One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.

The tetanus patterns for the induction of long-term depression in the adult rat hippocampus. (1/688)

Previous reports suggested that a low-frequency stimulus (LFS) of 1~2 Hz (600~900 pulses) induced a homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the hippocampal CA1 area of young rats (< 4-week old). However, these stimulation protocols often failed to induce LTD in the adult CA1 hippocampus. In the present study, we examined the effects of two novel tetanus patterns on LTD induction in adult rat hippocampal slices. We determined that these novel stimulation protocols induced LTD in the adult hippocampus, and that the characteristics of induced LTD were parameter-specific, including latency (period from the end of tetanus to a beginning of LTD) and the amplitude of LTD. These results suggest that LFS with certain patterns can induce LTD in the CA1 area of adult rat hippocampal slices, and that the multi-trains of 2-Hz protocol provided more effective response than the 5-Hz protocol.  (+info)

Requirement of TORC1 for late-phase long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. (2/688)

Late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and long-term memory depend on the transcription of mRNA of CRE-driven genes and synthesis of proteins. However, how synaptic signals propagate to the nucleus is unclear. Here we report that the CREB coactivator TORC1 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 1) undergoes neuronal activity-induced translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, a process required for CRE-dependent gene expression and L-LTP. Overexpressing a dominant-negative form of TORC1 or down-regulating TORC1 expression prevented activity-dependent transcription of CREB target genes in cultured hippocampal neurons, while overexpressing a wild-type form of TORC1 facilitated basal and activity-induced transcription of CREB target genes. Furthermore, overexpressing the dominant-negative form of TORC1 suppressed the maintenance of L-LTP without affecting early-phase LTP, while overexpressing the wild-type form of TORC1 facilitated the induction of L-LTP in hippocampal slices. Our results indicate that TORC1 is essential for CRE-driven gene expression and maintenance of long-term synaptic potentiation.  (+info)

NMDA and dopamine converge on the NMDA-receptor to induce ERK activation and synaptic depression in mature hippocampus. (3/688)

The formation of enduring internal representation of sensory information demands, in many cases, convergence in time and space of two different stimuli. The first conveys the sensory input, mediated via fast neurotransmission. The second conveys the meaning of the input, hypothesized to be mediated via slow neurotransmission. We tested the biochemical conditions and feasibility for fast (NMDA) and slow (dopamine) neurotransmission to converge on the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase signaling pathways, crucial in several forms of synaptic plasticity, and recorded its effects upon synaptic transmission. We detected differing kinetics of ERK2 activation and synaptic strength changes in the CA1 for low and high doses of neurotransmitters in hippocampal slices. Moreover, when weak fast and slow inputs are given together, they converge on ERK2, but not on p38 or JNK, and induce strong short-term synaptic depression. Surprisingly, pharmacological analysis revealed that a probable site of such convergence is the NMDA receptor itself, suggesting it serves as a detector and integrator of fast and slow neurotransmission in the mature mammalian brain, as revealed by ERK2 activation and synaptic function.  (+info)

Hippocampal 'zipper' slice studies reveal a necessary role for calcineurin in the increased activity of L-type Ca(2+) channels with aging. (4/688)


Synaptic strength and postsynaptically silent synapses through advanced aging in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (5/688)


Subregional hippocampal atrophy predicts Alzheimer's dementia in the cognitively normal. (6/688)


Induction- and conditioning-protocol dependent involvement of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in synaptic potentiation and contextual fear memory in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. (7/688)


A role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in adenosine A(1) receptor-mediated synaptic depotentiation in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus. (8/688)


Buy your Pulsafeeder K3VHC1 Pulsafeeder KOPkit for PULSAtron pumps size 3 with VHC1 wet end code from Nova-Tech International today.
Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB) areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC...
Introdução: Estima-se que a infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC) acometa 3% da população global constituindo a maior causa de cirrose hepática e hepatocarcinoma. Nos pacientes infectados pelo genótipo 1 do VHC, a terapia em vida real com interferon peguilado (PEG-IFN) e ribavirina (RBV) resulta em 30% a 50% de resposta virológica sustentada (RVS). Este desfecho é determinado por fatores de associados ao VHC (carga viral, genótipo, quasispécies), características do hospedeiro (etnia, gênero, fatores genéticos, comorbidades, adesão) e fatores ligados aos medicamentos. Estudos de associação genética ampla (GWAS) têm demonstrado que a presença dos polimorfismos (SNP) no gene da interleucina 28B (IL-28B) associam-se a resposta à terapia baseada em interferon. Os SNPs rs12979860, rs8099917 e rs12980275 têm sido amplamente estudados e pacientes com o perfil favorável têm maiores chances de alcançar a RVS ou a eliminação espontânea do VHC. Objetivos: Avaliar a ...
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Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Position: PhD Student. Research focus: Understanding the functional diversity of hippocampal CA3 CCK+ interneurons. email: [email protected] CV. ...
The ON Semiconductor MC74VHC1G50 / MC74VHC1GT50 is an advanced high speed CMOS buffer in tiny footprint packages. The MC74VHC1G50 has CMOS level input thresholds while the MC74VHC1GT50 has TTL level input thresholds.
Lhépatite C pose un problème de santé publique majeur, dans la mesure où le risque de développer une infection chronique est relativement élevé (40 à 60%) et où la résistance au traitement de choix - linterféron alpha pégylé et la ribavirine - touche près de la moitié des patients. Cette persistence virale repose avant tout sur de puissantes stratégies dévasion du système immunitaire inné de lhôte par le virus. Dans ce projet, nous nous sommes intéressés à la caractérisation de la réponse antivirale dans des hépatocytes primaires humains normaux et chroniquement infectés avec le VHC, un domaine encore largement inconnu dû à la difficulté dobtenir ce type de matériel primaire. Nous avons étudié la fonctionnalité de deux voies majeures de détection des pathogènes viraux suite à lexposition dhépatocytes primaires humains à de lARNdb intracellulaire, via le récepteur et adaptateur RIG-I/MDA5-CARDIF, et extracellulaire via TLR3-TRIF, mimant ainsi les ...
2010-03-01 Resumo em português CONTEXTO: Doentes com doença renal crônica em tratamento hemodialítico apresentam risco aumentado de aquisição do vírus da hepatite C (VHC). Elevadas taxas de prevalência têm sido detectadas em unidades de diálise do mundo inteiro. Estudos recentes têm demonstrado que a infecção pelo VHC interfere de forma negativa na sobrevida dos pacientes em hemodiálise e naqueles submetidos ao transplante renal. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores de risco d (mais) a infecção pelo VHC em pacientes submetidos a hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal entre janeiro e dezembro de 2007. Neste período, 236 pacientes em hemodiálise foram testados pelo ELISA de terceira geração. Os casos positivos foram submetidos a pesquisa qualitativa do HCV-RNA pelo método de PCR. Consideraram-se como portadores de infecção pelo VHC aqueles pacientes com anti-VHC e HCV-RNA positivos. Dosagens mensais de ALT e a média do valor de 12 meses foram ...
Razširjenost (prevalenca) okužbe znaša v svetovnem merilu 2,6 %, v državah z visokim tveganjem (temnordeče obarvane na zemljevidu) pa 5,0 % ali več - v Mongoliji celo do 48 %.[9] Po ocenah je po vsem svetu kronično okuženih z VHC od 130-170 milijonov ljudi oziroma okoli 3 % svetovnega prebivalstva.[10] Okoli 3-4 milijoni se letno okužijo z boleznijo in več kot 35.000 jih letno umre zaradi bolezni, povezanih s hepatitisom C.[10] V ZDA sta 2 % prebivalstva okužena z virusom hepatitisa C,[11] vsako leto pa je 35.000-185.000 novih primerov. V razvitih državah pojavnost od leta 1990 upada zaradi izboljšav pri testiranju krvi, namenjene za transfuzijo.[12] V ZDA umre zaradi okužbe s VHC letno od 8.000 do 10.000 ljudi; pričakovati je porast smrtnosti zaradi nastopa bolezni pri osebah, ki so dobile tranfuzijo krvi, preden se jo je začelo presejavati na VHC.[13] V Rusiji je z virusom okuženih vsaj 5 milijonov ljudi, kar predstavlja 4,4 % celotnega prebivalstva. Glede na podatke iz leta ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
The ICAM-1-positive vessels in the hippocampal CA1 in the control, 2VO, HL and HL + 2VO groups at 1, 2 and 4 months post-surgery. Scale bar: 20 µm.Values are e
Abstract:. El virus de hepatitis C (VHC) afecta al 3% de la población mundial, representando una de las principales causas de hepatitis crónica y trasplante hepático. En el paciente infectado, el virus existe como un espectro de mutantes que difieren en su potencial de replicación, denominado cuasiespecie. La extensa variabilidad del VHC proporciona a la cuasiespecie una alta plasticidad fenotípica y capacidad de adaptación, que favorece el mantenimiento de la infección crónica. Si bien el principal sitio de replicación del VHC es el hígado, numerosos estudios han descripto la replicación del virus en tejidos extrahepáticos, en particular en células mononucleares de sangre periférica (CMSP) y esto se ha asociado con el desarrollo de distintas manifestaciones extrahepáticas. Se ha relacionado a distintos genes del VHC con la compartimentación en CMSP, pero aún no está claro cuáles son los factores celulares y virales requeridos para la infección de las células linfoides, por ...
Evolución de la fibrosis hepática en reclusos coinfectados por VIH y VHC que inician tratamiento con inhibidores de la proteasa potenciados
Market Maker Surveillance Report. SCON, VELT, VHC, VRS, MDXG, DGAZ, Losing Stocks With Lowest Price Friction For Thursday, March 14th 2013
This project examines the neural circuitry of the CA2 region of the hippocampus and its role in hippocampal-dependent learning and behavior. Although the hippoc...
Hepatitida C, žloutenka C, virová hepatitida. Možnosti léčby hepatitidy, lékařská poradna, zkušenosti pacientů s hepatitidou.
1998 10 22.35003 02 17 47.55 +16 18 22.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 10 22.48311 02 17 46.87 +16 18 18.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 11 18.07069 02 15 27.92 +16 05 19.9 21.5R 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.14591 02 15 27.54 +16 05 17.6 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.23096 02 15 27.03 +16 05 15.2 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 12 14.83617 02 13 35.14 +15 53 37.6 22.7R 523955 950 Ca3601 1998 12 14.85345 02 13 35.07 +15 53 37.3 523955 950 Ca3601 1999 11 10.16227 02 22 34.50 +16 25 15.5 22.5R 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.18814 02 22 34.40 +16 25 14.7 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.24322 02 22 34.07 +16 25 12.9 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.31381 02 22 33.61 +16 25 10.7 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.37010 02 22 33.30 +16 25 09.0 22.7R 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.41551 02 22 33.04 +16 25 07.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.24109 02 22 28.74 +16 24 43.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.28637 02 22 28.51 +16 24 42.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.33656 02 22 28.17 +16 24 41.3 523955 696 Ca7321 2000 11 23.18416 02 27 52.14 +16 34 03.5 ...
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در مخازن شکاف‌دار، میزان برداشت نفت به آشام خودبخودی آب در ماتریس و خارج ساختن نفت موجود در آن به سمت شکاف‌ها، بستگی دارد. اما این فرآیند زمانی امکان‌پذیر است که ماتریس بلوک‌ها، «آب‌تر» باشد. از آنجا که مخازن کربناته غالبا «نفت‌تر» می‌باشند، به کارگیری آشام خودبخودی در مخازن کربناته شکاف‌دار مستلزم تغییر ترشوندگی در حین عملیات سیلاب‌زنی می‌باشد. در این مقاله، تأثیر یون‌های مؤثر بر پتانسیل سطح (SO42- ،Ca2+ ،Mg2+) موجود در آب دریا در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته و همچنین تأثیر دما و غلظت نمک NaCl در فرآیند آشام خودبخودی مورد تحقیق تجربی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 13
MC74VHC240-D datasheet, MC74VHC240-D pdf, MC74VHC240-D data sheet, datasheet, data sheet, pdf, ON Semiconductor, Octal Bus Buffer/Line Driver Inverting with 3-State Outputs
Long term potentiation definition psychology (LTP) is a long lasting strengthening response of the postsynaptic nerve cell when the stimulation athwart the
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhen Li, Rong Zhou, Shengzhong Cui, Guiqin Xie, Weiyan Cai, Masahiro Sokabe, Ling Chen].
Heritage Farms bedding, bath, window curtain and tabletop designs pays tribute to this classic pattern, in coordinated fabrics of black, burgundy, mustard, and rust, all in small checks and plaids. Natural Jute wow in tableware and rugs in matching tones. Shop Heritage Farms by VHC Brands at Ladybug Junction.
Ashmont Queen Quilt 94 x 94 from VHC Brands (Victorian Heart). The bold and fun blocks of the Ashmont Quilt are a timeless palette of warm grey, antiqued tan an
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If your symptoms do not improve with lifestyle changes or medications, you may need additional tests. The tests offered at the Heartburn Center at VHC include: Reflux Testing (24hr Ambulatory
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Introdução: Hepatite crônica recidivada (HCR) é a regra após o transplante hepático (TH) em pacientes infectados pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC), provocando progressão de fibrose mais acelerada no órgão...
1998 10 22.40628 03 08 48.43 +16 39 15.3 22.8R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 10 22.49369 03 08 47.93 +16 39 12.7 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.13535 03 06 18.37 +16 27 28.1 22.6R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.20454 03 06 18.00 +16 27 26.2 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 12 17.95527 03 03 45.48 +16 15 35.9 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.00257 03 03 45.30 +16 15 35.6 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.03799 03 03 45.12 +16 15 34.0 91205 950 Ca3601 1999 10 06.55934 03 17 46.28 +16 54 48.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.53349 03 17 33.50 +16 53 45.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.57011 03 17 33.32 +16 53 44.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.60427 03 17 33.15 +16 53 43.6 23.4R 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.63619 03 17 33.05 +16 53 42.9 23.3R 91205 568 Ca6740 2000 12 28.31163 03 18 17.672 +16 31 40.74 23.2R 91205 568 Cl4052 2000 12 28.38018 03 18 17.407 +16 31 39.64 23.0R 91205 568 Cl4052 2003 10 01.56099 03 48 19.49 +17 21 57.5 23.1R 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 10 01.59893 03 48 19.38 +17 21 56.8 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 12 21.158989 03 41 29.38 +16 54 ...
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The pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is often expressed early in infancy and toddlerhood. Mouse models of syndromic disorders have provided insight regarding mechanisms of action, but most studies have focused on characterization in juveniles and adults. Insight into developmental trajectories, particularly related to circuit and synaptic function, likely will yield important information regarding disorder pathogenesis that leads to symptom progression. Chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion is one of the most common copy number variations associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Yet, how haploinsufficiency of chr16p11.2 affects early synaptic maturation and function is unknown. To address this knowledge gap, the present study focused on three key components of circuit formation and function-basal synaptic transmission, local circuit function, and maturation of glutamatergic synapses -in developing hippocampal CA1 neurons in a chr16p11.2 microdeletion mouse model. The ...
The following list includes the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that we can perform in our offices at VHC Physician Group Urology:
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Pyramidal neuron located in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These neurons receive information from CA3 pyramidal neurons and send their axons out of the hippocampus.. Image used with permission of Synapse Web ...
Kanamaru Takashi , Horita Takehiko , Okabe Yasunori Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 67(12), 4058-4063, 1998 J-STAGE Cited by (2) ...
Funkcjonalne zróżnicowanie limfocytów pomocniczych T. Existența subseturi de T helper CD4 + limfocite care diferă în modelele lor de secreție de citokine și funcțiile efectoare oferă un cadru pentru înțelegerea eterogenitatea răspunsurilor imune normale și patologice. Definirea ularului celular și a mecanismelor moleculare ale diferențierii helper- celule T ar trebui să conducă la strategii raționale de manipulare a răspunsurilor imune pentru profilaxie și terapie. Czynnik wzrostu komórek T: […]. ...
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1,0 1,1 Pawoł Völkel: Prawopisny słownik hornjoserbskeje rěče. Hornjoserbsko-němski słownik. Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina, Budyšin 2005, ISBN 3-7420-1920-1, str. 407. ...
《眼科学报》创刊于1985年,是由中华人民共和国教育部主管、中山大学主办、中山大学中山眼科中心承办的一本国家级医学期刊(季刊,刊号:ISSN:1000-4432; CN:44-1119/R)。由中山大学中山眼科中心前院长葛坚,中山大学中山眼科中心主任、院长刘奕志担任主编。 主要报道国内外眼科领域新进展,新动态,着重报道眼科学基础研究,临床经验,以及流行病等相关的理论知识与技术操作。 目前已被Chemical Abstract(CA)、中国期刊全文数据库(知网)、中国核心期刊(遴选)数据库(万方)、中文科技期刊数据库(维普)等国内外重要数据库收录。
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Layer II projects primarily to dentate gyrus and hippocampal region CA3; layer III projects primarily to hippocampal region CA1 ... Alterations in the neural activity across the brain region results in an observed "traveling wave" phenomena across the MEC ... An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. ... It is usually divided into medial and lateral regions with three bands with distinct properties and connectivity running ...
"Differential effects of PACAP-38 on synaptic responses in rat hippocampal CA1 region". Learning & Memory. 8 (5): 265-271. doi: ... "PACAP-38 enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal CA1 region". Learning & Memory. 7 (5): 303-311. doi: ... "The transient depression of hippocampal CA1 LTP induced by chronic intermittent ethanol exposure is associated with an ... a brain region critical in mediating the behavioral effects of alcohol consumption. In 2005, Roberto became an assistant ...
While this was a temporary case of amnesia, it still shows the importance of the CA1 region of the hippocampus in memory. ... This virus affected the hippocampal regions of the brain. Because of this damage, Wearing was unable to remember information ... One reason that patients could not form new episodic memories is likely because the CA1 region of the hippocampus has a lesion ... In addition, specific areas of the hippocampus (the CA1 region) are involved with memory. Research has also shown that when ...
"Activation of postsynaptically silent synapses during pairing-induced LTP in CA1 region of hippocampal slice". Nature. 375 ( ... However, recent research on hippocampal silent synapses shows that while they may indeed be a developmental landmark in the ... 193-5. Kullmann DM (May 1994). "Amplitude fluctuations of dual-component EPSCs in hippocampal pyramidal cells: implications for ... mediated by AMPARs and NMDARs in hippocampal neurons. More direct evidence came from experiments where only a few axons were ...
CA1), terminate on the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region. Damage to any of these hippocampal pathways is sufficient to cause ... "Blockade of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal CA1 region by inhibitors of protein synthesis". J. Neurosci. 4 (12): 3080 ... Huerta P.T., Tonegawa S., Tsien J.Z. (1996). "The essential role of hippocampal CA1 NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity ... In summary, although the CA1 and DG regions are closely related physically and functionally, they react differently to insults ...
Hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because the ... They pass through hippocampal commissures to reach contralateral regions of hippocampus. Hippocampal commissures have dorsal ... from CA4 through CA1 (only CA3 and CA1 are labeled). The CA regions are also structured depthwise in clearly defined strata (or ... Region CA1 receives input from the CA3 subfield, EC layer III and the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus (which project only to ...
"Etomidate Does Not Alter Recovery after Anoxia of Evoked Population from the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampal Slices". ... Amorim, P; Cottrell, JE; Kass, IS (1999). "Effect of Small Changes in Temperature on CA1 Pyramidal Cells from Rat Hippocampal ... and Morphology in Rat Hippocampal Slice CA-1 Pyramidal Cells". Stroke. 30 (11): 2400-2407. doi:10.1161/01.str.30.11.2400. PMID ... "The Effect of Fentanyl on Electrophysiologic Recovery of CA1 Pyramidal Cells from Anoxia in the Rat Hippocampal Slice". ...
Kemp A, Manahan-Vaughan D (April 2008). "The hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus differentiate between environmental and ... exhibits frequency-dependent properties in synaptic plasticity and behavioural metaplasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region in ... Her findings with regard to the role of hippocampal long-term depression in memory processing have contributed to a revised ... Lemon N, Manahan-Vaughan D (September 2012). "Dopamine D1/D5 receptors contribute to de novo hippocampal LTD mediated by novel ...
... blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro". Brain Research. 452 (1-2): 57-65. doi:10.1016/0006 ... An analysis of CA1 hippocampal synapses revealed that inhibitory avoidance training induced in vivo AMPA receptor ... Tonegawa found that by impairing the NMDA receptor, specifically by genetically removing the NR1 subunit in the CA1 region, the ... McHugh TJ, Blum KI, Tsien JZ, Tonegawa S, Wilson MA (December 1996). "Impaired hippocampal representation of space in CA1- ...
CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex ... The pyramidal cells in CA3 send some axons back to the dentate gyrus hilus, but they mostly project to regions CA2 and CA1 via ... Diagram of hippocampal regions in a rat brain. Jerome Engel TAP, ed. Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook in Three Volumes. ... There are four hippocampal subfields, regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit called the trisynaptic ...
"Virus-mediated gene transfer into hippocampal CA1 region restores long-term potentiation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... Korte, M; Carroll, P; Wolf, E; Brem, G; Thoenen, H; Bonhoeffer, T (September 1995). "Hippocampal long-term potentiation is ... Engert, F; Bonhoeffer, T (May 1999). "Dendritic spine changes associated with hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity". ... the demonstration that hippocampal spines exhibit activity-dependent, bidirectional structural plasticity (Nägerl et al., ...
Hippocampal CA1 neurons have been shown to produce reliable dendritic spike propagation through spatial summation of multiple ... In the hippocampus, the CA1 neurons contain two distinctive regions that receive excitatory synaptic inputs: the perforant path ... Nav1.6 has been identified in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons that generate dendritic spikes; the density of Nav1.6 in ... Dendritic sodium spikes are variable triggers of axonal action potentials in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neuron 21:1189- ...
They induced LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices by 2 100 Hz 1s trains, 20 s apart. Then they homogenized the slices, ... CA1 homogenates were probed with an antibody specific for Thr286 - phosphorylated CaMKII and an antibody detecting total CaMKII ... There is fast-acting, local translation of proteins in the dendritic region near the spines when an inducing high-frequency ... discovered that the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation. When they ...
... blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro". Brain Research. 452 (1-2): 57-65. doi:10.1016/0006 ... Mayford, M.; Baranes, D.; Podsypanina, K.; Kandel, E. R. (1996). "The 3'-untranslated region of CaMKII alpha is a cis-acting ... Dendritic TEs have been identified in the untranslated region of several mRNAs, like MAP2 and alphaCaMKII. Synaptic tagging is ... untranslated region. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4 group (eIF4) members recruit ribosomal subunits to the mRNA terminus, and ...
The CA1 is the region within the hippocampus between the subiculum, the innermost area of the hippocampal formation, and region ... The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal sulcus. Cells within the CA1 are mostly pyramidal cells, similar ... and pyramidal neurons in CA1. The hippocampal relay involves 3 main regions within the hippocampus which are classified ... Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ...
Glucocorticoids that are released during stress cause damage to neurons that are located in the hippocampal region of the brain ... The CA1 neurons found in the hippocampus are destroyed due to glucocorticoids decreasing the release of glucose and the ... such as calcium within hippocampal neurons) in the cell. In the case of hippocampal cells, this release is dependent upon the ... Hippocampal damage may also cause memory loss and problems with memory storage. This memory loss includes retrograde amnesia ...
They are both produced as the response of the CA1 region to inputs from the CA3 region. Ripples are only present when theta ... In spite of the fact that hippocampal ripples (140-220 Hz) and fast gamma (90-150 Hz) oscillations have similar mechanisms of ... Besides they are shown to be region dependent, ripples that are the fastest oscillations are present in the CA1 region ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1 dendritic layer region are important in generating these waves, and they affect the subiculum, ...
... s are the axons of the neurons in the CA3 regions of the hippocampus that form synapses in the CA1 regions. ... Christie, J. M.; Jahr, CE (4 January 2006). "Multivesicular release at Schaffer collateral-CA1 hippocampal synapses". Journal ... The Schaffer collateral is located between the CA3 region and CA1 region in the hippocampus. Schaffer collaterals are the axons ... The contralateral CA3 region sends information through Schaffer collateral to the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Plastic changes ...
... for the expression but not for the induction or the maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region". The ... In mouse hippocampal CA1 neurons, certain PI3Ks are complexed with AMPA receptors and compartmentalized at the postsynaptic ... Furthermore, PI3K inhibitors abolished the expression of LTP in rat hippocampal CA1, but do not affect its induction. Notably, ... of LTP in mouse hippocampal CA1. The PI3K pathway also recruits many other proteins downstream, including mTOR, GSK3β, and PSD- ...
The enzyme was also expressed at high levels in the activated microglia of the hippocampal CA1 region and in degenerating ... to human chromosome region 1q31 by in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics ... to human chromosome region 1q31 by in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics ... and all 3 have almost identical active site regions. The differences between them lie in the microenvironments that surround ...
When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... "Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells ... DSIs can be blocked by ionotropic receptor calcium ion channel antagonists on the somata and proximal apical dendrites of CA1 ... in CA1 pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells. In a laboratory setting step depolarizations the soma have been used to ...
TSA treatments in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice increased acetylation levels and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP), a ... Studies done on Acetylation of histone H3 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus show that the activation of NMDA receptors ... Long term potentiation in CA1 neurons was not observed in HDAC2 OE mice but was easily induced in HDAC2 KO mice. LTP was not ... See Figure: Brain regions involved in memory formation, and also this reference.) When contextual fear conditioning is applied ...
... others hypothesize that AD patients have increased neurogenesis in the CA1 region of Ammon's horn (the principal region of AD ... increase hippocampal neurogenesis. It has been theorized that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis in individuals with major ... As discussed above, hippocampal cells are sensitive to stress which can lead to decreased neurogenesis. This area is being ... Seasonal changes in hippocampal densities have been described since 1994 where neuronal survival peaks during the fall (October ...
Hyman, JM; Wyble BP; Goyal V; Rossi CA; Hasselmo ME (December 17, 2003). "Stimulation in hippocampal region CA1 in behaving ... from electrophysiological studies showing that both synaptic plasticity and strength of inputs to hippocampal region CA1 vary ... Later, hippocampal oscillations of the same type were observed in rats; however, the frequency of rat hippocampal EEG ... Kirk IJ (1998). "Frequency modulation of hippocampal theta by the supramammillary nucleus, and other hypothalamo-hippocampal ...
... particularly the hippocampal CA1 region, pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. There ...
More specifically, only the CA1 region of the hippocampus seemed to demonstrate a significant reduction in size. The CA1 ... Because the region of the hippocampus affected by protein malnutrition is so specific, global hippocampal function is not ... Rats with the CA1 volume deficit were found to perform poorly in a tasks requiring behavioural inhibition and accurate response ... In another study using rats, it was found that the size of the hippocampus (the central region in memory functioning) was ...
... then CA1, and finally through to the subiculum. Information is then directed back to the para-hippocampal region and finally to ... that is projected from nearly all neocortical areas come together onto one or more subdivisions of the para-hippocampal region ... Similarly, hippocampal lesions severely impacted all three components (what, where, and when) suggesting that the hippocampus ... Eichenbaum, H. (2000). "A cortical-hippocampal system for declarative memory". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 1 (1): 41-50. doi: ...
... though in some cases axon collaterals of these neurons are observed migrating into the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Aspiny ... The stratum pyramidale is the third deepest hippocampal layer, and in relation to the stratum lucidum, is located underneath it ... In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the stratum pyramidale connects with the stratum lucidum by mossy fibers that run through ... also extend to the stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-molecular above the radiatum as well as to the CA1 and hilur regions ...
Jeffreys, JGR; HL Hass (1982-12-02). "Synchronized bursting of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells in the absence of synaptic ... Smith, JC; HH Ellenberger; K Ballanyi; DW Richter; JL Feldman (November 1991). "Pre-Botzinger complex: a brainstem region that ... The subiculum, a component of the hippocampal formation, is thought to perform relaying of signals originating in the ... "An autoradiographic study of the organization of the efferent connections of the hippocampal formation in the rat". Journal of ...
The juvenile type also shows reactivity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampal CA1 area, and the reticular formation of the ... In regions lacking obvious neuronal depletion, atrophy of the neuropil is noted. The globus pallidus (lateral greater than ... In both the juvenile and adult forms, regions in which more than 40% of neurons became immunoreactive to 1C2 (a monoclonal ... The human genome contains two atrophin genes; DRPLA has been correlated to the expansion of the polyglutamine region of the ...
Evidence of decreased complexity in the CA1 and CA3 region of the hippocampus in terms of dendritic length and spine density ... Additionally, investigation of post mortem hippocampal tissue indicates decreased levels of neuron-specific glucocorticoid ... Stress can also result in inheritable changes DNA methylation in the promoter regions of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ... Maternal separation and postnatal maternal abuse also increases DNA methylation at regulatory regions of BDNF genes in the ...
D) Hinge region: Thought to be a flexible domain that connects the DBD with the LBD. Influences intracellular trafficking and ... Gilbert ME (January 2004). "Alterations in synaptic transmission and plasticity in area CA1 of adult hippocampus following ... and genetic evidence for its role in the maturation of mouse hippocampal synapses in vivo". Endocrinology. 155 (9): 3713-24. ... domains are independently well folded and structurally stable while the hinge region (D) and optional C-terminal (F) domains ...
Using a computer model, subthreshold currents were simulated in the CA3 region that directly correlated with increased CA1 ... Stacey, William C.; Durand, Dominique M. (2001). "Synaptic Noise Improves Detection of Subthreshold Signals in Hippocampal CA1 ... The hippocampus is a region of the forebrain in the medial temporal lobe closely associated with memory formation and ... Common injuries in the hippocampus region can result in schizophrenia, epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Synaptic ...
Tsien, Joe Z.; Huerta, Patricio T.; Tonegawa, Susumu (1996). "The Essential Role of Hippocampal CA1 NMDA Receptor-Dependent ... and deleted to form the diversity of the variable region of antibodies. This process is known as V(D)J recombination. In 1983, ... In 2012, his lab demonstrated that the activation of a specific sub-population of mouse hippocampal neurons, labelled during a ... Silva, A. J., Stevens, C. F., Tonegawa, S., & Wang, Y. (1992). Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium- ...
Its abbreviation CA is used in naming the hippocampal subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4. It can be distinguished as an area ... The dorsal hippocampus also has more place cells than both the ventral and intermediate hippocampal regions. The intermediate ... ISBN 978-0-471-36727-7. Huerta PT, Lisman JE (Aug 1993). "Heightened synaptic plasticity of hippocampal CA1 neurons during a ... ISBN 978-0-19-518980-3. Cenquizca LA, Swanson LW (Nov 2007). "Spatial organization of direct hippocampal field CA1 axonal ...
Sleep has been found to benefit spatial memory, by enhancing hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation. Hippocampal areas ... Lesions to this region are also known to create retention deficits for tasks learned up to 4 weeks but not 6 weeks prior to the ... One circuit is used for recollection-based place recognition memory and includes the entorhinal-CA1 system, while the other ... Inactivation of this region accounts for impaired navigation in the dark and it may be involved in the process of path ...
In place cells, a type of neuron found in the hippocampal region of the brain, phase precession is believed to play a major ... These oscillations are measurable in local field potentials and electroencephalography (EEG). In the CA1 region of the ... This, in turn, gave rise to the question of whether phase precession could be observed in any other regions of the brain, with ... Lenck-Santini PP, Fenton AA, Muller RU (July 2008). "Discharge properties of hippocampal neurons during performance of a jump ...
Significant positive correlations were also obtained between VVIQ scores and hippocampal structures including Bilateral CA1, ... These regions included the occipital lobe and ventral stream areas, two parietal lobe regions, the posterior parietal cortex ... the authors propose that these parietal and prefrontal regions, and occipital regions, are part of a network involved in ... The activated regions beyond the visual areas are believed to drive the imagery-specific processes rather than the visual ...
... showed higher levels of CREB-mediated transcription in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus when compared to untrained ... two hippocampal-dependent learning tasks. Also, hippocampal electrophysiological studies revealed that the CREB mutation ... Guzowski, JF; McGaugh, JL (March 18, 1997). "Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated disruption of hippocampal cAMP response ... against hippocampal CREB mRNA can lower levels of CREB within 6 hours of infusion and impair spatial memory. Tests given ...
The effect that glucocorticoids have on memory may be due to damage specifically to the CA1 area of the hippocampal formation. ... which deacetylate the DNA in the promoter region leading to closing of the chromatin structure where NF-κB needs to bind. ... where it binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoter region of the target genes resulting in the regulation of ... and affecting cell survival and may also play a role in hippocampal development. Glucocorticoids stimulate the maturation of ...
In other regions than CA1 of the hippocampus, the field EPSP may be far more complex and harder to interpret as the source and ... In studies of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), figures are often given showing the field EPSP (fEPSP) in stratum ... In regions such as the striatum, neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine, GABA and others may also be released and ... This is the signal seen by an extracellular electrode placed in the layer of apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The ...
Glomerulosa cells are found in the Zona glomerulosa, which is the most superficial region of endocrine cells in the adrenal ... These lower levels seem to be linked to the rescue of stress-induced attenuation of CA1 long-term potentiation. When ... Preventative effect of theanine intake on stress-induced imparirments of hippocampal long-term potentiation and recognition ...
Liu DD, Yang Q, Li ST (April 2013). "Activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors induces LTD in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons". ... The -NH2 group on memantine, which is protonated under physiological pH of the body, represents the region that binds at or ... All the subunits share a common membrane topology that is dominated by a large extracellular N-terminus, a membrane region ... Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists block within the ion channel at the Mg2+ site (pore region) and prevent excessive ...
Activity-based anorexia has differential effects on apical dendritic branching in dorsal and ventral hippocampal CA1. Brain ... Sholl also realized his method is useful to determine where and how big is the region where synapses are possible, something he ... and even similar types in different regions of the body. Closely related to the Semi-Log Method, the Log-Log Method plots the ... "Dendritic Morphology of Hippocampal and Amygdalar Neurons in Adolescent Mice Is Resilient to Genetic Differences in Stress ...
September 2018). "The physiological variability of channel density in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons explored ... They mapped entire brain regions from just a few reference cells. Since it is open source, this will enable the modelling of ... and positions in 737 regions of the brain. In 2019, Idan Segev, one of the computational neuroscientists working on the Blue ...
... contextual memory triggers the activation of CREB and subsequent enhancements in excitability in a subset of hippocampal CA1 ... Many of the memory mechanisms studied to date are conserved across different brain regions, and it is likely that the ... As a consequence of this overlap between the CA1 memory engrams for the two contextual memories, recall of one contextual ... Nguyen, P. V., & Woo, N. H. (2003). Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. ...
"Long-term dynamics of CA1 hippocampal place codes". Nature Neuroscience. 16 (3): 264-266. doi:10.1038/nn.3329. ISSN 1097-6256. ... This light travels down an optical fiber to a fiber optic that is implanted in the brain region or regions of interest. The ... The expression of multiple GECIs in the same brain region can not only be performed in two sets of neurons, as shown in the ... When collecting signal from a single brain region, it is typical to use a photodetector or PMT due to their fast acquisition ...
"Total number and distribution of inhibitory and excitatory synapses on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells". Neuroscience. 102 (3 ... In mammals, the complexity of pyramidal cells increases from posterior to anterior brain regions. The degree of complexity of ... Pyramidal neuron visualized by green fluorescent protein (gfp) A hippocampal pyramidal cell One of the main structural features ... Magee J, Hoffman D, Colbert C, Johnston D (1998). "Electrical and calcium signaling in dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal ...
Based on this, it has been suggested that reduced limbic regulation by prefrontal regions plays a role in bipolar. Findings ... More extensive reductions of other indicators of GABA function have been reported in the CA4 and CA1. Abnormal expression of ... Hajek, T; Kopecek, M; Höschl, C; Alda, M (September 2012). "Smaller hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder are ... Although unipolar depression was associated with reductions in the ventral most and dorsal most regions of the mPFC and bipolar ...
Anoxia-prone cells in the brain include the hippocampal pyramidal cells of CA1, cerebellar purkinje cells, pyramidal ... In the aftermath of anoxic depolarization, at the region of infarction, the release of glutamate and aspartate into the ... Madry, C; Haglerød, C; Attwell, D (2010). "The role of pannexin hemichannels in the anoxic depolarization of hippocampal ... While basal ganglia, cerebellar purkinje cells, hippocampal, and neocortical cells are more vulnerable to transient ischemic ...
... referring to a region located between the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the subiculum, and distinguished by higher cell ... 2, §199). He originally named it subiculum cornu ammonis and so associated it with the rest of the hippocampal subfields. It ... It lies between the entorhinal cortex and the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus proper. The subicular complex comprises a set of ... The subiculum (Latin for "support") is the most inferior component of the hippocampal formation. ...
... time course of modulation of synaptic transmission by group II versus group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in region CA1 ... During her PhD, Giocomo published a first author paper in 2005 showing that application of nicotine to hippocampal slices ... Nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in region CA3 of the hippocampus. Giocomo LM, Hasselmo ME. Eur J ... Giocomo, Lisa M.; Hasselmo, Michael E. (2005). "Nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in region CA3 of ...
It is also possible to record from multiple deep brain regions at the same using GRIN lenses connected via optical fiber to an ... as a tool to inhibit neuronal activity via the recruitment of intracellular signaling pathways also in hippocampal neurons and ... Blocking Sharp Wave Ripple Events in Sleep Does Not Interfere with the Formation of Stable Spatial Representation in the CA1 ... Restricting the opsin to specific regions of the plasma membrane such as dendrites, somata or axon terminals provides a more ...
Development of Spatial Function in Rats and Associated C-Fos Patterns in the Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 Regions. ... Quantification of c-Fos positive cells in CA3 and CA1 revealed a main effect of age. Lastly, rats were trained on the dry maze ... Quantification of c-Fos positive cells in CA1 revealed a main effect of age. This suggests that spatial memory mechanisms ... emerge at p19/p20 independently from performance factors and are based on hippocampal function. ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 interneuron oriens ... Hippocampus CA1 bistratified cell; Hippocampus CA1 axo-axonic cell; Hippocampus CA1 PV+ fast-firing interneuron; ... Hippocampal CA1 NN with spontaneous theta, gamma: full scale & network clamp (Bezaire et al 2016). ... This model is a full-scale, biologically constrained rodent hippocampal CA1 network model that includes 9 cells types ( ...
... in hippocampal synapses. Here, we used serial section immunogold electron microscopy to examine whether phosphorylated tyrosine ... CA1 Region, Hippocampal / metabolism* * Dendritic Spines * Estradiol / pharmacology* * Female * Neuronal Plasticity / drug ... Age and estrogens may impact the mobility of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in hippocampal synapses. Here, we used ...
This makes CA1 distinct from other regions such as the striatum. Alternatively, withholding morphine (from morphine-tolerant ex ... Gothard KM, Skaggs WE, Moore KM, McNaughton BL (1996) Binding of hippocampal CA1 neural activity to multiple reference frames ... A, B, There was no effect of Tat or morphine exposure on the VV of hippocampal areas CA1, CA2, or the dentate gyrus (DG); ... McQuiston AR, Saggau P (2003) Mu-opioid receptors facilitate the propagation of excitatory activity in rat hippocampal area CA1 ...
Brain Region(s)/Organism:. Hippocampus; Cell Type(s):. Hippocampal CA1 CR/VIP cell; ... Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron Specific 3 (IS3) in vivo-like virtual NN simulations (Luo et al 2020). Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron ... Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron Specific 3 (IS3) in vivo-like virtual NN simulations (Luo et al 2020). Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron ... Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron Specific 3 (IS3) in vivo-like virtual NN simulations (Luo et al 2020). Hippocampus CA1 Interneuron ...
Forskolin-induced LTP in the CA1 hippocampal region is NMDA receptor dependent. J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1955-1962 (2004). ... Maletic-Savatic, M., Malinow, R. & Svoboda, K. Rapid dendritic morphogenesis in CA1 hippocampal dendrites induced by synaptic ... Amyloid beta peptide adversely affects spine number and motility in hippocampal neurons. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 33, 274-282 (2006 ... Naturally secreted oligomers of amyloid beta protein potently inhibit hippocampal long-term potentiation in vivo. Nature 416, ...
A very different pattern was found in the hippocampal formation. Here, a large proportion of postsubiculum cells that project ... A very different pattern was found in the hippocampal formation. Here, a large proportion of postsubiculum cells that project ... These findings highlight marked differences between hippocampal and tegmental inputs to the rat mammillary bodies as well as ... These findings highlight marked differences between hippocampal and tegmental inputs to the rat mammillary bodies as well as ...
CA1 Region, Hippocampal. 2. 2020. 115. 0.200. Why? Tacrolimus Binding Proteins. 1. 2020. 187. 0.190. Why? ...
The temporal lobe is the most epileptogenic region of the brain. In fact, 90% of patients with temporal interictal epileptiform ... Hippocampal sclerosis involves hippocampal cell loss in the CA1 and CA3 regions and the dentate hilus. The CA2 region is ... Hippocampal sclerosis. Approximately two thirds of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy treated surgically have hippocampal ... The temporal lobe is the most epileptogenic region of the brain. In fact, 90% of patients with temporal interictal epileptiform ...
3. Short- and long-term neuronal plasticity in hippocampal CA1 region of rat. Författare :Fen-Sheng Huang; Göteborgs ... Nyckelord :N-acetylaspartate; Hippocampal slice cultures; HPLC; NMDA; Excitotoxicity; Volume regulation; Canavan disease; ...
CA1; Rad, CA1; LMol, CA1; DG; and HR (hippocampal region, the sum of the CAs and DG). F, Quantification of SERT-i.p. fibers in ... The fibers of WT mice (A, C) were distributed throughout the hippocampal region, but those of PcdhaΔCR/ΔCR mice (B, D) were ... and B-common coding region (red), an A-specific coding region (blue), a B-specific coding region (yellow), and a 3′UTR (white ... 5F). In contrast, in GAP-43-null mice, the density of serotonergic axons arriving at the hippocampal region was lower, compared ...
Two hippocampal regions were important for this experiment: CA1 and CA3. Essentially, region CA3 sends electrical signals to ... I learned to locate the CA1 and CA3 regions in a hippocampal brain slice, to carefully insert the appropriate electrodes, and ... we would need to place a stimulating electrode in hippocampus region CA3 and a recording electrode in CA1. Reception of the ... Hippocampal mouse brain slices in a chamber filled with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid solution, which the author prepared. ...
CA1 Region, Hippocampal *ca1 region, hippocampal. Loading. Connect with NLM * * * National Library of Medicine. 8600 Rockville ...
Photographs of the hippocampal CA1 region in rats. Arrows indicate Aβ deposition; (b) Photographs of the hippocampal CA3 region ... There were Aβ depositions in the hippocampal CA1 region of DM rats, as indicated by arrows in Figure 4(a). No Aβ deposition in ... in the hippocampal CA3 region of diabetic rats had increased compared to those of the control group (Figure 4(b)). ... A. Kamal, G. J. Biessels, I. J. Urban and W. H. Gispen, "Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats: ...
... of a pattern of gliosis and neuronal loss primarily affecting the hilar polymorphic region and the CA1 pyramidal region. These ... particularly in the hippocampal formation. A common lesion is hippocampal sclerosis, which consists ... decreased concentrations of mRNA for the alpha 5 subunit of the surviving interneurons were observed in the CA1 region of the ... as seen with the hippocampal pyramidal CA1 cell. ... For example, hippocampal pyramidal neurons may not be able to ...
The selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635 blocks the serotonin-evoked decrease in EPSP in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal ... Serotonin blocks the long-term potentiation induced by primed burst stimulation in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. ... inhibit synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.. PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH, vol. 39, pp. S7-S8, ISSN: ... Effects of the antiepileptic drug felbamate on long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices.. ...
We quantified dendritic spine density and dendritic spine length in the apical dendrites of the CA1 hippocampal neurons. A ... particularly in the CA1 region. ... Spatial learning is a hippocampal-dependent process, and ... Results: Clear differences were seen in the distribution of YFP in the hippocampal formation of wild-type (WT)-YFP-H and R6/2- ... analyse dendritic spines in the hippocampus of R6/2 mice to determine if there are changes that correlate with the hippocampal ...
Gabapentin depresses, but NMDA enhanced, the presynaptic fiber volley in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. [3] ...
Laminar selectivity of the cholinergic suppression of synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal region CA1: computational ... Region CA1. In contrast to region CA3, region CA1 has little excitatory recurrent connectivity, and receives primarily ... with entorhinal cortex layer II projecting to dentate gyrus and region CA3, and layer III projecting to region CA1. Extensive ... Attractor dynamics in region CA3 have been used for retrieval of encoded memory patterns in a range of hippocampal models ( ...
In HDAC2-overexpressing mice, the CA1 region of the hippocampus contained significantly fewer spines than in controls, while in ... Similarly, in hippocampal slices, synaptic strengthening in the form of long-term potentiation was reduced or enhanced in HDAC2 ... Run For Your Brain: Exercise Boosts Hippocampal Gene Expression, Neurogenesis 22 Nov 2002. ... Run For Your Brain: Exercise Boosts Hippocampal Gene Expression, Neurogenesis 22 Nov 2002. ...
... labeled CA1 pyramidal neurons. Spine density was doubled in both apical and basal dendrites of the CA1 region in EST-treated ... Estradiol increases spine density and NMDA-dependent Ca2+ transients in spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices ... we performed simultaneous whole cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging in CA1 neuron spines and dendrites in hippocampal slices. Four ... Peak Ca2+ levels were larger in both spines and dendrites of EST-treated CA1 neurons. Ca2+ gradients between spine heads and ...
... and mGluR5-dependent short-term synaptic depression in an isolated neuron/bouton preparation from the hippocampal CA1 region. ... Ethanol induces persistent potentiation of 5-HT receptor-stimulated GABA release at synapses on rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. ... Ethanol inhibits NMDA-activated ion current in hippocampal neurons. Science (New York, N.Y.). 243: 1721-4. PMID 2467382 DOI: ... Maturation of cultured hippocampal slices results in increased excitability in granule cells International Journal of ...
The hippocampal CA1 20-40 Hz rhythm is associated with nonspatial sequence memory processing and may contribute to the role of ... Local field potential (LFP) activity was recorded from hippocampal region CA1 as rats performed a nonspatial sequence memory ... CA1 20-40 Hz power as a function of position in the sequence.. (A) Mean z-score 20-40 Hz power traces aligned relative to port ... CA1 20-40 Hz power steady-state dynamics are attained on hold-response trials and their level predicts trial accuracy.. (A) ...
Zierhut, KC, Grassmann, R, Kaufmann, J, Steiner, J, Bogerts, B, Schiltz, K (2013). Hippocampal CA1 deformity is related to ... The use of hippocampal surface models relies on manual tracing, and systematic bias in delineating this region might adversely ... It is conceivable however, that the observed hippocampal shape changes may reflect volume changes in adjacent brain regions, ... particularly in the CA1 sub-field of the rat dorsal hippocampus. In this region, while the drug-induced shape changes overlap ...
... and Arc were examined in different region of the synapse. The synaptic regions of interest were the active zone, the ... Changes in synaptic proteins in hippocampal area CA1 of a rat learned helpless model of depression. Bieler, Malte ... and the presynaptic and postsynaptic cytoplasm in Schaffer collateral synapses of hippocampal area CA1. Comparing the learned ...
The results suggest that β1-adrenergic receptors of the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions may play an important role in ... of a regulatory role for neural cell adhesion molecule sialylation state in information storage processes in hippocampal ...
We found that the Arc-positive neuronal populations rapidly turned over within 2 d in the hippocampal CA1 region, whereas ∼4% ... Dual imaging of GERI and a calcium indicator in CA1 of mice navigating a virtual reality environment revealed that only the ... Watch a 3D video visualizing the hippocampus region of a live mouse brain. ... region of the brain, a group which they believe is responsible for the long-term storage of that memory. ...
It was previously reported in WT mice that hippocampal synapses in CA1 that receive input from the left CA3 display a higher ... Here we first observed that burst timing-dependent long-term potentiation (b-LTP) in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, which ... These results suggest that hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses with presynaptic axon originating in the left CA3 are selectively ... we used optogenetics to compare NMDAR/AMPAR ratio of EPSCs in CA1 synapses with input from left vs right CA3. ...
Microglia formed a proinflammatory cell phenotype to express ED1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampal CA1 region of ... Microglia formed a proinflammatory cell phenotype to express ED1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampal CA1 region of ... Microglia formed a proinflammatory cell phenotype to express ED1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampal CA1 region of ... Microglia formed a proinflammatory cell phenotype to express ED1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampal CA1 region of ...
... suggested a loss of spatial memory due to observed neuron loss in the hippocampal CA1 region, rather than motor impairment. ... Brain morphology showed considerable effects of MAM in the forebrain including also a loss of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Effects ... Neuron loss in the cerebellum and changes found in volume of regions in cerebellum and brain stem (MeHg) most likely account ...
  • Amyloid beta peptide adversely affects spine number and motility in hippocampal neurons. (
  • Abeta(1-42) reduces synapse number and inhibits neurite outgrowth in primary cortical and hippocampal neurons: a quantitative analysis. (
  • We quantified dendritic spine density and dendritic spine length in the apical dendrites of the CA1 hippocampal neurons. (
  • There is less focus on region CA4 (consisting of cells in the hilus of the dentate gyrus) and CA2 (consisting of neurons receiving both Schaffer collateral and mossy fiber input). (
  • To investigate the physiological consequences of the increase in spine density induced by estradiol in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, we performed simultaneous whole cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging in CA1 neuron spines and dendrites in hippocampal slices. (
  • Four- to eight-days in vitro slice cultures were exposed to 17β-estradiol (EST) for an additional 4- to 8-day period, and spine density was assessed by confocal microscopy of DiI- labeled CA1 pyramidal neurons. (
  • consistently, a reduction in cell input resistance was observed in EST-treated CA1 neurons. (
  • The slopes of the input/output curves of both α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) postsynaptic currents were steeper in EST-treated CA1 neurons, consistent with the observed increase in synapse density. (
  • No differences in resting spine or dendritic Ca2+ levels were observed between control and EST-treated CA1 neurons. (
  • Peak Ca2+ levels were larger in both spines and dendrites of EST-treated CA1 neurons. (
  • Ethanol induces persistent potentiation of 5-HT receptor-stimulated GABA release at synapses on rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. (
  • We found that the Arc -positive neuronal populations rapidly turned over within 2 d in the hippocampal CA1 region, whereas ∼4% of neurons in the retrosplenial cortex consistently expressed Arc following contextual fear conditioning and repeated memory retrievals. (
  • Dual imaging of GERI and a calcium indicator in CA1 of mice navigating a virtual reality environment revealed that only the population of neurons expressing Arc during both encoding and retrieval exhibited relatively high calcium activity in a context-specific manner. (
  • The left-right asymmetry in hippocampal LTP is explained by differences in postsynaptic spines on CA1 neurons. (
  • The majority of spines on CA1 neurons receiving input from the left CA3 are morphologically 'thin' and rich in GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) [ 10 , 12 , 13 ]. (
  • Zagrebelsky M, Gödecke N, Remus A, Korte M (2018) Cell type-specific effects of BDNF in modulating dendritic architecture of hippocampal neurons. (
  • Brain morphology showed considerable effects of MAM in the forebrain including also a loss of hippocampal CA1 neurons. (
  • We then determined the excitatory content of CA1 astrocytes, averaging above 13 pyramidal neurons per domain and increasing towards CA1 midline. (
  • The CA1 region of the hippocampus is split into two well-organized layers, while the marginal zone of the neocortex is invaded by late-born cortical plate neurons. (
  • Tooth loss early in life induced mitochondrial damage and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampal neurons. (
  • Results of quantification of nociception-evoked neuronal activation (measurement of numbers of neurons expressing the protein Fos) showed that estrogen enhances inflammatory nociception primarily at higher brain centers, specifically the nucleus accumbens and the ventral hippocampal CA1 region. (
  • In-depth characterization of these neural ensembles revealed a deep-to-superficial switch in terms of Egr1-dependent activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. (
  • We found that specific manipulation of superficial but not deep pyramidal neurons of the CA1 resulted in the amelioration of depressive-like behaviors and the restoration of cognitive impairments induced by chronic stress. (
  • Objective: To analyse dendritic spines in the hippocampus of R6/2 mice to determine if there are changes that correlate with the hippocampal dysfunction observed in these mice. (
  • The hippocampus is a three-layered cortical structure at the border of the neocortex that receives afferent input from cortical regions processing a range of sensory modalities. (
  • Models of hippocampus commonly include representations of neuron function within different subregions of the hippocampal formation, including the entorhinal cortex , the dentate gyrus, and cornu ammonis regions CA3 and CA1 as well as the regulatory inputs from subcortical structures. (
  • Firing rate models include a number of different classes of models addressing hippocampal dynamics and the role of the hippocampus in memory function and goal-directed behavior. (
  • In HDAC2-overexpressing mice, the CA1 region of the hippocampus contained significantly fewer spines than in controls, while in HDAC2-negative mice the opposite was true. (
  • For example, clear differences exist in the mouse hippocampus where selective recruitment of the left or right CA3 input to the CA1 using optogenetics revealed that the left CA3 input to CA1 synapses shows burst timing-dependent LTP (b-LTP), whilst the right CA3 input to CA1 synapses does not, irrespective of ipsilateral vs contralateral location of postsynaptic CA1 response recordings [ 10 ]. (
  • Immediate posttraining infusion of U0126 (a selective inhibitor of ERK kinase) into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus blocked STM formation. (
  • Long-term tooth loss is associated with the suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis and impairment of hippocampus-dependent cognition with aging. (
  • Our results revealed that tooth loss early in life may lead to hippocampal ultrastructure remodeling and subsequent hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment in SAMP8 mice with aging. (
  • Identifying the effects of long-term tooth loss on hippocampal structural remodeling will improve our understanding of the relationship between masticatory activity and hippocampus-dependent cognition in the elderly. (
  • They created transgenic mice that expressed a calcium sensor specifically in presynaptic terminals of the CA1 region of the hippocampus, allowing them to measure how calcium signaling altered with age. (
  • The pyramidal cell layer (stratum pyramidale) of the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD. (
  • The hippocampus is one of the most affected brain regions displaying functional changes in chronic stress. (
  • To explore the underlying synaptic basis of these effects, excitatory synapses represented by postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) were immunolabelled on a series of brain sections and stereologically quantified in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum (DLS), as well as in area CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus. (
  • Age and estrogens may impact the mobility of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in hippocampal synapses. (
  • The synaptic regions of interest were the active zone, the postsynaptic density (PSD), and the presynaptic and postsynaptic cytoplasm in Schaffer collateral synapses of hippocampal area CA1. (
  • Here we first observed that burst timing-dependent long-term potentiation (b-LTP) in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, which requires GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs), was inhibited by human Aβ 1-42 (hAβ) in wild-type (WT) mice, but not in tau-knockout ( Mapt −/− ) mice. (
  • To further investigate a possible difference in GluN2B-containing NMDARs in Mapt −/− mice, we used optogenetics to compare NMDAR/AMPAR ratio of EPSCs in CA1 synapses with input from left vs right CA3. (
  • It was previously reported in WT mice that hippocampal synapses in CA1 that receive input from the left CA3 display a higher NMDAR charge transfer and a higher Ro-sensitivity than synapses in CA1 that receive input from the right CA3. (
  • These results suggest that hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses with presynaptic axon originating in the left CA3 are selectively vulnerable to Aβ and that a genetic knock out of tau protein protects them from Aβ synaptotoxicity. (
  • Acute or chronic exposure to Aβ causes a deficit in long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses in rodents [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (
  • This striking dissociation in LTP magnitude also extends to LTP induced by high frequency stimulation, with CA1 synapses receiving left CA3 input potentiating more than those receiving right CA3 input [ 11 ]. (
  • Furthermore, AA induced deficits in the formation of LTP in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of middle-aged rats, but not in young rats. (
  • Increased PSD-95-immunoreactive synapses were observed in DLS but not DMS, whereas selective loss of PSD-95 synapses was detected in the stratum radiatum of area CA1. (
  • Similarly, in hippocampal slices, synaptic strengthening in the form of long-term potentiation was reduced or enhanced in HDAC2-overexpressing and HDAC2-negative mice, respectively. (
  • In the hippocampal CA1 region, long‐term potentiation requires stronger stimulation for induction in aged rats and mice and long‐term depression becomes more prevalent. (
  • Furthermore, mice deficient in p62 displayed impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), along with diminished surface expression of GluRI and phosphorylation of S818. (
  • To explore the effects of opioids and HIV on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron structure and function, we induced HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) expression in transgenic mice for 14 d and co-administered time-release morphine or vehicle subcutaneous implants during the final 5 d (days 9-14) to establish steady-state morphine levels. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), transactivator of transcription (Tat), transgenic mice were co-exposed to morphine to explore opioid-HIV interactions in hippocampal area CA1. (
  • Results: Clear differences were seen in the distribution of YFP in the hippocampal formation of wild-type (WT)-YFP-H and R6/2-YFP-H mice, particularly in the CA1 region. (
  • We treated 7-day-old mice with either 0.75% isoflurane or 1.1% sevoflurane ( approximately 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration) for 6 h and then obtained blood and brain samples at 2 h after the anesthesia treatment for determination of neuroapoptosis in different brain regions and the neurodegenerative biomarker S100beta in the blood. (
  • We have generated mutant mice that express only a natural splice form of Dab1, p45, that lacks the C-terminal region of p80. (
  • The normal development of these mice implies that the receptor-binding region and tyrosine phosphorylation sites of p80 are sufficient for reelin signaling. (
  • Using ISH I investigated the relative expression of 33 nuclear encoded complex I subunits in different brain regions in mice at E11.5, E17.5, P1, P11, P28 and adult (12 weeks). (
  • In the present study, we investigated whether tooth loss early in life affects the hippocampal ultrastructure in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, using transmission electron microscopy. (
  • Mice and rats with tooth loss exhibit impaired hippocampal neurogenesis as well as impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test [ 12 , 14 - 16 ]. (
  • SyG37 mice showed an age‐dependent decline in cognitive abilities in behavioural tasks that require hippocampal processing including the Barnes maze, T‐maze and object location but not recognition tests. (
  • Results show that short- (2 days) or long-term (28 days) stress protocols in mice induce activation or deactivation, respectively, of hippocampal CA1 neural ensembles in an Egr1-activity-dependent fashion, together with an associated dendritic spine pathology. (
  • The impacts of early-life adversity (ELA) on cognitive functions including striatal-dependent habit memory and hippocampal-dependent spatial memory were investigated in male mice. (
  • Specifically, both thin and mushroom-type spines were increased in DLS, while loss of thin spines was apparent in CA1 radiatum in ELA mice versus controls. (
  • By contrast, acutely withholding morphine (from morphine-tolerant ex vivo slices) revealed unique and selective neuroadaptive shifts in CA1 pyramidal neuronal excitability and dendritic plasticity, including some interactions with Tat. (
  • I learned electrophysiological recording for a project called "Comparing the performance of glutamate sensors with conventional electrophysiology in vitro using hippocampal slices," which I completed with the support of a 2021 Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF). (
  • Mapping of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials of neuronal populations in hippocampal slices using the GEVI, ArcLight. (
  • 1997. Congener-specific effects of maternal PCB exposure on functional plasticity in cortical and hippocampal slices of rats. (
  • Spatial learning is a hippocampal-dependent process, and impairment of memory is thought to be due, at least in part, to structural changes such as loss of dendritic spines. (
  • Golgi-Cox staining revealed that NLD treatment dose-dependently increased dendritic spines in the CA1 region, which were diminished in vehicle-treated rats. (
  • About half the people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have neurocognitive deficits that often include memory impairment and hippocampal deficits, which can be exacerbated by opioid abuse. (
  • Relating the motor activity results with the neuropathology findings it was concluded that the hyperactivity on PN 21 (MAM) suggested a loss of spatial memory due to observed neuron loss in the hippocampal CA1 region, rather than motor impairment. (
  • Neuron loss in the cerebellum and changes found in volume of regions in cerebellum and brain stem (MeHg) most likely account for motor impairment. (
  • Behaviorally, exposure to Tat or high dosages of morphine impaired spatial memory Exposure to Tat and steady-state levels of morphine appeared to have largely independent effects on pyramidal neuron structure and function, a response that is distinct from other vulnerable brain regions such as the striatum. (
  • Hosseini S, Wilk E, Michaelsen-Preusse K, Gerhauser I, Baumgartner W, Geffers R, Schughart K, Korte M (2018) Long-Term Neuroinflammation Induced by Influenza A Virus Infection and the Impact on Hippocampal Neuron Morphology and Function. (
  • This resource expands our understanding of fundamental hippocampal design principles, and provides the first quantitative foundation for neuron-astrocyte interactions in this region. (
  • Local field potential (LFP) activity was recorded from hippocampal region CA1 as rats performed a nonspatial sequence memory task. (
  • Microglia formed a proinflammatory cell phenotype to express ED1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampal CA1 region of middle-aged rats, but not in young rats following the establishment of adjuvant arthritis (AA). (
  • These observations strongly suggest that chronic systemic inflammation induces deficits in the hippocampal LTP in middle-aged rats through neuroinflammation mainly induced by microglia. (
  • Egr1, a transcription factor involved in synaptic plasticity, is a key molecule regulating hippocampal function, but its role in stress-induced sequels has been poorly addressed. (
  • By means of immunogold electron microscopy, the relative concentration of the synaptic proteins syntaxin1, the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, and Arc were examined in different region of the synapse. (
  • The principal projections to the mammillary bodies arise from just two sites, Gudden's tegmental nuclei (dorsal and ventral nuclei) and the hippocampal formation (subiculum and pre/postsubiculum). (
  • 19,000 astrocytes across CA1 lamina, and analyzed the detailed morphology of thousands of reconstructed domains. (
  • The effect of early tooth loss on the hippocampal morphology during aging, however, is largely unknown. (
  • This suggests that spatial memory mechanisms emerge at p19/p20 independently from performance factors and are based on hippocampal function. (
  • Gerber KJ, Dammer EB, Duong DM, Deng Q, Dudek SM, Seyfried NT, Hepler JR (2019) Specific Proteomes of Hippocampal Regions CA2 and CA1 Reveal Proteins Linked to the Unique Physiology of Area CA2. (
  • Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique, multicentrique portant sur des patients de moins de 5ans pris en charge pour une affection neurochirurgicale de Janvier 2019 à Décembre 2021 à Libreville. (
  • In summary, Egr1 might be a core molecule driving the activation/deactivation of hippocampal neuronal subpopulations underlying stress-induced alterations involving emotional and cognitive sequels. (
  • Capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease: association with allocortical/hippocampal microinfarcts and cognitive decline. (
  • Hippocampal Subfield Volumetry: Differential Pattern of Atrophy in Different Forms of Genetic Frontotemporal Dementia. (
  • 3. Reversible inactivation of the entorhinal cortex through muscimol infusion produced deficits in STM and a selective and rapid decrease in hippocampal ERK2 activation.4. (
  • In addition, the model receives realistic numbers of afferents from artificial cells representing hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortical layer III. (
  • This cortical input arrives via the entorhinal cortex and other parahippocampal regions. (
  • A computational study on how theta modulated inhibition can account for the long temporal windows in the entorhinal-hippocampal loop. (
  • Montanez-Miranda C, Perszyk RE, Harbin NH, Okalova J, Ramineni, S, Traynelis SF, and Hepler JR (2022) Functional assessment of cancer-linked mutations in sensitive regions of RGS proteins predicted by 3DMTR analysis. (
  • The temporal lobe is the most epileptogenic region of the brain. (
  • Firing rate models (or rate code models) of hippocampal function using simplified units with continuous values representing the firing rate per unit time. (
  • Collectively, the results show that opioid-HIV interactions in hippocampal area CA1 are more nuanced than previously assumed, and appear to vary depending on the outcome assessed and on the pharmacokinetics of morphine exposure. (
  • We examined the effect of chronic exposure (8 weeks) to clinically relevant doses of either haloperidol (HAL) or olanzapine (OLZ) on adult rat hippocampal volume and shape using ex vivo structural MRI with the brain retained inside the cranium to prevent distortions due to dissection, followed by tensor-based morphometry (TBM) and elastic surface-based shape deformation analysis. (
  • An equipotent exposure of sevoflurane tended to increase apoptosis in hippocampal and cortex areas but was significantly less potent than isoflurane. (
  • Observations provide further evidence of a regulatory role for neural cell adhesion molecule sialylation state in information storage processes in hippocampal immunoprecipitates. (
  • Investigations of the neural basis of recognition memory have implicated several brain regions. (
  • showing that, depending on the nature of the recognition memory judgment, these cortical regions may function within a neural circuit. (
  • A Multimodal Multi-Shank Fluorescence Neural Probe for Cell-Type-Specific Electrophysiology in Multiple Regions across a Neural Circuit. (
  • aspartate receptor antagonists ifenprodil and SL-82,0715 on hippocampal cells in culture. (
  • Our findings reveal that p62 is the first protein identified that interacts with a region of the CluR receptor other than the C-terminal tail. (
  • Hippocampal lesions have little effect on priming and perceptual memory. (
  • The results suggest that β1-adrenergic receptors of the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions may play an important role in scopolamines-induced amnesia and scopolamine statedependent memory. (
  • These findings highlight marked differences between hippocampal and tegmental inputs to the rat mammillary bodies as well as differences between the medial and lateral mammillary systems. (
  • APOE alleles are associated with sex-specific structural differences in brain regions affected in Alzheimer's disease and related dementia. (
  • GEVI cell-type specific labelling and a manifold learning approach provide evidence for lateral inhibition at the population level in the mouse hippocampal CA1 area. (
  • Odor sequence processing and running are associated with distinct CA1 oscillatory states, which vary across the proximodistal axis. (
  • Canals S. Longitudinal Depolarization Gradients Along the Somatodendritic Axis of CA1 Pyramidal Cells: A Novel Feature of Spreading Depression. (
  • The morphologic basis of the hippocampal alterations, however, remains unclear. (
  • Hippocampal morphologic alterations were evaluated at 9 months of age. (
  • Tat expression reduced hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuronal excitability at lower stimulating currents. (
  • Scharkowski F, Frotscher M, Lutz D, Korte M, Michaelsen-Preusse K (2018) Altered Connectivity and Synapse Maturation of the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Pathway in a Mouse Model of the Fragile X Syndrome. (
  • The model network can be perturbed in a variety of ways to better study the mechanisms of CA1 network dynamics. (
  • Isoflurane treatments significantly increased apoptosis indicated by the activation of caspase-3 and elevation of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase in different brain regions. (
  • These effects remained significant after controlling for hippocampal volume suggesting true shape changes. (
  • APOE related hippocampal shape alteration in geriatric depression. (
  • Serotonergic axons from the raphe nuclei in the brainstem project to every region of the brain, where they make connections through their extensive terminal arborizations. (
  • Our current focus is on defining the brain regions in which the Pcdha genes are strongly expressed, and elucidating their roles in these regions. (
  • Using chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, Guan and colleagues report that HDAC2 was associated with, amongst others, the promoter region of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Creb, and Creb-binding protein genes, all of which are implicated in memory formation. (
  • The recommended guidelines allow for easy, standardised and ubiquitous collection of brain regions, relevant for seizure generation. (
  • If treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, however, cardiac arrest is survivable, but survivors often show evidence of injury in selectively vulnerable regions of the brain. (
  • While the role of the hippocampal formation in learning and memory has received enormous attention, far less is known about that of Gudden's tegmental nuclei. (