Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseCA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.CA3 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CA2 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Aniline CompoundsMuscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Calcium Channels, T-Type: A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Estrenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cyclic ADP-Ribose: A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.HydroquinonesReceptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Excitation Contraction Coupling: A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Dantrolene: Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cytophotometry: A method for the study of certain organic compounds within cells, in situ, by measuring the light intensities of the selectively stained areas of cytoplasm. The compounds studied and their locations in the cells are made to fluoresce and are observed under a microscope.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Apamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Macrocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.ThiazepinesAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Sugar PhosphatesIslets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.EthylenediaminesProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

The tetanus patterns for the induction of long-term depression in the adult rat hippocampus. (1/688)

Previous reports suggested that a low-frequency stimulus (LFS) of 1~2 Hz (600~900 pulses) induced a homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the hippocampal CA1 area of young rats (< 4-week old). However, these stimulation protocols often failed to induce LTD in the adult CA1 hippocampus. In the present study, we examined the effects of two novel tetanus patterns on LTD induction in adult rat hippocampal slices. We determined that these novel stimulation protocols induced LTD in the adult hippocampus, and that the characteristics of induced LTD were parameter-specific, including latency (period from the end of tetanus to a beginning of LTD) and the amplitude of LTD. These results suggest that LFS with certain patterns can induce LTD in the CA1 area of adult rat hippocampal slices, and that the multi-trains of 2-Hz protocol provided more effective response than the 5-Hz protocol.  (+info)

Requirement of TORC1 for late-phase long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. (2/688)

Late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and long-term memory depend on the transcription of mRNA of CRE-driven genes and synthesis of proteins. However, how synaptic signals propagate to the nucleus is unclear. Here we report that the CREB coactivator TORC1 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 1) undergoes neuronal activity-induced translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, a process required for CRE-dependent gene expression and L-LTP. Overexpressing a dominant-negative form of TORC1 or down-regulating TORC1 expression prevented activity-dependent transcription of CREB target genes in cultured hippocampal neurons, while overexpressing a wild-type form of TORC1 facilitated basal and activity-induced transcription of CREB target genes. Furthermore, overexpressing the dominant-negative form of TORC1 suppressed the maintenance of L-LTP without affecting early-phase LTP, while overexpressing the wild-type form of TORC1 facilitated the induction of L-LTP in hippocampal slices. Our results indicate that TORC1 is essential for CRE-driven gene expression and maintenance of long-term synaptic potentiation.  (+info)

NMDA and dopamine converge on the NMDA-receptor to induce ERK activation and synaptic depression in mature hippocampus. (3/688)

The formation of enduring internal representation of sensory information demands, in many cases, convergence in time and space of two different stimuli. The first conveys the sensory input, mediated via fast neurotransmission. The second conveys the meaning of the input, hypothesized to be mediated via slow neurotransmission. We tested the biochemical conditions and feasibility for fast (NMDA) and slow (dopamine) neurotransmission to converge on the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase signaling pathways, crucial in several forms of synaptic plasticity, and recorded its effects upon synaptic transmission. We detected differing kinetics of ERK2 activation and synaptic strength changes in the CA1 for low and high doses of neurotransmitters in hippocampal slices. Moreover, when weak fast and slow inputs are given together, they converge on ERK2, but not on p38 or JNK, and induce strong short-term synaptic depression. Surprisingly, pharmacological analysis revealed that a probable site of such convergence is the NMDA receptor itself, suggesting it serves as a detector and integrator of fast and slow neurotransmission in the mature mammalian brain, as revealed by ERK2 activation and synaptic function.  (+info)

Hippocampal 'zipper' slice studies reveal a necessary role for calcineurin in the increased activity of L-type Ca(2+) channels with aging. (4/688)

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Synaptic strength and postsynaptically silent synapses through advanced aging in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (5/688)

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Subregional hippocampal atrophy predicts Alzheimer's dementia in the cognitively normal. (6/688)

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Induction- and conditioning-protocol dependent involvement of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in synaptic potentiation and contextual fear memory in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. (7/688)

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A role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in adenosine A(1) receptor-mediated synaptic depotentiation in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus. (8/688)

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*Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

"Postsynaptic CAMP pathway gates early LTP in hippocampal CA1 region". Neuron. 15 (6): 1403-14. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90018-7 ... "Mice Expressing Activated CaMKII Lack Low Frequency LTP and Do Not Form Stable Place Cells in the CA1 Region of the Hippocampus ... It is possible with viral vector delivery to inject a specific gene of choice into a particular region of the brain in an ... Researchers speculate these results could be due to lack of stable hippocampal place cells in these animals. However, because ...

*Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

... for the expression but not for the induction or the maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region". The ... In mouse hippocampal CA1 neurons, PI3K is complexed with AMPA receptors and compartmentalized at the postsynaptic density of ... Furthermore, PI3K inhibitors abolished the expression of LTP in rat hippocampal CA1, but do not affect its induction. Notably, ... of LTP in mouse hippocampal CA1. The PI3K pathway also recruits many other proteins downstream, including mTOR, GSK3β, and PSD- ...

*Silent synapse

"Activation of postsynaptically silent synapses during pairing-induced LTP in CA1 region of hippocampal slice". Nature. 375 ( ... However, recent research on hippocampal silent synapses shows that while they may indeed be a developmental landmark in the ... 193-5. Kullmann, D. M. (1994). "Amplitude fluctuations of dual-component EPSCs in hippocampal pyramidal cells: implications for ... mediated by AMPARs and NMDARs in hippocampal neurons. More direct evidence came from experiments where only a few axons were ...

*Place cell

The CA3 hippocampal region is affected differently by decreased plasticity than the CA1 region just discussed. Decreased ... In the CA1 region, there is an increased reliance on self-motion inputs as opposed to visual inputs compared to the CA1 region ... Place field properties are similar between young and aged rats in the CA1 hippocampal region: rate of firing and spike ... When introduced to the same environment several times, different place fields fire in the CA1 hippocampal region of aged rats, ...

*Cathepsin E

The enzyme was also expressed at high levels in the activated microglia of the hippocampal CA1 region and in degenerating ... "Assignment of cathepsin E (CTSE) to human chromosome region 1q31 by in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids ... to human chromosome region 1q31 by in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics ...

*Epigenetics in learning and memory

TSA treatments in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice increased acetylation levels and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP), a ... Studies done on Acetylation of histone H3 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus show that the activation of NMDA receptors ... Long term potentiation in CA1 neurons was not observed in HDAC2 OE mice but was easily induced in HDAC2 KO mice. LTP was not ... increased the acetylation of H3 and conversely inhibition of the ERK pathway in the CA1 region resulted in a decrease in ...

*Plasticity product

They induced LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices by 2 100 Hz 1s trains, 20 s apart. Then they homogenized the slices, ... CA1 homogenates were probed with an antibody specific for Thr286 - phosphorylated CaMKII and an antibody detecting total CaMKII ... There is fast-acting, local translation of proteins in the dendritic region near the spines when an inducing high-frequency ... discovered that the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation. When they ...

*Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

... particularly the hippocampal CA1 region, pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. There ... Causative genes in this region, however, have not been shown. Until recently, the medical literature did not indicate a ...

*Alcino J. Silva

... that now has definitively implicated stable changes in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region in hippocampal ... This early work with hippocampal mutations that affected long term potentiation and learning & memory became the basis for a ... Silva, A.J.; Stevens, C.F.; Tonegawa, S.; Wang, Y. (1992). "Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium- ... Silva AJ, Stevens CF, Tonegawa S, Wang Y (1992). "Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium-calmodulin ...

*Theta wave

Hyman, JM; Wyble BP; Goyal V; Rossi CA; Hasselmo ME (December 17, 2003). "Stimulation in hippocampal region CA1 in behaving ... from electrophysiological studies showing that both synaptic plasticity and strength of inputs to hippocampal region CA1 vary ... Later, hippocampal oscillations of the same type were observed in rats; however, the frequency of rat hippocampal EEG ... Theta oscillations index human hippocampal activation during a working memory task Ekstrom, Arne D. (2005). "Human hippocampal ...

*Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

When interneurons are activated by metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, a theta ... "Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells ... DSIs can be blocked by ionotropic receptor calcium ion channel antagonists on the somata and proximal apical dendrites of CA1 ... in CA1 pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells. In a laboratory setting step depolarizations the soma have been used to ...

*Hippocampus proper

CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex ... CA4 is often called the hilus or hilar region if considered as a part of the dentate gyrus. Unlike the pyramidal neurons in CA1 ... CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the ... The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis, an earlier name of the hippocampus. There are four ...

*Hippocampus anatomy

The hippocampal sulcus (sulc.) or fissure is a cell-free region that separates the CA1 field from the dentate gyrus. Because ... Region CA1 receives input from the CA3 subfield, EC layer III and the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus (which project only to ... Blackstad, TW (1956). "Commissural connections of the hippocampal region in the rat, with special reference to their mode of ... BLACKSTAD, TW (October 1956). "Commissural connections of the hippocampal region in the rat, with special reference to their ...

*Long-term potentiation

... blocks late phases of LTP phenomena in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro". Brain Res. 452 (1-2): 57-65. doi:10.1016/0006-8993 ... An analysis of CA1 hippocampal synapses revealed that inhibitory avoidance training induced in vivo AMPA receptor ... Tonegawa found that by impairing the NMDA receptor, specifically by genetically removing the NR1 subunit in the CA1 region, the ... McHugh T, Blum K, Tsien J, Tonegawa S, Wilson M (1996). "Impaired hippocampal representation of space in CA1-specific NMDAR1 ...

*Trisynaptic circuit

... and region CA2. The CA1 is separated from the dentate gyrus by the hippocampal sulcus. Cells within the CA1 are mostly ... The Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) is the region within the hippocampus between the subiculum, the innermost area of the hippocampal ... Florian, C.; Roullet, P. (2004). "Hippocampal CA3-region is crucial for acquisition and memory consolidation in Morris water ... and CA1 ("Cornu Ammonis" area 1) pyramidal cells. The hippocampal relay involves 3 main regions within the hippocampus which ...

*Adult neurogenesis

... others hypothesize that AD patients have increased neurogenesis in the CA1 region of Ammon's horn (the principal region of AD ... increase hippocampal neurogenesis. It has been theorized that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis in individuals with major ... As discussed above, hippocampal cells are sensitive to stress which can lead to decreased neurogenesis. This area is being ... Thus, it is not the addition of new neurons into the hippocampus that seems to be linked to hippocampal functions, but rather ...

*Prenatal memory

More specifically, only the CA1 region of the hippocampus seemed to demonstrate a significant reduction in size. The CA1 ... Because the region of the hippocampus affected by protein malnutrition is so specific, global hippocampal function is not ... Rats with the CA1 volume deficit were found to perform poorly in a tasks requiring behavioural inhibition and accurate response ... In another study using rats, it was found that the size of the hippocampus (the central region in memory functioning) was ...

*Sharp waves and ripples

They are both produced as the response of CA1 region to inputs from CA3 region. Ripples are only present in the absence of ... The most famous human patient with hippocampal lesion is H.M., whose hippocampus has been removed from both sides of his brain ... Besides they are shown to be region dependent, ripples that are fastest oscillation are present in the CA1 region pyramidal ... Pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1 dendritic layer region are important in generating these waves, and they affect the subiculum, ...

*Episodic-like memory

... then CA1, and finally through to the subiculum. Information is then directed back to the para-hippocampal region and finally to ... that is projected from nearly all neocortical areas come together onto one or more subdivisions of the para-hippocampal region ... Similarly, hippocampal lesions severely impacted all three components (what, where, and when) suggesting that the hippocampus ... Eichenbaum, H. (2000). "A cortical-hippocampal system for declarative memory". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 1: 41-50. doi: ...

*Schaffer collateral

The Schaffer collateral is located between the CA3 region and CA1 region in the hippocampus. Schaffer collaterals are the axons ... 22:2451-2461 Christie JM and Jahr CE (2006). Multivesicular Release at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 Hippocampal synapses. The ... The contralateral CA3 region sends information through Schaffer collateral to the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Plastic changes ... The signals of information from the contralateral CA3 region leave via the Schaffer collateral pathways for the CA1 pyramidal ...

*Bursting

Jeffreys, JGR; HL Hass (1982-12-02). "Synchronized bursting of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells in the absence of synaptic ... Smith, JC; HH Ellenberger; K Ballanyi; DW Richter; JL Feldman (November 1991). "Pre-Botzinger complex: a brainstem region that ... The subiculum, a component of the hippocampal formation, is thought to perform relaying of signals originating in the ... "An autoradiographic study of the organization of the efferent connections of the hippocampal formation in the rat". Journal of ...

*Hippocampal prosthesis

These subregions, CA1 and CA3, interact to create long-term memories. The rats were unable to remember which lever they needed ... Next, they had to determine whether a chip could be used as a prosthesis, or implant, for a damaged region in the hippocampus. ... successfully tested a hippocampal prosthesis on non-human primates. While the device does not yet consist of a fully ... Sam A. Deadwyler and Robert E. Hampson at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, a proof-of-concept hippocampal prosthesis was ...

*Effects of alcohol on memory

Particularly, damage to hippocampal CA1 cells adversely affects memory formation, and this disruption has been linked to dose- ... Zola-Morgan, S.; Squire, L. R.; Amaral, D. G. (1986). "Human amnesia and the medial temporal region: Enduring memory impairment ... Differential Ethanol Sensitivity of Subpopulations of GABAA Synapses Onto Rat Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons. The Journal of ... At higher doses, alcohol significantly inhibits neuronal activity in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus. ...

*Temporal lobe epilepsy

In TLE, there is loss of neurons in region CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. There is also damage to mossy cells and inhibitory ... 1993). "Hippocampal neuron loss and memory scores before and after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy". Archives of Neurology. ... They project into the hilus of the dentate gyrus and stratum lucidum in the CA3 region giving inputs to both excitatory and ... 1974). "The hippocampal-dentate complex in temporal lobe epilepsy". Epilepsia. 15 (1): 55-80. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1974. ...

*Stratum lucidum of hippocampus

... though in some cases axon collaterals of these neurons are observed migrating into the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Aspiny ... The stratum pyramidale is the third deepest hippocampal layer, and in relation to the stratum lucidum, is located underneath it ... In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, the stratum pyramidale connects with the stratum lucidum by mossy fibers that run though ... This situation is described in the mossy fiber axon connection in the CA3 stratum lucidum region of the hippocampus as is in ...

*Transgenerational stress inheritance

Evidence of decreased complexity in the CA1 and CA3 region of the hippocampus in terms of dendritic length and spine density ... Additionally, investigation of post mortem hippocampal tissue indicates decreased levels of neuron-specific glucocorticoid ...
Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB) areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC...
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Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Position: PhD Student. Research focus: Understanding the functional diversity of hippocampal CA3 CCK+ interneurons. email: [email protected] CV. ...
Lhépatite C pose un problème de santé publique majeur, dans la mesure où le risque de développer une infection chronique est relativement élevé (40 à 60%) et où la résistance au traitement de choix - linterféron alpha pégylé et la ribavirine - touche près de la moitié des patients. Cette persistence virale repose avant tout sur de puissantes stratégies dévasion du système immunitaire inné de lhôte par le virus. Dans ce projet, nous nous sommes intéressés à la caractérisation de la réponse antivirale dans des hépatocytes primaires humains normaux et chroniquement infectés avec le VHC, un domaine encore largement inconnu dû à la difficulté dobtenir ce type de matériel primaire. Nous avons étudié la fonctionnalité de deux voies majeures de détection des pathogènes viraux suite à lexposition dhépatocytes primaires humains à de lARNdb intracellulaire, via le récepteur et adaptateur RIG-I/MDA5-CARDIF, et extracellulaire via TLR3-TRIF, mimant ainsi les ...
The ICAM-1-positive vessels in the hippocampal CA1 in the control, 2VO, HL and HL + 2VO groups at 1, 2 and 4 months post-surgery. Scale bar: 20 µm.Values are e
Abstract:. El virus de hepatitis C (VHC) afecta al 3% de la población mundial, representando una de las principales causas de hepatitis crónica y trasplante hepático. En el paciente infectado, el virus existe como un espectro de mutantes que difieren en su potencial de replicación, denominado cuasiespecie. La extensa variabilidad del VHC proporciona a la cuasiespecie una alta plasticidad fenotípica y capacidad de adaptación, que favorece el mantenimiento de la infección crónica. Si bien el principal sitio de replicación del VHC es el hígado, numerosos estudios han descripto la replicación del virus en tejidos extrahepáticos, en particular en células mononucleares de sangre periférica (CMSP) y esto se ha asociado con el desarrollo de distintas manifestaciones extrahepáticas. Se ha relacionado a distintos genes del VHC con la compartimentación en CMSP, pero aún no está claro cuáles son los factores celulares y virales requeridos para la infección de las células linfoides, por ...
Evolución de la fibrosis hepática en reclusos coinfectados por VIH y VHC que inician tratamiento con inhibidores de la proteasa potenciados
This project examines the neural circuitry of the CA2 region of the hippocampus and its role in hippocampal-dependent learning and behavior. Although the hippoc...
1998 10 22.35003 02 17 47.55 +16 18 22.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 10 22.48311 02 17 46.87 +16 18 18.5 523955 695 Ca3601 1998 11 18.07069 02 15 27.92 +16 05 19.9 21.5R 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.14591 02 15 27.54 +16 05 17.6 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 11 18.23096 02 15 27.03 +16 05 15.2 523955 695 Ch1090 1998 12 14.83617 02 13 35.14 +15 53 37.6 22.7R 523955 950 Ca3601 1998 12 14.85345 02 13 35.07 +15 53 37.3 523955 950 Ca3601 1999 11 10.16227 02 22 34.50 +16 25 15.5 22.5R 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.18814 02 22 34.40 +16 25 14.7 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.24322 02 22 34.07 +16 25 12.9 523955 695 Ca7321 1999 11 10.31381 02 22 33.61 +16 25 10.7 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.37010 02 22 33.30 +16 25 09.0 22.7R 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 10.41551 02 22 33.04 +16 25 07.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.24109 02 22 28.74 +16 24 43.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.28637 02 22 28.51 +16 24 42.8 523955 696 Ca7321 1999 11 11.33656 02 22 28.17 +16 24 41.3 523955 696 Ca7321 2000 11 23.18416 02 27 52.14 +16 34 03.5 ...
در مخازن شکاف‌دار، میزان برداشت نفت به آشام خودبخودی آب در ماتریس و خارج ساختن نفت موجود در آن به سمت شکاف‌ها، بستگی دارد. اما این فرآیند زمانی امکان‌پذیر است که ماتریس بلوک‌ها، «آب‌تر» باشد. از آنجا که مخازن کربناته غالبا «نفت‌تر» می‌باشند، به کارگیری آشام خودبخودی در مخازن کربناته شکاف‌دار مستلزم تغییر ترشوندگی در حین عملیات سیلاب‌زنی می‌باشد. در این مقاله، تأثیر یون‌های مؤثر بر پتانسیل سطح (SO42- ،Ca2+ ،Mg2+) موجود در آب دریا در تغییر ترشوندگی سنگ کربناته و همچنین تأثیر دما و غلظت نمک NaCl در فرآیند آشام خودبخودی مورد تحقیق تجربی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور 13
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Zhen Li, Rong Zhou, Shengzhong Cui, Guiqin Xie, Weiyan Cai, Masahiro Sokabe, Ling Chen].
If your symptoms do not improve with lifestyle changes or medications, you may need additional tests. The tests offered at the Heartburn Center at VHC include: Reflux Testing (24hr Ambulatory
1998 10 22.40628 03 08 48.43 +16 39 15.3 22.8R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 10 22.49369 03 08 47.93 +16 39 12.7 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.13535 03 06 18.37 +16 27 28.1 22.6R 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 11 18.20454 03 06 18.00 +16 27 26.2 91205 695 Ca3120 1998 12 17.95527 03 03 45.48 +16 15 35.9 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.00257 03 03 45.30 +16 15 35.6 91205 950 Ca3601 1998 12 18.03799 03 03 45.12 +16 15 34.0 91205 950 Ca3601 1999 10 06.55934 03 17 46.28 +16 54 48.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.53349 03 17 33.50 +16 53 45.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.57011 03 17 33.32 +16 53 44.2 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.60427 03 17 33.15 +16 53 43.6 23.4R 91205 568 Ca6740 1999 10 09.63619 03 17 33.05 +16 53 42.9 23.3R 91205 568 Ca6740 2000 12 28.31163 03 18 17.672 +16 31 40.74 23.2R 91205 568 Cl4052 2000 12 28.38018 03 18 17.407 +16 31 39.64 23.0R 91205 568 Cl4052 2003 10 01.56099 03 48 19.49 +17 21 57.5 23.1R 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 10 01.59893 03 48 19.38 +17 21 56.8 91205 568 Ci6851 2003 12 21.158989 03 41 29.38 +16 54 ...
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The pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is often expressed early in infancy and toddlerhood. Mouse models of syndromic disorders have provided insight regarding mechanisms of action, but most studies have focused on characterization in juveniles and adults. Insight into developmental trajectories, particularly related to circuit and synaptic function, likely will yield important information regarding disorder pathogenesis that leads to symptom progression. Chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion is one of the most common copy number variations associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. Yet, how haploinsufficiency of chr16p11.2 affects early synaptic maturation and function is unknown. To address this knowledge gap, the present study focused on three key components of circuit formation and function-basal synaptic transmission, local circuit function, and maturation of glutamatergic synapses -in developing hippocampal CA1 neurons in a chr16p11.2 microdeletion mouse model. The ...
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Pyramidal neuron located in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These neurons receive information from CA3 pyramidal neurons and send their axons out of the hippocampus.. Image used with permission of Synapse Web ...
(a) Representative electron micrograph of hippocampal CA1 region shows temporal alteration in mitochondrial morphology and graphical representation showed chang
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This is a strange query. My first impulse is to say that if you want to know what relevance LTP has for medicine and health you have no business studying LTP. My impression over many years that people (and government agencies) throwing time and money at practical questions almost never discover anything relevant either to basic science OR to the practical question. LTP is an electrophysiological phenomenon which is explored intensively at molecular levels because some think it is a model for very basic processes underlying memory formation. Do you think memory formation is relevant to health isssues? A synapse is a site/structure where one neuron communicates to another via a chemical messenger. Without synapses, our brains wouldnt work. Maybe this would be a health issue. There is no end to the list of physiological phenomena which have implications for medicine and health. Why pick on LTP? Before you ask for the hottest ideas floating around in the literature, ask yourself what you are ...
Entre los riesgos conocidos asociados a las transfusiones sanguíneas, la transmisión de virus patógenos se considera como uno de los más graves, implementándose con éxito durante las ultimas dos décadas una serie de medidas para reducirlo. Actualmente, se considera que el riesgo de transmisión de infecciones virales por hemoderivados es muy bajo en los países desarrollados. El siguiente estudio analiza, entre 1996 y 2003, la incidencia del VIH, del virus de la hepatitis B (VHB), y del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) en el 99% de los donantes de sangre voluntarios de los servicios de transfusión sanguínea de la Cruz Roja Suiza. También se estimó el riesgo de estos marcadores virales. Durante este período, la tasa de incidencia del VHC siguió bajando, mientras la incidencia del VIH y del VHB no disminuyó de manera significativa. Entre 2001 y 2003, en el último período calculado, el riesgo residual se estimaba en 1 por 1.900.000 para el VIH, 1 por 2.200.000 para el VHC, y 1 por 115.000
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
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본 연구는 나이를 달리하여 4개월과 12개월 된 흰쥐에게 casein, gluten, 북어를 식이의 40% 수준으로 공급하여 5주간 사육하였을 때 체내 Ca 및 단백질 대사에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 계획되었다. 혈청, 간과 근육의 단백질함량과 뇨, 변의 질소배설량을 측정하였으며 실험식이를 먹인 후 제 2일, 9일, 23일, 35일에 수집한 뇨와 변중의 Ca 배설량을 측정하여 시간에 따른 변화를 살펴보았다. 5주간의 실험기간이 끝난 후 식이 섭취량, 체중증가량은 나이와 단백질급원에 따른 차이가 없었으며 혈청. 간, 장총지신근(E,D.L.), 가자미근(soleus), 족지근(plantaris)의 단백질 함량 역시 차이가 없었다. 그러나 뇨 중의 질소 배설량은 4개월된 쥐에서는 gluten군이 높은 경향을 보였고, 따라서 질소 보유율은 낮았으나 12개월된 쥐는 이런 경향이 나타나지 않았다. 혈청 Ca함량은 나이와 ...
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Some interneurons of the hippocampus exhibit NMDA receptor-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) that is induced by presynaptic glutamate release when the postsynaptic membrane potential is hyperpolarized. This anti-Hebbian form of LTP is prevented by postsynaptic depolarization or by blocking AMPA and kainate receptors. Although both AMPA and kainate receptors are expressed in hippocampal interneurons, their relative roles in anti-Hebbian LTP are not known. Because interneuron diversity potentially conceals simple rules underlying different forms of plasticity, we focus on glutamatergic synapses onto a subset of interneurons with dendrites in stratum oriens and a main ascending axon that projects to stratum lacunosum moleculare, the oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) cells. We show that anti-Hebbian LTP in O-LM interneurons has consistent induction and expression properties, and is prevented by selective inhibition of AMPA receptors. The majority of the ionotropic glutamatergic synaptic current in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous serotonin inhibits epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons via 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor activation. AU - Lu, Kwok-Tung. AU - Gean, P. W.. PY - 1998/6/8. Y1 - 1998/6/8. N2 - The modulatory effects of endogenous serotonin on the synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity were studied in the rat hippocampus with the use of extracellular and intracellular recording techniques. Field excitatory postsynaptic potential was reversibly depressed by serotonin in a concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular recordings revealed that serotonin-mediated synaptic depression was unaffected by extracellular Ba2+ or intracellular application of Cs+ while the postsynaptic hyperpolarizing effect was completely blocked. Epileptiform activity induced by picrotoxin (50 μM), a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, was also dose-dependently suppressed by serotonin. The antiepileptic effect was mimicked by 5- hydroxytryptamine(1A) agonist and was blocked by ...
OKeefe and Recce [1993] Hippocampus 3:317-330 described an interaction between the hippocampal theta rhythm and the spatial firing of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus: they found that a cells spike activity advances to earlier phases of the theta cycle as the rat passes through the cells place field. The present study makes use of large-scale parallel recordings to clarify and extend this finding in several ways: 1) Most CA1 pyramidal cells show maximal activity at the same phase of the theta cycle. Although individual units exhibit deeper modulation, the depth of modulation of CA1 population activity is about 50%. The peak firing of inhibitory interneurons in CA1 occurs about 60 degrees in advance of the peak firing of pyramidal cells, but different interneurons vary widely in their peak phases. 2) The first spikes, as the rat enters a pyramidal cells place field, come 90 degrees-120 degrees after the phase of maximal pyramidal cell population activity, near the phase where
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron model from the paper M.Migliore, D.A Hoffman, J.C. Magee and D. Johnston Role of an A-type K+ conductance in the back-propagation of action potentials in the dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons J. Comput. Neurosci. 7, 5-15, 1999. Different kinetics are used for proximal and distal dendritic KA channels, with increasing density with distance from the soma. The kinetics for the Na conductance includes a gate variable for the slow inactivation. To compile the mod files on a unix system use the command nrnivmodl. Under Windows use the mknrndll DOS box from the NEURON program menu and follow on-screen instructions. running the simulation hoc files with the command nrngui fig_1a.hoc or nrngui fig_1c.hoc will generate the simulations shown in Fig.1A and Fig.1C of the paper, respectively. Questions on how to use this model should be directed to [email protected] ...
Whats is up with our hippocampus these days? The hippocampus is a region in our brain that ostensibly helps people tell whether an object is near or far. Considering that I walk into walls and chairs all the time, I have a feeling my hippocampus is a little. off. I am thinking, however, that…
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Learning is primarily mediated by activity-dependent modifications of synaptic strength within neuronal circuits. We discovered that place fields in hippocampal area CA1 are produced by a synaptic potentiation notably different from Hebbian plasticity. Place fields could be produced in vivo in a single trial by potentiation of input that arrived seconds before and after complex spiking. The potentiated synaptic input was not initially coincident with action potentials or depolarization. This rule, named behavioral time scale synaptic plasticity, abruptly modifies inputs that were neither causal nor close in time to postsynaptic activation. In slices, five pairings of subthreshold presynaptic activity and calcium (Ca(2+)) plateau potentials produced a large potentiation with an asymmetric seconds-long time course. This plasticity efficiently stores entire behavioral sequences within synaptic weights to produce predictive place cell activity.. ...
Although prolonged stress and corticosteroid exposure induce morphological changes in the hippocampal CA3 area, the adult CA1 area is quite resistant to such changes. Here we addressed the question whether elevated corticosteroid hormone levels change dendritic complexity in young, developing CA1 cells. In organotypic cultures (prepared from P5 rats) that were 14-21 days cultured in vitro, two doses of corticosterone (30 and 100 nM) were tested. Dendritic morphology of CA1 neurons was established by imaging neurons filled with the fluorescent dye Alexa. Application of 100 nM corticosterone for 20 minutes induced atrophy of the apical dendritic tree 1-4 hours later. Fractal analysis showed that total neuronal complexity was reduced twofold when compared with vehicle-treated neurons. Exposing organotypic slices to 30 nM corticosterone reduced apical length in a more delayed manner: only neurons examined more than 2 hours after exposure to corticosterone showed atrophy of the apical dendritic tree. ...
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The effect of various concentrations of l-glutamate on neurotransmission in the CA1 hippocampal area was studied using hippocampal slices. Three intervals of l-glutamate concentration were...
Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA004919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA004919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA073590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA032102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032102-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA035119; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76132; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46282; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA045450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA046282; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA038926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA027057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA073590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA020319; United ...
Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11789; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31983; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA41287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45389; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47555; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47559; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47577; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / ...
Gallienus, AE Antoninianus, 260-268, Rome. GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head right. NEPTVNO CONS AVG. Hippocampus facing right. N in exergue. RIC V, 245 ...
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Synaptic reorganization of calbindin-positive neurons in the human hippocampal CA1 region in temporal lobe epilepsy.  - PubMed ...Synaptic reorganization of calbindin-positive neurons in the human hippocampal CA1 region in temporal lobe epilepsy. - PubMed ...

Synaptic reorganization of calbindin-positive neurons in the human hippocampal CA1 region in temporal lobe epilepsy.. Wittner L ... Our data suggest that an intense synaptic reorganization takes place in the epileptic CA1 region, even in the non-sclerotic ... Numerous calbindin-positive interneurons are preserved even in the strongly sclerotic CA1 region. The morphology of individual ... targets of calbindin-containing interneurons and afferent pathways have been analyzed in the control and epileptic CA1 region ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12435433?dopt=Abstract

Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to...Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to...

Schaffer collateral inputs to pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region exhibit a form of LTP that critically depends on ... Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to ... Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to ... Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampal CA1 Region of Mice Lacking cGMP-Dependent Kinases Is Normal and Susceptible to ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/1/48?ijkey=acca0432df0afad2a206dcbb2f100c0d91da0b8b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Acupuncture suppresses ischemia-induced increase in c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region in gerbils<...Acupuncture suppresses ischemia-induced increase in c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region in gerbils<...

In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils ... In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils ... In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils ... In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/acupuncture-suppresses-ischemia-induced-increase-in-c-fos-express

KAKEN - Research Projects | Immunohistochemical studies on the localization of Interleukin-1 and its receptor in the...KAKEN - Research Projects | Immunohistochemical studies on the localization of Interleukin-1 and its receptor in the...

Immunohistochemical studies on the localization of Interleukin-1 and its receptor in the hippocampal CA-1 region of the ... was immunohistochemically examined in the hippocampal CA-1 region by a transient occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries in ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-07680827/

Dynamic modulation of excitation and inhibition during stimulation at gamma and beta frequencies in the CA1 hippocampal region....Dynamic modulation of excitation and inhibition during stimulation at gamma and beta frequencies in the CA1 hippocampal region....

To cast light on this issue in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slice, we used a train of stimuli, to the pyramidal layer, ... rhythmic IPSPs may play in pacing oscillations at gamma frequency in the CA1 hippocampal region. ... Whole cell current-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed that individual stimuli at 40 Hz produced EPSPs riding ... To cast light on this issue in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slice, we used a train of stimuli, to the pyramidal layer, ...
more infohttps://pharm.ox.ac.uk/publications/638926

Paeoniflorin exerts neuroprotective effects by modulating the M1/M2 subset polarization of microglia/macrophages in the...Paeoniflorin exerts neuroprotective effects by modulating the M1/M2 subset polarization of microglia/macrophages in the...

... impairment of learning and memory and reduce the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the hippocampal CA1 region of ... The effects of PF on memory deficit were investigated by a Morris water maze test, and the effects of PF on hippocampal ... Effects of PF on histopathology and ultrastructure of the hippocampal CA1 area after ischemia. The hippocampal CA1 region is ... A sharp blade was used to rapidly resect the left hippocampal CA1 region and slice it into 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 hippocampal blocks. ...
more infohttps://cmjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13020-018-0173-1

Hippocampal field CA1 interneuronal nociceptive responses: Modulation by medial septal region and morphine | ScholarBank@NUSHippocampal field CA1 interneuronal nociceptive responses: Modulation by medial septal region and morphine | [email protected]

Hippocampal field CA1 interneuronal nociceptive responses: Modulation by medial septal region and morphine. ... Zheng, F., Khanna, S. (1999). Hippocampal field CA1 interneuronal nociceptive responses: Modulation by medial septal region and ... the field CA1 interneurons participate in a noxious stimulus-induced and medial septal region mediated pyramidal cell ... In presence of the medial septal region lesions, formalin did not evoke an excitation of interneurons or theta activation. ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/29656

Etomidate Does Not Alter Recovery after Anoxia of Evoked Population Spikes Recorded from the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampal...Etomidate Does Not Alter Recovery after Anoxia of Evoked Population Spikes Recorded from the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampal...

The concentration of ATP was measured in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices at the end of anoxia. The concentration of ... Because etomidate is thought to suppress metabolism, we measured the concentration of ATP in the CA1 region of the hippocampal ... Etomidate Does Not Alter Recovery after Anoxia of Evoked Population Spikes Recorded from the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampal ... Etomidate Does Not Alter Recovery after Anoxia of Evoked Population Spikes Recorded from the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampal ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1947347

Acute Stress May Block a Key Anxiety-Relieving Neuropeptide | Psychology TodayAcute Stress May Block a Key Anxiety-Relieving Neuropeptide | Psychology Today

Neuropeptide Y Modulates Synaptic Plasticity of the CA1 Hippocampal Region. In laboratory mice, exposure to a scent associated ... The new research on the link between stress, neuropeptide Y, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus fills an important gap in ... Various levels of NPY appear to drive circuit functions of a specific region of the hippocampus called "CA1" which is linked to ... The combination of low NPY and modulated CA1 synaptic function seems to make it easier for the brain to hardwire any stimuli ...
more infohttps://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-athletes-way/201701/acute-stress-may-block-key-anxiety-relieving-neuropeptide

The N-terminal domain of Slack determines the formation and trafficking of Slick/Slack heteromeric sodium-activated potassium...The N-terminal domain of Slack determines the formation and trafficking of Slick/Slack heteromeric sodium-activated potassium...

Hippocampal CA1 region. In control experiments, the omission of primary or secondary antibodies resulted in complete loss of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19403831

Journal of Business Ethics | Submission guidelinesJournal of Business Ethics | Submission guidelines

Better keywords: neurodegenerative diseases; CA1 region, hippocampal; okadaic acid; neurotoxins; MAP kinase signaling system; ... Manuscript title: Region-specific neuronal degeneration after okadaic acid administration. Poor keywords: neuron, brain, OA (an ... For example, masking the eye region in photographs of participants is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/journal/10551/submission-guidelines

Avhandlingar.se: SHORT-TERM POTENTIATIONAvhandlingar.se: SHORT-TERM POTENTIATION

3. Short- and long-term neuronal plasticity in hippocampal CA1 region of rat. Detta är en avhandling från Department of ...
more infohttps://www.avhandlingar.se/om/short-term+potentiation/

Search results | ALZFORUMSearch results | ALZFORUM

Soluble Aβ Oligomers Impair Dipolar Heterodendritic Plasticity by Activation of mGluR in the Hippocampal CA1 Region.. iScience ...
more infohttps://www.alzforum.org/search?commentator=Formella%2CAsia&page=2

Hippocampal extracellular matrix alterations contribute to cognitive impairment associated with a chronic depressive-like state...Hippocampal extracellular matrix alterations contribute to cognitive impairment associated with a chronic depressive-like state...

... in the hippocampal CA1 region in SDPS animals. In vivo breakdown of the hippocampus CA1 extracellular matrix by the enzyme ... C and D) The increase in PNN number was specific for PV+ interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 stratum pyramidale region (C) and ... 5, D and E). First, we confirmed that SDPS reduced the frequency of sIPSCs onto pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region ... SDPS increases the number of PNNs and decreases inhibitory transmission in the hippocampal CA1 region. We next examined whether ...
more infohttps://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/421/eaai8753

Posterior Circulation Stroke: Animal Models and Mechanism of DiseasePosterior Circulation Stroke: Animal Models and Mechanism of Disease

Neurons in the CA1 hippocampal region are particularly vulnerable to ischemia; yet, experimentally, these cells are more ... cranial nuclei of the brainstem compared to hippocampal CA1 regions [76]. Animal models show that anoxia of the hypoglossal ... This brain region may have less innate neurovascular protective mechanisms and greater amount of cell death and injury in ... N. Fujiwara, H. Higashi, K. Shimoji, and M. Yoshimura, "Effects of hypoxia on rat hippocampal neurones in vitro," Journal of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/587590/

Rapid Signaling at Inhibitory Synapses in a Dentate Gyrus Interneuron Network | Journal of NeuroscienceRapid Signaling at Inhibitory Synapses in a Dentate Gyrus Interneuron Network | Journal of Neuroscience

First, spontaneous IPSCs have been observed in interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region (Hájos and Mody, 1997). Second, ... 1988) Stratum lacunosum-moleculare interneurons of hippocampal CA1 region. II. Intrasomatic and intradendritic recordings of ... an opposite difference was suggested between stratum radiatum interneurons and pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1 region, ... 1995) Hippocampal CA1 interneurons: an in vivo intracellular labeling study. J Neurosci 15:6651-6665. ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/8/2687?ijkey=53692336c07311ad0230b825dae9f305a7e5fc12&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cell death/proliferation and alterations in glial morphology contribute to changes in diffusivity in the rat hippocampus after...Cell death/proliferation and alterations in glial morphology contribute to changes in diffusivity in the rat hippocampus after...

To understand the structural alterations that underlie early and late changes in hippocampal diffusivity after hypoxia/ischemia ... CA1 Region, Hippocampal / pathology*, physiopathology. Cell Count. Cell Death. Cell Proliferation*. Diffusion. Diffusion ... In the hippocampal CA1 region, ADC(W) analyses were performed during 6 months of reperfusion and compared with alterations in ... In summary, the ADC(W) increase in the CA1 region underlain by altered cellular composition and glial morphology suggests that ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Cell-alterations-in-glial-morphology/20877389.html

Frontiers | Synaptic depression in the CA1 region of freely behaving mice is highly dependent on afferent stimulation...Frontiers | Synaptic depression in the CA1 region of freely behaving mice is highly dependent on afferent stimulation...

In this study we screened a large spectrum of protocols that are known to induce LTD either in hippocampal slices or in the ... to clarify if LTD can be induced by sole afferent stimulation in the mouse CA1 region in vivo. Low frequency stimulation at 1, ... to clarify if LTD can be induced by sole afferent stimulation in the mouse CA1 region in vivo. Low frequency stimulation at 1, ... its induction in mice in the CA1 region has not been successfully demonstrated with afferent electrical stimulation alone. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnint.2013.00001/full

Chronic brain hypoperfusion causes early glial activation and neuronal death, and subsequent long-term memory impairment -...Chronic brain hypoperfusion causes early glial activation and neuronal death, and subsequent long-term memory impairment -...

... there was no significant reduction in hippocampal volume. Present data suggests that cognitive impairment caused by brain ... Time-Course Change of Redd1 Expressions in the Hippocampal CA1 Region Following Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion. *Jin-A Park, ... Temporal changes in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphorylated-mTOR expressions in the hippocampal CA1 region of ... caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion associate with a dynamic change of HCN1/HCN2 expression in hippocampal CA1 region. * ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Chronic-brain-hypoperfusion-causes-early-glial-and-Cechetti-Pagnussat/c19bff2b2bbd22e8b5be73fcd6e2f35511b40ee1

An unexpected role for TASK-3 potassium channels in network oscillations with implications for sleep mechanisms and anesthetic...An unexpected role for TASK-3 potassium channels in network oscillations with implications for sleep mechanisms and anesthetic...

1980) Behavior-dependent evoked potentials in the hippocampal CA1 region of the rat. II. Effect of eserine, atropine, ether and ... 2006) TASK-like conductances are present within hippocampal CA1 stratum oriens interneuron subpopulations. J Neurosci 26:7362- ... 1998) Frequency modulation of hippocampal theta by the supramammillary nucleus, and other hypothalamo-hippocampal interactions ... CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, dentate granule cells, and the septum (38, 39); the TASK-3 gene is also expressed in ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/106/41/17546?ijkey=0ef18dca2dd7d2b401da0efb4118f505daeeceff&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Frontiers | Gastrodin Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Diabetes Rat Model via the Suppression of Endoplasmic Reticulum...Frontiers | Gastrodin Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction in Diabetes Rat Model via the Suppression of Endoplasmic Reticulum...

Furthermore, Gas substantially increased the expression of GLUT3, and inhibited hippocampal ERS and ERS-mediated apoptosis. ... Morris water maze, HE and Nissl staining were used to assess the effects of Gas on cognitive function and hippocampal neuronal ... Morris water maze, HE and Nissl staining were used to assess the effects of Gas on cognitive function and hippocampal neuronal ... A) HE staining in the hippocampal CA1 region for each group. (B) Nissl staining in the hippocampal CA1 region for each group. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2018.01346/full

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II - WikipediaCa2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II - Wikipedia

"Postsynaptic CAMP pathway gates early LTP in hippocampal CA1 region". Neuron. 15 (6): 1403-14. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(95)90018-7 ... "Mice Expressing Activated CaMKII Lack Low Frequency LTP and Do Not Form Stable Place Cells in the CA1 Region of the Hippocampus ... It is possible with viral vector delivery to inject a specific gene of choice into a particular region of the brain in an ... Researchers speculate these results could be due to lack of stable hippocampal place cells in these animals. However, because ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent_protein_kinase_II

Miglustat Reverts the Impairment of Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of NPC DiseaseMiglustat Reverts the Impairment of Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of NPC Disease

First we evaluated synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampal region of NPC1−/− and WT mice because memory loss is one of the ... In a previous paper, we demonstrated that basal synaptic transmission (BST) recorded in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices ... Impairment of Synaptic Plasticity in CA1 Hippocampal Region of NPC1−/− Mice Was Rescued by Miglustat Treatment. ... PS recorded in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from NPC1−/− mice (. from 11 different animals) remained stable for all the ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/3830424/

Brain Sciences  | Free Full-Text | Genetic Deletion of Prostacyclin IP Receptor Exacerbates Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia...Brain Sciences | Free Full-Text | Genetic Deletion of Prostacyclin IP Receptor Exacerbates Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia...

... hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron death, microglia and MPO activation, while p-CREB was reduced as compared to their ... Transient global cerebral ischemia causes delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also induces an up ... Transient global cerebral ischemia causes delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also induces an up ... in the hippocampal CA1 region after 12 min of global ischemia and seven days of reperfusion, was significantly elevated (p , ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/2076-3425/3/3/1095/htm
  • Numerous calbindin-positive interneurons are preserved even in the strongly sclerotic CA1 region. (nih.gov)
  • Even in the non-sclerotic epileptic samples, where pyramidal cells are present and calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons seem to be unchanged, some modifications could be observed at the electron microscopic level: they received more inhibitory synaptic input, and the calbindin-positive excitatory afferents - presumably derived from the CA1, the CA2 and/or the dentate gyrus - are sprouted. (nih.gov)
  • In presence of the medial septal region lesions, formalin did not evoke an excitation of interneurons or theta activation. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The above data are consistent with the notion that (i) the field CA1 interneurons participate in a noxious stimulus-induced and medial septal region mediated pyramidal cell suppression, and (ii) morphine affects CA1 nociceptive responses partly in a fashion consistent with the effect of the drug on septohippocampal neural network processing. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The effects of PF on memory deficit were investigated by a Morris water maze test, and the effects of PF on hippocampal neuronal damage were evaluated by light microscope and electron microscope. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, the effects of acupuncture on the c-Fos expression and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils following transient global ischemia were investigated via immunohistochemistry for c-Fos and caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. (elsevier.com)
  • To understand the structural alterations that underlie early and late changes in hippocampal diffusivity after hypoxia/ischemia (H/I), the changes in apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC(W)) were studied in 8-week-old rats after H/I using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transient global cerebral ischemia causes delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region. (mdpi.com)
  • These results support the testable prediction that subthreshold electric fields can alter hippocampal rhythms, suggesting new approaches to explore their cognitive functions and underlying circuitry. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: At least under the experimental condition in this study, it is considered that the effect of low-dose BPA exposure during the fetal stage on hippocampal DNA methylation levels is extremely small. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our data suggest that an intense synaptic reorganization takes place in the epileptic CA1 region, even in the non-sclerotic tissue, before the death of considerable numbers of pyramidal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Electrophysiological data are used to constrain and validate an anatomically and biophysically realistic model of area CA1 containing pyramidal cells and two interneuron types: dendritic- and perisomatic-targeting. (elsevier.com)
  • BPA was cleotides were from Operon (Alameda, Calif., USA) and found to decreased hippocampal spine number as induced streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (Dynabeads M-280 by estrogen in the African green monkey (Chlorocebus Streptavidin) were from Dynal (Oslo, Norway). (deepdyve.com)
  • The combination of low NPY and modulated CA1 synaptic function seems to make it easier for the brain to hardwire any stimuli associated with something scary into long-term memory. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Our results demonstrate how stress alters CA1 circuit function through the impairment of endogenous NPY release, potentially contributing to heightened anxiety. (psychologytoday.com)
  • We used the rat hippocampal slice to study the effect of etomidate on recovery from anoxic damage. (asahq.org)
  • Immunohistochemical studies on the localization of Interleukin-1 and its receptor in the hippocampal CA-1 region of the ischemic brain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We measured biochemical and physiologic parameters from the same region of the brain to identify the mechanism by which an agent acts. (asahq.org)
  • The posterior circulation is an understudied brain region that is affected by stroke. (hindawi.com)
  • Posterior circulation syndromes and associated brain region, clinical signs. (hindawi.com)