One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.

The tetanus patterns for the induction of long-term depression in the adult rat hippocampus. (1/688)

Previous reports suggested that a low-frequency stimulus (LFS) of 1~2 Hz (600~900 pulses) induced a homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the hippocampal CA1 area of young rats (< 4-week old). However, these stimulation protocols often failed to induce LTD in the adult CA1 hippocampus. In the present study, we examined the effects of two novel tetanus patterns on LTD induction in adult rat hippocampal slices. We determined that these novel stimulation protocols induced LTD in the adult hippocampus, and that the characteristics of induced LTD were parameter-specific, including latency (period from the end of tetanus to a beginning of LTD) and the amplitude of LTD. These results suggest that LFS with certain patterns can induce LTD in the CA1 area of adult rat hippocampal slices, and that the multi-trains of 2-Hz protocol provided more effective response than the 5-Hz protocol.  (+info)

Requirement of TORC1 for late-phase long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. (2/688)

Late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and long-term memory depend on the transcription of mRNA of CRE-driven genes and synthesis of proteins. However, how synaptic signals propagate to the nucleus is unclear. Here we report that the CREB coactivator TORC1 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 1) undergoes neuronal activity-induced translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, a process required for CRE-dependent gene expression and L-LTP. Overexpressing a dominant-negative form of TORC1 or down-regulating TORC1 expression prevented activity-dependent transcription of CREB target genes in cultured hippocampal neurons, while overexpressing a wild-type form of TORC1 facilitated basal and activity-induced transcription of CREB target genes. Furthermore, overexpressing the dominant-negative form of TORC1 suppressed the maintenance of L-LTP without affecting early-phase LTP, while overexpressing the wild-type form of TORC1 facilitated the induction of L-LTP in hippocampal slices. Our results indicate that TORC1 is essential for CRE-driven gene expression and maintenance of long-term synaptic potentiation.  (+info)

NMDA and dopamine converge on the NMDA-receptor to induce ERK activation and synaptic depression in mature hippocampus. (3/688)

The formation of enduring internal representation of sensory information demands, in many cases, convergence in time and space of two different stimuli. The first conveys the sensory input, mediated via fast neurotransmission. The second conveys the meaning of the input, hypothesized to be mediated via slow neurotransmission. We tested the biochemical conditions and feasibility for fast (NMDA) and slow (dopamine) neurotransmission to converge on the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase signaling pathways, crucial in several forms of synaptic plasticity, and recorded its effects upon synaptic transmission. We detected differing kinetics of ERK2 activation and synaptic strength changes in the CA1 for low and high doses of neurotransmitters in hippocampal slices. Moreover, when weak fast and slow inputs are given together, they converge on ERK2, but not on p38 or JNK, and induce strong short-term synaptic depression. Surprisingly, pharmacological analysis revealed that a probable site of such convergence is the NMDA receptor itself, suggesting it serves as a detector and integrator of fast and slow neurotransmission in the mature mammalian brain, as revealed by ERK2 activation and synaptic function.  (+info)

Hippocampal 'zipper' slice studies reveal a necessary role for calcineurin in the increased activity of L-type Ca(2+) channels with aging. (4/688)

 (+info)

Synaptic strength and postsynaptically silent synapses through advanced aging in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (5/688)

 (+info)

Subregional hippocampal atrophy predicts Alzheimer's dementia in the cognitively normal. (6/688)

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Induction- and conditioning-protocol dependent involvement of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in synaptic potentiation and contextual fear memory in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. (7/688)

 (+info)

A role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in adenosine A(1) receptor-mediated synaptic depotentiation in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus. (8/688)

 (+info)

Buy your Pulsafeeder K3VHC1 Pulsafeeder KOPkit for PULSAtron pumps size 3 with VHC1 wet end code from Nova-Tech International today.
Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB) areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC...
Introdução: Estima-se que a infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC) acometa 3% da população global constituindo a maior causa de cirrose hepática e hepatocarcinoma. Nos pacientes infectados pelo genótipo 1 do VHC, a terapia em vida real com interferon peguilado (PEG-IFN) e ribavirina (RBV) resulta em 30% a 50% de resposta virológica sustentada (RVS). Este desfecho é determinado por fatores de associados ao VHC (carga viral, genótipo, quasispécies), características do hospedeiro (etnia, gênero, fatores genéticos, comorbidades, adesão) e fatores ligados aos medicamentos. Estudos de associação genética ampla (GWAS) têm demonstrado que a presença dos polimorfismos (SNP) no gene da interleucina 28B (IL-28B) associam-se a resposta à terapia baseada em interferon. Os SNPs rs12979860, rs8099917 e rs12980275 têm sido amplamente estudados e pacientes com o perfil favorável têm maiores chances de alcançar a RVS ou a eliminação espontânea do VHC. Objetivos: Avaliar a ...
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Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Position: PhD Student. Research focus: Understanding the functional diversity of hippocampal CA3 CCK+ interneurons. email: [email protected] CV. ...
The ON Semiconductor MC74VHC1G50 / MC74VHC1GT50 is an advanced high speed CMOS buffer in tiny footprint packages. The MC74VHC1G50 has CMOS level input thresholds while the MC74VHC1GT50 has TTL level input thresholds.
Lhépatite C pose un problème de santé publique majeur, dans la mesure où le risque de développer une infection chronique est relativement élevé (40 à 60%) et où la résistance au traitement de choix - linterféron alpha pégylé et la ribavirine - touche près de la moitié des patients. Cette persistence virale repose avant tout sur de puissantes stratégies dévasion du système immunitaire inné de lhôte par le virus. Dans ce projet, nous nous sommes intéressés à la caractérisation de la réponse antivirale dans des hépatocytes primaires humains normaux et chroniquement infectés avec le VHC, un domaine encore largement inconnu dû à la difficulté dobtenir ce type de matériel primaire. Nous avons étudié la fonctionnalité de deux voies majeures de détection des pathogènes viraux suite à lexposition dhépatocytes primaires humains à de lARNdb intracellulaire, via le récepteur et adaptateur RIG-I/MDA5-CARDIF, et extracellulaire via TLR3-TRIF, mimant ainsi les ...
2010-03-01 Resumo em português CONTEXTO: Doentes com doença renal crônica em tratamento hemodialítico apresentam risco aumentado de aquisição do vírus da hepatite C (VHC). Elevadas taxas de prevalência têm sido detectadas em unidades de diálise do mundo inteiro. Estudos recentes têm demonstrado que a infecção pelo VHC interfere de forma negativa na sobrevida dos pacientes em hemodiálise e naqueles submetidos ao transplante renal. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores de risco d (mais) a infecção pelo VHC em pacientes submetidos a hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal entre janeiro e dezembro de 2007. Neste período, 236 pacientes em hemodiálise foram testados pelo ELISA de terceira geração. Os casos positivos foram submetidos a pesquisa qualitativa do HCV-RNA pelo método de PCR. Consideraram-se como portadores de infecção pelo VHC aqueles pacientes com anti-VHC e HCV-RNA positivos. Dosagens mensais de ALT e a média do valor de 12 meses foram ...
Razširjenost (prevalenca) okužbe znaša v svetovnem merilu 2,6 %, v državah z visokim tveganjem (temnordeče obarvane na zemljevidu) pa 5,0 % ali več - v Mongoliji celo do 48 %.[9] Po ocenah je po vsem svetu kronično okuženih z VHC od 130-170 milijonov ljudi oziroma okoli 3 % svetovnega prebivalstva.[10] Okoli 3-4 milijoni se letno okužijo z boleznijo in več kot 35.000 jih letno umre zaradi bolezni, povezanih s hepatitisom C.[10] V ZDA sta 2 % prebivalstva okužena z virusom hepatitisa C,[11] vsako leto pa je 35.000-185.000 novih primerov. V razvitih državah pojavnost od leta 1990 upada zaradi izboljšav pri testiranju krvi, namenjene za transfuzijo.[12] V ZDA umre zaradi okužbe s VHC letno od 8.000 do 10.000 ljudi; pričakovati je porast smrtnosti zaradi nastopa bolezni pri osebah, ki so dobile tranfuzijo krvi, preden se jo je začelo presejavati na VHC.[13] V Rusiji je z virusom okuženih vsaj 5 milijonov ljudi, kar predstavlja 4,4 % celotnega prebivalstva. Glede na podatke iz leta ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
The ICAM-1-positive vessels in the hippocampal CA1 in the control, 2VO, HL and HL + 2VO groups at 1, 2 and 4 months post-surgery. Scale bar: 20 µm.Values are e
Abstract:. El virus de hepatitis C (VHC) afecta al 3% de la población mundial, representando una de las principales causas de hepatitis crónica y trasplante hepático. En el paciente infectado, el virus existe como un espectro de mutantes que difieren en su potencial de replicación, denominado cuasiespecie. La extensa variabilidad del VHC proporciona a la cuasiespecie una alta plasticidad fenotípica y capacidad de adaptación, que favorece el mantenimiento de la infección crónica. Si bien el principal sitio de replicación del VHC es el hígado, numerosos estudios han descripto la replicación del virus en tejidos extrahepáticos, en particular en células mononucleares de sangre periférica (CMSP) y esto se ha asociado con el desarrollo de distintas manifestaciones extrahepáticas. Se ha relacionado a distintos genes del VHC con la compartimentación en CMSP, pero aún no está claro cuáles son los factores celulares y virales requeridos para la infección de las células linfoides, por ...
Evolución de la fibrosis hepática en reclusos coinfectados por VIH y VHC que inician tratamiento con inhibidores de la proteasa potenciados
Market Maker Surveillance Report. SCON, VELT, VHC, VRS, MDXG, DGAZ, Losing Stocks With Lowest Price Friction For Thursday, March 14th 2013
This project examines the neural circuitry of the CA2 region of the hippocampus and its role in hippocampal-dependent learning and behavior. Although the hippoc...
Hepatitida C, žloutenka C, virová hepatitida. Možnosti léčby hepatitidy, lékařská poradna, zkušenosti pacientů s hepatitidou.
1998 10 22.35003 02 17 47.55 +16 18 22.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 10 22.48311 02 17 46.87 +16 18 18.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 11 18.07069 02 15 27.92 +16 05 19.9 21.5R 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.14591 02 15 27.54 +16 05 17.6 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.23096 02 15 27.03 +16 05 15.2 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 12 14.83617 02 13 35.14 +15 53 37.6 22.7R 523955 950 Ca3601 1998 12 14.85345 02 13 35.07 +15 53 37.3 523955 950 Ca3601 1999 11 10.16227 02 22 34.50 +16 25 15.5 22.5R 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.18814 02 22 34.40 +16 25 14.7 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.24322 02 22 34.07 +16 25 12.9 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.31381 02 22 33.61 +16 25 10.7 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.37010 02 22 33.30 +16 25 09.0 22.7R 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.41551 02 22 33.04 +16 25 07.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.24109 02 22 28.74 +16 24 43.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.28637 02 22 28.51 +16 24 42.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.33656 02 22 28.17 +16 24 41.3 523955 696 Ca7321 2000 11 23.18416 02 27 52.14 +16 34 03.5 ...
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در مخازن شکاف‌دار، میزان برداشت نفت به آشام خودبخودی آب در ماتریس و خارج ساختن نفت موجود در آن به سمت شکاف‌ها، بستگی دارد. اما این فرآیند زمانی امکان‌پذیر است که ماتریس بلوک‌ها، «آب‌تر» باشد. از آنجا که مخازن کربناته غالبا «نفت‌تر» می‌باشند، به کارگیری آشام خودبخودی در مخازن کربناته شکاف‌دار مستلزم تغییر ترشوندگی در حین عملیات سیلاب‌زنی می‌باشد. در این مقاله، تأثیر یون‌های مؤثر بر پتانسیل سطح (SO42- ،Ca2+ ،Mg2+) موجود در آب دریا در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته و همچنین تأثیر دما و غلظت نمک NaCl در فرآیند آشام خودبخودی مورد تحقیق تجربی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 13
MC74VHC240-D datasheet, MC74VHC240-D pdf, MC74VHC240-D data sheet, datasheet, data sheet, pdf, ON Semiconductor, Octal Bus Buffer/Line Driver Inverting with 3-State Outputs
Long term potentiation definition psychology (LTP) is a long lasting strengthening response of the postsynaptic nerve cell when the stimulation athwart the
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhen Li, Rong Zhou, Shengzhong Cui, Guiqin Xie, Weiyan Cai, Masahiro Sokabe, Ling Chen].
Braxton King Quilt 97 x 110 from VHC Brands (Victorian Heart). Americana inspired, hand-quilted, and very soft, Braxton Quilt features log cabin blocks in navy,
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If your symptoms do not improve with lifestyle changes or medications, you may need additional tests. The tests offered at the Heartburn Center at VHC include: Reflux Testing (24hr Ambulatory
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Introdução: Hepatite crônica recidivada (HCR) é a regra após o transplante hepático (TH) em pacientes infectados pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC), provocando progressão de fibrose mais acelerada no órgão...
1998 10 22.40628 03 08 48.43 +16 39 15.3 22.8R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 10 22.49369 03 08 47.93 +16 39 12.7 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.13535 03 06 18.37 +16 27 28.1 22.6R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.20454 03 06 18.00 +16 27 26.2 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 12 17.95527 03 03 45.48 +16 15 35.9 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.00257 03 03 45.30 +16 15 35.6 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.03799 03 03 45.12 +16 15 34.0 91205 950 Ca3601 1999 10 06.55934 03 17 46.28 +16 54 48.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.53349 03 17 33.50 +16 53 45.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.57011 03 17 33.32 +16 53 44.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.60427 03 17 33.15 +16 53 43.6 23.4R 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.63619 03 17 33.05 +16 53 42.9 23.3R 91205 568 Ca6740 2000 12 28.31163 03 18 17.672 +16 31 40.74 23.2R 91205 568 Cl4052 2000 12 28.38018 03 18 17.407 +16 31 39.64 23.0R 91205 568 Cl4052 2003 10 01.56099 03 48 19.49 +17 21 57.5 23.1R 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 10 01.59893 03 48 19.38 +17 21 56.8 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 12 21.158989 03 41 29.38 +16 54 ...
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The pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is often expressed early in infancy and toddlerhood. Mouse models of syndromic disorders have provided insight regarding mechanisms of action, but most studies have focused on characterization in juveniles and adults. Insight into developmental trajectories, particularly related to circuit and synaptic function, likely will yield important information regarding disorder pathogenesis that leads to symptom progression. Chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion is one of the most common copy number variations associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Yet, how haploinsufficiency of chr16p11.2 affects early synaptic maturation and function is unknown. To address this knowledge gap, the present study focused on three key components of circuit formation and function-basal synaptic transmission, local circuit function, and maturation of glutamatergic synapses -in developing hippocampal CA1 neurons in a chr16p11.2 microdeletion mouse model. The ...
The following list includes the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that we can perform in our offices at VHC Physician Group Urology:
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Pyramidal neuron located in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These neurons receive information from CA3 pyramidal neurons and send their axons out of the hippocampus.. Image used with permission of Synapse Web ...
Kanamaru Takashi , Horita Takehiko , Okabe Yasunori Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 67(12), 4058-4063, 1998 J-STAGE Cited by (2) ...
Funkcjonalne zróżnicowanie limfocytów pomocniczych T. Existența subseturi de T helper CD4 + limfocite care diferă în modelele lor de secreție de citokine și funcțiile efectoare oferă un cadru pentru înțelegerea eterogenitatea răspunsurilor imune normale și patologice. Definirea ularului celular și a mecanismelor moleculare ale diferențierii helper- celule T ar trebui să conducă la strategii raționale de manipulare a răspunsurilor imune pentru profilaxie și terapie. Czynnik wzrostu komórek T: […]. ...
1,0 1,1 Pawoł Völkel: Prawopisny słownik hornjoserbskeje rěče. Hornjoserbsko-němski słownik. Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina, Budyšin 2005, ISBN 3-7420-1920-1, str. 407. ...
《眼科学报》创刊于1985年,是由中华人民共和国教育部主管、中山大学主办、中山大学中山眼科中心承办的一本国家级医学期刊(季刊,刊号:ISSN:1000-4432; CN:44-1119/R)。由中山大学中山眼科中心前院长葛坚,中山大学中山眼科中心主任、院长刘奕志担任主编。 主要报道国内外眼科领域新进展,新动态,着重报道眼科学基础研究,临床经验,以及流行病等相关的理论知识与技术操作。 目前已被Chemical Abstract(CA)、中国期刊全文数据库(知网)、中国核心期刊(遴选)数据库(万方)、中文科技期刊数据库(维普)等国内外重要数据库收录。
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(a) Representative electron micrograph of hippocampal CA1 region shows temporal alteration in mitochondrial morphology and graphical representation showed chang
CA2656037A1 CA 2656037 CA2656037A CA2656037A1 CA 2656037 A1 CA2656037 A1 CA 2656037A1 CA 2656037 CA2656037 CA 2656037 CA 2656037 A CA2656037 A CA 2656037A CA 2656037 A1 CA2656037 A1 CA 2656037A1 Authority CA Canada Prior art keywords ink dye netpage c5 c1 Prior art date 2006-07-10 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal ...
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Ok I fuck up here. I decided to format my HD and start fresh so I took my parents HD and trasfered all my important files onto it. After I get this...
Layer II projects primarily to dentate gyrus and hippocampal region CA3; layer III projects primarily to hippocampal region CA1 ... Alterations in the neural activity across the brain region results in an observed "traveling wave" phenomena across the MEC ... An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. ... It is usually divided into medial and lateral regions with three bands with distinct properties and connectivity running ...
"Differential effects of PACAP-38 on synaptic responses in rat hippocampal CA1 region". Learning & Memory. 8 (5): 265-271. doi: ... "PACAP-38 enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal CA1 region". Learning & Memory. 7 (5): 303-311. doi: ... "The transient depression of hippocampal CA1 LTP induced by chronic intermittent ethanol exposure is associated with an ... a brain region critical in mediating the behavioral effects of alcohol consumption. In 2005, Roberto became an assistant ...
"Activation of postsynaptically silent synapses during pairing-induced LTP in CA1 region of hippocampal slice". Nature. 375 ( ... However, recent research on hippocampal silent synapses shows that while they may indeed be a developmental landmark in the ... 193-5. Kullmann DM (May 1994). "Amplitude fluctuations of dual-component EPSCs in hippocampal pyramidal cells: implications for ... mediated by AMPARs and NMDARs in hippocampal neurons. More direct evidence came from experiments where only a few axons were ...
CA1), terminate on the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region. Damage to any of these hippocampal pathways is sufficient to cause ... "Blockade of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal CA1 region by inhibitors of protein synthesis". J. Neurosci. 4 (12): 3080 ... Huerta P.T., Tonegawa S., Tsien J.Z. (1996). "The essential role of hippocampal CA1 NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity ... In summary, although the CA1 and DG regions are closely related physically and functionally, they react differently to insults ...
Hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because the ... They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... from CA4 through CA1 (only CA3 and CA1 are labeled). The CA regions are also structured depthwise in clearly defined strata (or ... Region CA1 receives input from the CA3 subfield, EC layer III and the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus (which project only to ...
"Etomidate Does Not Alter Recovery after Anoxia of Evoked Population from the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampal Slices". ... Amorim, P; Cottrell, JE; Kass, IS (1999). "Effect of Small Changes in Temperature on CA1 Pyramidal Cells from Rat Hippocampal ... and Morphology in Rat Hippocampal Slice CA-1 Pyramidal Cells". Stroke. 30 (11): 2400-2407. doi:10.1161/01.str.30.11.2400. PMID ... "The Effect of Fentanyl on Electrophysiologic Recovery of CA1 Pyramidal Cells from Anoxia in the Rat Hippocampal Slice". ...
Kemp A, Manahan-Vaughan D (April 2008). "The hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus differentiate between environmental and ... exhibits frequency-dependent properties in synaptic plasticity and behavioural metaplasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region in ... Her findings with regard to the role of hippocampal long-term depression in memory processing have contributed to a revised ... Lemon N, Manahan-Vaughan D (September 2012). "Dopamine D1/D5 receptors contribute to de novo hippocampal LTD mediated by novel ...
... blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro". Brain Research. 452 (1-2): 57-65. doi:10.1016/0006 ... An analysis of CA1 hippocampal synapses revealed that inhibitory avoidance training induced in vivo AMPA receptor ... Tonegawa found that by impairing the NMDA receptor, specifically by genetically removing the NR1 subunit in the CA1 region, the ... McHugh TJ, Blum KI, Tsien JZ, Tonegawa S, Wilson MA (December 1996). "Impaired hippocampal representation of space in CA1- ...
Hippocampal CA1 neurons have been shown to produce reliable dendritic spike propagation through spatial summation of multiple ... In the hippocampus, the CA1 neurons contain two distinctive regions that receive excitatory synaptic inputs: the perforant path ... Nav1.6 has been identified in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons that generate dendritic spikes; the density of Nav1.6 in ... Dendritic sodium spikes are variable triggers of axonal action potentials in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuron 21:1189- ...
They induced LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices by 2 100 Hz 1s trains, 20 s apart. Then they homogenized the slices, ... CA1 homogenates were probed with an antibody specific for Thr286 - phosphorylated CaMKII and an antibody detecting total CaMKII ... There is fast-acting, local translation of proteins in the dendritic region near the spines when an inducing high-frequency ... discovered that the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation. When they ...
The CA1 is the region within the hippocampus between the subiculum, the innermost area of the hippocampal formation, and region ... The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal sulcus. Cells within the CA1 are mostly pyramidal cells, similar ... and pyramidal neurons in CA1. The hippocampal relay involves 3 main regions within the hippocampus which are classified ... Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ...
Glucocorticoids that are released during stress, damage neurons that are located in the hippocampal region of the brain. ... The CA1 neurons found in the hippocampus are destroyed due to glucocorticoids decreasing the release of glucose and the ... such as calcium within hippocampal neurons) in the cell. In the case of hippocampal cells, this release is dependent upon the ... Hippocampal damage may also cause memory loss and problems with memory storage. This memory loss includes retrograde amnesia ...
CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex ... The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via ... Diagram of hippocampal regions in a rat brain. Jerome Engel TAP, ed. Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook in Three Volumes. ... CA4 is often called the hilus or hilar region if considered as a part of the dentate gyrus. Unlike the pyramidal neurons in CA1 ...
They are both produced as the response of the CA1 region to inputs from the CA3 region. Ripples are only present when theta ... The most famous human patient with hippocampal lesion is H.M., whose hippocampus has been removed from both sides of his brain ... Besides they are shown to be region dependent, ripples that are the fastest oscillations are present in the CA1 region ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1 dendritic layer region are important in generating these waves, and they affect the subiculum, ...
Image 7: Examples of rat hippocampal EEG and CA1 neural activity in the theta (awake/behaving) and LIA (slow-wave sleep) modes ... Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Each plot shows 20 seconds of data, with a hippocampal EEG trace at the top, spike rasters from 40 simultaneously recorded CA1 ... Theories of hippocampal functions[edit]. Over the years, three main ideas of hippocampal function have dominated the literature ...
... s are the axons of the neurons in the CA3 regions of the hippocampus that form synapses in the CA1 regions. ... Christie, J. M.; Jahr, CE (4 January 2006). "Multivesicular release at Schaffer collateral-CA1 hippocampal synapses". Journal ... The Schaffer collateral is located between the CA3 region and CA1 region in the hippocampus. Schaffer collaterals are the axons ... The contralateral CA3 region sends information through Schaffer collateral to the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Plastic changes ...
... for the expression but not for the induction or the maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region". The ... In mouse hippocampal CA1 neurons, certain PI3Ks are complexed with AMPA receptors and compartmentalized at the postsynaptic ... Furthermore, PI3K inhibitors abolished the expression of LTP in rat hippocampal CA1, but do not affect its induction. Notably, ... of LTP in mouse hippocampal CA1. The PI3K pathway also recruits many other proteins downstream, including mTOR, GSK3β, and PSD- ...
The enzyme was also expressed at high levels in the activated microglia of the hippocampal CA1 region and in degenerating ... to human chromosome region 1q31 by in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics ... to human chromosome region 1q31 by in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics ... and all 3 have almost identical active site regions. The differences between them lie in the microenvironments that surround ...
When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... "Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells ... DSIs can be blocked by ionotropic receptor calcium ion channel antagonists on the somata and proximal apical dendrites of CA1 ... in CA1 pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells. In a laboratory setting step depolarizations the soma have been used to ...
TSA treatments in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice increased acetylation levels and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP), a ... Studies done on Acetylation of histone H3 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus show that the activation of NMDA receptors ... Long term potentiation in CA1 neurons was not observed in HDAC2 OE mice but was easily induced in HDAC2 KO mice. LTP was not ... increased the acetylation of H3 and conversely inhibition of the ERK pathway in the CA1 region resulted in a decrease in ...
Jeffreys, JGR; HL Hass (1982-12-02). "Synchronized bursting of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells in the absence of synaptic ... Smith, JC; HH Ellenberger; K Ballanyi; DW Richter; JL Feldman (November 1991). "Pre-Botzinger complex: a brainstem region that ... The subiculum, a component of the hippocampal formation, is thought to perform relaying of signals originating in the ... "An autoradiographic study of the organization of the efferent connections of the hippocampal formation in the rat". Journal of ...
Hyman, JM; Wyble BP; Goyal V; Rossi CA; Hasselmo ME (December 17, 2003). "Stimulation in hippocampal region CA1 in behaving ... from electrophysiological studies showing that both synaptic plasticity and strength of inputs to hippocampal region CA1 vary ... Later, hippocampal oscillations of the same type were observed in rats; however, the frequency of rat hippocampal EEG ... Kirk IJ (1998). "Frequency modulation of hippocampal theta by the supramammillary nucleus, and other hypothalamo-hippocampal ...
While this was a temporary case of amnesia, it still shows the importance of the CA1 region of the hippocampus in memory. ... This virus affected the hippocampal regions of the brain. Because of this damage, Wearing was unable to remember information ... One reason that patients could not form new episodic memories is likely because the CA1 region of the hippocampus was a lesion ... In addition, specific areas of the hippocampus (the CA1 region) are involved with memory. Research has also shown that when ...
... though in some cases axon collaterals of these neurons are observed migrating into the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Aspiny ... The stratum pyramidale is the third deepest hippocampal layer, and in relation to the stratum lucidum, is located underneath it ... In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the stratum pyramidale connects with the stratum lucidum by mossy fibers that run through ... also extend to the stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-molecular above the radiatum as well as to the CA1 and hilur regions ...
... then CA1, and finally through to the subiculum. Information is then directed back to the para-hippocampal region and finally to ... that is projected from nearly all neocortical areas come together onto one or more subdivisions of the para-hippocampal region ... Similarly, hippocampal lesions severely impacted all three components (what, where, and when) suggesting that the hippocampus ... Eichenbaum, H. (2000). "A cortical-hippocampal system for declarative memory". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 1 (1): 41-50. doi: ...
... particularly the hippocampal CA1 region, pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. There ...
More specifically, only the CA1 region of the hippocampus seemed to demonstrate a significant reduction in size. The CA1 ... Because the region of the hippocampus affected by protein malnutrition is so specific, global hippocampal function is not ... Rats with the CA1 volume deficit were found to perform poorly in a tasks requiring behavioural inhibition and accurate response ... In another study using rats, it was found that the size of the hippocampus (the central region in memory functioning) was ...
The juvenile type also shows reactivity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampal CA1 area, and the reticular formation of the ... In regions lacking obvious neuronal depletion, atrophy of the neuropil is noted. The globus pallidus (lateral greater than ... In both the juvenile and adult forms, regions in which more than 40% of neurons became immunoreactive to 1C2 (a monoclonal ... The human genome contains two atrophin genes; DRPLA has been correlated to the expansion of the polyglutamine region of the ...
Image 7: Examples of rat hippocampal EEG and CA1 neural activity in the theta (awake/behaving) and LIA (slow-wave sleep) modes ... Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ... Each plot shows 20 seconds of data, with a hippocampal EEG trace at the top, spike rasters from 40 simultaneously recorded CA1 ... Theories of hippocampal functionsEdit. Over the years, three main ideas of hippocampal function have dominated the literature: ...
In TLE, there is loss of neurons in region CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. There is also damage to mossy cells and inhibitory ... 1993). "Hippocampal neuron loss and memory scores before and after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy". Archives of Neurology. ... They project into the hilus of the dentate gyrus and stratum lucidum in the CA3 region giving inputs to both excitatory and ... 1974). "The hippocampal-dentate complex in temporal lobe epilepsy". Epilepsia. 15 (1): 55-80. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1974. ...
Sleep has been found to benefit spatial memory, by enhancing hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation. Hippocampal areas ... Lesions to this region are also known to create retention deficits for tasks learned up to 4 weeks but not 6 weeks prior to the ... One circuit is used for recollection-based place recognition memory and includes the entorhinal-CA1 system, while the other ... Inactivation of this region accounts for impaired navigation in the dark and thus it is implicated to be involved in the ...
Liu DD, Yang Q, Li ST (April 2013). "Activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors induces LTD in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons". ... The -NH2 group on memantine, which is protonated under physiological pH of the body, represents the region that binds at or ... Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists block within the ion channel at the Mg2+ site (pore region) and prevent excessive ... Figure 2: Transmembrane region of NR1 (left) and NR2B (right) subunits of NMDA receptor. ...
Buzsáki G, Chen LS, Gage FH (1990). "Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal region: relevance to ... Huerta PT, Lisman JE (Aug 1993). "Heightened synaptic plasticity of hippocampal CA1 neurons during a cholinergically induced ... Temporal-lobe.com An interactive diagram of the rat parahippocampal-hippocampal region ... "Spatial organization of direct hippocampal field CA1 axonal projections to the rest of the cerebral cortex". Brain Research ...
... and hippocampal subfields such as the combined dentate gyrus/CA3, CA1, and subiculum.[30] ... In regions that are more deliberative, such as the lateral frontal and lateral parietal lobes, it seems that incoming flow is ... Some regions just a few millimeters in size, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, which relays visual ... To demarcate regions of interest in the functional image, one needs to align it with the structural one. Even when whole-brain ...
The distribution of axonal islands is widespread in the lateral region of the thalamus. The innervation of the central region ... Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... Calleja, C. (1893). La region olfactoria del cerebro. Madrid: Nicolas Moya.. *^ Meyer, G.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, T.; Carrillo- ... Brain Regions: Olfactory Tubercle Basic info about the tubercle at NeuroLex.. *Sections Containing Olfactory Tubercle ... Similar studies were done by several authors to find the cell composition and innervations to and from other regions in the OT ...
... to all fields of the hippocampal formation, including the dentate gyrus, all CA fields (including CA1),[3] and the subiculum. ... to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another. Neurons are connected by a single axon, or by a ... "Cortico-hippocampal communication by way of parallel parahippocampal-subicular pathways". Hippocampus. 10 (4): 398-410. doi: ... "Disruption of the direct perforant path input to the CA1 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus interferes with spatial working ...
Glucocorticoids that are released during stress, damage neurons that are located in the hippocampal region of the brain. ... The CA1 neurons found in the hippocampus are destroyed due to glucocorticoids decreasing the release of glucose and the ... Hippocampal damage may also cause memory loss and problems with memory storage.[59] This memory loss includes retrograde ... Jensen O.; Lisman J.E. (2005). "Hippocampal sequence-encoding driven by a cortical multi-item working memory buffer". Trends in ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... Thalamocortical axons project primarily from the Medial geniculate Body (MGB) via sublenticular region of the internal capsule ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... though large regions of the middle cortical layers were innervated through collaterally connected CIR neurons.[23] Past ...
Hippocampal formation/. Hippocampus anatomy. Grey matter. *Hippocampus proper *CA1. *CA2. *CA3. *CA4 ... The function of adult neurogenesis in this region remains a matter of study. The survival of immature neurons as they enter the ... These hippocampal changes due to olfactory bulb removal are associated with behavioral changes characteristic of depression, ... The accessory olfactory bulb resides on the dorsal-posterior region of the main olfactory bulb and forms a parallel pathway. ...
Scoville, W. B., & Milner, B. (2000). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal regions, Journal of Neuropsychiatry & ... Damage can be limited to the CA1 field of the hippocampus, causing very limited RA for about one to two years.[11] More ... a b c Winocur, G., McDonald, R. M., & Moscovitch, M. (2001). Anterograde and retrograde amnesia in rats with large hippocampal ... Damage to this region of the brain can result in the impaired organization and categorization of verbal material, disturbance ...
... blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro". Brain Research. 452 (1-2): 57-65. doi:10.1016/0006 ... An analysis of CA1 hippocampal synapses revealed that inhibitory avoidance training induced in vivo AMPA receptor ... Tonegawa found that by impairing the NMDA receptor, specifically by genetically removing the NR1 subunit in the CA1 region, the ... McHugh TJ, Blum KI, Tsien JZ, Tonegawa S, Wilson MA (December 1996). "Impaired hippocampal representation of space in CA1- ...
The hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because ... They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... from CA4 through CA1 (only CA3 and CA1 are labeled). The CA regions are also structured depthwise in clearly defined strata (or ... A weak commissural projection connects both CA1 regions together. Subiculum has no commissural inputs or outputs. Hippocampal ...
When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... "Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells ... DSIs can be blocked by ionotropic receptor calcium ion channel antagonists on the somata and proximal apical dendrites of CA1 ... in CA1 pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells.[10][11] In a laboratory setting step depolarizations the soma have been ...
Recently a study examining the hippocampal CA1 cells from individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease showed a small ... regions of the brain with limited progression to the neocortex but a greater density in the allocortical/hippocampal region. ... Braak stages I and II are used when NFT involvement is confined mainly to the transentorhinal region of the brain. Stages III ... Lai M. K. P.; Chen C. P.; Hope T.; Esiri M. M. (2010). "Hippocampal neurofibrillary tangle changes and aggressive behaviour in ...
Evidence of decreased complexity in the CA1 and CA3 region of the hippocampus in terms of dendritic length and spine density ... Additionally, investigation of post mortem hippocampal tissue indicates decreased levels of neuron-specific glucocorticoid ... Stress can also result in inheritable changes DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ... Maternal separation and postnatal maternal abuse also increases DNA methylation at regulatory regions of BDNF genes in the ...
Gilbert ME (January 2004). "Alterations in synaptic transmission and plasticity in area CA1 of adult hippocampus following ... Hinge region: Thought to be a flexible domain that connects the DBD with the LBD. Influences intracellular trafficking and ... and genetic evidence for its role in the maturation of mouse hippocampal synapses in vivo". Endocrinology. 155 (9): 3713-24. ... domains are independently well folded and structurally stable while the hinge region (D) and optional C-terminal (F) domains ...
Using a computer model, subthreshold currents were simulated in the CA3 region that directly correlated with increased CA1 ... Stacey, William C.; Durand, Dominique M. (2001). "Synaptic Noise Improves Detection of Subthreshold Signals in Hippocampal CA1 ... The hippocampus is a region of the forebrain in the medial temporal lobe closely associated with memory formation and ... Common injuries in the hippocampus region can result in schizophrenia, epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Synaptic ...
Tsien, Joe Z.; Huerta, Patricio T.; Tonegawa, Susumu (1996). "The Essential Role of Hippocampal CA1 NMDA Receptor-Dependent ... and deleted to form the diversity of the variable region of antibodies. In 1983, Tonegawa also discovered a transcriptional ... In 2012, his lab demonstrated that the activation of a specific sub-population of mouse hippocampal neurons, labelled during a ... Silva, A. J., Stevens, C. F., Tonegawa, S., & Wang, Y. (1992). Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium- ...
The dorsal hippocampus also has more place cells than both the ventral and intermediate hippocampal regions. The intermediate ... ISBN 978-0-471-36727-7. Huerta PT, Lisman JE (Aug 1993). "Heightened synaptic plasticity of hippocampal CA1 neurons during a ... ISBN 978-0-19-518980-3. Cenquizca LA, Swanson LW (Nov 2007). "Spatial organization of direct hippocampal field CA1 axonal ... Its abbreviation CA is used in naming the hippocampal subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4. It can be distinguished as an area ...
In place cells, a type of neuron found in the hippocampal region of the brain, phase precession is believed to play a major ... These oscillations are measurable in local field potentials and electroencephalography (EEG). In the CA1 region of the ... This, in turn, gave rise to the question of whether phase precession could be observed in any other regions of the brain, with ... Lenck-Santini PP, Fenton AA, Muller RU (July 2008). "Discharge properties of hippocampal neurons during performance of a jump ...
... showed higher levels of CREB-mediated transcription in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus when compared to untrained ... two hippocampal-dependent learning tasks. Also, hippocampal electrophysiological studies revealed that the CREB mutation ... Guzowski, JF; McGaugh, JL (March 18, 1997). "Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated disruption of hippocampal cAMP response ... against hippocampal CREB mRNA can lower levels of CREB within 6 hours of infusion and impair spatial memory. Tests given ...
The effect that glucocorticoids have on memory may be due to damage specifically to the CA1 area of the hippocampal formation. ... which deacetylate the DNA in the promoter region leading to closing of the chromatin structure where NF-κB needs to bind. ... where it binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoter region of the target genes resulting in the regulation of ... and affecting cell survival and may also play a role in hippocampal development. Glucocorticoids stimulate the maturation of ...
In other regions than CA1 of the hippocampus, the field EPSP may be far more complex and harder to interpret as the source and ... In studies of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), figures are often given showing the field EPSP (fEPSP) in stratum ... In regions such as the striatum, neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine, GABA and others may also be released and ... This is the signal seen by an extracellular electrode placed in the layer of apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The ...
Glomerulosa cells are found in the Zona glomerulosa, which is the most superficial region of endocrine cells in the adrenal ... These lower levels seem to be linked to the rescue of stress-induced attenuation of CA1 long-term potentiation. When ... Preventative effect of theanine intake on stress-induced imparirments of hippocampal long-term potentiation and recognition ...
Activity-based anorexia has differential effects on apical dendritic branching in dorsal and ventral hippocampal CA1. Brain ... Sholl also realized his method is useful to determine where and how big is the region where synapses are possible, something he ... and even similar types in different regions of the body. Closely related to the Semi-Log Method, the Log-Log Method plots the ... "Dendritic Morphology of Hippocampal and Amygdalar Neurons in Adolescent Mice Is Resilient to Genetic Differences in Stress ...
Local generation of multineuronal spike sequences in the hippocampal CA1 region. Eran Stark, Lisa Roux, Ronny Eichler, and ... Local generation of multineuronal spike sequences in the hippocampal CA1 region Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Neuronal sequences in the CA1 hippocampal region during short burst events (called sharp wave ripples) reliably reflect the ... The SPW-related convergent depolarization of CA1 neurons gives rise to a local, fast oscillatory event in the CA1 region (" ...
Synaptic reorganization of calbindin-positive neurons in the human hippocampal CA1 region in temporal lobe epilepsy.. Wittner L ... Our data suggest that an intense synaptic reorganization takes place in the epileptic CA1 region, even in the non-sclerotic ... Numerous calbindin-positive interneurons are preserved even in the strongly sclerotic CA1 region. The morphology of individual ... targets of calbindin-containing interneurons and afferent pathways have been analyzed in the control and epileptic CA1 region ...
Schaffer collateral inputs to pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region exhibit a form of LTP that critically depends on ... Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to ... Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to ... Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to ...
ResultsCerebral ischemia was associated with significant neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region (P,0.05). Exercise ... in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat. MethodsTwenty-one male Wistar ... Cerebral ischemia was associated with significant neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region (P,0.05). Exercise significantly ... in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat.. ...
Immunohistochemical studies on the localization of Interleukin-1 and its receptor in the hippocampal CA-1 region of the ... was immunohistochemically examined in the hippocampal CA-1 region by a transient occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries in ...
Hippocampal field CA1 interneuronal nociceptive responses: Modulation by medial septal region and morphine. ... Zheng, F., Khanna, S. (1999-06). Hippocampal field CA1 interneuronal nociceptive responses: Modulation by medial septal region ... the field CA1 interneurons participate in a noxious stimulus-induced and medial septal region mediated pyramidal cell ... In presence of the medial septal region lesions, formalin did not evoke an excitation of interneurons or theta activation. ...
In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils ... In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils ... In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils ... In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils ...
In the present study, we carried out electrophysiological studies on hippocampal slices prepared from the senescence- ... Age-related deterioration of long-term potentiation in the CA3 and CA1 regions of hippocampal slices from the senescence- ... Age-related deterioration of long-term potentiation in the CA3 and CA1 regions of hippocampal slices from the senescence- ... Hippocampal plasticity induced by primed burst, but not long-term potentiation, stimulation is impaired in area CA1 of aged ...
Neuropeptide Y Modulates Synaptic Plasticity of the CA1 Hippocampal Region. In laboratory mice, exposure to a scent associated ... The new research on the link between stress, neuropeptide Y, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus fills an important gap in ... Various levels of NPY appear to drive circuit functions of a specific region of the hippocampus called "CA1" which is linked to ... The combination of low NPY and modulated CA1 synaptic function seems to make it easier for the brain to hardwire any stimuli ...
CA1 apical neuropil atrophy is apparent in patients with mild AD. With its superior spatial resolution, 7-T MRI permits in vivo ... the 2 groups exhibited no difference in the thickness of the CA1 cell body layer or of the entire CA1 subfield. Hippocampal ... Hippocampal CA1 apical neuropil atrophy in mild Alzheimer disease visualized with 7-T MRI Neurology. 2010 Oct 12;75(15):1381-7. ... CA1 Region, Hippocampal / pathology* * Case-Control Studies * Female * Humans * Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ...
Better keywords: neurodegenerative diseases; CA1 region, hippocampal; okadaic acid; neurotoxins; MAP kinase signaling system; ... Manuscript title: Region-specific neuronal degeneration after okadaic acid administration. Poor keywords: neuron, brain, OA (an ... For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying ... What regions of the world lie within the shadows of current ethics literature? How can ethics research become more sensitive to ...
Top rows: wildtype (WT) hippocampal sections. Middle rows: S831A homozygous hippocampal sections. Bottom rows: S845A homozygous ... Specific roles of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 (GluA1) phosphorylation sites in regulating synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region ... Specific Roles of AMPA Receptor Subunit GluR1 (GluA1) Phosphorylation Sites in Regulating Synaptic Plasticity in the CA1 Region ... Specific Roles of AMPA Receptor Subunit GluR1 (GluA1) Phosphorylation Sites in Regulating Synaptic Plasticity in the CA1 Region ...
For example, it has been shown that a brief period of hypoxia reversed LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices if applied ... 1996) Activity-dependent β-adrenergic modulation of low-frequency stimulation induced LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region. Neuron ... 1990) showing that adenosine reveals a time-dependent reversal of LTP in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. ... 1995) Postsynaptic cAMP pathway gates early LTP in hippocampal CA1 region. Neuron 15:1403-1414. ...
Figure 1: The region of the hippocampal slice (CA1) used for mRNA sample preparation. CA1, CA3, DG-hippocampus subfields. ... an enhanced LTP was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region of mutant mice devoid of S100B, while the perfusion of hippocampal ... Antiserum against S-100 protein prevents the long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, ... in hippocampal CA1 area of rats.. 2. Materials and Methods. Experiments were conducted on hippocampal slices prepared routinely ...
... we examined the levels of these bioactive lipids in AD hippocampal cornu ammonis region 1 of hippocampus (CA1), a brain region ... Human CA1 hippocampal regions. Protocols for experimental use of brain tissues were reviewed and approved by the Institutional ... the NPD1 pool size may reflect the capacity of the CA1 hippocampal region to activate synthesis of the mediator. In mouse brain ... was decreased in the CA1 region of hippocampi from patients with moderate to severe stages of AD. In this same brain region, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of New GABAergic Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of a Gerbil Model of ... T1 - New GABAergic Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of a Gerbil Model of Long-Term Survival after Transient Cerebral ... New GABAergic Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of a Gerbil Model of Long-Term Survival after Transient Cerebral ... New GABAergic Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of a Gerbil Model of Long-Term Survival after Transient Cerebral ...
The results indicate that mTOR and p-mTOR expressions change in the hippocampal CA1 region after 2VO surgery and that reduced ... Animals , Biological Phenomena , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Carotid Artery, Common , Dementia, Vascular , Mammals , Neurons , ... Temporal changes in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphorylated-mTOR expressions in the hippocampal CA1 region of ... CA1 Region, Hippocampal / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / Animals / Mammals Language: English Journal: Journal of Veterinary ...
... it decreases beta-amyloid plaques and apoptosis in CA1 region of the hippocampus. ... on spatial memory and neuronal density of hippocampal CA1 region in rats with sporadic Alzheimers disease. ... on spatial memory and neuronal density of hippocampal CA1 region in rats with sporadic Alzheimers disease. Avicenna Journal of ... on spatial memory and neuronal density of hippocampal CA1 region in rats with sporadic Alzheimers disease. Avicenna Journal of ...
Curcumin Effects on Memory Impairment and Restoration of Irregular Neuronal Distribution in the Hippocampal CA1 Region After ... could maintain the neuronal aggregation in the CA1 hippocampal region after global cerebral ischemia.. Plain Language Summary ... Curcumin Effects on Memory Impairment and Restoration of Irregular Neuronal Distribution in the Hippocampal CA1 Region After ... and regular neuronal aggregation in the CA1 hippocampal region after GCI. ...
Decreased basic activity and induced activity of ERK1/2 pathway in hippocampal CA1/CA2 region of ovariectomized rats / 中国应用生理学杂 ... Decreased basic activity and induced activity of ERK1/2 pathway in hippocampal CA1/CA2 reg ... with the decreased basic and induced activity of ERK1/2 pathway and increased expression of RKIP in the CA1/CA2 region of ... p,,b,AIM,/b,To investigate the relationship between the spatial learning and memory and hippocampal ERK1/2 pathway activity in ...
The concentration of ATP was measured in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices at the end of anoxia. The concentration of ... Because etomidate is thought to suppress metabolism, we measured the concentration of ATP in the CA1 region of the hippocampal ... Etomidate Does Not Alter Recovery after Anoxia of Evoked Population Spikes Recorded from the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampal ... Etomidate Does Not Alter Recovery after Anoxia of Evoked Population Spikes Recorded from the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampal ...
... impairment of learning and memory and reduce the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the hippocampal CA1 region of ... The effects of PF on memory deficit were investigated by a Morris water maze test, and the effects of PF on hippocampal ... Effects of PF on histopathology and ultrastructure of the hippocampal CA1 area after ischemia. The hippocampal CA1 region is ... A sharp blade was used to rapidly resect the left hippocampal CA1 region and slice it into 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 hippocampal blocks. ...
Excessive activation of AhR signaling disrupts neuronal migration in the hippocampal CA1 region in the developing mouse. ... Excessive activation of AhR signaling disrupts neuronal migration in the hippocampal CA1 region in the developing mouse. ...
The effect of diazepam and propofol on gamma activity recorded from the CA1 region of the rat hippocampal slice ... The effect of diazepam and propofol on gamma activity recorded from the CA1 region of the rat hippocampal slice ...
Age-related decrease in the N-methyl-D-aspartate(R)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential in hippocampal region CA1. / ... T1 - Age-related decrease in the N-methyl-D-aspartate(R)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential in hippocampal region CA1 ... Age-related decrease in the N-methyl-D-aspartate(R)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential in hippocampal region CA1. ... mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential in hippocampal region CA1. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * D-Aspartic ...
To cast light on this issue in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slice, we used a train of stimuli, to the pyramidal layer, ... rhythmic IPSPs may play in pacing oscillations at gamma frequency in the CA1 hippocampal region. ... Whole cell current-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed that individual stimuli at 40 Hz produced EPSPs riding ... To cast light on this issue in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slice, we used a train of stimuli, to the pyramidal layer, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Rat B,sub,2,/sub, sequences are induced in the hippocampal CA1 region after ... Rat B2 sequences are induced in the hippocampal CA1 region after transient global cerebral ischemia. Journal of Biological ... Rat B2 sequences are induced in the hippocampal CA1 region after transient global cerebral ischemia. / Liu, Xiaodong; Clemens, ... Rat B2 sequences are induced in the hippocampal CA1 region after transient global cerebral ischemia. ...
A significant loss of neurons was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia- ... A significant loss of neurons was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia- ... A significant loss of neurons was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia- ... A significant loss of neurons was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia- ...
... of the hippocampal CA1 region. These were the first reports in mammals to show AIS elongation in vivo. Correspondingly, this ... In the herein study, we showed that a chronic selective α1-NaKA inhibition reversed the AIS elongation in hippocampal CA1 PNs ... The hippocampus is one of the most prominently affected brain regions in AS model mice, manifesting in severe hippocampal- ... in adult AS mice rescued the hippocampal-dependent deficits via normalizing their compromised activity-dependent calcium (Ca+2 ...
Bar = 10 μm.) (G) GFPKIF17 localization in forebrain region of mice. Neocortex and hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3, DG). (Bar ... 1 E and F). In both sets of mice, we found no major difference between mutant and WT mice in hippocampal CA1 synapse morphology ... A mouse fusion cDNA of GFPKIF17 (3.8 kb) (6) was subcloned into the NotI site of the 8.5-kb upstream region of the CaMKIIα gene ... 2A) and percentage of time spent on margin region from the wall (P , 0.5, ANOVA) (Fig. 2B), percentage of time spent in the ...
  • Synaptic reorganization of calbindin-positive neurons in the human hippocampal CA1 region in temporal lobe epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • Supporting this notion, multiple postmortem studies have demonstrated that the hippocampal CA1 apical neuropil is one of the earliest sites of pathology, exhibiting tau aggregates and then atrophy before there is substantial loss of the CA1 pyramidal neurons themselves. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the probability of newly generated neurons that could survive and mature in the ischemic hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) of a gerbil model of transient cerebral ischemia. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that the differentiation of neural progenitor cells into new GABAergic neurons may be promoted via BDNF in the ischemic CA1 and that the neurogenesis may partially mediate the recovery of cognitive impairments via increasing myelinated nerve fibers. (elsevier.com)
  • The mTOR immunoreactivity in the pyramidal neurons and mTOR protein level in the hippocampal CA1 region were markedly decreased at 21 and 28 days after 2VO surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • In the current study, we examined CA1 pyramidal cells, which are neurons that are extremely sensitive to anoxic and ischemic damage, for their ability to recover electrophysiologic activity after an anoxic insult in the presence of etomidate. (asahq.org)
  • Whole cell current-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed that individual stimuli at 40 Hz produced EPSPs riding on a slow biphasic hyperpolarizing-depolarizing waveform. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In situ hybridization demonstrated that the elevated expression of this gene was localized predominantly in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. (wustl.edu)
  • Previous studies in AS mice reported an elongated axon initial segment (AIS) in pyramidal neurons (PNs) of the hippocampal CA1 region. (nature.com)
  • Using newly generated conditional knock-in and knockout mice, we show in this study that latrophilin-2 (Lphn2), a cell-adhesion G protein-coupled receptor and presumptive α-latrotoxin receptor, controls the numbers of a specific subset of synapses in CA1-region hippocampal neurons, suggesting that Lphn2 acts as a synaptic target-recognition molecule. (rupress.org)
  • In cultured hippocampal neurons, Lphn2 maintained synapse numbers via a postsynaptic instead of a presynaptic mechanism, which was surprising given its presumptive role as an α-latrotoxin receptor. (rupress.org)
  • In CA1-region neurons in vivo, Lphn2 was specifically targeted to dendritic spines in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare, which form synapses with presynaptic entorhinal cortex afferents. (rupress.org)
  • Two-photon imaging of CA1 neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in developing hippocampal slices from rat brains was used to characterize dendritic morphogenesis in response to synaptic activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • A ) CA1 region of a hippocampal slice showing several infected neurons, including dendritic arbors and axons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Electrophysiology of hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • Their observations led them to investigate a region called the entorhinal cortex, which connected with neurons in CA1. (britannica.com)
  • synapses have been detected between neurons and oligodendrocytes in CA1 of the hippocampus AND these synapses can undergo a kind of LTP. (scienceblogs.com)
  • NG2 cells in the CA1 area of the hippocampus receive direct glutamatergic and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic synaptic inputs from neurons. (scienceblogs.com)
  • EC neurons process general information such as directional activity in the environment, which contrasts to that of the hippocampal neurons, which usually encode information about specific places. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid activation of plasticity-associated gene transcription in hippocampal neurons provides a mechanism for encoding of one-trial experience. (uci.edu)
  • Because large number of neurons synchronously fire action potentials together during SWRs, it has been suggested that this network state is optimal for the transfer of these memory traces to extra-hippocampal locations [ 7 , 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We now demonstrate that overexpression of Hsp70 in hippocampal CA1 neurons reduces evidence of protein aggregation under conditions where neuronal survival is increased. (biologists.org)
  • 2007). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunits in hippocampal neurons. (springer.com)
  • We have tested a novel class of compounds using a combination of electrophysiology in autaptic hippocampal neurons, a well-characterized model of endogenous cannabinoid signaling, and measurements of IOP in a mouse model. (mdpi.com)
  • Protective roles of heat stress on the neurons in hippocampal CA1 region of mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB) areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC neurons. (springer.com)
  • High frequency stimulation (HFS, 100 Hz) delivered to CA1/SB, which produced long-term potentiation (LTP) of field potentials, induced long-term enhancement (LTE) of nociceptive responses in 78% of cases, while, conversely, in 22% responses decreased (long-term depression, LTD). These neurons were scattered throughout the cingulate and prelimbic areas. (springer.com)
  • The results obtained for field potentials and nociceptive discharges suggest that CA1/SB-PFC pathways can produce heterosynaptic potentiation in PFC neurons. (springer.com)
  • Thus, CA1/SB-PFC projections modulate the nociceptive responses of PFC neurons. (springer.com)
  • Xenon caused death of hippocampal neurons in CA1, CA3, and dentate regions after 1 and 2 MAC exposures, but not at 0.75 MAC. (asahq.org)
  • Here, using in vivo recording in the Dp(16)1Yey model, we find alterations in the organization of spiking of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, including deficits in the generation of complex spikes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Further, the density of CA1 inhibitory neurons expressing neuropeptide Y, a population key for the generation of pyramidal cell bursts, were significantly increased in Dp(16)1Yey mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the CA1 region pyramidal neurons exhibit spatial receptive fields, referred to as 'place fields', which manifest as discrete locations in the environment where a given cell's firing rate increases ( O'Keefe and Dostrovsky, 1971 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • 2014a) reported that condensed, interstitial and degenerated neurons were observed in fluoride-treated hippocampal CA1 regions of developmental rat. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The first evidence that glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus could signal exclusively via NMDA receptors came from analyzing the trial-to-trial amplitude fluctuations of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) recorded in CA1 pyramidal neurons in acute rodent brain slices (Kullmann, 1994). (scholarpedia.org)
  • We show that optogenetic activation of a small group of CA1 pyramidal cells in mouse hippocampus yields consistent multineuronal spike sequences, and that their sequential firing order is similar to that observed during spontaneous "ripple" and theta oscillations. (pnas.org)
  • In the hippocampus, sequential activity of place cells ( 8 ) may be induced by external landmarks perceived by the animal during spatial navigation ( 9 ) and conveyed to CA1 by the upstream CA3 region or layer 3 of the entorhinal cortex ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The distribution, morphology, synaptic coverage and postsynaptic targets of calbindin-containing interneurons and afferent pathways have been analyzed in the control and epileptic CA1 region of the human hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • The enhanced inhibition of inhibitory interneurons may result in the disinhibition of pyramidal cells or in an abnormal synchrony in the output region of the hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • The retrograde messenger nitric oxide (NO) is thought to induce LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and, ultimately, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK). (jneurosci.org)
  • A majority (24/32) of the extracellularly recorded dorsal hippocampus field CA1 putative GABAergic interneurons were excited in conjunction with theta activation on formalin injection (5%, 0.05 ml, s.c. into right hind- paw) in urethane (1.0 g/kg, i.p.)-anaesthetized rats. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Various levels of NPY appear to drive circuit functions of a specific region of the hippocampus called "CA1" which is linked to the formation of aversive fear -based memories . (psychologytoday.com)
  • The new research on the link between stress, neuropeptide Y, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus fills an important gap in previous knowledge about the molecular and behavioral effects of NPY. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Specific roles of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 (GluA1) phosphorylation sites in regulating synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • also, it decreases beta-amyloid plaques and apoptosis in CA1 region of the hippocampus. (ac.ir)
  • Spatial learning and memory deficits in ovariectomized rats might be correlated with the decreased basic and induced activity of ERK1/2 pathway and increased expression of RKIP in the CA1/CA2 region of hippocampus . (bvsalud.org)
  • Glutamatergic fast synaptic transmission is known to be altered with age in a region-specific manner in hippocampus of memory-impaired old rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Global brain ischemia causes cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus 3-5 days after reperfusion. (wustl.edu)
  • The hippocampus is one of the most prominently affected brain regions in AS model mice, manifesting in severe hippocampal-dependent memory and plasticity deficits. (nature.com)
  • One region influenced by acetylcholine is the hippocampus, which receives inputs from the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca complex (MS/DBB). (frontiersin.org)
  • This minireview describes recent data from mouse hippocampus that investigated changes in CA1 interneuron membrane potentials following acetylcholine release. (frontiersin.org)
  • The understanding of the actions of dopamine as a neurotransmitter in the hippocampal formation has evolved over the past 3 decades, from the presumption that dopamine had no significant role (except as a precursor to norepinephrine), to the current appreciation that dopamine can act via multiple signaling pathways in the hippocampus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • suggesting that endogenous dopamine facilitates synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • we have tested the hypothesis that dopamine might modulate GABAergic IPSCs in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a chronic neurological disease that affects the hippocampus and the inner regions of the temporal lobe. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Mosers set out to determine whether the activity of place cells in CA1 originated in the hippocampus or in another part of the brain. (britannica.com)
  • This NEURON code implements a small network model (100 pyramidal cells and 4 types of inhibitory interneuron) of storage and recall of patterns in the CA1 region of the mammalian hippocampus. (yale.edu)
  • Most anatomists use the term "hippocampus proper" to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and subiculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The perforant path-to-dentate gyrus-to-CA3-to-CA1 was called the trisynaptic circuit by Per Andersen, who noted that thin slices could be cut out of the hippocampus perpendicular to its long axis, in a way that preserves all of these connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in the neural activity across the brain region results in an observed "traveling wave" phenomena across the MEC long-axis, similar to that of the hippocampus, due to asymmetric theta oscillations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Place cells are found in two regions of the rodent hippocampus: CA3 and CA1. (mit.edu)
  • Representative microphotographs of immunostained Iba-1 in CA1 region of the hippocampus from each group. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Common genetic variants in the Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) region, human homologue of the MHC locus, are associated with small effects on susceptibility to schizophrenia, while volumetric changes of the thalamus and hippocampus have also been linked to schizophrenia. (mpi.nl)
  • In whole-cell recordings from acutely dissociated hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cells, androstanediol (but not its 3β-epimer) produced a concentration-dependent enhancement of GABA-activated currents (EC 50 of 5 μM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The mossy fibres (MF) are axons of granule cells in the dendate gyrus of the hippocampal formation that project to the CA3 region of the hippocampus. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • We have also demonstrated that this effect on MF-LTP is due to a selective inhibition of pre-synaptic kainate receptors located in the CA3 region if the hippocampus (Lauri et al, 2001a, ). (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Age-related deterioration of long-term potentiation in the CA3 and CA1 regions of hippocampal slices from the senescence-accelerated mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hippocampal plasticity induced by primed burst, but not long-term potentiation, stimulation is impaired in area CA1 of aged Fischer 344 rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In particular, several lines of evidence suggest that reversible phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1, also referred to as GluA1 or GluR-A) plays a role in long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). We previously reported that regulation of serines (S) 831 and 845 on the GluR1 subunit may play a critical role in bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1. (nih.gov)
  • The involvement of adenosine on the development of time-dependent reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP) by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) was investigated at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of rat hippocampal slices. (jneurosci.org)
  • Antiserum against S-100 protein prevents the long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, suggesting a positive role of S100B in the manifestation of LTP [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, several reports have also described the effects of dopamine on long-term potentiation (LTP) at the Schaffer collateral synapse in the CA1 region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The successful reinstatement of new hippocampal maps requires their stabilization, a process which is N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent and requires protein synthesis [ 20 , 21 ], and long-term potentiation induction triggers the remapping of hippocampal place fields [ 22 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Long-term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation in the hippocampal CA1 region. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have investigated the interaction between long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in the hippocampal CA1 region under different conditions of initial PPF. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chronic unpredictable stress impairs long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal CA1 area and dentate gyrus in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Circadian regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of Ca 2+ -induced Ca 2+ release by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), or ryanodine during pattern stimulation near the threshold for synaptic modification (5 Hz, 900 pulses) selectively induced long-term potentiation (LTP) to CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses of old rats. (physiology.org)
  • Even in the non-sclerotic epileptic samples, where pyramidal cells are present and calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons seem to be unchanged, some modifications could be observed at the electron microscopic level: they received more inhibitory synaptic input, and the calbindin-positive excitatory afferents - presumably derived from the CA1, the CA2 and/or the dentate gyrus - are sprouted. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of aggregated β-amyloid (1-42) on synaptic plasticity of hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells in vivo. (ac.ir)
  • Edvard's thesis research centred on understanding the role in spatial learning of neural activity in a region of the brain known as the dentate gyrus. (britannica.com)
  • Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3 , then a very small zone called CA2 , then CA1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Perforant path input from EC layer II enters the dentate gyrus and is relayed to region CA3 (and to mossy cells, located in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, which then send information to distant portions of the dentate gyrus where the cycle is repeated). (wikipedia.org)
  • A septo-temporal molecular gradient of sfrp3 in the dentate gyrus differentially regulates quiescent adult hippocampal neural stem cell activation. (mayo.edu)
  • Kamali Dolatabadi L, Emamghoreishi M, Namavar M R, Badeli Sarkala H. Curcumin Effects on Memory Impairment and Restoration of Irregular Neuronal Distribution in the Hippocampal CA1 Region After Global Cerebral Ischemia in Male Rats. (ac.ir)
  • To investigate the relationship between the spatial learning and memory and hippocampal ERK1/2 pathway activity in ovariectomized rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • Administration of PF could significantly attenuate cerebral hypoperfusion-induced impairment of learning and memory and reduce the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present experiment, presynaptic fiber potentials and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA(R)) and NMDA(R)-mediated synaptic responses in CA1 were compared in three ages of behaviorally characterized male F-344 rats. (elsevier.com)
  • In the CA1 region, old rats showed approximately equivalent reductions in non-NMDA(R) and NMDA(R)-excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitudes for a given size of presynaptic fiber potential. (elsevier.com)
  • By using differential display analysis, we examined expression levels of poly(A) RNAs isolated from hippocampal extracts prepared from rats exposed to global ischemia and found an up-regulated transcript, clone 17a. (wustl.edu)
  • To understand the structural alterations that underlie early and late changes in hippocampal diffusivity after hypoxia/ischemia (H/I), the changes in apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC(W)) were studied in 8-week-old rats after H/I using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The contribution of Ca 2+ release from intracellular Ca 2+ stores (ICS) for regulation of synaptic plasticity thresholds during aging was investigated in hippocampal slices of old (22-24 mo) and young adult (5-8 mo) male Fischer 344 rats. (physiology.org)
  • Beclin-1 protein expression was decreased after intraperitoneal injection of wortmannin in the hippocampal CA1 region of vascular dementia model rats (immunohistochemistry). (eurekalert.org)
  • The pyramidal cell density of CA1 hippocampal subfield following STZ-induced diabetes in young rats were studied. (scielo.cl)
  • After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres and stained with crysel violet. (scielo.cl)
  • The effects of the co-agonist of the N -methyl- d -aspartate receptor (NMDAr) d -serine on glutamatergic neurotransmission and synaptic potentiation were studied in the CA1 hippocampal field of young (3-5 months old) and aged (25-27 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats using ex vivo extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques. (wiley.com)
  • Finally, d -serine levels were dramatically reduced in hippocampal tissues of aged rats. (wiley.com)
  • Synchronous neural after discharges in rat hippocampal slices without active chemical synapses. (springer.com)
  • Konnerth A, Heinemann U, Yaari Y. Slow transmission of neural activity in hippocampal area CAl in absence of active chemical synapses. (springer.com)
  • To this end, we model a population of CA3 place cells projecting to a single CA1 cell, and we assume that the CA1 input synapses are plastic according to STDP. (mit.edu)
  • In addition, unlike synapses in the CA1 region, there are few NMDA receptors located within the PSD. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • LTP in this synapse is NMDA receptor-independent and must follow a different mechanism to those found in other hippocampal synapses (eg. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • CA3-CA1 synapses). (bristol.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, we carried out electrophysiological studies on hippocampal slices prepared from the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM-P/8), a strain which shows accelerated senescence and failure of certain types of learning in behavioral tests. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We studied the expression of S100B, S100A1, and S100A6 mRNA in the subfield CA1 of rat hippocampal slices after tetanic and low-frequency stimulation by real-time PCR. (hindawi.com)
  • Conversely, an enhanced LTP was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region of mutant mice devoid of S100B, while the perfusion of hippocampal slices with the recombinant S100B protein reversed the LTP in the slices from mutant mice to the wild-type level [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We have used both whole-cell and extracellular recording techniques in hippocampal slices to investigate the actions of both cocaine and dopamine receptor agonists in the CA1 region. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Studies in developing cultured rat brain slices ( 7 ) and disassociated cultures ( 8-10 ) from hippocampal area CA1 show that dendritic protrusions, including filopodia and spines, are structurally dynamic, perhaps powered by actin motility ( 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Low-calcium field burst discharges of CAl pyramidal neurones in rat hippocampal slices. (springer.com)
  • Influence of electric fields on the excitability of granule cells in guinea-pig hippocampal slices. (springer.com)
  • Whole-cell recordings were made from NG2 cells in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Learning capabilities and CA1-prefrontal synaptic plasticity in a mice model of accelerated senescence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By demonstrating that NPY release modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is impaired by predator scent stress, our results provide a novel mechanism by which stress-induced anxiety alters circuit function. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Soluble Aβ Oligomers Impair Dipolar Heterodendritic Plasticity by Activation of mGluR in the Hippocampal CA1 Region. (alzforum.org)
  • The types of ion channels and receptors in the neuronal membranes vary with neuron types and brain regions and determine whether neuronal responses will be excitatory or inhibitory and often allow for functional synaptic plasticity which is thought to be the basis for much of the adaptability of the nervous system and for our ability to learn and store memories. (avhandlingar.se)
  • CA1 pyramidal neuron: synaptic plasticity during theta cycles (Saudargiene et al. (yale.edu)
  • We found that pretreatment with a low dose of olmesartan completely prevented β-amyloid-induced vascular dysregulation and partially attenuated the impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Motivated by the anatomical connectivity between these two regions and by the evidence for synaptic plasticity at these connections, we study how a place field in CA1 can be inherited from an upstream region such as CA3 through a Hebbian learning rule, in particular, through spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). (mit.edu)
  • Contrasting roles of corticosteroid receptors in hippocampal plasticity. (springer.com)
  • HFS and LFS delivered to the CA1/SB induced long-term plasticity of nociceptive responses. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to examine effects of exercise preconditioning on neuronal cell death and expression of neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat. (magiran.com)
  • A high dose of curcumin¬ (100¬ mg/kg) and its long-term administration (28 days) could maintain the neuronal aggregation in the CA1 hippocampal region after global cerebral ischemia. (ac.ir)
  • Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia (GCI) is a cerebrovascular condition dramatically reducing cerebral blood flow leading to a selective and delayed pyramidal neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 area. (ac.ir)
  • Transient global cerebral ischemia causes delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. (mdpi.com)
  • By contrast, the 2 groups exhibited no difference in the thickness of the CA1 cell body layer or of the entire CA1 subfield. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro analysis of resected mesial temporal lobe tissue from patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy has revealed the presence of IIS in the CA1 subfield. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this paper, we develop a biophysically relevant network model of the CA1 subfield and investigate how changes in the network properties influence the susceptibility of CA1 to exhibit an IIS. (frontiersin.org)
  • The minimal network model parameters are then incorporated into a detailed network model of the CA1 subfield in order to address the following questions: (1) How does the formation of an IIS in the CA1 depend on the degree of sprouting (recurrent connections) between the CA1 Py cells and the fraction of CA3 Shaffer collateral (SC) connections onto the CA1 Py cells? (frontiersin.org)
  • The impairment of CA1 hippocampal subfield has been reported by previous studies. (scielo.cl)
  • Region CA3 combines this input with signals from EC layer II and sends extensive connections within the region and also sends connections to strata radiatum and oriens of ipsilateral and contralateral CA1 regions through a set of fibers called the Schaffer collaterals , and commissural pathway, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing the human S100B protein exhibited the impaired hippocampal LTP and spatial learning [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, it was shown that selective pharmacological inhibition of α1-NaKA by marinobufagenin (MBG) in adult AS mice rescued the hippocampal-dependent deficits via normalizing their compromised activity-dependent calcium (Ca +2 ) dynamics. (nature.com)
  • In the herein study, we showed that a chronic selective α1-NaKA inhibition reversed the AIS elongation in hippocampal CA1 PNs of adult AS mice, and differentially altered their excitability and intrinsic properties. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Chronic selective α1-NaKA inhibition shortens the elongated AIS of CA1 PNs in AS mice to the WT length. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: Chronic selective α1-NaKA inhibition partially rescues excitability alterations in CA1 PNs of AS model mice. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 4: Chronic selective α1-NaKA inhibition differentially rescues the membrane properties of CA1 PNs in AS model mice. (nature.com)
  • Western blot showing hippocampal TNF-α in mice fed an LFD, HFD, HFD+RES, or LFD+RES. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Western blot showing hippocampal Iba-1 in each group of mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • moreover, the CA1 region of the hippocampi of the mice exhibited reduced neuronal density and viability, and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our data refine the 'over-suppression' theory of Down syndrome pathophysiology and suggest specific neuronal subtypes involved in hippocampal dysfunction in these model mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have previously reported neuron loss in the hippocampal CA1 region of 14- to 18-month-old APP23 mice. (gu.se)
  • 1. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were made from guinea pig hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, ECS volume fraction was decreased only first day after H/I. In the late phases of reperfusion (starting 1 month after H/I), when the CA1 region consisted mainly of microglia, astrocytes, and NG2-glia with markedly altered morphology, ADC(W), ECS volume fraction and tortuosity were increased. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 0.01) in cognitive deficit, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron death, microglia and MPO activation, while p-CREB was reduced as compared to their corresponding WT controls. (mdpi.com)
  • We used a transgenic rat with the diphtheria toxin receptor ( Dtr ) inserted into the promoter region of the fractalkine receptor, Cx3cr1 , expressed on microglia and monocytes, to allow temporary ablation of microglia upon application of diphtheria toxin (DT). (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated temporal changes in mTOR and phosphorylated-mTOR (p-mTOR) expressions in the rat hippocampal CA1 region following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO). (bvsalud.org)
  • Barnes, CA , Rao, G & Shen, J 1997, ' Age-related decrease in the N-methyl-D-aspartate(R)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential in hippocampal region CA1 ', Neurobiology of Aging , vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 445-452. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, Lphn2 appears to control synapse numbers in the entorhinal cortex/CA1 region circuit by acting as a domain-specific postsynaptic target-recognition molecule. (rupress.org)
  • HFS delivered to CA1 regions induced NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate)-mediated LTP in the PFC [ 8 ], indicating CA1-PFC pathways to be the site of postsynaptic excitatory potentiation. (springer.com)
  • In the hippocampal CA1 region, ADC(W) analyses were performed during 6 months of reperfusion and compared with alterations in cell number/cell-type composition, glial morphology, and extracellular space (ECS) diffusion parameters obtained by the real-time iontophoretic method. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, the results also demonstrated that NaF exposure caused multiple ultrastructure alterations in hippocampal CA3 region. (fluoridealert.org)
  • On the final day, brain tissues and sera were isolated, and stress hormones and hippocampal oxidative alterations were examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results demonstrate how stress alters CA1 circuit function through the impairment of endogenous NPY release, potentially contributing to heightened anxiety. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This study is an attempt to assess the acute and chronic effects of curcumin on the spatial neuronal distribution in CA1 area and on the neurological symptoms and memory impairment after GCI. (ac.ir)
  • The localization of Interleukin-1 (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta) and receptors (IL-1RtI,IL-1RtII) was immunohistochemically examined in the hippocampal CA-1 region by a transient occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries in Mongolian gerbils. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Synaptically evoked growth was long-lasting and localized to dendritic regions close (less than 50 micrometers) to the stimulating electrode and was prevented by blockade of N -methyl- d -aspartate receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent studies have focused on discovering new agents that can enhance hippocampal neurogenesis. (ac.ir)
  • Age-related decline in BubR1 impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis. (mayo.edu)
  • Wnt signaling in neuropsychiatric disorders: ties with adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior. (mayo.edu)
  • Heat-induced antigen retrieval: an effective method to detect and identify progenitor cell types during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. (mayo.edu)
  • Functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a therapeutic strategy for mental disorders. (mayo.edu)
  • We used the rat hippocampal slice to study the effect of etomidate on recovery from anoxic damage. (asahq.org)
  • To cast light on this issue in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slice, we used a train of stimuli, to the pyramidal layer, comprising 1 s at 40 Hz followed by 2--3 s at 10 Hz, to mimic the frequency pattern observed during fast oscillations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • TPLSM imaging of CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites labeled with EGFP (in a slice 9 days in culture). (sciencemag.org)
  • Using postnatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, the authors demonstrated that xenon used at 1 minimum alveolar concentration-equivalent concentration increased apoptosis similar to sevoflurane and isoflurane at equipotent concentrations, and that this effect was abolished by preconditioning the tissue with a subtoxic concentration of isoflurane. (asahq.org)
  • Sequential activity of multineuronal spiking can be observed during theta and high-frequency ripple oscillations in the hippocampal CA1 region and is linked to experience, but the mechanisms underlying such sequences are unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Internally generated sequences have been also described in CA1 during theta oscillations in memory tasks ( 4 , 11 ), raising the possibility that a given neuronal substrate is responsible for generating sequences at multiple time scales. (pnas.org)
  • These results set constraints on the role that synchronous, rhythmic IPSPs may play in pacing oscillations at gamma frequency in the CA1 hippocampal region. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These SWR events are best marked by the transiently occurring 150-250 Hz ripple oscillations near the CA1 pyramidal cell layer [ 1 - 3 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As an example, for the hippocampal region CA1, events with 200Hz oscillations are predicted. (gatech.edu)
  • The results indicate that mTOR and p-mTOR expressions change in the hippocampal CA1 region after 2VO surgery and that reduced expressions of mTOR and p-mTOR may be closely related to the CCH-induced neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 region . (bvsalud.org)
  • The effects of PF on memory deficit were investigated by a Morris water maze test, and the effects of PF on hippocampal neuronal damage were evaluated by light microscope and electron microscope. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Extracellular unit discharges evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation delivered to the rat-tail and field potentials evoked by a single stimulus pulse delivered to CA1/SB were recorded in the PFC. (springer.com)
  • We firstly demonstrated the neuroprotective potentials of A. Lignum against hippocampal oxidative injury in repeated restraint stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Mosers recorded the activity of cells specifically in the dorsocaudal medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC) of the rat brain via electrodes that had been positioned precisely within the region. (britannica.com)
  • In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether tissue loss in the CA1 apical neuropil layer can be observed in vivo in patients with mild AD. (nih.gov)
  • The above data are consistent with the notion that (i) the field CA1 interneurons participate in a noxious stimulus-induced and medial septal region mediated pyramidal cell suppression, and (ii) morphine affects CA1 nociceptive responses partly in a fashion consistent with the effect of the drug on septohippocampal neural network processing. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Gadd45b Mediates Electroconvulsive Shock Induced Proliferation of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells. (mayo.edu)
  • This model is a full-scale, biologically constrained rodent hippocampal CA1 network model that includes 9 cells types (pyramidal cells and 8 interneurons) with realistic proportions of each and realistic connectivity between the cells. (yale.edu)
  • This imaging was obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (the prelimbic area) and the hippocampal CA1 region. (elifesciences.org)
  • After CA1 comes an area called the subiculum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyramidal cells of CA1 send their axons to the subiculum and deep layers of the EC. (wikipedia.org)
  • layer III projects primarily to hippocampal region CA1 and the subiculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • After completing her Ph.D. in 2001, Roberto returned to Scripps as a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. George Siggins to study the neuroadaptations in synaptic transmission induced by acute and chronic alcohol in the central amygdala, a brain region critical in mediating the behavioral effects of alcohol consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the model receives realistic numbers of afferents from artificial cells representing hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortical layer III. (yale.edu)
  • Their work drew attention particularly to place cells in a hippocampal area designated CA1. (britannica.com)
  • It is usually divided into medial and lateral regions with three bands with distinct properties and connectivity running perpendicular across the whole area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The area densities of the CA1 pyramidal cells were measured and compared among two groups. (scielo.cl)
  • mantle field in radiation therapy , such as for malignant lymphoma , a circumscribed area of irradiation around the shoulders and chest, including the neck, clavicular regions, axillae, and mediastinum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dynamic modulation of excitation and inhibition during stimulation at gamma and beta frequencies in the CA1 hippocampal region. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Low frequency stimulation (LFS, 1 Hz, 600 bursts) delivered to the CA1/SB induced LTD of nociceptive discharges in all cases. (springer.com)
  • Pressure stimulation (300 g) applied to the rat-tail induced nociceptive responses in the cingulate and prelimbic areas of the PFC, which receives direct pathways from CA1/SB. (springer.com)
  • After recovery from LTD, HFS delivered to CA1/SB had the opposite effect, inducing LTE of nociceptive responses in the same neuron. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils following transient global ischemia were investigated via immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. (elsevier.com)
  • The level of expression in the CA1 region decreased dramatically between 24 and 72 h after ischemia. (wustl.edu)
  • Loss of activity-dependent Arc gene expression in the retrosplenial cortex after hippocampal inactivation: interaction in a higher-order memory circuit. (uci.edu)
  • One breakpoint mapped to 7q31 and, although outside its coding region, was hypothesised to disrupt FOXP2 expression. (mpi.nl)
  • Immunohistochemical studies on the localization of Interleukin-1 and its receptor in the hippocampal CA-1 region of the ischemic brain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The combination of low NPY and modulated CA1 synaptic function seems to make it easier for the brain to hardwire any stimuli associated with something scary into long-term memory. (psychologytoday.com)
  • We measured biochemical and physiologic parameters from the same region of the brain to identify the mechanism by which an agent acts. (asahq.org)
  • The posterior circulation is an understudied brain region that is affected by stroke. (hindawi.com)
  • Posterior circulation syndromes and associated brain region, clinical signs. (hindawi.com)
  • Where are the hippocampal place cells located in the brain? (brainscape.com)
  • Roberto is recognized for her contributions to the understanding of alcohol addiction, specifically for her research on the effects of alcohol and neuromodulators (e.g., neuropeptides and neuroimmune mediators) on synaptic transmission in the central amygdala, a critical addiction-related brain region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell numbers, distribution, shape, and regional variation throughout the murine hippocampal formation from the adult brain Allen Reference Atlas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Quantifying the distribution of cells in every brain region is fundamental to attaining a comprehensive census of distinct neuronal and glial types. (bioportfolio.com)
  • cell analysis in an entire brain region. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These findings may have relevant implications in the light of the knowledge that iron accumulates in brain regions of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. (iospress.com)
  • a significant reduction in the relative S845 phosphorylation ( bottom left ) and a significant increase in the total GluR1 level ( bottom right ) in hippocampal samples from adult (≥3-mo-old) S831A mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Using two independent image processing pipelines and the adult mouse reference atlas, we report the first cellular-level soma segmentation in every sub-region and non-principal layer of the left hippocampal formation through the full rostral-caudal extent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Enhanced Fos, TUNEL, and caspase-3 positivities were detected in the hippocampal CA1 region in the ischemic gerbils. (elsevier.com)
  • The impact that acetylcholine release has in hippocampal CA1 and the extent to which different interneuron subtypes are affected will depend on the specific location and density of cholinergic axon terminals as well as its inactivating enzyme, acetylcholinesterase. (frontiersin.org)
  • This transitory memory enhancement is associated with an ameboid morphology in the newly repopulated microglial cells and increased astrocyte density that are linked with a higher density of mature hippocampal synaptic spines and differences in pre- and post-synaptic markers. (springer.com)
  • Using immediate-early genes to map hippocampal subregional functions. (uci.edu)
  • 2006). Subregional models of hippocampal function suggest that CA1 function is critical in correctly identifying novel relationships among objects within a particular spatial context. (scielo.cl)
  • We then investigate the roles of the hippocampal theta modulation and phase precession on the inheritance process. (mit.edu)
  • We find that theta modulation favors the inheritance and leads to faster place field formation whereas phase precession changes the drift of CA1 place fields over time. (mit.edu)
  • In presence of the medial septal region lesions, formalin did not evoke an excitation of interneurons or theta activation. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Hippocampal damage is associated with cognitive impairments observed in rodents and humans following GCI ( Gulinello, Lebesgue, Jover-Mengual, Zukin, & Etgen, 2006 ). (ac.ir)
  • In the IPC + ischemia-operated-group, Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the SP and its protein level in the CA1 were not significantly changed compared with those in the sham-operated-groupafter ischemia-reperfusion. (elsevier.com)
  • The E6-AP ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene is localized within a narrowed Angelman syndrome critical region. (nature.com)
  • 1996). The morphologic changes of CA1 following type 1 diabetes have shown some discrepancies. (scielo.cl)
  • What types of receptive fields do hippocampal place cells have? (brainscape.com)
  • Given the significant impact individual interneurons have on neuronal network function, it is probable that a considerable proportion of acetylcholine's influence on hippocampal activity arises through interneuron modulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biasibetti R, dos Santos JPA, Rodrigues L. 2017 Hippocampal changes in STZ-model of Alzheimer's disease are dependent on sex. (ac.ir)