The tetanus patterns for the induction of long-term depression in the adult rat hippocampus. (1/688)

Previous reports suggested that a low-frequency stimulus (LFS) of 1~2 Hz (600~900 pulses) induced a homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the hippocampal CA1 area of young rats (< 4-week old). However, these stimulation protocols often failed to induce LTD in the adult CA1 hippocampus. In the present study, we examined the effects of two novel tetanus patterns on LTD induction in adult rat hippocampal slices. We determined that these novel stimulation protocols induced LTD in the adult hippocampus, and that the characteristics of induced LTD were parameter-specific, including latency (period from the end of tetanus to a beginning of LTD) and the amplitude of LTD. These results suggest that LFS with certain patterns can induce LTD in the CA1 area of adult rat hippocampal slices, and that the multi-trains of 2-Hz protocol provided more effective response than the 5-Hz protocol.  (+info)

Requirement of TORC1 for late-phase long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. (2/688)

Late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and long-term memory depend on the transcription of mRNA of CRE-driven genes and synthesis of proteins. However, how synaptic signals propagate to the nucleus is unclear. Here we report that the CREB coactivator TORC1 (transducer of regulated CREB activity 1) undergoes neuronal activity-induced translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, a process required for CRE-dependent gene expression and L-LTP. Overexpressing a dominant-negative form of TORC1 or down-regulating TORC1 expression prevented activity-dependent transcription of CREB target genes in cultured hippocampal neurons, while overexpressing a wild-type form of TORC1 facilitated basal and activity-induced transcription of CREB target genes. Furthermore, overexpressing the dominant-negative form of TORC1 suppressed the maintenance of L-LTP without affecting early-phase LTP, while overexpressing the wild-type form of TORC1 facilitated the induction of L-LTP in hippocampal slices. Our results indicate that TORC1 is essential for CRE-driven gene expression and maintenance of long-term synaptic potentiation.  (+info)

NMDA and dopamine converge on the NMDA-receptor to induce ERK activation and synaptic depression in mature hippocampus. (3/688)

The formation of enduring internal representation of sensory information demands, in many cases, convergence in time and space of two different stimuli. The first conveys the sensory input, mediated via fast neurotransmission. The second conveys the meaning of the input, hypothesized to be mediated via slow neurotransmission. We tested the biochemical conditions and feasibility for fast (NMDA) and slow (dopamine) neurotransmission to converge on the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase signaling pathways, crucial in several forms of synaptic plasticity, and recorded its effects upon synaptic transmission. We detected differing kinetics of ERK2 activation and synaptic strength changes in the CA1 for low and high doses of neurotransmitters in hippocampal slices. Moreover, when weak fast and slow inputs are given together, they converge on ERK2, but not on p38 or JNK, and induce strong short-term synaptic depression. Surprisingly, pharmacological analysis revealed that a probable site of such convergence is the NMDA receptor itself, suggesting it serves as a detector and integrator of fast and slow neurotransmission in the mature mammalian brain, as revealed by ERK2 activation and synaptic function.  (+info)

Hippocampal 'zipper' slice studies reveal a necessary role for calcineurin in the increased activity of L-type Ca(2+) channels with aging. (4/688)

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Synaptic strength and postsynaptically silent synapses through advanced aging in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (5/688)

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Subregional hippocampal atrophy predicts Alzheimer's dementia in the cognitively normal. (6/688)

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Induction- and conditioning-protocol dependent involvement of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in synaptic potentiation and contextual fear memory in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. (7/688)

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A role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in adenosine A(1) receptor-mediated synaptic depotentiation in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus. (8/688)

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