Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Mice, Inbred BALB CAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.CA3 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Mice, Inbred C57BLMART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.

Increased serum CA 19-9 antibodies in Sjogren's syndrome. (1/328)

A 67-year-old woman with a history of thyroiditis presented with recent intermittent epigastric pain and nausea. Hyperamylasaemia, oedema of the pancreas, and high serum levels of lipase and CA 19-9 were found. Xerostomia and dry eyes developed later, accompanied by an abnormal Schirmer's test. The diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome was confirmed by increased anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies and the histological findings of parotid gland biopsy. Two additional cases of Sjogren's syndrome with elevated serum CA 19-9 are also described. These observations of elevated serum lipase and serum CA 19-9 in Sjogren's syndrome without evidence of malignancy may reflect pancreatic involvement in this disorder.  (+info)

Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of trypsin-1 complexed with alpha(1)-antitrypsin in serum: increased immunoreactivity in patients with biliary tract cancer. (2/328)

BACKGROUND: Increased serum concentrations of trypsin immunoreactivity occur in patients with biliary tract cancer. To characterize this trypsin, we developed a sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for trypsin-1 complexed with alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) and studied the concentrations of this complex in sera from healthy individuals (n = 130) and patients with benign biliary disease (n = 32), biliary tract cancer (n = 17), pancreatic cancer (n = 27), and hepatocellular cancer (n = 12). METHODS: We used a trypsin-1-specific monoclonal antibody on the solid phase and a europium-labeled polyclonal antibody to AAT as tracer. The detection limit was 0.42 microgram/L. The validity of the trypsin-1-AAT test for detection of biliary tract cancer was compared with trypsin-2-AAT and CA19-9. RESULTS: Increased concentrations of trypsin-1-AAT (>33 microgram/L) were found in 76% of patients with biliary tract cancer, and the concentrations were significantly higher than in those with benign biliary disease (P <0. 0001). The median concentration of trypsin-1-AAT in serum from patients with biliary tract cancer was 3.7-fold higher than in healthy controls, 2.6-fold higher than in patients with benign biliary tract disease, 1.7-fold higher than in patients with pancreatic cancer, and 2.0-fold higher than in patients with hepatocellular cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Of the markers studied, trypsin-1-AAT had the largest area (0.83) under the receiver operating curve in differentiating biliary tract cancer from benign biliary tract disease. Our results suggest that trypsin-1-AAT is a new potential marker for biliary tract cancer.  (+info)

Detection of large molecular weight cytokeratin 8 as carrier protein of CA19-9 in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. (3/328)

It has been reported that cytokeratin 8 (CK8) is expressed in all non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC). We hypothesized that antigenic changes of CK8 may occur in some NSCLC cell lines. To prove this, Western immunoblot analysis using anti-human CK8 monoclonal antibodies as well as immunohistological staining of CK8 were performed in NSCLC cell lines. As a result, CK8 which had a higher molecular weight than recombinant CK8 was demonstrated in two of eight NSCLC cell lines. In addition, this CK8 contained antigenic epitopes of CA19-9. This CK8 with higher molecular weight, may have played a role in the process of invasion or metastasis of NSCLC.  (+info)

Giant hydronephrosis due to a ureteral stone, and elevated serum levels of CA 19-9. (4/328)

CA 19-9 is a widely used tumor marker. However, an elevation in serum CA 19-9 can occur in some patients with benign disorders such as cholecystolithiasis in the absence of tumor. We treated a case of acquired ureteral stone-induced giant hydronephrosis with markedly elevated serum CA 19-9 values. After nephrectomy, the serum CA 19-9 level returned to normal. No malignant cells were found in the tissues of the resected kidney. Localization of CA 19-9 was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of the renal pelvic mucosa. A detailed case report is presented with a review of the literature.  (+info)

Tumor markers CEA, CA19-9 and CA125 in monitoring of response to systemic chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. (5/328)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether tumor markers can be used to assess response to systemic chemotherapy, we analyzed preliminarily the relationship between the response to chemotherapy based on serial imaging and on change in serum tumor marker level of CEA, CA19-9 and CA125. METHODS: We analyzed 26 patients with advanced gastric cancer in whom at least one of the tumor markers CEA, CA19-9 and CA125 was elevated before systemic chemotherapy with regard to the relationship between the change in serum tumor marker level and response assessment by imaging studies throughout the treatment course. A responder was defined as showing a > or = 50% drop in tumor marker level for more than 4 weeks. RESULTS: The sensitivity and negative predictive value of falling tumor marker level after chemotherapy for a partial response in imaging was 100%. When patients were categorized as responders or non-responders, a significant correlation was observed between the assessment of response by tumor markers and by imaging studies. The survival time of responders assessed by tumor markers was significantly longer than that of non-responders. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of tumor markers might be useful in monitoring response and in predicting the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with systemic chemotherapy. Tumor markers may be used as a means of monitoring treatment in patients when in an imaging study it is difficult to assess response to chemotherapy in clinical practice. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.  (+info)

Menstrual cycle dependent variability for serum tumor markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in healthy women. (6/328)

Information on menstrual cycle dependent variation of tumor markers in healthy women is a subject of diagnostic efficiency and has an impact in elucidating the normal function of these markers. In this study midfollicular and midluteal concentrations of serum CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3 and their relations with LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone were evaluated during ovulatory cycles in a group of 23 healthy female individuals. Samples were collected on the 7th and 21st day of the same menstrual cycle. Tumor marker and hormone concentrations were determined with chemiluminescence or electrochemiluminescence EIA methods. A significant phase-dependent difference was observed for CA 15-3, midluteal concentrations (mean +/- SEM; 26.33 +/- 1.56 U/ml) higher than the midfollicular (mean +/- SEM; 19.27 +/- 1.49 U/ml) concentrations (p < 0.001). But an obvious difference for other tumor markers investigated did not exist. Significant correlations of follicular and luteal CA 125 levels with body mass index of the subjects were observed (r:0.52, p < 0.05 and r:0.57, p < 0.005, respectively). CA 15-3 antigen is a product of the MUC-1 gene which is expressed in abundance by endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle which may be the potential source of variability. The association of CA 125 levels with obesity suggests a possible role of adipose tissue in CA 125 metabolism. In conclusion our data suggest that in healthy women serum CA 15-3 levels are significantly elevated in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared to midfollicular phase. Therefore, consideration of menstrual cycle dependent variability for CA 15-3 appears indicated in interpretation of individual results.  (+info)

Establishment and analysis of biological characteristics of a human duodenal carcinoma cell line, WDC-1. (7/328)

BACKGROUND: Duodenal carcinoma is very rare and its culture cell lines have rarely been established. METHODS: Tumor cells separated from a surgically resected primary tumor of duodenal carcinoma were put into culture. The patient was an 81-year-old female and had metastatic lymph nodes. We investigated the biological characteristics of the culture cells including in vitro cell kinetics, karyotype, expression of tumor markers and integrins and tumorigenicity and histology in nude mice. RESULTS: A new cell line, designated WDC-1, was established. This duodenal carcinoma cell line proliferated in a monolayered sheet with a doubling time of 50 h. The histological findings of the xenograft in nude mice were similar to those of the primary tumor. WDC-1 cells produced carcinoembryonic antigen and expressed 1 integrin and very late antigen (VLA)-4d in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A duodenal carcinoma cell line was established, which is rare and may contribute to progress in understanding the biological features of duodenal cancer.  (+info)

Decrease of CA 19-9 during chemotherapy with gemcitabine predicts survival time in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. (8/328)

Chemotherapy with gemcitabine has been shown to be an effective regimen in advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer with improvement of both quality of life and survival time. The response of the tumour marker CA 19-9 to chemotherapy with gemcitabine was studied in order to find out whether it is related to survival time of patients. Forty-three consecutive patients (median age 61 years, range 39-76 years; 20 males, 23 females) suffering from histologically proven locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and a baseline Karnofsky-index > or = 60 were treated with gemcitabine in a dose of 1,000 mg/m(-2) weekly x 7 followed by 1 week of rest during the first cycle and thereafter 1,000 mg/m(-2) weekly x 3 followed by 1 week of rest until progression. In 36 of 43 patients serial measurements of CA 19-9 could be performed. Patients with a decrease of > 20% of the baseline CA 19-9 level after 8 weeks of treatment (n = 25) had a significantly better median survival than patients with a rise or a decrease < or = 20% (n = 11) (268 vs 110 days; P < 0.001). The response of CA 19-9 was the strongest independent predictor of survival (P < 0.001) in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, a decrease of CA 19-9 > 20% during the first weeks of chemotherapy with gemcitabine is associated with a better survival of patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Serial measurements of CA 19-9 are useful to decide whether further chemotherapy after the first weeks of treatment is indicated.  (+info)

Table 1: Elevated Preoperative Serum CA125 Predicts Larger Tumor Diameter in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Low AFP Levels
BACKGROUND Papillary-serous adenocarcinoma (PSCC) is a very rare subtype of cervical cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first report on PSCC of the uterine cervix following bilateral breast cancer. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old Caucasian woman underwent conserving surgery of both breasts at the age of 57 years, because of bilateral invasive ductal carcinoma. Radiation and tamoxifen treatment followed. Routine surveillance examinations, including pelvic examination, Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, and transvaginal ultrasound, were uneventful. Recently, a small contact-bleeding mass of the cervix was found. The Pap smear was II (reactive); HPV-DNA test was negative. The biopsy of the mass revealed PSCC with a high expression of p53, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and Ki67 (50%). Staining for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and vimentin was negative. The serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125) reached 159 U/ml. The patient was treated with radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo
Prognostic impact of preoperative tumor marker levels and lymphovascular invasion in pathological stage I adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung(要約)Prognostic impact of preoperative tumor marker levels and lymphovascular invasion in pathological stage I adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung(要約) ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
In cases with findings on examination or imaging tests that suggest cancer, measuring blood levels of tumor markers may provide additional evidence for or against the diagnosis of cancer. Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. Tumor markers can be found in the blood, the urine, the tumor tissue, or other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is in the early stages. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. In individuals who have been diagnosed with certain types of cancer, tumor markers may be useful to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect possible recurrence of the cancer. For some cancers, the level of a ...
... is ordered to monitor pancreatic, liver, gastrointestinal, and colorectal malignancies.
Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 (LabCorp). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance.
Participants achieved an objective response if they had a best overall response of CR or PR.Target lesions- CR:Disappearance of all lesions;any pathological lymph nodes must have reduction in short axis to ,10 mm.PR: At least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of lesions vs the baseline sum.PD: At least a 20% increase in the sum of diameters of lesions vs the smallest sum on study(the sum must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm); or the appearance of new lesion(s).Non target lesions - CR: Disappearance of all lesions and normalization of tumour marker levels;all lymph nodes must be non-pathological in size. Non-CR/Non-PD:Persistence of lesion(s) and/or maintenance of abnormal tumor marker levels.PD:Unequivocal progression of existing lesions or the appearance of new lesion(s).If a participant was not known to have died or have radiographically documented PD as of the data inclusion cutoff date,DOR was censored at the date of the last adequate tumor assessment ...
National Honor Society Character Essay Essays and Research Papers. Vasquez National Honors Society Essay To me, National Honors . Society s four pillars are essential elements to being a member of this society . Scholarship and leadership are the two pillars that I feel complement each other because one should be a leader in of fear the community and school without forgetting to be a good student and Essay on Video and Violence: Cause,, scholar. Service and the color of fear, character go well together because in order to provide services to The Relationship Endoscopy Results Tumor Marker Levels Dyspepsia students or members of the community, it is necessary to of fear summary have a good character in order. 927 Words , 2 Pages. Honor Society and Between Results Tumor Marker Levels, National Junior Honor. National Junior Honor Society Essay National Junior Honor . Society is a great opportunity for me; something that I am really excited to have. The Color Of Fear! I would love to be involved in ...
A CT scan performed after three weeks of treatment showed no visible change in the pancreatic mass. A repeat CA 19-9 level at this time showed significant reduction with a value of 204. Subsequent tumor marker levels measured on 12/9/03 and 4/19/04 reported values of 89 and 29 respectively. Coincident with these laboratory findings, patient reported relief from her abdominal pain, increased energy levels, and improved appetite. There were no chemotherapy associated side -effects resulting from this treatment.. A CT Scan from 3/12/03 concluded, "no findings to suggest definitive progression of disease or metastatic involvement." A subsequent PET scan done on 3/26/03 reported, "no convincing evidence of residual or recurrent tumor.". The patients gallbladder had shown problematic findings since the onset of her illness, and a cholecystectomy was performed on 4/10/03. Subsequently, a CT Scan on 8/20/03 showed a small mass on the head of the pancreas measuring 2×2 cm. A second round of IPT was ...
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This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of CA 50 and CA 19-9 as serum tumour markers for pancreatic cancer. One hundred and seventy one subjects were evaluated: 50 healthy controls, 50 patients with pancreatic carcinoma and 71 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Eighty per cent of the pancreatic cancer patients had raised CA 19-9 serum levels and 82% had raised CA 50 serum levels. In the group of patients ith chronic pancreatitis, false positive tests occurred in 8.4% for CA 19-9 and 11.3% for CA 50. For both markers the serum level showed a severe elevation in the advanced stage of cancer disease. Despite the good sensitivity and specificity of CA 50 as a serum tumour marker for pancreatic carcinoma, no major advantage was found compared to CA 19-9. Moreover, if the CA 50 cut-off, level is raised to 85 U/ml to exclude overlap with chronic pancreatitis, sensitivity falls sharply to 46% compared with 72% for CA 19-9 when a 100 U/ml cut-off level is used.. ...
... A Dictionary to Tumor Markers and The Methods of Estimation Rahul R Nair, Jerin K Johnson protein(AFP), Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA), Pancreatic oncofetal antigen) Abstract Tumor markers are substances produced by tumor cells or by other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions. These substances can be found in the blood, in the urine, in the tumor tissue, or in other tissues. Different tumor markers are found in different types of cancer, and levels of the same tumor marker can be altered in more than one type of cancer. In addition, tumor marker levels are not altered in all people with cancer, especially if the cancer is early stage. Some tumor marker levels can also be altered in patients with noncancerous conditions. To date, researchers have identified more than a dozen substances that seem to be expressed abnormally when some types of cancer are present. Some of these substances are also found in other conditions and diseases. Scientists ...
CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9) conversion to U/mL, kU/L . Online conversion calculator for many types of measurement units in laboratory and medicine CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9), CA 19-9, Cancer Antigen 19-9, Gastrointestinal Cancer Antigen.
Tumor markers are substances that can often be detected in higher than normal amounts in the blood, urine, or body tissues of some patients with certain types of cancer. These substances can be proteins, enzymes, biochemicals, or antigens. Tumor markers may either be produced by the cancer itself or by the body in response to the cancer. In general, tumor marker levels are lower in early stage disease (but still higher than normal) and higher with advanced disease. Furthermore, their levels decrease in response to treatment and increase when the cancer progresses.. Tumor markers are often used to:. ...
Dr. Anthony C.H. YING What are? Tumour markers are substances that can be found in the body when cancer is present. They are usually found in the blood or urine. They can be products of cancer cells or
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Background: Cancer antigen 15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen are used in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer. Previous studies have noted conflicting results about the association between carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 in metastatic breast cancer. The present study examined serum tumor marker levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen 15-3 among patients with different subtypes of metastatic breast cancer.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed metastatic breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 who referred to academic Hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The patients were selected by systematic randomization sampling. Demographic, clinical, pathological, and therapeutic data were collected from patients hospital records. Statistical analyses were performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 software.Results: A total of 298 eligible patients enrolled in the study.
Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IS, and is determined after a radical inguinal orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicle) is done. In stage IA, cancer is in the testicle and epididymis and may have spread to the inner layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; all tumor marker levels are normal. In stage IB, cancer is in the testicle and the epididymis and has spread to the blood or lymph vessels in the testicle; or has spread to the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle; or is in the spermatic cord or the scrotum and may be in the blood or lymph vessels of the testicle; all tumor marker levels are normal. In stage IS, cancer is found anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or the scrotum, and either all tumor marker levels are slightly above normal or one or more tumor marker levels are moderately above normal or high ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who receive gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy. T2 - A pooled analysis of 6 prospective trials. AU - Bauer, Todd M.. AU - El-Rayes, Bassel F.. AU - Li, Xiaobai. AU - Hammad, Nazik. AU - Philip, Philip A.. AU - Shields, Anthony F.. AU - Zalupski, Mark M.. AU - Bekaii-Saab, Tanios. PY - 2013/1/15. Y1 - 2013/1/15. N2 - Background: Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a widely used biomarker in pancreatic cancer. There is no consensus on the interpretation of the change in CA19-9 serum levels and its role in the clinical management of patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: Individual patient data from 6 prospective trials evaluating gemcitabine-containing regimens from 3 different institutions were pooled. CA19-9 values were obtained at baseline and after successive cycles of treatment. The objective of this study was to correlate a decline in CA19-9 with outcomes while ...
CCL Dec - Onivyde Combination Boosts OS in Post-Gemcitabine Pancreatic Cancer Patients - Onivyde Combination Boosts OS in Post-Gemcitabine Pancreatic Cancer Patients   A phase III study of Onivyde (irinotecan liposome injection), in combination with fluorouracil and leucovorin, demonstrated improvements in median overall survival in post-gemcitabine metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The study, NAPOLI-1, was the basis of approval by the FDA in this indication, and the results were recently published in The Lancet.
Only a few markers have been instrumental in the diagnosis of cancer. In contrast, tumor markers play a critical role in the monitoring of patients. The patients clinical status and response to treatment can be evaluated rapidly using the tumor marker half-life (t(1/2)) and the tumor marker doubling time (DT). This report reviews the interest of determining these kinetic parameters for prostate-specific antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen (CA) 125, and CA 15-3. A rise in tumor markers (DT) is a yardstick with which benign diseases can be distinguished from metastatic disease, and the DT can be used to assess the efficacy of treatments. A decline in the tumor marker concentration (t(1/2)) is a predictor of possible residual disease if the timing of blood sampling is soon after therapy. The discrepancies in results obtained by different groups may be attributable to the multiplicity of immunoassays, the intrinsic characteristics of each
Tumor markers are substances found in the blood, urine or body tissues that can be elevated in cancer. There are many different tumor markers. They are used in oncology to help determine the presence of cancer. An elevated level of a tumor marker can indicate cancer, however there can often also be other causes of the elevation.. Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. Tumor markers can be used in screening programs, such as screening for elevated levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) to indicate possible prostate cancer. Tumor markers are also used to monitor patients for cancer return. Tumor markers can be classified in two groups: Cancer-specific markers and tissue-specific markers.. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma. Ki- ...
Carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) is a protein that is found in very small amounts on the surface of certain cancer cells. It may be found in the blood when it is shed by tumour cells. It is also found in trace amounts in the pancreas, liver, gall bladder and lungs of healthy adults.
3., determination of bone-turnover markers using immunoassays and molecular biological methods.. Serum tumor marker determinations. The majority of these tests (11 analytes: PSA, free PSA, CEA, AFP, HCG-β, CA125, CA15-3, CA19-9, CA72-4, Cyfra 21-1, NSE) are measured by a Roche MODULAR E170 analyzer. Two markers (Thyreoglobulin and TPA) are performed by the Immunochemistry Division, while Calcitonin is measured by the Endocrinology Division of the Department. The interest in the serum tumor marker determination is increasing constantly since the foundation of the division. The number of tests was 8,500 in 2000 while 61,000 in 2009. Due to the increasing number of tests we changed the frequency of measurement and provide results each day of a week.. Molecular Oncology. The diagnostic tests using molecular biological methods can be grouped into two major profiles. The first group of assays - together with the flow cytometric determinations - serves the diagnostics and follow-up of the ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is used as a tumor marker to help detect and diagnose cancers of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. An AFP test may be ordered, along with imaging studies, to try to detect liver cancer when it is in its earliest and most treatable stages.
Tumor Markers: Unlocking the Mistery of the Genetic Basis of Cancer--Technological Breakthroughs, Emerging Tests, Market Forecasts, Competitive Intelligence Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com [Report Price $15900] 1200 Pages
CA50, 0.5 mg. Cancer antigen 50 (CA50), a carcinoma associated carbohydrate antigen, has been found to be elevated in the blood of patients with colorectal cancer and other malignancies.
MANHATTAN BEACH, Calif., Nov. 9, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network is pleased to announce Abraxane® extends survival for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. According to Celgene Corporation, Abraxane in combination with gemcitabine when given to advanced pancreatic cancer patients who had not received previous treatment demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival compared to patients receiving gemcitabine alone. (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20111004/LA79914LOGO). The phase III study included 861 metastatic pancreatic cancer patients from around the world. Full results from the clinical trial will be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncologys 2013 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium being held in January. "Historically, few effective treatment options for pancreatic cancer have existed. We are thrilled to have a new treatment option for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. We look forward to learning more ...
Purpose To assess the immunomodulatory and clinical effects of lenalidomide with standard treatment of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer were treated in first line with lenalidomide orally for 21 days of a 28 days cycle and the standard regimen for gemcitabine. In Part I, which we previously have reported, the dose of lenalidomide was defined (n = 12). In Part II, every other consecutive patient was treated with either lenalidomide (Group A, n = 11) or gemcitabine (Group B, n = 10) during cycle 1. From cycle 2 on, all Part II patients received the combination. Results A significant decrease in the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the frequency of DCs were noted in patients at baseline compared to healthy control donors while the frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, NK-cells and MDSCs were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. In Group A, a significant increase in ...
20 ng/ml) serum Tg levels and negative Anti TgAb. In 75 patients (8.4% of patients or 63% of the Tg+ve subgroup), elevated Tg levels correlated well with positive 131I imaging. In 13 patients with positive correlation Tg/131I WBS, WBS revealed pulmonary (12 pts) or bone (1 pt) metastases, with no uptake in the cervical region. Moreover, 45 patients (5% of all patients or 37.5% of the Tg+ve group) presented discordant elevated Tg levels and negative Anti TgAb but negative WBS imaging. Using the same immune-radiometric method, with optimal sensitivity for Tg and without reported Hook effect for Anti TgAb, we found in 9% of patients the presence of strong positive Anti Tg, interfering with the Tg assay and underestimating serum Tg levels. From 890 patients sera, in 79 % Anti TgAb were < 35 mUI/ml (negative value), 8 % were equivocal (35-65%) and 12 % were strongly positive ( >65 mUI/ml). Conclusions: Detectable or elevated Tg concentrations most often correlate with 131I uptake, allowing ...
Tumor markers are substances that are produced by the body in response to cancer or other certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These substances can be found in samples of blood, tumor tissue, urine, stool and other bodily fluids of some cancer patients.. Tumor markers are useful in helping to detect, diagnose and manage some types of cancers. The level of tumor marker present can sometimes reflect the stage (extent) of the disease or the patients prognosis (the likely outcome or the course of disease) for some types of cancers. Tumor markers can also be periodically measured during any cancer therapy treatment, where a decrease in level or a return to normal level for the markers can indicate that the treatment is working and the cancer is responding positively. These markers are also often measured after a treatment has ended in order to check for recurrence (i.e. the return of cancer).. Many different tumor markers have been characterized extensively and used for many clinical ...
Fasting Required: No Specimen: Blood Results: 1-2 Business Days Description: Cancer antigen (CA) 27.29 is used to monitor metastatic carcinoma of the...
The tumor marker CA242 is defined by the monoclonal antibody C242. The chemical structure of the antigenic determinant is not exactly known, but the determinant have been shown to be a sialylated carbohydrate structure. In serum, CA242 is found on the same mucin-complex as CA50 and sialylated Lewisa (CA19-9). Thus, CA242 is related, but not identical to the epitope of CA19-9 (1, 2). Serum levels of CA242 are low in healthy subjects and subjects with benign diseases, while elevated levels are commonly found in serum from patients with gastro-intestinal cancer (3). The CA242 marker may be used as an aid in the diagnosis and management of patients with known or suspected gastro-intestinal carcinomas (4-9). The CanAg CA242 EIA should not be used as a substitute for any established clinical examination of malignancy, but may be used as a complement to existing clinical and laboratory methods. ...
In 2008, an estimated 217 000 new cases of pancreatic cancer were diagnosed worldwide, and in the UK 8000 new cases of pancreatic cancer are reported every year.4 5 6 Worldwide, pancreatic cancer is 13th in incidence but 8th in terms of cancer death.4 In the UK, pancreatic cancer is the 5th most common cause of cancer death in both sexes, despite being only the 11th most common cancer overall.7 This is largely due to red flag symptoms usually appearing only once the disease has progressed to involve other structures. Consequently, only 10-20% of patients will have resectable pancreatic cancer at presentation.7 ...
This book is a comprehensive introduction to the expression of tumor markers in association with various neoplasms, the methods used in their detection and their clinical relevance to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It will be an invaluable guide for clinicians, pathologists and research workers requiring an in-depth introduction to this subject and, with sections devoted to the exploitation of new techniques in immunohistochemistry, flow cytomtry, cancer genetics and molecular biology for the identification of tumor markers, can also be used as a laboratory reference.
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The primary end point is to evaluate the time to progression after gemcitabine alone versus Gemcitabine-based combination induction chemotherapy followe
This new report from VPGMarketResearch.com contains 525 pages, 38 tables, and presents a comprehensive analysis of the Italian hospital tumor marker testing market, ...
This research examines outcomes related to the use of neoadjuvant multi-agent chemotherapy and SBRT in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer.
Improvements in therapy in advanced pancreatic cancer have been very difficult to come by. As a molecularly targeted agent, erlotinib has been shown to add a survival benefit when combined with gemcitabine for patients facing pancreatic cancer," said Dr. Malcolm Moore, study chair and medical oncologist at Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Canada, and Chair of the Gastrointestinal Disease Site, NCIC Clinical Trials Group. "Erlotinib represents a notable step forward for patients and healthcare providers in a disease with a very poor prognosis ...
Pancreatic cancer has long proved the least survivable of the most common forms of cancer, in part because it tends to spread before symptoms appear. Surgery has offered the longest remissions, but for many people with advanced cancer, an operation wasnt an option. Now, thanks to improvements in chemotherapy, radiation and surgery, even this most recalcitrant of cancers is starting to budge, says Mark Truty, M.D., a Mayo Clinic gastrointestinal surgeon. Dr. Truty and his colleagues are now performing complex tumor removal operations on pancreatic cancer patients who in the past would have been considered inoperable - and they are seeing survival times rise significantly. "We know that patients who go through our preoperative protocol and to the operating room do significantly better than average, compared to historical outcomes. Were looking at three- to four-fold improvement in overall survival," Dr. Truty says. "In the past few years, we have done operations that were never performed before. ...
This phase II trial is studying how well giving cetuximab together with radiation therapy works in treating patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer
Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the impact of serum CA19-9 and CEA and their combination on survival among patients undergoing surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Methods: Patients who underwent curative-intent resection of ICC between 1990 and 2016 were identified using a multi-institutional database. Patients were categorized into four groups based on combinations of serum CA19-9 and CEA (low vs. high). Factors associated with 1-year mortality after hepatectomy were examined. Results: Among 588 patients, 5-year OS was considerably better among patients with low CA19-9/low CEA (54.5%) compared with low CA19-9/high CEA (14.6%), high CA19-9/low CEA (10.0%), or high CA19-9/high CEA (0%) (P , 0.001). No difference in 1-year OS existed between patients who had either high CA19-9 (high CA19-9/low CEA: 70.4%) or high CEA levels (low CA19-9/high CEA: 72.5%) (P = 0.92). Although patients with the most favorable tumor marker profile (low CA19-9/low CEA) had the ...
Cells were incubated in either 5 μM BCECF-AM and/or fura-2 AM (1-10 μM; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) for 15 min and subsequently washed for 20 min in dye-free L-15 medium. In previous studies, we have shown that dissociated rod and cone inner segments loaded with Ca2+ indicator dyes remain healthy for several hours without adverse effects on baseline [Ca2+]i or the amplitude of depolarization-evoked [Ca2+]i responses (39-45, 63-66, 68-69). Fluorescence imaging was performed on an inverted Nikon Ti or an upright 600EF microscope using cooled 14-bit interline charge-coupled device cameras with 1,392 × 1,040 pixel imaging arrays and 6.45 × 6.45 μm pixel size (CoolSNAP HQ2; Photometrics, Tucson, AZ) and ×40 (1.3 numerical aperature oil and 0.8 numerical aperature water) objectives. Cameras were cooled at −40°C with the readout set at 10 MHz. Excitation was delivered through the epi-port via a 5-mm liquid light guide (300 series; Sutter Instruments, Novato, CA) attached to a 150 W Xenon arc ...
A large study is providing a rare glimmer of hope for patients with pancreatic cancer, perhaps the deadliest of all malignancies. By the time they're
Free Online Library: France - CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN. by Mena Report; Business, international Carcinoembryonic antigen CEA (Oncology)
This glycoprotein is a mucinous carbohydrate antigen product of the MUC1 gene expressed on various adenocarcinomas, especially breast. It is a high molecular weight (300-450 kDa) 1 polymor... ...
This test measures a protein called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in your blood. This protein is present on some types of cancer cells.
This test measures a protein called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in your blood. This protein is present on some types of cancer cells.
This test measures a protein called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in your blood. This protein is present on some types of cancer cells.
Scientists in Switzerland have developed a tiny lab on a chip that when implanted just under the skin can track levels of up to five substances in the bl
Anogen is a Canadian biopharmaceutical company, who has been producing antibody products for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
My tumor marker is 136. Two months ago is was 125, then last month after my surgery (where a large piece of tumor was removed), it dropped down to 109. This wasnt the result I was hoping for, but it may be just too soon to see the effect of Afinitor. Whatever the numbers say,…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. T2 - A meta-analytical evaluation of prospective studies. AU - Festa, Virginia. AU - Andriulli, Angelo. AU - Valvano, Maria Rosaria. AU - Uomo, Generoso. AU - Perri, Francesco. AU - Andriulli, Nicola. AU - Corrao, Salvatore. AU - Koch, Maurizio. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Context For patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer, the benefit of neoadjuvant therapy remains to be defined. Objective We did a systematic search of the literature on this topic. Methods Prospective studies where chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy was given before surgery to patients with borderline resectable cancer, were analyzed by a metaanalytical approach. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was surgical exploration and resection rates; tumor response, therapy-induced toxicity, and survival were secondary outcomes. Data were expressed as weighted pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals ...
Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from Prostate Cancer : This thesis focuses on the synthesis and vaccine evaluation of the prostate tumor- associated carbohydrate antigen RM2. The author first presents the use of the [1+2+3] one-pot sequential strategy to successfully synthesise the RM2 antigen and its analogues as single stereoisomers in every glycosylation step, producing good yields and stereoselectivity. He then introduces the conjugation of the
Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects
A prospective randomized trial comparing streptozotocin, mitomycin C, and 5-FU (SMF) with mitomycin C and 5-FU (MF) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer was performed. In patients with measurable disease the response rates were 34% (19/56) to SMF, and 8% (5/60) to MF (P = 0.009). Median survivals were similar, however, 18 versus 17 weeks (P = 0.356). Median survival of patients responding to chemotherapy was 33 weeks, and for nonresponders it was 17 weeks (P = 0.002). In patients with nonmeasurable disease, median survivals were 21 weeks (SMF) and 18 weeks (MF) (P = 0.797). Patients surviving greater than or equal to 48 weeks, however, appeared to be increased in the SMF arm (14 patients) compared to the MF (7 patients). Toxicity was moderate for both regimens, with SMF having greater gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Chemotherapy with SMF appears to produce objective responses in patients with pancreatic cancer, but does not improve survival compared to MF ...
A prospective randomized trial comparing streptozotocin, mitomycin C, and 5-FU (SMF) with mitomycin C and 5-FU (MF) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer was performed. In patients with measurable disease the response rates were 34% (19/56) to SMF, and 8% (5/60) to MF (P = 0.009). Median survivals were similar, however, 18 versus 17 weeks (P = 0.356). Median survival of patients responding to chemotherapy was 33 weeks, and for nonresponders it was 17 weeks (P = 0.002). In patients with nonmeasurable disease, median survivals were 21 weeks (SMF) and 18 weeks (MF) (P = 0.797). Patients surviving greater than or equal to 48 weeks, however, appeared to be increased in the SMF arm (14 patients) compared to the MF (7 patients). Toxicity was moderate for both regimens, with SMF having greater gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Chemotherapy with SMF appears to produce objective responses in patients with pancreatic cancer, but does not improve survival compared to MF ...
Data from the BAYPAN study presented at the American College of Clinical Oncologys 2011 Annual Meeting did not support the addition of sorafenib to gemcitabine therapy in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer (APC), in contrast to an earlier Phase I study that demonstrated that this combination was well tolerated and had activity in APC patients.
The primary objective of this study is to determine whether S-1 increases overall survival when compared to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with metas
AMG 479 Extended Progression-Free Survival And Overall Survival Compared To Gemcitabine Alone AMG 479 Moving Into Phase 3 For Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Amgen
Synthesis and Vaccine) appraises currently So the dimensione of a 3ann. Gebiet otherwise are from ten to thirty, or rather more Banne. Stendortfuhrer( Garrison Commander).
A large study is providing a rare glimmer of hope for patients with pancreatic cancer, perhaps the deadliest of all malignancies. By the time they're
Phase II LAPACT trial results reported on the safety and efficacy of ABRAXANE + gemcitabine induction therapy on tumor burden, disease control, and symptoms SUMMIT, N.J.--(BUS...
... , Yawen Deng, Rihui Zhong, Xiaoying Xie, Xuxia Xiong, Jian He, Linhui Peng, Hua Zeng,
Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is a protein shed by cells into the blood, including tumor cells. The B2M test can be used as a tumor marker for some people with blood cell cancers (multiple myeloma, lymphoma) to give information about their likely prognosis.
Blood is just teeming with proteins. Its not easy there to identify specialized tumor markers indicating the presence of cancer. A new method now enables diagnostics to be carried out in a single step. Scientists will present the analysis equipment at analytica, the international trade fair in Munich April 1-4 (Hall A1, Booth 530).
This new report from Venture Planning Group contains 537 pages, 42 tables and presents a comprehensive analysis of the Japanese hospital tumor marker testing
Taiwan Tumor Marker Testing Market, 2019-2023: Supplier Shares and Strategies, Volume and Sales Forecasts, Emerging Tests, Technologies and OpportunitiesThis new ...
Ive remained faithful to a plant-based diet since early 2006 which I believe is the most important contributor to my healing. It wasnt always easy to stay the course but my desire to reverse the cancer kept me motivated. My exams at three-month intervals showed that the cancer had stabilized and the tumor markers were slowly declining. Despite all my good efforts there were a few times when the markers were unpredictable - up a little, then down a little on the next visit, then up again. That sometimes felt defeating, but I understood that this type of bloodwork isnt always reliable. Its more cause for concern when the tumor marker continuously rises by many points at a time. That didnt happen for me but I still sometimes had doubts, and thats when it was tough to remain patient and faithful to my protocol. Keeping a possitive outlook was at times tricky but it became much easier when my tumor markers started to plumet ...
Background: The role of pERK, pAKT and p53 as biomarkers in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer has not yet been defined. Methods: Within the phase III study AIO-PK0104 281 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer received an erlotinib-based 1st-line regimen. Archival tissue from 153 patients was available for central immunohistochemistry staining for pERK, pAKT and p53. Within a subgroup analysis, biomarker data were correlated with efficacy endpoints and skin rash using a Cox regression model. Results: Fifty-five out of 153 patients were classified as pERK(low) and 98 patients as pERK(high); median overall survival (OS) was 6.2 months and 5.7 months, respectively (HR 1.29, p = 0.16). When analysing pERK as continuous variable, the pERK score was significantly associated with OS (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.0-1.12, p = 0.05). Twenty-one of 35 patients were pAKT(low) and 14/35 pAKT(high) with a corresponding median OS of 6.4 months and 6.8 months, respectively (HR 1.03, p = 0.93). Four out of 50 ...
Diagnostic and prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen in pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis Qingcai Meng,1–3,* Si Shi,1–3,* Chen Liang,1–3,* Dingkong Liang,1–3 Wenyan Xu,1–3 Shunrong Ji,1–3 Bo Zhang,1–3 Quanxing Ni,1–3 Jin Xu,1–3 Xianjun Yu1–3 1Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, 3Pancreatic Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the most widely used tumor markers and is increased in 30%–60% of patients with pancreatic cancer. Although carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is the most important serum biomarker in pancreatic cancer, the diagnostic and prognostic value of CEA is gradually being recognized.Materials and methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were
Looking for carcinoembryonic antigen? Find out information about carcinoembryonic antigen. A glycoprotein found in tissues of the fetal gut during the first two trimesters of pregnancy and in the peripheral blood of individuals with some forms of... Explanation of carcinoembryonic antigen
Abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. All tumor marker levels are normal. Also called testicular intraepithelial neoplasia and testicular intratubular germ cell neoplasia ...
Older patients metastatic pancreatic cancer are less likely to receive chemotherapy compared with younger patients with metastatic disease.
Pancreatic cancer has the lowest survival rate of all major cancers, at just 9%. This deadly disease has stolen our best and our brightest, but it cant take away our determination. Our team has stepped up to Wage Hope at PurpleStride, the walk to end pancreatic cancer. Will you help us rewrite the future of this disease by making a donation today?. Every dollar that you donate ensures that the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network can continue working to create better outcomes for pancreatic cancer patients and their families. By donating to our team, you are supporting vital efforts to double pancreatic cancer survival by 2020. Purple ribbons arent enough. Please join us in the fight today. ...
Pancreatic cancer has the lowest survival rate of all major cancers, at just 9%. This deadly disease has stolen our best and our brightest, but it cant take away our determination. Ive stepped up to Wage Hope at PurpleStride, the walk to end pancreatic cancer. Will you help me rewrite the future of this disease by making a donation today?. Every dollar that you give ensures that the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network can continue working to improve outcomes for pancreatic cancer patients and their families. By donating today, you are supporting vital efforts to double pancreatic cancer survival by 2020. Purple ribbons arent enough. Please join me in the fight today. ...
... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion. It is normally produced during fetal development, but the production of CEA stops before birth.
Aug. 23, 2012 The short life expectancy of a pancreatic cancer patient, even if the treatment is aggressive, motivated physicians, medical educators and students to produce a quantitative analysis of this experience that they hope will assist these victims in making quality-of-life decisions. Health news for senior citizens and baby boomers.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the cost of the tumor marker assays most widely used in pneumological practive and the effectiveness of the percentage of DRG-based reimbursements absorbed by these assays. For this purpose we assessed the cost of lung tumor marker assays in Emilia Romagna compared to the DRG-based reimbursement of...
Definition Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an antigen (protein) present in very small quantities in adult tissue. A greater than normal amount may be suggestive of cancer. Normally, its values range
Book Alpha Feto Protein Tumour Marker with Thyrocare Laboratories online in gandhinagar at 1mgLabs. Get best prices & free home sample pick up. View online reports and pre-test requirements | 1mgLabs
In this case-based interview, John Marshall, MD, provides an experts view on the treatment of a patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer, providing details on therapeutic approaches and toxicity management.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in pancreatic cancer patients identifies novel genes with potential diagnostic utility. AU - Baine, Michael J.. AU - Chakraborty, Subhankar. AU - Smith, Lynette M. AU - Mallya, Kavita. AU - Sasson, Aaron R.. AU - Brand, Randall E.. AU - Batra, Surinder Kumar. PY - 2011/2/25. Y1 - 2011/2/25. N2 - Background: It is well known that many malignancies, including pancreatic cancer (PC), possess the ability to evade the immune system by indirectly downregulating the mononuclear cell machinery necessary to launch an effective immune response. This knowledge, in conjunction with the fact that the trancriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been shown to be altered in the context of many diseases, including renal cell carcinoma, lead us to study if any such alteration in gene expression exists in PC as it may have diagnostic utility. Methods and Findings: PBMC samples from 26 PC patients and 33 matched healthy ...
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Colorectal carcinoma in a patient with rising carcinoembryonic antigen tumor marker levels. A = Computed tomography (CT) scan with intravenous contrast not showing metastatic disease. B = Horizontal positron emission tomography (PET) scan showing focal abnormal radiopharmaceutical uptake in right lobe of liver. C = Biopsy showing liver metastasis.
CKs are expressed at high levels in epithelial cells, and expression is usually maintained or even increased after oncogenic transformation (34) . CKs can be detected in serum from cancer patients and are widely used serum tumor markers (1 , 2) . The mechanisms of release of soluble CKs into the extracellular compartment have been unclear. It was shown recently that apoptosis leads to the release of soluble CK fragments from tumor cells, suggesting that the widely used CK tumor markers tissue polypeptide antigen, tissue-polypeptide-specific antigen, and CYFRA 21-1 may reflect tumor apoptosis (14, 15, 16) . The results of the present study confirmed previous findings of release of soluble CK18 to the extracellular compartment during apoptosis (Fig. 3) ⇓ , but also showed that large amounts of soluble CK18 were released from cells induced to undergo necrosis (Fig. 2) ⇓ . Release of CK18 is therefore a marker of epithelial cell death and not a specific marker of apoptosis.. The in vitro data ...
IMPFSTOFFE + VAKZINE (PHARMAZIE); OBERFLÄCHENANTIGENE (IMMUNOLOGIE); ORGANISCHE SYNTHESE (CHEMIE); PROTEIN-MIKROARRAY-TECHNOLOGIE (MOLEKULARGENETISCHE TECHNIKEN); VACCINES (PHARMACY); SURFACE ANTIGENS (IMMUNOLOGY); ORGANIC SYNTHESIS (CHEMISTRY); PROTEIN MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY (MOLECULAR GENETIC TECHNIQUES ...
Principal Investigator:IBAYASHI Yukihiro, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
Synonyms for secretor in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for secretor. 3 synonyms for secretor: gland, secreter, secretory organ. What are synonyms for secretor?
Annals of Pancreatic Cancer is a journal for all researchers in the field of pancreatic cancer and for all health care providers who manage the care of pancreatic cancer patients.
MedStar Montgomery Medical Center offers a wide array of advanced Pancreatic Cancer treatments for both complex and common Pancreatic Cancer types.
INHIBIN A, TUMOR MARKER. Males: ,2.0 pg/mL. Females. ,11 years: ,4.7 pg/mL. 11-17 years: ,97.5 pg/mL. Premenopausal: ,97.5 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,2.1 pg/mL. INHIBIN B. Males 0-23 months: ,430 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,269 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,184 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,214 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,276 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,273 pg/mL. Adults: ,399 pg/mL. Females. 0-23 months: ,111 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,44 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,27 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,67 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,120 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,136 pg/mL. Premenopausal. Follicular: ,139 pg/mL. Luteal: ,92 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,10 pg/mL. ...
INHIBIN A, TUMOR MARKER. Males: ,2.0 pg/mL. Females. ,11 years: ,4.7 pg/mL. 11-17 years: ,97.5 pg/mL. Premenopausal: ,97.5 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,2.1 pg/mL. INHIBIN B. Males 0-23 months: ,430 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,269 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,184 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,214 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,276 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,273 pg/mL. Adults: ,399 pg/mL. Females. 0-23 months: ,111 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,44 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,27 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,67 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,120 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,136 pg/mL. Premenopausal. Follicular: ,139 pg/mL. Luteal: ,92 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,10 pg/mL. ...
[590 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Japan Tumor Markers: Supplier Shares by Test, Competitive Strategies, Country Volume and Sales Segment Forecasts, Technology Trends, Instrumentation Review, Emerging Opportunities report by Venture Planning Group. Complete report $7,600. DataPack (test volumes, sales forecasts,...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase 2 study of erlotinib combined with adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. AU - Herman, Joseph M.. AU - Fan, Katherine Y.. AU - Wild, Aaron T.. AU - Hacker-Prietz, Amy. AU - Wood, Laura D.. AU - Blackford, Amanda L.. AU - Ellsworth, Susannah. AU - Zheng, Lei. AU - Le, Dung T.. AU - De Jesus-Acosta, Ana. AU - Hidalgo, Manuel. AU - Donehower, Ross C.. AU - Schulick, Richard D.. AU - Edil, Barish H.. AU - Choti, Michael A.. AU - Hruban, Ralph H.. AU - Pawlik, Timothy M.. AU - Cameron, John L.. AU - Laheru, Daniel A.. AU - Wolfgang, Christopher L.. PY - 2013/7/15. Y1 - 2013/7/15. N2 - Purpose: Long-term survival rates for patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have stagnated at 20% for more than a decade, demonstrating the need to develop novel adjuvant therapies. Gemcitabine- erlotinib therapy has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with metastatic PDAC. Here we report the first phase 2 study of ...
... antigen and cannot produce CA19-9. It has a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 73% in detecting pancreatic adenocarcinoma, ... CA19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19.9) is a tumor marker that is frequently elevated in pancreatic cancer. However, it lacks ... CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 63 (5): 318-48. doi:10.3322/caac.21190. PMC 3769458 . PMID 23856911. Vincent A, Herman J, ... Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2015. Bussom S, Saif MW (5 March 2010). "Methods and rationale for the early ...
... carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125). These tumour markers are found in primary liver cancers, as well ... Jemal, A; Bray, F; Center, MM; Ferlay, J; Ward, E; Forman, D (Mar-Apr 2011). "Global cancer statistics". CA: A Cancer Journal ... Cholangiocarcinoma can be detected with these commonly used tumor markers: carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), ... 286 (1): 9-14. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.10.040. PMID 19091458. Di Tommaso, L; Sangiovanni, A; Borzio, M; Park, YN; Farinati, F ...
... carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125). These tumour markers are found in primary liver cancers, as well ... CA 19-9), ...
... carbohydrate antigens CA 19-9 and CA 724 in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer". Anticancer Res. 23 (6D): 5089-5095. PMID ... The combination of Tumor M2-PK with the appropriate classical tumor marker, such as CEA for bowel cancer, CA 19-9 for ... Schneider J, Schulze G (2003). "Comparison of Tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (Tumor M2-PK), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ... CA19-9 and CEA in patients with benign, malignant and metastasizing pancreatic lesions". Anticancer Res. 19 (1B): 849-52. PMID ...
Prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 in gastric carcinoma. „Tumour Biol". 22 (5). s. 318-322. DOI ... CA 72-4. CA 72-4 jest związany z wyższym ryzykiem zgonu z powodu raka żołądka, zajęciem węzłów chłonnych oraz otrzewnej[166]. ... Największe znaczenie kliniczne wykazują CEA i CA 19-9[11]. Antygen rakowo-płodowy (CEA). Stężenie CEA jest podwyższone w około ... CA Cancer J Clin". 61 (2). s. 69-90. DOI: 10.3322/caac.20107. PMID: 21296855. ...
Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... Studies of the performance of serum markers for cholangiocarcinoma (such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9) in patients ... Changes in CA19-9 tumor marker are being assessed in a clinical trial of oral vaccine Immunitor V3-X. Landis S, Murray T, ... Levy C, Lymp J, Angulo P, Gores G, Larusso N, Lindor K (2005). "The value of serum CA 19-9 in predicting cholangiocarcinomas in ...
Jan 1998). "The effect of benign and malignant liver disease on the tumour markers CA19-9 and CEA". Ann Clin Biochem. 35 (1): ... Carcinoembryonic Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEA at Lab Tests Online CEA: ... Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally ... Ballesta, AM; Molina, R; Filella, X; Jo, J; Giménez, N (1995). "Carcinoembryonic antigen in staging and follow-up of patients ...
... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.285.050.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.550.325.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325. ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.840.075.115 --- ca-15-3 antigen MeSH D23.101.840.075.119 --- ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.101.840.075. ... ca-125 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.062 --- antigens, viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.285.062.045 --- adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH ...
Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... Studies of the performance of serum markers for cholangiocarcinoma (such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9) in patients ... Landis SH, Murray T, Bolden S, Wingo PA (1998). "Cancer statistics, 1998". Ca. 48 (1): 6-29. doi:10.3322/canjclin.48.1.6. PMID ... Levy C, Lymp J, Angulo P, Gores GJ, Larusso N, Lindor KD (September 2005). "The value of serum CA 19-9 in predicting ...
Goonetilleke KS, Siriwardena AK (April 2007). "Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) as a biochemical marker in ... In patients who lack the Lewis antigen (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian ... antigen) is a tumor marker that is used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 is an antigen defined by ... CA-19-9 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Magnani, JL (15 June 2004). "The ...
... (cancer antigen 125, carcinoma antigen 125, or carbohydrate antigen 125) also known as mucin 16 or MUC16 is a protein ... CA-125 blood test urban legend at snopes.com CA-125 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Göcze P, Vahrson H (Apr 1993). "[Ovarian carcinoma antigen (CA 125) and ovarian cancer (clinical follow-up and prognostic ... Around 90% of women with advanced ovarian cancer have elevated levels of CA-125 in their blood serum, making CA-125 a useful ...
Schindler R, Dinarello CA (1990). "Interleukin 1". In Habenicht A. Growth Factors, Differentiation Factors, and Cytokines. ... IL3 is produced by T lymphocytes and T-cell lymphomas only after stimulation with antigens, mitogens, or chemical activators ... These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various ... doi:10.1007/978-3-642-74856-1_7. ISBN 978-3-642-74856-1. "Revised nomenclature for antigen-nonspecific T cell proliferation and ...
"5c8 Antigen". Google Patents. Google. Retrieved 21 December 2011. "Methods of inhibiting an autoimmune response in a human ... Stein CA; Cleary AM; Yakubov L; Lederman S (1993). "Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides bind to the third variable loop ... Review Articles Lederman S; Yellin MJ; Covey LR; Cleary AM; Callard R; Chess L (June 1993). "Non-antigen signals for B-cell ... Liu QY; Rubin MA; Omene C; Lederman S; Stein CA (July 1998). "Fas ligand is constitutively secreted by prostate cancer cells in ...
2002). "Identification of a novel HLA-A*0201-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in a human glioma-associated antigen, ... Cancino-Díaz JC, Reyes-Maldonado E, Bañuelos-Pánuco CA, et al. (2003). "Interleukin-13 receptor in psoriatic keratinocytes: ... 12 (1): 99-106. doi:10.1038/nm1332. PMID 16327802. Daines MO, Tabata Y, Walker BA, et al. (2006). "Level of expression of IL- ... 973: 207-9. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04633.x. PMID 12485861. Wu AH, Low WC (2003). "Molecular cloning and identification ...
Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (Feb 1978). "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic ... Barnes CA, McNamara S, O'Riordan J, McCann SR, Darke C (1997). "Distribution of HLA-A, B and DR genes and haplotypes in the ... HLA-A*02 (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ... The HLA-A*02 antigen has been associated with spontaneous abortion in infertile couples. In essence, there are indicators, ...
Janeway CA, Jr (1 November 2013). "Pillars article: approaching the asymptote? Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ...
2004). "Association between expression levels of CA 19-9 and N-acetylglucosamine-beta;1,3-galactosyltransferase 5 gene in human ... 2003). "Lewis type 1 antigen synthase (beta3Gal-T5) is transcriptionally regulated by homeoproteins". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (38): ...
Erlanson M, Casiano CA, Tan EM, et al. (1999). "Immunohistochemical analysis of the proliferation associated nuclear antigen ... ca 400 kDa kinetochore protein that exhibits a cell-cycle dependent localization". Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 26 (3): 214-26. doi ... 15 (9): 5017-29. PMC 230749 . PMID 7651420. Li S, Ku CY, Farmer AA, et al. (1998). "Identification of a novel cytoplasmic ... 1 (2): 141-9. PMID 12467231. Konstantinidou AE, Korkolopoulou P, Kavantzas N, et al. (2003). "Mitosin, a novel marker of cell ...
Coltman CA (May 2004). "Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate-specific antigen level < or =4.0 ng per ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, also known as kallikrein III, seminin, semenogelase, γ-seminoprotein and P-30 antigen) is a 34- ... It is now clear that the term prostate-specific antigen is a misnomer: it is an antigen but is not specific to the prostate. ... In 1979, Wang purified a tissue-specific antigen from the prostate ('prostate antigen'). PSA was first measured quantitatively ...
2. Thousand Oaks, California, USA: Magnum Publishing. pp. 268-269. ISBN 0-9716146-0-1. Retrieved 19 April 2011. Kennedy, L. J ... Day, M.J (1999). "Antigen specificity in canine autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 69 ( ... Tissue Antigens. 66 (6): 656-65. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00508.x. PMID 16305682. Cottelll, Beverley D.; Barnett, K. C. ( ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (1): 82-6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00614.x. PMID 16774545. "The Akita - Diseases" (website). Akita ...
Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD19 genome location and CD19 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... Khine AA, Firtel M, Lingwood CA (Aug 1998). "CD77-dependent retrograde transport of CD19 to the nuclear membrane: functional ... yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. The CD19 gene encodes ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
1999). "Fine mapping of a polymorphic CA repeat marker on human chromosome 19 and its use in population studies". Gene. 230 (2 ... Yakirevich E, Naot Y (2000). "Cloning of a glucose phosphate isomerase/neuroleukin-like sperm antigen involved in sperm ... 2 (3): 327-9. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.3.327. PMID 8499925. Kanno H, Fujii H, Hirono A, Ishida Y, Ohga S, Fukumoto Y, Matsuzawa K, ... 29 (3): 732-9. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.9944. PMID 8575767. Baronciani L, Zanella A, Bianchi P, et al. (1996). "Study of the ...
Most of these cases (117 cases [66%]) were part of a large multi-state outbreak linked to Disneyland in California, continued ... A study published in 2013 found no correlation between autism and the antigen number in the vaccines the children were ... The number of cases in 2014 quadrupled to 644, including transmission by unvaccinated visitors to Disneyland in California. ... and California) that do not provide exemptions based on religious beliefs. The cell cultures of some viral vaccines, and the ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CA 15-3. *erbB-2 receptor. *erbB-3 receptor. *Cathepsin D. *Ca 27-29 ...
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. • proteolysis. • neutrophil degranulation. ... Mueller CA, Kalbacher H (March 2006). "Cathepsin D is present in human eccrine sweat and involved in the postsecretory ... brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death.[17][18][19][20] ... 281 (9): 5406-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.M504670200. PMID 16354654.. *^ a b Hakala JK, Oksjoki R, Laine P, Du H, Grabowski GA, Kovanen ...
Teicher MH, Glod CA, Surrey J, Swett C, Jr (1993). "Early childhood abuse and limbic system ratings in adult psychiatric ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ... Retrieved 9 February 2015.. *^ Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease ... 19] For example, cross-sensitization to the neural and behavioral effects of addictive drugs are well characterized, such as ...
CA19-9) is a protein that is found in very small amounts on the surface of certain cancer cells. It may be found in the blood ... The highest levels of this antigen are most commonly seen in people with advanced pancreatic cancer. CA19-9 is not usually high ... How a ca19-9 test is done. CA19-9 is usually measured by a blood test. The blood sample is sent to a lab to be tested. ... Why a CA19-9 test is done. A CA19-9 test is mainly used to:* check a persons response to treatment for some types of ...
Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedicals products are for laboratory research use only, not for human or clinical use. For more information, please contact our customer service department ...
Ca-19-9 antigen. QualityTools. Use of Tumor Markers in Gastrointestinal Cancer: 2006 Update Slide Set 12/17/07 This slide set ...
Request A Test offers over 1000 convenient lab locations for your affordable Cancer Antigen CA 19-9 testing needs. Ensuring ... Cancer Antigen CA 19-9 Blood Test. The Cancer Antigen (CA) 19-9 test is often used to aid in the diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer ... Cancer Antigen CA 19-9 Blood Test. The Cancer Antigen (CA) 19-9 test is often used to aid in the diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer ... Cancer Antigen CA 19-9 Blood Test. The Cancer Antigen (CA) 19-9 test is often used to aid in the diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer ...
The CA 19-9 antigen is currently the best individual marker for the detection of pancreatic cancer. In order to optimize the CA ... Glycan array analysis revealed that certain antibodies were highly specific for the canonical CA 19-9 epitope, sialyl-Lewis A, ... Diverse monoclonal antibodies against the CA 19-9 antigen show variation in binding specificity with consequences for clinical ... Antibody arrays enabled multiplexed comparisons between five different CA 19-9 antibodies used in the analysis of plasma ...
... blood group antigen. Elevated in patients with pancreatic cancer, CA 19-9 is also variably (20-50%) elevated in patients with ... CA 19-9 is a cell surface antigen located on MUC-1 whose carbohydrate determinant is defined as a sialylated Lewis (a) ... Home,Clinical Diagnostics,Products,Critical Raw Materials,Antigens,Gastrointestinal Tumor Antigen (CA 19-9) ... of all major tumor marker antigens especially CA 125 and CA 15-3.,br /,,strong,Purity Ratio:,/strong, ≥300 U/mL/OD280,br /,, ...
... cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are higher in patients with CKD ... Estimated reference limits for plasma CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA were approximately the same as for healthy populations. Serum ... Reference limits for chromogranin A, CYFRA 21-1, CA 125, CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with chronic kidney ... Previous studies have indicated that plasma concentrations of chromogranin A (CGA), cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1), ...
Cancer Antigen-GI(CA19-9) Fluid Source. PROMPT. N. 31208-2. 0020747. Cancer Antigen GI (CA 19-9), Body Fluid. Resultable. N. U/ ... Cancer Antigen-GI(CA19-9) Fluid Source. 31208-2. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided ... The CA 19-9 value, regardless of level, should not be interpreted as absolute evidence of the presence or absence of malignant ... The Roche CA 19-9 electrochemiluminescent immunoassay is used. Results obtained with different test methods or kits cannot be ...
CA 19-9 Antigen. CA 19-9 antigen is a heterogenous glycoprotein, whose elevated levels are observed in the serum of patients ... An assay for 19-9 antigen may be of significant benefit in determining a patients course of disease, or response to surgery or ...
... 83084-4. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is ... Cancer Antigen-GI (CA 19-9). Resultable. N. U/mL. XXXXXXX. 83084-4. ... Body Fluid (refer to Cancer Antigen-GI (CA19-9), Body Fluid, ARUP test code 0020746). Specimens collected in sodium citrate. ... CA 19-9 value regardless of level, should not be interpreted as absolute evidence of the presence or absence of malignant ...
CA) 19-9 blood test is ordered to monitor pancreatic, liver, gastrointestinal, and colorectal malignancies. ... Even genotype positive patients for the Lewis antigen may produce varying levels of CA 19-9 as the result of gene dosage effect ... Phenotyping for the presence of the Lewis blood group antigen can be insufficient to detect true Lewis antigen-negative ... Cancer Antigen-GI; CA-GI. Preparation. No fasting required. Stop biotin consumption at least 72 hours prior to the collection. ...
CA) 19-9 (Serial Monitor) (LabCorp). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance. ... Extra tests (click to add to search): Cancer Antigen (CA) 15-3 (LabCorp) , Cancer Antigen (CA) 125 (LabCorp) , α-Fetoprotein ( ... Extra tests (click to add to search): Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) (LabCorp) , Cancer Antigen (CA) 125 (LabCorp) , α- ... Extra components (click to add to search): Cancer Antigen 15-3, Cancer Antigen (CA) 125, AFP, Serum, Tumor Marker, CEA ...
Also known as: Cancer antigen-GI; CA-GI. Formal name: Cancer Antigen 19-9. Related tests: Bilirubin, CEA, Liver panel, Tumor ... Everyday From 9 am to 10 pm. EXCEPT Friday from 10 am to 5 pm (Tahrir, Faisal, MT Mohandseen 2(Medical Tower) , Maadi, ...
There are two common oncofetal antigens, alphafetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Carcinoembryonic antigen CA ... Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) CA 15-3 is produced by cells in the breast and increased levels can be associated with breast ... Carcinoembryonic antigen CA 72-4 is a more recently discovered oncofetal antigen just coming into usage. The oncofetal antigens ... Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3). CA 15-3 is produced by cells in the breast and increased levels can be associated with breast ...
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CA 19-9 is a modified Lewis(a) blood group antigen and has been used as a tumor marker. It is shown to be elevated in sera of ...
Home > Specialties > IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9 ... IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9. ... The detection of the tumor marker CA 19-9 is mostly in diagnosis and monitoring of colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas; this ... Entry Terms : "Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) Determination Reagents" , "CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9) Determination ...
Cancer Antigen (CA) 125. 002303 - A CA 125 test measures the amount of the protein CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) in your blood. A ... CA 27.29 - Cancer Antigen. 140293 - Quantitative measurement of Cancer Antigen 27.29. This testing is often done to help manage ... Cancer Antigen (CA) 15-3. 143404 - Quantitative measurement of cancer antigen 15-3. ... Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). 002261 - The CA 19-9 is used to monitor gastrointestinal, pancreatic, liver and colorectal ...
Antigen, Cancer Antigen 19-9, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp. ... CA19-9), Homo sapiens (Human), Sandwich ELISA, sialylated Lewis ... ELISA Kit for Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) sialylated Lewis(a)Antigen; Cancer Antigen 19-9. *UOM *48T ... The concentration of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples ... The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). ...
CA 15-3 Cancer Antigen Measures the CA 15-3 levels in the blood - used as a tumor marker to monitor treatment and determine ... and several cancer antigen tests to track treatment response including the CA 125 cancer antigen test to monitor ovarian cancer ... CA 125 Cancer Antigen To monitor treatment for ovarian cancer or to detect recurrence. ... CA 19-9 Cancer Antigen This test measures the CA 19-9 levels in the blood. It is used as a tumor marker to monitor treatment ...
Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9) conversion to U/mL, kU/L . Online conversion calculator for many types of measurement units in ... Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9), CA 19-9, Cancer Antigen 19-9, Gastrointestinal Cancer Antigen. ... The CA 199 values measured are defined by the use of the monoclonal antibody 1116‑NS‑199. The 1116‑NS‑199‑reactive ... Elevated CA 199 values are also found with a number of benign and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the ...
The present study was conducted for measuring serum levels of nucleosomes, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9 in ... The levels of CEA and CA19-9 showed no significant increase (p = 0.569 and 0.450, respectively). In conclusion, serum level of ... prostate specific antigen (PSA), carbohydrate antigens CA15.3 and CA19-9. Recently nucleosomes, cytokeratine 18, and cyto-c in ... Colorectal carcinoma: nucleosomes, carcinoembryonic antigen and ca 19-9 as apoptotic markers; a comparative study. *Jehad M Al- ...
What is Cancer antigen 15-3? Meaning of Cancer antigen 15-3 medical term. What does Cancer antigen 15-3 mean? ... Looking for online definition of Cancer antigen 15-3 in the Medical Dictionary? Cancer antigen 15-3 explanation free. ... Synonym/acronym: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), cancer antigen 19- ... Cancer Antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), and/or Cancer Antigen 27-29 (CA 27-29).. From the editors desk ...
ASAT, aspartate transaminase; CA 19-9, carbohydrate antigen 19-9; dNLR, derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. ... increased Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), low haemoglobin, presence of pain, presence of metastasis and increased alkaline ...
A) CA 19-9 kinetics; in patients with abnormal baseline tumor marker CA 19-9 (, 37 U/mL), the following definitions to ... Heterologous prime/boost of GVAX and Listeria-based vaccines induces robust antigen-specific T-cell immunity and delays tumor ... B) Overall survival based on CA 19-9 responses. HR, hazard ratio; N/A, not applicable. ... CA. [email protected] 2. Dung T. Le, Beth Onners, Jennifer N. Uram, Daniel A. Laheru, Eric R. Lutz, Sara Solt, and Elizabeth M. ...
  • Even genotype positive patients for the Lewis antigen may produce varying levels of CA 19-9 as the result of gene dosage effect. (walkinlab.com)
  • B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD19 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), alternatively known as phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) or phosphohexose isomerase (PHI), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPI gene on chromosome 19. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARTS1 is also known as: ER aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) the name accepted by the Hugo Gene Nomenclature Committee ER aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing (ERAAP) Adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (ALAP) Puromycin-insensitive leucine aminopeptidase (PILS-AP) ERAP1 has two major functions in the immune system: First, ERAP1 cleaves several proteins called cytokine receptors on the surface of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is similar, comprising gene libraries from immunized or naïve donors and display techniques for identification of the most specific antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-F gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-G gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entrez Gene: HLA-G HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G". Castelli, Erick C. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992). "Exon/intron structure of the human alpha 3(IV) gene encompassing the Goodpasture antigen (alpha 3(IV)NC1). (wikipedia.org)
  • 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene has been implicated as the chromosome 19 target of translocation t(15;19)(q13;p13.1), which defines the NUT midline carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review commissioned by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that "Prostate-specific antigen-based screening results in small or no reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality and is associated with harms related to subsequent evaluation and treatments, some of which may be unnecessary," or more simply, "[t]he potential benefit does not outweigh the expected harms" in patients not already diagnosed or being treated for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendreon has explored approaches to obtaining tumour-specific antigen targets under the theory that the immune system may be able to mount a more effective response than is otherwise possible against tumor associated antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • An individual in a state of anergy often indicates that the immune system is unable to mount a normal immune response against a specific antigen, usually a self-antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-cell anergy can arise when the T-cell does not receive appropriate co-stimulation in the presence of specific antigen recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • A CA 125 test may be used to monitor certain cancers during and after treatment. (mcssl.com)
  • Measures the CA 15-3 levels in the blood - used as a tumor marker to monitor treatment and determine recurrence of metastatic breast cancer, though it may be used to track certain other cancers of the lung, pancreas, liver, colon or ovaries. (healthcheckusa.com)
  • Distribution of blood group antigens and CA 19-9 in gastric cancers and non-neoplastic gastric mucosa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CA-125 has found application as a tumor marker or biomarker that may be elevated in the blood of some patients with specific types of cancers, or other conditions that are benign. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-mucinous ovarian cancer (the majority of ovarian cancers) was the first tumor type to be associated with FR "over-expression", and it was later shown that this antigen was identical to that found on KB tumor cells and in placental tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • GVAX pancreas, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells, induces T-cell immunity to cancer antigens, including mesothelin. (nih.gov)
  • The relationships between tumor markers CEA CA 19-9 and stage of disease tumor differentiation presence of ringlet cell type presence of peritoneal carcinomatozis were investigated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An immunogen is an antigen substance (or adduct) that is able to trigger a humoral (innate) or cell-mediated immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • As IgM antibodies are expressed early in a B cell response, they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity thus providing an early response to a wide range of antigens without the need for T cell help. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1958, she left the University of California, San Francisco to do post-doctoral work as a research associate in cell biology at Rockefeller University under George Palade. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1973, Farquhar returned to the University of California at San Francisco, where she remained as a professor of cell biology and pathology for the next 15 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach is in contrast to other dendritic cell vaccines that use methods such as electroporation to get the DC's to present antigen related epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drs. Engleman and Strober established the company, initially named Activated Cell Therapy, in Mountain View, California, after securing funding from Health Care Ventures in Edison, New Jersey. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovered in 1991 IL-10 was initially reported to suppress cytokine secretion, antigen presentation and CD4+ T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identified the first cell surface antigens distinguishing cells of different lineages, introducing the concept of cell surface antigens that could differentiate different cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell anergy can be induced by exposure to soluble circulating antigen, and is often marked by a downregulation of surface IgM expression and partial blockade of intracellular signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, patients with CA 199 serum levels above 10000 U/mL almost always have distal metastasis. (unitslab.com)
  • As the mucin is excreted exclusively via the liver, even slight cholestasis can lead to clearly elevated CA 199 serum levels in some cases. (unitslab.com)