucidum of CA3 and CA2, in cell ...
more infohttps://pureportal.strath.ac.uk/en/publications/grik4ka1-protein-expression-in-human-brain-and-correlation-with-b

Plus itPlus it

1994) Spontaneous interictal-like activity originates in multiple areas of the CA2-CA3 region of hippocampal slices. J ... 1997) CA3-driven hippocampal-entorhinal loop controls rather than sustains in vitro limbic seizures. J Neurosci 17:9308-14. ... 1991) Picrotoxin- and 4-aminopyridine-induced activity in hilar neurons in the guinea pig hippocampal slice. J Neurophysiol 65: ... 1993) Analysis of the propagation of disinhibition-induced after-discharges along the guinea-pig hippocampal slice in vitro. J ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/8/2865

Y Ikegayas papersY Ikegaya's papers

Juvenile hippocampal CA2 region expresses aggrecan.. Front. Neuroanat., 11:41, 2017. ,Abstract, Citation, PDF,. ... Aberrant synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA3 region and cognitive deterioration in the protein-repair enzyme deficient ... Caffeine increases hippocampal sharp waves in vitro.. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 40:1111-1115, 2017. ,Abstract, Citation, PDF,. ... Activin selectively abolishes hippocampal long-term potentiation induced by weak tetanic stimulation in vivo.. Jpn. J. ...
more infohttp://gaya.jp/publication/allpaper_in.htm

Supplementary Figure 4: Chronic insulin exposure or direct knockdown of HK2 induces neuronal senescence, cognitive and memory...Supplementary Figure 4: Chronic insulin exposure or direct knockdown of HK2 induces neuronal senescence, cognitive and memory...

... harvested from mice stereotaxically injected AAV9 carrying EGFP scrambled or HK2 shRNA shuttles into hippocampal CA2 region. ... p21 and MAP2 in the same hippocampal brain sections. Region with extensive neurite loss is highlighted in white boxes. Age and ... MAP2 and SA-β-gal in frontal cortex and hippocampal regions of young insulin resistant mice. Region with extensive neurite loss ... Quantification of SA-β-gal- and GFP-double positive hippocampal neurons Fig. 5e (Scrambled vs HK2 shRNA: n=11 vs n=10, ***P= ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0505-1/figures/12?error=cookies_not_supported&code=8fc58c30-5fdd-44b0-8499-12987014a2a9

Substance P induces plasticity and synaptic tagging/capture in rat hippocampal area CA2 | PNASSubstance P induces plasticity and synaptic tagging/capture in rat hippocampal area CA2 | PNAS

The hippocampal area Cornu Ammonis (CA) CA2 is a small region interposed between CA1 and CA3. For a long time, there has been a ... 2014) The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 508:88-92. ... The CA2 area is a small region interposed between CA1 and CA3. Although its function remained unknown for many years, CA2 has ... Only SC-CA2 synapses, but not the EC-CA2 synapses, showed potentiation when the EC-CA2 test stimulation was suspended at the ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/114/41/E8741

Genotypic differences in intruder-evoked immediate early gene activation in male, but not female, vasopressin 1b receptor...Genotypic differences in intruder-evoked immediate early gene activation in male, but not female, vasopressin 1b receptor...

... to identify specific brain areas that may be a part of a neural circuit that includes Avpr1b-expressing cells in the CA2 region ... Avp signaling through Avpr1b within the CA2 region of the hippocampus is critical for normal aggressive behaviors and social ... The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature. 2014;508(7494):88-92. ... Since the CA2 region projects to several brain areas known to be important in the SBNN, one possibility is that the CA2 ...
more infohttps://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12868-016-0310-7

Microglial phenotypes and toll-like receptor 2 in the substantia nigra and hippocampus of incidental Lewy body disease cases...Microglial phenotypes and toll-like receptor 2 in the substantia nigra and hippocampus of incidental Lewy body disease cases...

Moreover, TLR2 was differentially expressed between the SN and HC, consistent with a region-specific pattern of microglial ... in the SN or in another brain region, like the hippocampus (HC), which is implicated in dementia and depression, important non- ... TLR2 immunopositive cells in the hippocampal CA2 region of control subjects, iLBD cases and PD patients. (a) A control subject ... with the highest numbers present in the CA2 region (Figure 5c; PD: CA1 vs CA2/CA3/CA4 p , 0.01, CA4 vs CA2/CA3 p , 0.01, CA3 vs ...
more infohttps://actaneurocomms.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40478-014-0090-1

Columbia Doctoral Program in Neurobiology and BehaviorColumbia Doctoral Program in Neurobiology and Behavior

2014). The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature. 508:88-92. ... We are now examining the CA2 neural circuitry in more detail to determine how this region participates in memory encoding. As ... 2010). Strong CA2 pyramidal neuron synapses define a powerful disynaptic cortico-hippocampal loop. Neuron 66:560-572. ... 2014). Dendritic Na(+) spikes enable cortical input to drive action potential output from hippocampal CA2 pyramidal neurons. ...
more infohttp://neurosciencephd.columbia.edu/profile/sasiegelbaum?profile=researcher

Hippocampal CA2 Circuit Controls Social Memory And Triggers AggressionHippocampal CA2 Circuit Controls Social Memory And Triggers Aggression

Top Image: neurons in the CA2 hippocampal region of a mouse. Credit: Felix Leroy and David H. Brann/Siegelbaum lab/Columbias ... Hippocampal CA2 Circuit Controls Social Memory And Triggers Aggression. by Milla Bengtsson December 6, 2018. ... They found that CA2 sends a strong connection to the lateral septum, a brain region that had been known for some time to play ... But in 2014, the Siegelbaum lab developed a genetic approach for turning CA2 on or off and discovered that this region is ...
more infohttps://www.reliawire.com/hippocampal-ca2-aggression/

Plus itPlus it

Hitti FL, Siegelbaum SA (2014) The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 508:88-92. doi:10.1038/ ... Mankin EA, Diehl GW, Sparks FT, Leutgeb S, Leutgeb JK (2015) Hippocampal CA2 activity patterns change over time to a larger ... Zao M, Choi YS, Obrietan K, Dudek SM (2007) Synaptic plasticity (and the lack thereof) in hippocampal CA2 neurons. J Neurosci ... Botcher N, Falck JE, Thomson AM, Mercer A (2014) Distribution of interneurons in the CA2 region of the rat hippocampus. Front ...
more infohttp://www.eneuro.org/content/4/3/ENEURO.0379-16.2017

Differential Expression and Cell-Type Specificity of Perineuronal Nets in Hippocampus, Medial Entorhinal Cortex, and Visual...Differential Expression and Cell-Type Specificity of Perineuronal Nets in Hippocampus, Medial Entorhinal Cortex, and Visual...

Hitti FL, Siegelbaum SA (2014) The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 508:88-92. doi:10.1038/ ... Mankin EA, Diehl GW, Sparks FT, Leutgeb S, Leutgeb JK (2015) Hippocampal CA2 activity patterns change over time to a larger ... Zao M, Choi YS, Obrietan K, Dudek SM (2007) Synaptic plasticity (and the lack thereof) in hippocampal CA2 neurons. J Neurosci ... Botcher N, Falck JE, Thomson AM, Mercer A (2014) Distribution of interneurons in the CA2 region of the rat hippocampus. Front ...
more infohttp://www.eneuro.org/content/4/3/ENEURO.0379-16.2017.full.print

Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation | Journal of...Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation | Journal of...

Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. Six hours after LPS ... We found that Cat C IHC staining was predominantly expressed in the pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA2 region (Figure 2C ... ISH and IHC staining revealed the expression of Cat C mRNA and protein was restricted to the hippocampal CA2 region, choroid ... At six hours after LPS injection, in addition to the previously reported Cat C positive cells in the CA2 region of the ...
more infohttps://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-2094-9-96

Journal of Alzheimers Disease - Volume 18, issue 3 - Journals - IOS PressJournal of Alzheimer's Disease - Volume 18, issue 3 - Journals - IOS Press

Moreover, the neurofibrillary stage, substantia nigra neuron loss, and grade of Lewy neurites in hippocampal CA2-3 region, each ... hippocampal diffuse plaques, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles, white matter pallor, Lewy bodies, and hippocampal atrophy. ... About half of the hippocampal sclerosis cases appeared to be linked to Alzheimer lesions. A weak association of hippocampal ... A greater burden of these pathologies, Lewy bodies, and hippocampal atrophy, are associated with a higher risk of, but do not ...
more infohttps://content.iospress.com/journals/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/18/3?rows=50

ache Antibody (tor23) - DSHBache Antibody (tor23) - DSHB

Depositors Notes: This antibody stains spinal cord, cerebral cortex and pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA2 region. The ...
more infohttp://dshb.biology.uiowa.edu/tor23
  • In our experiment, however, mice with an inactivated CA2 region showed no preference for a novel mouse versus a previously encountered mouse, indicating a lack of social memory. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In two separate novel-object recognition tests, the CA2-deficient mice showed a normal preference for an object they had not previously encountered, showing that the mice did not have a global lack of interest in novelty. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Maternal immune activation in pregnant mice produces offspring with altered hippocampal ripples. (gaya.jp)
  • D) Representative immunostaining images for p16INK4A, MAP2 and SA-β-gal in frontal cortex and hippocampal regions of young insulin resistant mice. (nature.com)
  • F-G) Representative images of (F) EGFP fluorescence signals and SA-β-gal histochemistry signals in sections harvested from mice stereotaxically injected AAV9 carrying EGFP scrambled or HK2 shRNA shuttles into hippocampal CA2 region. (nature.com)
  • Today's study in mice shows us that diminutive CA2, which is made up of just a few thousand cells, acts as a nexus of social behaviors, allowing memory to influence the decision to engage in social aggression. (reliawire.com)
  • In 2016 , Dr. Siegelbaum and fellow Zuckerman Institute Principal Investigator Joseph Gogos, MD, Ph.D., found that mice carrying a human mutation linked to schizophrenia have a dysfunctional CA2. (reliawire.com)
  • The fornix plays a key role in hippocampal outputs, specifically in connecting CA3 to a variety of subcortical structures, and connecting CA1 and the subiculum to a variety of parahippocampal regions, via the fimbria. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few studies have suggested that CA2 might be involved in social memory, as this region has a high level of expression of a receptor for vasopressin, a hormone linked to sexual motivation, bonding, and other social behaviors. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We found that the ability of CA2 cells to efficiently activate the lateral septum is greatly enhanced when vasopressin is released in the lateral septum," said Dr. Siegelbaum. (reliawire.com)
  • Previous research had revealed a link between vasopressin and aggression, and CA2 appears to lie at the center of this effect. (reliawire.com)
  • We have developed a mouse like that enables us to selectively inactivate CA2, which we find produces a very specific deficit in the encoding of social memory, the ability of an animal to recognize and remember a conspecific. (columbia.edu)
  • As such, microglia are thought to contribute to local inflammatory responses, not in a uniform, but rather in a brain region-specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A brain region that helps tell an animal when to attack an intruder and when to accept it into its home has been identified by researchers at Columbia University. (reliawire.com)
  • Surprisingly, today's findings reveal that a single brain region can control both higher-order cognition, like social memory, and an innate, instinctual behavior like social aggression. (reliawire.com)
  • As a first step to determine whether CA2 may regulate other social behaviors, the researchers examined the brain regions that receive information from CA2. (reliawire.com)
  • They found that CA2 sends a strong connection to the lateral septum , a brain region that had been known for some time to play an important role in limiting aggression. (reliawire.com)
  • But why would a brain region that controls memory also be used to regulate aggression? (reliawire.com)
  • First, the principal cells in the brain region must be capable of generating all-or-none responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Integration of goal-directed signals onto spatial maps of hippocampal place cells. (gaya.jp)
  • Cell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the genetic "silencing" of CA2 pyramidal cells using a Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus in a transgenic mouse line (Amigo2-Cre) also disrupts social recognition memory [ 27 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But in 2014 , the Siegelbaum lab developed a genetic approach for turning CA2 on or off and discovered that this region is essential for social memory. (reliawire.com)
  • Therefore, we scrutinized the immunohistochemical signal for aggrecan along the anterior-posterior axis and found that aggrecan was more abundant in the anterior CA2 region than the posterior CA2 region. (frontiersin.org)
  • While CR attenuates age-related cognitive deficits in tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, the cellular mechanisms by which CR improves this cognitive decline are poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Circulating estrogen levels and hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions decline with aging. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also found that aggrecan immunoreactivity was more evident in the anterior sections of the CA2 area than the posterior sections, which suggests that the function of CA2 PNNs varies along the anterior-posterior axis. (frontiersin.org)
  • No previous study investigated the detailed distribution of PNNs, especially in the CA2 area. (frontiersin.org)
  • The formation and recall of episodic memory requires precise information processing by the entorhinal-hippocampal network. (nih.gov)
  • These findings not only highlight the importance of hippocampal interneurons in social memory, but also contribute to establish the relationship between PVIs' deficits and impaired social memory in some psychiatric illnesses. (pnas.org)
  • The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. (nih.gov)
  • The CA1 region is critical for all forms of memory. (technologynetworks.com)
  • For a long time, there has been a lack of information on the CA2 area's role in memory formation. (pnas.org)
  • We are now examining the CA2 neural circuitry in more detail to determine how this region participates in memory encoding. (columbia.edu)
  • CA2 was already known to specialize in social memory , the ability to remember encounters with others. (reliawire.com)
  • This difference strongly suggested that CA2 normally acts to drive aggressive behavior , in addition to regulating social memory. (reliawire.com)
  • It appears that, at the beginning of a social interaction-such as when the resident mouse meets an intruder - the animal's CA2 forms a social memory, a sort of social ID tag, of the other mouse. (reliawire.com)
  • Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This initiative will encourage investigators to test the neurophysiological relevance of long-standing psychological models, 10-14 and to extend beyond a region-based, modular, static and sequential view of social and emotional information processing. (nih.gov)
  • CA2 innervated CA1 to complete an alternate trisynaptic circuit, but, unlike CA3, projected preferentially to the deep, rather than to the superficial, sublayer of CA1. (nih.gov)
  • When CA2 was switched off, there was a marked decrease in the tendency of the residents to attack, compared to what would normally occur. (reliawire.com)
  • To find out, the researchers temporarily turned off CA2 in a mouse living alone in its home cage. (reliawire.com)
  • Moreover, TLR2 was differentially expressed between the SN and HC, consistent with a region-specific pattern of microglial activation. (biomedcentral.com)