An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC; at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC EC
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
A macrolide antibiotic of the oligomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces rutgersensis. It is used in cytochemistry as a tool to inhibit various ATPases and to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport and also clinically as an antifungal agent.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
2001). "Differentiation induces up-regulation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and concomitant increase in Ca(2+) efflux in ... Wang MG, Yi H, Hilfiker H, et al. (1994). "Localization of two genes encoding plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases isoforms 2 (ATP2B2) ... 1991). "Protein kinase C phosphorylates the carboxyl terminus of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase from human erythrocytes". J ... 1993). "von Hippel-Lindau syndrome: cloning and identification of the plasma membrane Ca(++)-transporting ATPase isoform 2 gene ...
... ca(2+) mg(2+)-atpase MeSH D08.811. - ca(2+)-transporting atpase MeSH D08.811. - dynein atpase ... chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811. - h(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D08.811.277.040. ... proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811. - bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040. ... proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.249 - bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696 ...
Agrawal, SK; Fehlings, MG (1996). "Mechanisms of secondary injury to spinal cord axons in vitro: role of Na+, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ... The Royal Society of Canada. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2017. ... "CAHS Fellows Directory". Canadian Academy of Health Sciences (CAHS). 2017. Archived from the original on 23 ... "UHN Doctor Profile Page, Michael G Fehlings". 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017. "University of Toronto Department of ...
Kim JH, Lee-Kwon W, Park JB, Ryu SH, Yun CH, Donowitz M (June 2002). "Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) ... Takeda T, McQuistan T, Orlando RA, Farquhar MG (2001). "Loss of glomerular foot processes is associated with uncoupling of ... DeMarco SJ, Chicka MC, Strehler EE (2002). "Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2b interacts preferentially with Na+/H+ ... 2002). "Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) requires an NHE3-E3KARP-alpha-actinin-4 complex for ...
Normal plasma Mg is 1.7-2.3 mg/dl (0.69-0.94 mmol/l). The kidneys regulate the serum magnesium. About 2400 mg of magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for the adequate function of the Na+/K+-ATPase pumps in cardiac myocytes, the muscles cells of the heart. A ... There is a direct effect on sodium (Na), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) channels. Magnesium has several effects: Potassium ... Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M (2003). "Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised ...
Fischer MG, Suttle CA (April 2011). "A virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons". Science. 332 (6026): 231-4. Bibcode: ... and a DNA-packaging ATPase. The two capsids are almost universally found in a conserved block. The MCP has two vertical jelly ... Fischer MG, Hackl (December 2016). "Host genome integration and giant virus-induced reactivation of the virophage mavirus". ... Born, D; Reuter, L; Mersdorf, U; Mueller, M; Fischer, MG; Meinhart, A; Reinstein, J (10 July 2018). "Capsid protein structure, ...
Candia, S; Garcia, ML; Latorre, R (1992). "Mode of action of iberiotoxin, a potent blocker of the large conductance Ca(2+)- ... Patients with hypertension on admission are given a single dose of 5 mg sublingual nifedipine and oral prazosin. The blood ... myocarditis and changes in cardiac sarcolemmal ATPase and by these abnormalities it can finally cause death. In rural India the ... 63 (2): 583-90. Bibcode:1992BpJ....63..583C. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(92)81630-2. PMC 1262182. PMID 1384740. Bawaskar, HS; ...
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) block the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) and inhibit gastric acid secretion. ... A clinical study showed that nocturnal acid breakthrough duration was significantly shorter for 40 mg of tenatoprazole than for ... half-life ca. 20 h). The acid protective coating prevents conversion to the active principle in the lumen of the stomach, which ... That is, they block the action of the H+/K+ ATPase by binding to or near the site of the K+ channel. Since the binding is ...
Abdellatif M, Ghozy S, Kamel MG, Elawady SS, Ghorab MM, Attia AW, Le Huyen TT, Duy DT, Hirayama K, Huy NT (March 2019). " ... Munita JM, Arias CA (April 2016). "Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance". Microbiology Spectrum. 4 (2): 481-511. doi:10.1128/ ... a highly cytotoxic benzolactone from Myxobacteria is a novel selective inhibitor of mitochondrial F1-ATPases". FEBS Letters. ... 11 (2): 177-80. doi:10.1016/0022-3468(76)90283-9. PMID 1263054. Honein MA, Paulozzi LJ, Himelright IM, Lee B, Cragan JD, ...
Hsu H, Shu HB, Pan MG, Goeddel DV (1996). "TRADD-TRAF2 and TRADD-FADD interactions define two distinct TNF receptor 1 signal ... Miki K, Eddy EM (2002). "Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is an ATPase regulated by silencer of death domain". Mol. Cell. Biol ... Baker E, Chen LZ, Smith CA, Callen DF, Goodwin R, Sutherland GR (November 1991). "Chromosomal location of the human tumor ... 57 (2-3): 117-8. doi:10.1159/000133127. PMID 1655358. Schall TJ, Lewis M, Koller KJ, Lee A, Rice GC, Wong GH, Gatanaga T, ...
... failure of the Na/K ATPase, resulting in a loss of the gradient to drive the Na/Ca antiporter, which normally keeps Ca+ 2 out ... 50-150 mg/day) or high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (1 g/day) for 3-7 days. Thyroid hormone treatment is also included ... Schiess N, Pardo CA (October 2008). "Hashimoto's encephalopathy". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1142 (1): 254-65 ... An additional feature of a low-energy state is failure to maintain axonal transport via dynein/kinesin ATPases, which in many ...
... bakterijska Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom ATP fosfohidrolaza (H+ transport).[1][2][3],/ref,[4] Ovaj enzim ... Abrahams, J.P., Leslie, A.G.W., Lutter, R. and Walker, J.F. (1994). "Structure at 2.8 Å resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7,, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... 1997). "Direct observation of the rotation of F1-ATPase". Nature 386: 299-302. PMID 9069291. ...
Liu SB, Zhang N, Guo YY, Zhao R, Shi TY, Feng SF, Wang SQ, Yang Q, Li XQ, Wu YM, Ma L, Hou Y, Xiong LZ, Zhang W, Zhao MG (April ... Simão F, Matté A, Matté C, Soares FM, Wyse AT, Netto CA, Salbego CG (October 2011). "Resveratrol prevents oxidative stress and ... inhibition of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity induced by transient global cerebral ischemia in rats". J. Nutr. Biochem. 22 (10): 921- ... Papandreou MA, Kanakis CD, Polissiou MG, Efthimiopoulos S, Cordopatis P, Margarity M, Lamari FN (2006). "Inhibitory activity on ...
Galea CA, Huq A, Lockhart PJ, Tai G, Corben LA, Yiu EM, et al. (March 2016). "Compound heterozygous FXN mutations and clinical ... Leonardi L, Aceto MG, Marcotulli C, Arcuria G, Serrao M, Pierelli F, et al. (March 2017). "A wearable proprioceptive stabilizer ... acyl carrier protein and ATPase-mediated transfer to recipient proteins". Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 55: 34-44. doi: ... "FARA - Part 2 of the Phase II MOXIe study (RTA 408 or omaveloxolone)". Lynch DR, Farmer J, Hauser L, Blair IA, ...
California has also pursued initiatives to reduce the effect of copper leaching, with the U.S. EPA pursuing research. Copper is ... With an LD50 of 30 mg/kg in rats, "gram quantities" of copper sulfate are potentially lethal in humans. The suggested safe ... "Function and Regulation of Human Copper-Transporting ATPases". Physiological Reviews. 87 (3): 1011-46. doi:10.1152/physrev. ... The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a limit of 0.1 mg/m3 for copper fumes (vapor generated from ...
This inhibits the cone Ca2+ channels and consequently reduces the glutamate release by the cones.[3][10][11][12][13] ... The ecto-ATPase NTPDase1 hydrolyses extracellular ATP to AMP, phosphate groups, and protons. The phosphate groups and protons ... Vessey JP, Stratis AK, Daniels BA, Da Silva N, Jonz MG, Lalonde MR, Baldridge WH, Barnes S (Apr 2005). "Proton-mediated ... 28 (2): 456-64. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2735-07.2008. PMC 3057190 . PMID 18184788.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ...
K+-ATPase Na+/ K+-ATPase Plasma membrane H+-ATPase Sarco/endoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Palmgren MG, Nissen P (2011). "P- ... "A structural model for the catalytic cycle of Ca(2+)-ATPase". Journal of Molecular Biology. 316 (1): 201-211. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... P1 ATPases (or Type I ATPases) consists of the transition/heavy metal ATPases. Topological type I (heavy metal) P-type ATPases ... twofold). P2A ATPases (or Type IIA ATPases) are Ca2+ ATPases that transport Ca2+. P2A ATPases are split into two groups. ...
Weathering of silicate, aluminosilicate and carbonate minerals containing Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+; ... The proton pump, H+-ATPase, of the plasmalemma of root cells works to maintain the near-neutral pH of their cytoplasm. A high ... The accumulation of alkalinity in a soil (as Na, K, Ca and Mg bicarbonates and carbonates) occurs when there is insufficient ... Bolan, N; Brennan, R. (2011). "Bioavailability of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Si, and Micronutrients". In Huang, Pan Ming; Li, Yuncong ...
Zhao XQ, Naka M, Muneyuki M, Tanaka T (January 2000). "Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of actin-activated myosin ATPase activity by ... Schäfer BW, Wicki R, Engelkamp D, Mattei MG, Heizmann CW (February 1995). "Isolation of a YAC clone covering a cluster of nine ... Tomasetto C, Régnier C, Moog-Lutz C, Mattei MG, Chenard MP, Lidereau R, Basset P, Rio MC (August 1995). "Identification of four ... November 2003). "S100C/A11 is a key mediator of Ca(2+)-induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal ...
Single 20 to 40 mg oral doses generally give rise to peak plasma esomeprazole concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/l within 1-4 hours, ... It works by blocking H+/K+-ATPase in the parietal cells of the stomach. It was patented in 1993 and approved for medical use in ... Stedman CA, Barclay ML (August 2000). "Review article: comparison of the pharmacokinetics, acid suppression and efficacy of ... Vimovo is available in two dosage strengths: 500/20 mg and 375/20 mg. Clinical trials of naproxen/esomeprazole demonstrated an ...
Aubry F, Mattéi MG, Galibert F (Jun 1998). "Identification of a human 17p-located cDNA encoding a protein of the Snf2-like ... Tong JK, Hassig CA, Schnitzler GR, Kingston RE, Schreiber SL (Oct 1998). "Chromatin deacetylation by an ATP-dependent ... domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. This protein is one of the components of a histone deacetylase complex ... Tong JK, Hassig CA, Schnitzler GR, Kingston RE, Schreiber SL (Oct 1998). "Chromatin deacetylation by an ATP-dependent ...
Brailoiu, E; Churamani, D; Cai, X; Schrlau, MG; Brailoiu, GC; Gao, X; Hooper, R; Boulware, MJ; Dun, NJ; Marchant, JS; Patel, S ... Lee HC, Zhao YJ (2019). "Resolving the topological enigma in Ca 2+ signaling by cyclic ADP-ribose and NAADP". Journal of ... As noted above, this usually entails collapsing the H+ gradient with either V-ATPase inhibitors (e.g. Bafilomycin A1) or ... CA; Moser, M; Spahn, S; Lüllmann-Rauch, R; Fendel, C; Klugbauer, N; Griesbeck, O; Haas, A; Mann, M; Bracher, F; Teupser, D; ...
PTX 251D also completely inhibits the activity of Ca2+-stimulated ATPase. This results in a decreased reuptake of Ca2+ and thus ... Mortari MR, Schwartz EN, Schwartz CA, Pires OR, Santos MM, Bloch C, Sebben A (March 2004). "Main alkaloids from the Brazilian ... It rapidly induces convulsions and death to mice and insects (LD50 being, respectively, 10 mg/kg and 150 ng/larvae). These ... Tamburini R, Albuquerque EX, Daly JW, Kauffman FC (September 1981). "Inhibition of calcium-dependent ATPase from sarcoplasmic ...
At low heart rates, phospholamban is active and slows down the activity of the ATPase so that Ca2+ does not have to leave the ... Nikolaidis MG, Kyparos A, Spanou C, Paschalis V, Theodorou AA, Vrabas IS (2012). "Redox biology of exercise: an integrative and ... Crespo LM, Grantham CJ, Cannell MB (June 1990). "Kinetics, stoichiometry and role of the Na-Ca exchange mechanism in isolated ... Following systole, intracellular calcium is taken up by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA) pump back into the ...
P-type proton ATPase[edit]. Main article: Plasma membrane H+-ATPase. The plasma membrane H+. -ATPase is a single subunit P-type ... 3.A.3.2: Ca2+ (SERCA, PMCA, SPCA) / Ca2+ transporting: ATP2A1 ... Mg2+ transporting: ATP3. *Class I, type 8: ATP8A1. *ATP8B1. * ... V-type proton ATPase[edit]. Main article: V-ATPase. The V-type proton ATPase is a multisubunit enzyme of the V-type. It is ... F-type proton ATPase[edit]. Main article: F-ATPase. The F-type proton ATPase is a multisubunit enzyme of the F-type (also ...
Paciullo, CA; McMahon Horner, D; Hatton, KW; Flynn, JD (July 2010). "Methylene blue for the treatment of septic shock". ... Methylene blue is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), and if infused intravenously at doses exceeding 5 mg/kg, may ... a drug that inhibits the Na/K-ATPase of cell membranes. Methylene blue has been used as a placebo; physicians would tell their ... 0.7 is used to determine by photometric measurements sulfide concentration in the range 0.020 to 1.50 mg/L (20 ppb to 1.5 ppm ...
Indicated also are the recently identified magnesium channel TRPM6 in the apical membrane, and a putative Na/Mg exchanger in ... This has been suggested to be the result of a putative basolateral Na-Ca exchanger and apical calcium channel. ... When the sodium-chloride cotransporter is inactivated, continued action of the basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase creates a favorable ... 13 (2): 183-8. doi:10.1038/ng0696-183. PMID 8640224.. *^ O'Shaughnessy KM, Karet FE (2004). "Salt handling and hypertension". J ...
Domingues MG, Jaeger MM, Araújo VC, Araújo NS (February 2000). "Expression of cytokeratins in human enamel organ". European ... University of Southern California School of Dentistry. "The Bell Stage: Image 30". Retrieved December 11, 2005. University of ... Patients with osteopetrosis display enamel abnormalities, suggesting that the a3 gene mutation found in V-ATPases also plays a ... ISBN 978-0-7216-9382-8. University of Southern California School of Dentistry, The Bell Stage: Image 26 found here [1]. ...
Ball CA, Osuna R, Ferguson KC, Johnson RC (December 1992). "Dramatic changes in Fis levels upon nutrient upshift in Escherichia ... Vos SM, Stewart NK, Oakley MG, Berger JM (November 2013). "Structural basis for the MukB-topoisomerase IV interaction and its ... Zawadzka K, Zawadzki P, Baker R, Rajasekar KV, Wagner F, Sherratt DJ, Arciszewska LK (January 2018). "MukB ATPases are ... MukB belongs to a family of ATPases called structural maintenance of chromosome proteins (SMCs), which participate in higher- ...
Kaplitt MG, Feigin A, Tang C, Fitzsimons HL, Mattis P, Lawlor PA, Bland RJ, Young D, Strybing K, Eidelberg D, During MJ (June ... Myers MW, Laughlin CA, Jay FT, Carter BJ (July 1980). "Adenovirus helper function for growth of adeno-associated virus: effect ... Jay FT, Laughlin CA, Carter BJ (May 1981). "Eukaryotic translational control: adeno-associated virus protein synthesis is ... Kotin RM, Siniscalco M, Samulski RJ, Zhu XD, Hunter L, Laughlin CA, McLaughlin S, Muzyczka N, Rocchi M, Berns KI (March 1990 ...
Probing the nucleotide binding site of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca2+ -Mg2)-ATPase with anti-fluorescein antibodies ANA M. MATA ... Ca2+ -Mg2)-ATPase with anti-fluorescein antibodies. Biochem Soc Trans 1 December 1989; 17 (6): 1105-1106. doi: ...
Mg 2+ -dependent ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum coupled with cation translocation. by Seiki Yamada et al. ... Phosphorylation of the Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -dependent ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum coupled with cation translocation.. @ ... article{Yamada1972PhosphorylationOT, title={Phosphorylation of the Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -dependent ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum ... Disruption of energy transduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum by trypsin cleavage of (Ca2++Mg2+)-ATPase. *Terrence L. Scott, Adil ...
effect Na, K, Ca, Mg electrolytes. - risk of arrhythmias. Term. Digoxin Toxicities and Interactioons. ... Inhibits Na-K ATP-ase. - increase contractility. - decreases SA stim, AV conduction. - shortens refractory period. - narrow ... Fasting Plasma Glucose >126 mg/dm. - Casual Plasma Glucose >200 mg/dm. - Oral Glucose Tolerance Test >200mg/dm. -HgBA1C - ... MOA: Role of CA ions - increase contractility of heart. Dihydropyridine - works on peripheral arteries to lower ...
Quantitative determination of Ca2+-dependent Mg2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle biopsies M E Everts, J P ... Characterization of isoelectric subspecies of asialo-β2-glycoprotein I A Gries, J Nimpf, H Wurm, G M Kostner, T Kenner ... Biochemical Journal Jun 01, 1989, 260 (2) 313-324; DOI: ... Biochemical Journal Jun 01, 1989, 260 (2) 325-332; DOI: ...
... insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and ... Ca2+/Mg2+ ,2) [71,90,91,92,93,94]. In addition, it could be shown experimentally that a lack of magnesium increases the risk ... studies reported that the magnesium level in children with ADHD is decreased in serum and erythrocytes and the Mg2+-ATPase ... The new RDA ranges from 80 mg/day for children 1-3 year of age to 130 mg/day for children 4-8 year of age. For older males, the ...
Myofibrillar Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activity. The activity of myofibrillar ATPase was determined at four different temperatures. The ... Ca2+ release from the SR is influenced by the rate of Ca2+-uptake, extent of Ca2+ loading and availability of Ca2+ release ... Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activity of myofibrils. Atrium from six fish and one ventricle were needed for the purification of one sample ... Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase activity of the purified atrial and ventricular myofibrils of the burbot heart. The experiments were conducted ...
Mg2+/+Ca2+/-NaF). Reactions were incubated for 5 h at 30°C and then Na+K+-ATPase activity was measured. In order to further ... to measure total ATPase activity; the difference in reaction rates between the two gave the activity due to Na+K+-ATPase. An ... Regulation of ground squirrel Na+K+-ATPase activity by reversible phosphorylation during hibernation. Contact Person: Justin ... Measurement of Na+K+-ATPase Activity. Frozen tissue samples (0.2 g) from euthermic or hibernating S. lateralis were homogenized ...
Key words: Gangliosides, NV-PLA2, PnA, gangliosides, erythrocyte membrane, Na+ K+ ATPase, Ca2+ Mg2+ ATPase. ... The Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase activity was restored by 80 and 81% with mixed gangliosides and GM1 respectively. GD1b showed only 50% ... Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2 ... Mixed gangliosides restored the Na+K+ ATPase activity by 78%, whereas GM1 and GD1b offered 74 and 52% restoration respectively ...
Ca2+, Mg2+) (38). To avoid bursting of the organelle, electro-neutral K+ transporters have been postulated for chloroplasts and ... Driven by the H+ gradient generated by an envelope H+-ATPase, both transporters are modeled to counter-exchange K+ ions. NHD1 ... Edited by Bob B. Buchanan, University of California, Berkeley, CA, and approved April 8, 2014 (received for review January 4, ... University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116; ... University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116; ...
There was no increase in expression of Ca2+-ATPase in d1. These RNA gel blot analyses indicate that GA signal transduction in ... dextran sulfate/0.1 mg/ml denatured salmon sperm DNA. Filters were washed with ×2 SSC/0.1% SDS at room temperature and then ... Ca2+-ATPase and OsC20ox expression and 2 μg for detection of Ramy1A expression) were run on an agarose gel and transferred to ... we concluded that the clone is a member of the GA-inducible ER-type Ca2+-ATPase gene family and used it as a cDNA probe for ...
2000). Ca2+ is required (presumably through the action of its CaM light chains) for actin activation of the Mg2+-ATPase ... 0.1 mg/ml glucose catalase, 2.5 mg/ml glucose and 10 mM Mg2+-ATP). Finally, 2nM BODIPY-TRX phallacidin-stabilized (Molecular ... 2000). In contrast, neither addition of exogenous CaM (20 μg/ml) nor 10 μM Ca2+(using a 5 mM Ca2+/EGTA buffer; Nascimento et al ... To monitor the effects of Ca2+, either 50 μM free Ca2+ or 4 mM EGTA was added. After incubation (10 min 4°C), samples were ...
0.187 +/- 0.017 mg/g; P , 0.001). Because of these opposing changes, total Ca-ATPase activity of SR (per gram muscle weight) ... The higher catalytic activity of winter fish SR Ca-ATPase might be caused by differences in fatty acid composition noted in ... It seems, however, that lipid composition of SR membranes and temperature dependence of SR Ca-ATPase are altered by seasonal ... The specific activity of SR Ca-ATPase at low experimental temperature (2 degrees C) was similar in summer- and winter- ...
... and Mg2+-ATP, Ca2+, Na+, and K+ were included in the incubation medium to reflect total ATPase activity (Ca2+-ATPase plus Na+,K ... Determination of Ca2+-ATPase Activity. Ca2+-ATPase was assayed by modification of the method of Kyte.13 The enzymatic activity ... Thapsigargin (6 to 20 μmol/L), a specific inhibitor of SR Ca2+-ATPase, was used in each experiment. ATPase activity or 45Ca ... 45Ca uptake averaged 17 and 0.25 nmol/mg protein for skeletal muscle SR and cardiac SR, respectively. The greater Ca2+-ATPase ...
Ca2+]i suggests that inhibition of the ATP-dependent removal of [Ca2+]i by the Ca2+-ATPase in the plasmalemma is the cause of ... Ca2+] as in the absence of Ca2+ a similar, very low level of ATP (0.48 ± 0.04 nmol/mg; n = 4) was measured. It is also ... Ca2+]ideregulation caused by an impaired Ca2+extrusion by the Ca2+-ATPase. This interpretation is reinforced by the result that ... Ca2+]i under this condition results from an impaired ATP-dependent Ca2+ removal, primarily by the plasmalemmal Ca2+-ATPase. ...
... cardiac ATPases and histopathology of isoproterenol (IP)-induced cardiac necrosis (CN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg ... activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase and plasma marker enzymes, while there was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in endogenous ... ATPase and a significant protective effect in endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) and Mg(+2) ... 5000 mg/kg. No observable adverse effect level dose of the RC extract was found to be 2000 mg/kg body weight. Hence, ...
Mg-ATPase enriched on the ER. These two Ca2+ transport systems are proposed to restore and maintain cytoplasmic Ca2+ ... NO3−-inhibited ATPase activity on sucrose density gradients. Ca2+ transport in this system was insensitive to vanadate, but was ... The Km for MgATP and Ca2+ were 0.1 mm and 21 micromolar, respectively. The predominant Ca2+ transport system detectable in ... Ca2+ dependent kinetics were complex with an apparent Km ranging from 0.7 to 2 micromolar. We conclude that the vacuolar- ...
2001). "Differentiation induces up-regulation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and concomitant increase in Ca(2+) efflux in ... Wang MG, Yi H, Hilfiker H, et al. (1994). "Localization of two genes encoding plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases isoforms 2 (ATP2B2) ... 1991). "Protein kinase C phosphorylates the carboxyl terminus of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase from human erythrocytes". J ... 1993). "von Hippel-Lindau syndrome: cloning and identification of the plasma membrane Ca(++)-transporting ATPase isoform 2 gene ...
In addition, we studied the effect of daily treatment with 250 mg of BDM/kg of body weight for up to 72 h. Furthermore, Ca2+- ... The Myosin ATPase Inhibitor 2,3-Butanedione monoxime Dictates Transcriptional Activation of Ion Channels and Ca2+-Handling ... The Myosin ATPase Inhibitor 2,3-Butanedione monoxime Dictates Transcriptional Activation of Ion Channels and Ca2+-Handling ... The Myosin ATPase Inhibitor 2,3-Butanedione monoxime Dictates Transcriptional Activation of Ion Channels and Ca2+-Handling ...
CA). Stable cell lines were selected by adding G-418 (1 mg/ml, Calbiochem, Darmstadt, Germany) to cells transfected with pCDNA3 ... the use of V-ATPase inhibitors and/or the regulation of V-ATPase assembly have been proposed to control V-ATPase activity (Kane ... Thus, we have discovered a new regulatory mechanism of V-ATPase function, and, given the involvement of V-ATPase in several ... Vacuolar-type H+ ATPases (V-ATPases) are large multi-subunit complexes that control the acidity of intracellular compartments, ...
Mg2+ could be replaced by other divalent cations, such as Mn2+ or Ca2+ (Figure 4D). In the presence of Mn2+, ATP binding was ... Mn2+ can substitute for Mg2+ in the function of several ATPases. In some cases, it even causes an increase in ATPase activity ... Omitting Mg2+ from the incubation mixture reduced ATP binding to background levels (Figure 4C). With increasing Mg2+ ... and ATPase activity (data not shown) were dependent on divalent cations. Also, Mn2+ could substitute for Mg2+ in the ATP ...
本文观察了不同年龄组大鼠肝细胞膜中钙镁-腺苷三磷酸酶(Ca~(2+),Mg~(2+)-ATPase)的活性,同时测定胞液中还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)的含量。 ... 所测定的生理指标包括耗氧率、排氨率、乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)、Na~+,K~+-ATPase、超氧阴离子自由基(O_2~-)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPX)、谷胱甘肽转硫酶(GST)和谷胱甘
Na/K/Atpase = inc. Ca conc. in heart cells = inc. contraction force ... Atrial arrhythmia pretxt w/ a drug that will ↓ ventricular response: Dig.;β(-); Ca Ch.(-) ... Long t1/2= need potent doses to obtain desired level for action. See blue skin, ocular deposits, Pulmonary Fibrosis. ... Short t1/2, given IV.. 32. Does not discriminate b/t fibrin-based clots= bleeding & stroke complications arise ...
2 Bernardo Franco,1 Héctor M Mora-Montes1 1Department of Biology, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Campus Guanajuato, ... Gow NAR, Netea MG, Munro CA, et al. Immune recognition of Candida albicans beta-glucan by dectin-1. J Infect Dis. 2007;196(10): ... ATPase, is required for glycosylation and virulence. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(24):23408-23415. ... Netea MG, Gow NAR, Munro CA, et al. Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans ...
tenfold) while type II ATPases (specific for Na+,K+, H+ Ca2+, Mg2+ and phospholipids) predominate in eukaryotes (approx. ... The Na+,K+-ATPases, the Ca2+-ATPases and the (fungal) H+-ATPases of higher organisms exhibit 10 transmembrane α helical ... Ca2+ ATPases may catalyze Ca2+/K+ or Ca2+/H+ antiport. A single organism often possesses multiple isoforms of these enzymes. ... Sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ ATPases (SERCA) in brown adipose tissue can uncouple ATP hydrolysis from Ca2+ transport and be ...
After 21 days, the tissue samples were removed and examined for calcification by measuring the level of Ca+2 ions in the tissue ... 1 which is a graphic representation of the calcium content, in μg/mg tissue, for each specimen type. Uncross-linked tissue ( ... ATPase) responsible for maintaining low intracellular calcium levels is no longer functioning or is malfunctioning. ... 4 is a graphical representation of the calcium content (μg/mg) of porcine aortic valve specimens exposed to a low molecular ...
A Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-stimulated ecto-ATPase is thought to regulate the hydrolysis of extracellular ATP in nervous tissues. The ... These data suggest that the Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-stimulated hydrolysis of NTPs, designated Ntp, is regulated by a single gene ... Although an association was observed previously between Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS ... Linkage of NTPase activity was suggested with the chromosome 2 markers, D2Mit6 and Ass-1, in the RI strains, and was confirmed ...
CAS 75899-68-2, is a major aldehyde product formed by peroxidation of ω-6-unsaturated fatty acids that is regarded as a ... Causes a transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and irreversibly inhibits Na+, K+-ATPase activity (IC50 = 120 µM). Acts as a ... Ethanol (10 mg/ml). Storage. ≤ -70°C. Do Not Freeze. Ok to freeze. Special Instructions. Following initial thaw, aliquot and ... Life Science Research > Inhibitors and Biochemicals > Small Molecules & Inhibitors > ATPase/GTPase Inhibitors > ATPase ...
Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-) are precipitated to decrease luminal fluid osmolality [5, 9]. The composition of epithelial transporters is ... SGK1 is a powerful modulator for gene expression and phosphorylation of a large number of ion transporters such as Na-K-ATPase ... CA) to remove genomic DNA and 1 μg of the treated RNA was reverse-transcribed with Iscript cDNA Synthesis Kit (Bio-Rad, CA) ... Lionetto MG, Schettino T: The Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and the osmotic stress response in a model salt transport epithelium. ...
In a typical diet, 360 mg of magnesium is ingested, 120 mg is absorbed in the small bowel, and an additional 20 mg is absorbed ... Magnesium reabsorption in the TAL begins with the transcellular Na+/K+ gradients established by the basolateral Na-K-ATPase. ... Renal NaCl and Ca+2 wasting are seen with secondary hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Many of the downstream electrolyte ... Under typical conditions, excreting 100 mg of Mg would require a FeMg of between around 4%. For example, in a patient with a ...
Mg2+, and Ca2+-ATPase activity [75]. The results pointed out to an increase in activity of three types of ATPases in the ... Mg2+ and Ca2+ -ATPases in rat brain during pentylenetetrazol-induced epilepsy," Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 42, no. 2 ... Possible effect of the capsulated aqueous extract of C. asiatica standardized to contain 29.9 mg/g tannic acid, 1.09 mg/g ... C. asiatica extract was administered orally to old rats during 60 days at 300 mg/kg (b.w.) dose per day, and the cortex, ...
  • Thin layer chromatography revealed that both I-2 and Mi-1 exerted ATPase activity. (
  • In order to further assess dephosphorylation, enzyme in muscle extracts from euthermic and hibernating animals was first experimentally phosphorylated by incubating the desalted supernatant with 30 mM NaF, 15 mM MgCl 2 , 10 mM ATP, and 1 µM cAMP for 2 h at 25°C. Samples were desalted by passage through Sephadex G-25 columns equilibrated in Incubation buffer and then dephosphorylation was initiated by adding 10 U of alkaline phosphatase. (
  • Although there were no seasonal changes in the total relaxing system of the crucian carp white myotomal muscle, the same activity of SR Ca-ATPase in winter fish was obtained with less amount of SR pump protein, owing to the increased catalytic activity of the enzyme. (
  • This enzyme family comprises three types of Ca(2+)-transporting enzymes that are found in the plasma membrane, the sarcoplasmic reticulum and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • 3) Na/K pump - Mg i and Mg o stimulate the Na/K exchange at low concentration and inhibit it at high concentration, by a stabilization of E2 forms of the enzyme which would reduce the rate of turnover of the pump. (
  • These data tend to indicate that the ATPase activity may be due to one enzyme with activation sites for both ions. (
  • Calmodulin is known to regulate a number of enzyme systems including Ca²⁺ -transport ATPases. (
  • An enzyme myosin ATPase catalyses the reaction while Ca 2 and Mg 2 ions are present. (
  • Like the mammalian Ca(2+)-ATPase isoforms so far described, the enzyme also shows a high affinity for Ca(2+) and ATP, has an optimum pH of approximately 7.0 and is sensitive to thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of the SERCA pumps. (
  • Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2B2 gene. (
  • We now report persistent anesthetic alteration of another enzyme system found in synaptosomes, the ubiquitous plasma membrane Calcium 2 +-ATPase pump (PMCA). (
  • eN is transiently associated with synapses during synaptogenesis, however in adult brain it is more glial than neuronal enzyme. (
  • The hypothesis discusses the innate traits of the deciduous stem cells that lack the ability to form the dentin bridge, the absence of Ca-Mg ATPase enzyme and increased solubility of (CaOH 2 ) together fail to stimulate the odontoblasts. (
  • The vacuolar-type proton-translocating ATPase of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of an integral membrane proton channel (V(B)) and a peripheral catalytic sector (V(C)). Native enzyme can catalyze the hydrolysis of both MgATP and CaATP and support proton pumping when reconstituted into liposomes. (
  • We now report that solubilized isolated V(C) can be reassembled with purified V(B) to restore properties of native enzyme, including Mg 2+ -activated ATP hydrolysis and proton-pumping capability. (
  • Analysis of the activation state of PM H + -ATPase in fractions in which the enzyme was partially separated from FCBP suggested that the establishment of an association between the two proteins was necessary to maintain the FC-induced activation of the enzyme. (
  • This suggests that the FC-induced activation of the PM H + -ATPase depends on the molecular interaction of the FC-FCBP complex with the enzyme. (
  • These data are consistent with the hypothesis that FC-induced activation of PM H + -ATPase depends on a direct interaction of the FC-FCBP complex with the enzyme, leading to the displacement of the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain. (
  • showed that solubilized PM H + -ATPase from maize roots treated in vivo with FC and fractionated by anion-exchange HPLC eluted separately with respect to FCBP and retained its activated state after enzyme insertion into liposomes, thus suggesting a permanent modification of the PM H + -ATPase not dependent on a direct interaction of the FC-FCBP complex with the enzyme. (
  • In this work we applied different approaches (solubilization with different detergents and Suc-density gradient and anion-exchange FPLC) to separate the PM H + -ATPase in the PM fraction purified from radish seedlings treated in vivo with or without FC from the FC-FCBP and to then analyze the activation state of the enzyme. (
  • In spite of considerable work, it is not clear whether divalent cations bind to the enzyme in the absence of nucleotide or only as nucleotide-Me +2 complex. (
  • The proton pump, H + /K + ATPase is a α,β-heterodimeric enzyme. (
  • Some magnesium dependent enzymes are Na + /K + -ATPase, hexokinase, creatine kinase, protein kinase, and cyclases (see Table 1 ). (
  • The stimulation of endogenous protein kinases and phosphatases to alter the Na + K + -ATPase activity was through the addition of appropriate effectors to give a final total volume of 0.15 mL. (
  • All incubations for kinase stimulation contained 30 mM NaF to inhibit protein phosphatases, 10 mM Mg.ATP, and other effectors as noted in the figure legends. (
  • CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A 2 (NV-PLA 2 ) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA 2 activity recovered. (
  • We have identified, using different approaches, the V1G1 (officially known as ATP6V1G1) subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) as a RILP-interacting protein. (
  • A mutant I-2 protein containing a mutation in the P-loop showed a strongly reduced ATP binding capacity. (
  • Many of these protein complexes are multisubunit with a large subunit serving the primary ATPase and ion translocation functions. (
  • The protein expression of SR Ca 2+ ATPase type 2 (SERCA2) and the SERCA2/phospholamban ratio in MCT rats was lower with a slower decline of Ca 2+ transients and a reduced amplitude of RCCs. (
  • The regulator protein -CPZ complex does not have any appreciable effect on Ca2+, Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)- ATPase activities. (
  • Water-soluble protein, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activity levels were found to be high, and conversely, water-insoluble protein, malondialdehyde, and Ca(2+)-ATPase were found to be low in the groups treated with P. densiflora bark extract compared to group 2. (
  • Consistent with the role of MLCK in this process, selected inhibitors of Mg(++)-myosin ATPase and metabolic energy, but not protein synthesis inhibitors, also prevented the CFS-induced retraction of actin and myosin filaments and the subsequent increase in TJ permeability. (
  • We investigated the protein-kinase C (PK-C), Na + , K + -ATPase, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ - ATPase activities, RBC s membranes fatty acids composition, 125 I-6-ketoprostaglandin F 1α (6-ketoPGF 1α ) and 125 I-thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) levels in the blood plasma, platelet aggregation parameters. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. (
  • Maturational studies showed that the expression of CA IX mRNA and protein increased markedly with weaning (∼3-4 postnatal wk) and was well correlated with the maturational expression of the α-subunit of the gastric H + ,K + -ATPase, suggesting that function of CA IX and the gastric H + pump might be linked in the digestion of adult foodstuffs. (
  • This interaction of CA with an anion transporter constitutes a transport metabolon, a membrane-protein complex that is involved in the regulation of bicarbonate metabolism and transport ( 29 ). (
  • Phylogenetic analyses using amino acid sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) and ATPase revealed that it is a new iridescent virus but does not belong to the five known genera of Iridoviridae . (
  • By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~110 kDa protein representing SERCA2 ATPase in rat cardiac tissue. (
  • Hypoxia exposure caused an approximately 65% decrease in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity, which was not matched by changes in Na(+)/K(+) ATPase alpha-subunit protein abundance indicating post-translational modification of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase was responsible for the decrease in activity. (
  • Molluscan muscle twitchin, a titin/connectin-related giant protein, regulates interactions between actin and myosin filaments at low Ca 2+ concentrations. (
  • also known as NHERF-2 and Tyrosine kinase activator protein 1 ) is a human scaffold protein that connects plasma membrane proteins with members of the ezrin/moesin/radixin family and thereby helps to link them to the actin cytoskeleton and to regulate their surface expression. (
  • This Ca 2+ -sensitizing mechanism is initiated at the same time that phospholipase C is activated, and it involves the activation of the small GTP-binding protein RhoA. (
  • To confirm functional calmodulin stimulation of the (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ )-ATPase, 10 -5 mol/L calmidazolium (R24571) was added to the isolated plasma membrane preparation, which lowered the (Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ )-ATPase activity from 143.0 to 78.15 nmol P(i)/mg protein · min -1 . (
  • Physarum was a good model organism for protein chemistry, because it can be cultured in the lab in large quantities, (2) and because the procedures for purifying actin (3) and myosin (4) were similar to those for skeletal muscle. (
  • Here we report that OLA1 is a GSK3β interacting protein, and through its ATPase activity, inhibits the GSK3β-mediated activation of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1 (PP1). (
  • Treatment of FC-PM with different detergents indicated that PM H + -ATPase and the FC-FC-binding-protein (FCBP) complex were solubilized to a similar extent. (
  • Here we study the protein ligands for Me +2 . (
  • Molecular studies examining the impact of mitochondrial morphology on the mammalian heart have previously focused on dynamin related protein-1 (Drp-1) and mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2), while the role of the other mitofusin isoform, Mfn-1, has remained largely unexplored. (
  • Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF2 (NHERF-2) also known as tyrosine kinase activator protein 1 (TKA-1) or SRY-interacting protein 1 (SIP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC9A3R2 (solute carrier family 9 isoform A3 regulatory factor 2) gene. (
  • Ryanodine (10μ mol l -1 ), an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ release channels, reduced the maximum developed force of paced atrial and ventricular preparations at 1 °C by 32±8 % and 16±3 %, respectively. (
  • Intravesicular 45 Ca transport was measured after the addition of glycolytic substrates and cofactors specific for each of the glycolytic reactions being studied or after the addition of exogenous ATP and was expressed as transport sensitive to the specific Ca 2+ -ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin. (
  • Iodoacetic acid, an inhibitor of GAPDH, eliminated 45 Ca transport supported by fructose-1,6-diphosphate, the substrate for aldolase, but transport was completely restored by phosphoenolpyruvate (the substrate for PK), indicating that both of the ATP-producing glycolytic enzymes, GAPDH/PGK and PK, were associated with the SR and functionally capable of providing ATP for the Ca 2+ pump. (
  • 2,3-Butanedione monoxime (BDM) is a reversible myosin AT-Pase inhibitor with phosphatase-like activity. (
  • The tryptophan fluorescence data show that the inhibitor-CPZ complex does not quench the fluorescence of NA+,K(+)- ATPase significantly. (
  • The inhibitor-CPZ complex significantly changes the conformation of Na+,K(+)- ATPase . (
  • The inhibition of CFS-induced activation of Caco-2 MLCK with MLCK inhibitor (ML-7) prevented the CFS-induced retraction of actin and myosin filaments and the subsequent alteration of TJ barrier function and structure. (
  • These results led us to investigate the possible occurrence of a highly sulphated polysaccharide on vesicles from the SR of sea cucumber smooth muscle that could act as an 'endogenous' Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor. (
  • Proteinuric urine contained a powerful specific inhibitor of the calcium pump that had little or no effect on the Na + /K + - or Mg 2+ -ATPases. (
  • The inhibitor was characterized as a neutral lipid, migrating as a single band, that inhibited 45 Ca 2+ efflux. (
  • intracellular [Ca.sup.2+] is an inhibitor for plant cells and an activator for animal cells. (
  • It is hypothesized that GSK3β phosphorylates inhibitor 2 (I-2) of PP1 at Thr-72 and activates the PP1 · I-2 complex, which in turn dephosphorylates and stimulates GSK3β, thus forming a positive feedback loop. (
  • Four weeks after a s.c. injection of 60 mg/kg monocrotaline (MCT) or vehicle (Ctr) into rats, we obtained trabeculae from right ventricles and measured the developed force and intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) by the fura-2 microinjection method. (
  • Magnesium has profound effects on solute and water transport in various cells, and intracellular Mg 2 is known to interact with several channels. (
  • When considering the transport systems, it is important to differentiate intracellular magnesium (Mg i ) and extracellular magnesium (Mg o ). (
  • TRIC channels function as monovalent cation-specific channels that mediate counter ion movements coupled with ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores in muscle cells. (
  • Moreover, the mutant type II cells were compromised for Ca 2+ release mediated by inositol-trisphosphate receptors, despite Ca 2+ overloading in intracellular stores. (
  • Calcium ions are an essential secondary messenger in cellular signal-transduction pathways, and Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores regulates important physiological functions, including cell-fate decisions and cellular maturation. (
  • Therefore, in addition to the Ca 2+ uptake and storage functions of intracellular stores, counter ion movements seem to be essential for efficient Ca 2+ release in order to balance the membrane potential ( Meissner, 1983 ). (
  • In this study, we used cultured Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells to examine the intracellular processes involved in extracellular Ca(++) modulation of intestinal epithelial monolayer TJ barrier. (
  • So that, most studies have shown changes in intracellular Mg 2+ concentration over the physiologic-pathophysiologic range would significantly affect K + secretion. (
  • The Ca(2+)-ATPase present in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) pumps Ca(2+) from the cytosol into this intracellular compartment, thus promoting muscle relaxation. (
  • This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. (
  • Neurological disorders suggest that the excitotoxicity involves a drastic increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations and the formation of reactive oxygen species. (
  • 2011) Role of four calcium transport proteins, encoded by nca-1, nca-2, nca-3, and cax, in maintaining intracellular calcium levels in Neurospora crassa . (
  • Free calcium is an important intracellular regulator, and its cytosolic activity, [Ca 2 +] i , is controlled by at least five major classes of pumps, exchangers, and channels. (
  • The cellular physiology of the gametes before, at fertilization and, at early development, is extensively described with a focus on the complex enzymatic machinery and the intracellular pH (pH i ) and Ca 2+ homeostasis for their vulnerability when facing adverse conditions such as acidification, temperature variations, or hypoxia. (
  • Regardless, the process of relaxation requires a decreased intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and increased MLC phosphatase activity. (
  • Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers are also located on the plasma membrane and aid in decreasing intracellular Ca 2+ . (
  • Two active calcium (Ca 2+ ) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells ( Daucus carota Danvers). (
  • Calcium-transporting ATPase. (
  • Calcium-translocating P-type ATPase. (
  • Insulin also reduced calcium (Ca 2 ) efflux, although it was not significant. (
  • The effects of external calcium, external magnesium, nifedipine, and calcium-ATPase inhibitors on both contractures were then examined. (
  • Infact, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and hypermagnesemia was obtained in group F. Nevertheless, in the remaining measured serum electrolytes such as calcium (Ca 2+ ), iron (Fe 2+ ) and phosphorus (P 3− ), chlorine (Cl − ), copper (Cu + ), and zinc (Zu + ), no significant changes were observed. (
  • these include the multiplication of sarcomeres, 2 a switch to immature isoforms of contractile proteins, 3 and greater dependence on transsarcolemmal calcium influx for excitation-contraction coupling. (
  • The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. (
  • This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2. (
  • MA3-919 detects sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum calcium (SERCA) 2 ATPase from canine, porcine, human, mouse, rabbit and rat tissues. (
  • Enzymes: plasma membrane Calcium 2 +-ATPase. (
  • 2-5 ] Plasma membrane Calcium 2 +-ATPase plays a critical role in this regulatory process by ejecting Calcium 2 + from the cell. (
  • We have shown that Calcium 2 + pumping in synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) vesicles is diminished in a dose-related fashion during exposure in vitro to halothane, isoflurane, xenon, and nitrous oxide at clinically relevant partial pressures. (
  • We found persistent inhibition of Calcium 2 + pumping by PMCA in SPM obtained from rats killed while anesthetized, compared with control animals killed while awake. (
  • Similarly, our bodies make bones (consisting largely of calcium phosphate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ) continuously (and break them down continuously too) from very dilute solutions of calcium and phosphate at pH 7.4 and 38 C. The salts crystallise out from water in conjunction with specialised bone-forming cells, the osteoblasts. (
  • IP 3 binds to specific receptors on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, causing release of activator calcium (Ca 2+ ). (
  • The usage of Calcium hydroxide (CaOH 2 ) has wide applications due to the property of osteo-inductive, protective, and antibacterial actions. (
  • Here we describe a technique that couples the simultaneous quantification of radio-labeled calcium accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomes with the release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) by the hydrolytic activity of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) all in the convenience of a 96-well format. (
  • Sarcoplasmic reticular Ca 2+ ATPases (SERCA) in brown adipose tissue can uncouple ATP hydrolysis from Ca 2+ transport and be thermogenic (de Meis, 2003 ). (
  • A Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-stimulated ecto-ATPase is thought to regulate the hydrolysis of extracellular ATP in nervous tissues. (
  • These data suggest that the Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-stimulated hydrolysis of NTPs, designated Ntp, is regulated by a single gene located on proximal chromosome 2. (
  • In the assay, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase catalyzes ATP hydrolysis to produce ADP and inorganic phosphorus. (
  • The microsomal fraction derived from the longitudinal smooth muscle of the body wall from the sea cucumber Ludwigothurea grisea retains a membrane-bound Ca(2+)-ATPase that is able to transport Ca(2+) mediated by ATP hydrolysis. (
  • However, unlike the mammalian SERCA isoforms, concentrations of ATP above 2 mmol l(−1) inhibit Ca(2+) transport, but not ATP hydrolysis, in sea cucumber vesicles, suggesting that high ATP concentrations uncouple the Ca(2+)-ATPase. (
  • In contrast, isolated V(C) catalyzes only Ca 2+ -activated ATP hydrolysis and cannot support proton pumping when reconstituted into liposomes (Xie, X.-S., and Stone, D. K. (1988) J. Biol. (
  • This occurs by pumping out drugs from the cells, and this process is coupled to the energy of ATP hydrolysis on the ATPase domain of ABC transporters that is stimulated in the presence of transport substrates ( 3 ). (
  • The hydrolysis of ATP and ADP by ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (CD39) requires divalent cations, like Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . (
  • By coupling the radioactive 45 Ca 2+ accumulation assay in microsomes with quantification of ATP hydrolysis and P i release into the post-assay eluate, SERCA-dependent Ca 2+ accumulation in comparison to SERCA activity (ATP hydrolysis) can simultaneously be quantified. (
  • Stimulates Ca 2+ transport and ATP hydrolysis by the sarcolemmal Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -ATPase. (
  • Immunological analyses reveal that monoclonal antibodies against sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1 and SERCA2a) cross-react with a 110 kDa band, indicating that the sea cucumber Ca(2+)-ATPase is a SERCA-type ATPase. (
  • Causes a transient increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ and irreversibly inhibits Na + , K + -ATPase activity (IC 50 = 120 µM). (
  • 4) Na-K-Cl cotransport increasing Mg o concentration stimulates this system in red cells and human amnion, and the bumetadine-sensitive K + transport is sensitive to Mg i (5) KCl cotransport - The increase in Mg i inhibits this cotransport. (
  • Two low molecular mass proteins (13 kDa which inhibits Na+,K(+)- ATPase and 12 kDa which modulates Ca2+, Mg(2+)- and Ca(2+)- ATPases ), purified from rat brain cytosol form complexes with chlorpromazine (CPZ) on incubation. (
  • 0.02) in the ratio of RYR2/Ca-Mg ATPase (SERCA2) mRNA levels (0.57 +/- 0.1 vs 1.22 +/- 0.2, respectively) in the left ventricle. (
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: SERCA2 ATPase Monoclonal Antibody (2A7-A1) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA3-919, RRID AB_325502. (
  • Bidasee, "Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts are not formed on cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum [Ca.sup.2+]-ATPase (SERCA2) in diabetes," Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. (
  • Motor proteins 2: myosin. (
  • The temperature coefficient of the Ca ++ -activated myosin ATPase was the same as that of the speed of shortening, Q 10 about 2. (
  • Higher Q 10 values were found for the actin-activated myosin ATPase, especially below 10°C. By using myofibrils instead of reconstituted actomyosin, Q 10 values close to 2 could be obtained for the Mg ++ -activated myofibrillar ATPase at ionic strength of 0.014. (
  • These results suggest a role for the ATPase activity of myosin in determining the speed of muscle contraction. (
  • In contrast to the ATPase activity of myosin, which varied according to the speed of contraction, the F-actin-binding ability of myosin from various muscles was rather constant. (
  • Our results suggested that the CFS-induced alteration of TJ proteins and functional increase in TJ permeability was mediated by Caco-2 MLCK activation and the resultant contraction of the peri-junctionally located actin-myosin filaments. (
  • Based on these results, we propose a molecular mechanism for the catch, where twitchin alone does not interact with the myosin catalytic motor domain but its complex with F-actin does, forming the bridge between actin and myosin filaments and the myosin slowly hydrolyzes Mg-ATP in the catch state. (
  • Activator Ca 2+ binds to calmodulin, leading to activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLC kinase). (
  • However, the elevation in Ca 2+ concentration within the cell is transient, and the contractile response is maintained by a Ca 2+ -sensitizing mechanism brought about by the inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity by Rho kinase. (
  • namely, that [Ca.sup.2+] would activate the actin-myosin interaction. (
  • The effect of [Ca.sup.2+] was examined by inducing ATP-dependent aggregation of actin and myosin under a spectrophotometer. (
  • The effect was the opposite of the known effect of [Ca.sup.2+], which activated the ATP-dependent interaction between actin and myosin. (
  • Cells use this transient increase in [[Ca.sup.2+]]i as a secondary messenger to regulate the actin--myosin interaction, (6) both in the animal and plant kingdoms. (
  • Ryanodine, however, had no effect on the mechanical refractory period or on the rate constants of mechanical and relaxation restitution in either preparation at 1 °C. The activity of myofibrillar Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase was higher in atrial than ventricular muscle and the temperature optimum of the ATPase in vitro was approximately 10 °C in both preparations. (
  • The faster kinetics of contraction are associated with increased myofibrillar ATPase activity and faster SR Ca 2+ uptake ( Aho and Vornanen, 1999 ). (
  • In contrast to eurythermal fish species, relatively little is known about cardiac contractile activity and Ca 2+ management in cold stenothermal fish, such as the burbot. (
  • Regulation of ground squirrel Na+K+-ATPase activity by reversible phosphorylation during hibernation. (
  • the difference in reaction rates between the two gave the activity due to Na + K + -ATPase. (
  • Reactions were incubated for 5 h at 30°C and then Na + K + -ATPase activity was measured. (
  • After 2 h incubation at 25°C, samples were assayed for Na + K + -ATPase activity. (
  • Mixed gangliosides restored the Na + K + ATPase activity by 78%, whereas GM1 and GD1b offered 74 and 52% restoration respectively. (
  • The Ca 2+ Mg 2+ ATPase activity was restored by 80 and 81% with mixed gangliosides and GM1 respectively. (
  • Mixed gangliosides and GM1 exhibited a significant dose dependent inhibition of NV-PLA 2 activity when compared to GD1b. (
  • To test this hypothesis in the relaxation system of skeletal muscles, we determined the parvalbumin content and the activity of sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca-ATPase in white myotomal muscle of winter- and summer-acclimated crucian carp. (
  • Because of these opposing changes, total Ca-ATPase activity of SR (per gram muscle weight) remained relatively constant. (
  • Ca 2+ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with Cl − -stimulated, NO 3 − -inhibited ATPase activity on sucrose density gradients. (
  • Ca 2+ transport activity and the ER marker also shifted in parallel in ER shifting experiments. (
  • After ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion, an enhancement of glycolytic activity in the myocardium has been demonstrated, 2 and positron emission tomographic studies have shown increased uptake of the glucose analogue fluorodeoxyglucose, consistent with increased glycolytic metabolism. (
  • Glycolytic ATP appears to preferentially fuel membrane ion pumps, such as the Na + ,K + -ATPase and the Ca 2+ -ATPase, whereas ATP produced by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is used preferentially to support myocyte contractile activity. (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that alterations in V1G1 expression levels impair V-ATPase activity. (
  • Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that RILP regulates the activity of the V-ATPase through its interaction with V1G1. (
  • Given the importance of V-ATPase in several cellular processes and human diseases, these data suggest that modulation of RILP activity could be used to control V-ATPase function. (
  • Linkage of NTPase activity was suggested with the chromosome 2 markers, D2Mit6 and Ass-1, in the RI strains, and was confirmed by analysis of other markers in the backcross population. (
  • Although an association was observed previously between Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS), no significant association was observed for the expression of Ntp and AGS susceptibility. (
  • Together, these data suggest that ATPase activity is substantially higher for dynein motors that interact with Lis1. (
  • i.e. the greater the intrinsic speed, the higher the ATPase activity. (
  • The ATPase activity of these myosins was inversely proportional to the contraction time of the muscles. (
  • A high ATP hydrolytic activity in the presence of either Mg or Ca was localized in acinar cell preparations enriched in plasma membranes. (
  • Further studies were carried out in order to determine if this ATPase activity represented one or more enzymes. (
  • The presence of two acyl phosphoproteins would indicate possible separate intermediate reaction systems for the Mg²⁺ and Ca²⁺ stimulated ATPase activity. (
  • The effect of exogenous calmodulin on the Ca²⁺ -stimulated component of this ATPase activity was therefore investigated. (
  • In the presence of endogenous Mg²⁺ , significant stimulation by calmodulin of Ca²⁺ -ATPase activity was observed. (
  • The kit provides a simple method for detecting Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity in a variety of biological samples such as serum, plasma, tissues, cells, plants and bacteria. (
  • The content of inorganic phosphorus can reflect the activity of ATPase. (
  • 0.001), 6-ketoPGF 1α , EPA level, EPA/arachidonic acid ratio with simultaneously increase of TXB 2 level, PK-C activity, QTc interval parameters. (
  • In parallel, several studies have revealed that one consequence of trauma to the spinal cord is an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the activity of the critical membrane-bound enzymes such as Na + -K + -activated ATPase and Na + -K + /Mg +2 ATPase [ 7 - 10 ]. (
  • In control experiments, K(+) and Na(+) have almost no effect on Ca(2+) transport, but in the presence of heparin or fucosylated chondroitin sulphate, the activity of the different mammalian Ca(2+)-ATPases is inhibited and they are activated by either K(+) or Na(+) in a manner similar to the native sea cucumber ATPase. (
  • Moreover, CA II binds to and enhances the activity of the Na + /H + antiporter, NHE1 ( 14 ). (
  • Despite decreases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity, plasma [Na(+)] increased, but this increase was possibly due to a significant hemoconcentration and fluid shift out of the extracellular space. (
  • The possibility of quantifying the total concentration of Ca2+-dependent Mg2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum was investigated by measurement of the Ca2+-dependent steady-state phosphorylation from [gamma-32P]ATP and the Ca2+-dependent 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase (3-O-MFPase) activity in crude muscle homogenates. (
  • These values were not different from the molecular activity calculated for purified Ca2+-ATPase (36 min-1). (
  • MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 25 mg/mL (89 mM), suggesting no residual fungistatic activity. (
  • The same gallate also exhibited antifungal activity against Z. bailii with both MIC and MFC of 50 mg/mL (177 mM). (
  • As compared with TOS, TOP showed a higher proliferative and apoptosis inducing activity on the MG-63 cancer cell line. (
  • To establish and verify the presence of a calmodulin-regulated (Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ )-ATPase activity in these endothelial cells, immunohistochemical localization using a monoclonal mouse anti-(Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ )-ATPase antibody (clone 5F10) was applied to intact pig aorta endothelium, cultured endothelial monolayers, and isolated endothelial plasma membrane fractions. (
  • This calmidazolium-reduced activity could then be simulated 113.1 ± 0.8% in a concentration-dependent manner by the addition of exogenous calmodulin (10 -7 to 2 x 10 -6 mol/L) with an EC 50 of 3.45 ± 0.04X 10 -7 mol/L (n = 4). (
  • Together, these findings support evidence for the presence of a calmodulin-stimulated plasma membrane (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ )-ATPase activity in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. (
  • Investigation of this reassembly revealed that a heterodimer, composed of polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, stimulates Ca 2+ - activated ATPase activity of isolated V(C) 2-fold and Mg 2+ -activated ATPase activity catalyzed by the reassembled pump 9-fold. (
  • Investigation of this reassembly revealed that a heterodimer, composed of polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, stimulates Ca2+- activated ATPase activity of isolated V(C) 2-fold and Mg2+-activated ATPase activity catalyzed by the reassembled pump 9-fold. (
  • In addition, the results of ATPase assays show that erlotinib stimulated the ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2. (
  • When VO 2+ was used as a substitute for Ca 2+ , the ATPase activity of soluble CD39 was 25% of that with Ca 2+ as cofactor. (
  • Thus net measurement of 45 Ca 2+ accumulation alone as a single measure is insufficient to quantify SERCA activity. (
  • Direct effects on ATPase activity were not detected. (
  • Several carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms are associated with plasma membranes. (
  • CA IV and CA XII are important kidney isoforms. (
  • The unique pattern of membrane-bound CA isoforms suggests different functional associations with transporters, depending on the physiological demands on the tissue. (
  • Knowledge of the CA isoforms would allow us to investigate whether there are specific interactions between membrane-associated CAs and anion transporters in a variety of transporting epithelia. (
  • Based on site-directed mutagenesis data of the rat α1-isoform (reviewed in [ 3 ]) and sequence differences between the two ouabain-binding α1 isoforms, we predict that at least seven of the 23 amino acids in the external M1-M2 loop of the low ouabain affinity α1-isoform are involved in progesterone binding [ 2 ]. (
  • More recently, it has been shown that the two isoforms are able to complement each other in the fusion process such that the formation of Mfn-1:Mfn-2 heterologous complexes can be highly effective in promoting fusion in vitro ( 24 ). (
  • Pubmed ID: 20509006 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-supplementation with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) on heart weight, infarct size, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, cardiac ATPases and histopathology of isoproterenol (IP)-induced cardiac necrosis (CN) in rats. (
  • Abstract To investigate whether the energy derived from glycolysis is functionally coupled to Ca 2+ active transport in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), we determined whether glycolytic enzymes were associated with SR membranes and whether metabolism through these enzymes was capable of supporting 45 Ca transport. (
  • These results are consistent with functional coupling of glycolytic ATP to Ca 2+ transport and support the hypothesis that ATP generated by SR-associated glycolytic enzymes may play an important role in cellular Ca 2+ homeostasis by driving the SR Ca 2+ pump. (
  • Some physiological indexes were measured in experimental regime,including LCso>oxygen consumption rate,ammonia-N excretion rate,AchE and Na=+,K+-ATPase activitiesO2 and some antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase,catalase,glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase) activities. (
  • In tumor cells, V-ATPases are targeted to the plasma membrane and acidify the extracellular environment, activating lysosomal enzymes that are responsible for the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (
  • In some cases, gene fusion events created P-type ATPases covalently linked to regulatory catalytic enzymes. (
  • In humans, there are six membrane-bound enzymes (NTPDases 1-4, 7, and 8), whose carboxy- and amino-terminal ends are each anchored to the membrane [ 1 , 2 ], and two enzymes that lack a carboxy-terminal transmembrane (TM) helix (NTPDase5 and NTPDase6), which can be secreted as soluble enzymes after cleavage of their respective N-terminal signal sequences [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • The fact that both the progesterone receptor (the α1-subunit of the Na/K-ATPase) and PE-NMT are integral membrane enzymes suggests that helix-helix interaction occurs between the M1 and/or M2 transmembrane helix bordering the proposed progesterone binding site [ 3 ] and one or more of the 4 transmembrane helixes of the PE-NMT. (
  • The extracellular domain contains five disulfide bonds that are conserved among all cell surface NTPDases, which when disrupted in NTPDase3 yield five distinct biochemical phenotypes [ 2 ]. (
  • Excess Mg 2 in the extracellular fluid is known, for example, to depress synaptic transmission and to cause rectification of the ionic channels coupled to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 . (
  • FDA-induced contraction of the isolated rat's uteri is mediated via multiple uterotonin receptors (muscarinic, oxytocin and prostaglandin F2α) and was dependent on the extracellular Ca 2+ . (
  • In conclusion, our results indicate that extracellular Ca(++) is crucial for the maintenance of intestinal epithelial TJ barrier function. (
  • The removal of extracellular Ca(++) from the incubation medium causes activation of Caco-2 MLCK, which in turn leads to an increase in intestinal monolayer TJ permeability. (
  • Their levels in the extracellular milieu are tightly controlled by various ectonucleotidases: ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP), alkaline phosphatases (AP), ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) and ecto-5'- nucleotidase (eN). (
  • Phosphorylation of the Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -dependent ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum coupled with cation translocation. (
  • 6 These data suggest that glycolytic ATP, as opposed to ATP produced by oxidative phosphorylation, may be essential to achieve Ca 2+ homeostasis during periods of increased Ca 2+ influx, as occurs during ischemia/reperfusion. (
  • P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. (
  • It is concluded that measurement of the Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation allows rapid and reproducible quantification of the concentration of Ca2+-dependent Mg2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • In the absence of F-actin, twitchin and its phosphorylation state did not affect Mg-ATPase activities in any of the conditions we tested. (
  • In most smooth muscles, PKC has contraction-promoting effects such as phosphorylation of Ca 2+ channels or other proteins that regulate cross-bridge cycling. (
  • Furthermore, using xenograft models of colon cancer (H116) and ovarian cancer (SKOV3), we established a correlation among downregulation of OLA1, over-activation of the positive feedback loop as indicated by under-phosphorylation of I-2, and more aggressive tumor growth. (
  • Genomic and cDNA clones that encode polypeptides similar to the mammalian Gα proteins have also been isolated from various plant species, including Arabidopsis ( 1 ), tomato ( 2 ), Lotus japonicas ( 3 ), rice ( 4 ), and soybean ( 5 ). (
  • Its effects on transcriptional regulation of ion channels and Ca 2+ -handling proteins, surprisingly, are basically unknown. (
  • We therefore studied expression of genes coding for ion channels and Ca 2+ -handling proteins in explanted hearts and cultures of Ca 2+ -tolerant cardiomyocytes. (
  • It is noteworthy that a modest to highly significant increase in transcript level of ion channels, ion exchangers, Ca 2+ -binding proteins, and cytoskeletal proteins was observed after treatment of rats with BDM. (
  • Likewise, with cultures of cardiomyocytes, statistically significantly increased transcript levels of potassium and sodium ion channels as well as some ion exchangers (PMCA2 and 4) were noted, even though expression of genes coding for Ca 2+ -binding and cytoskeletal proteins was repressed. (
  • The N-terminal halves of two tomato R proteins, I-2 conferring resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Mi-1 conferring resistance to root-knot nematodes and potato aphids, were produced as glutathione S -transferase fusions in Escherichia coli . (
  • Interaction of chlorpromazine with low molecular mass ion-transporting ATPase modulator proteins from rat brain cytosol. (
  • The CFS-induced increase in Caco-2 TJ permeability was associated with separation of the cytoplasmic and transmembrane TJ proteins, ZO-1 and occludin, and formation of large intercellular openings between the adjoining cells. (
  • In contrast, studies have identified three major families of magnesium importers (CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB [MgtA/B] P-type ATPase proteins), which maintain the relatively high levels of cytoplasmic magnesium ( 8 , 10 - 15 ). (
  • 3. Ton V, Rao R (2004) Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights into Ca 2+ signaling and Ca 2+ -transporting ATPases. (
  • Gilbert Ling [2] has been criticising the conventional account of energy transformation since the 1950s and proposed a comprehensive alternative theory based on water organised in extended dipolar layers on surfaces of membranes and proteins, which power biochemical reactions through abrupt phase changes on interacting with ATP and inorganic ions [3] ( Strong Medicine for Cell Biology ). (
  • DG along with Ca 2+ activates PKC, which phosphorylates specific target proteins. (
  • Our understanding of the regulatory role of [Ca.sup.2+] at the micromolar level was also developing owing to the discovery of Ca-binding proteins, such as troponin and calmodulin expanded our knowledge of the regulatory role of [Ca.sup.2+] beyond actomyosin regulation. (
  • Fractionation of solubilized FC-PM proteins by a linear sucrose-density gradient showed that the two proteins comigrated and that PM H + -ATPase retained the activated state induced by FC. (
  • The α-subunits of Na/K-ATPase are integral plasma membrane proteins with 10 transmembrane domains and high interspecies sequence homology [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • These two Ca 2+ transport systems are proposed to restore and maintain cytoplasmic Ca 2+ homeostasis under changing cellular and environmental conditions. (
  • In muscle cells, the excitation-contraction cycle is triggered by an increase in the concentration of free cytoplasmic Ca(2+). (
  • Kdp-type K + uptake ATPases (type III) and all ten prokaryotic functionally uncharacterized P-type ATPase (FUPA) familes), while others are restricted to eukaryotes (e.g. phospholipid flippases and all 13 eukaryotic FUPA families) ( Thever and Saier, 2009 ). (
  • These results indicate that the positive inotropic effects of Nifekalant is reduced in failing hearts, probably due to the depressed SR Ca 2+ uptake and reduced reserve of the trans-sarcolemmal Ca 2+ transport, warranting a caution in the antiarrhythmic therapy with a class III antiarrhythmic agent in heart failure. (
  • This compound inhibited Ca(2+) uptake in rabbit SR vesicles, at concentrations lower than heparin, and restored the dependence on monovalent cations. (
  • Glucose uptake rate, as determined by 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measuring 2-deoxyglucose conversion to 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate, was measured in isolated perfused hearts obtained from banded rabbits when M/V ratio had increased by 15% from baseline (compensated hypertrophy) and by 30% from baseline (early-decompensated hypertrophy). (
  • 10. Pittman JK (2011) Vacuolar Ca 2+ uptake. (
  • Experimentally, the net amount of 45 Ca 2+ that accumulates over time is due to SERCA-dependent uptake counterbalanced by loss of Ca 2+ via passive leak pathways and microsomal resident release channels (ie, inositol-triphosphate receptors, IP 3 Rs, and ryanodine receptors, RyRs). (
  • The predominant Ca 2+ transport system detectable in microsomal membrane preparations equilibrated at a density of 1.13 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. (
  • 2011) The Ca 2+ pumps of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. (
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) block the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase ( H + /K + ATPase ) and inhibit gastric acid secretion. (
  • Expression of the transgene was associated with an increase in Ca 2+ -stimulated myofibrillar ATPase in myofibrils obtained from the left ventricles of 42-day-old bmyf5 mice. (
  • Gastric H + -translocating ATPases (ouabain-insensitive) comprise a subgroup of the larger and more diverse Na + /K + ATPase family (ouabain-sensitive) (Family 1). (
  • Group 3 rat pups (the positive control) were given gastric intubation with curcumin (80 mg/kg bodyweight) on P9, P10, and P11. (
  • The rat pups in groups 4 to 6 were given gastric intubation with P. densiflora bark extract 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, and 120 mg/kg,respectively, on P9, P10, and P11. (
  • Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is commonly observed in d3Tx BALB/c mice and resembles the human disease pernicious anemia, in that the effector T cells and autoantibodies recognize the α and β subunits of the gastric parietal cell H/K-ATPase ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • 10 6 -fold) H + gradient is generated by the gastric H + /K + ATPase which is an ATP-driven proton pump. (
  • Similarly, at very low concentrations of ATP and ADP (10 to 50 nmol/L), ATP that was produced endogenously from ADP and phosphoenolpyruvate supported 15-fold more 45 Ca transport than ATP that was supplied exogenously at the same concentration. (
  • 6 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance measurements using the fluorinated Ca 2+ indicator 5F-BAPTA demonstrated a marked and persistent elevation of cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration in hearts with glycolytic inhibition during reperfusion. (
  • Nifekalant concentration-dependently increased the force, peak [Ca 2+ ] i , and the amplitude of RCCs in Ctr rats but not in MCT rats with identical prolongation of the action potential. (
  • Mg o increases Na + transport in toad bladder and human amnion at high concentration by acting on the driving force of the sodium pump. (
  • At low Ca 2+ concentration, Mg-ATPase was activated by F-actin only in the presence of dephosphorylated twitchin (catch state). (
  • This high electrochemical gradient makes Ca 2+ an ideal second messenger, with small local cytosolic changes in concentration representing large fractional changes. (
  • This suggests that the ryanodine receptors of the teleost heart, unlike those of the endotherms, are not leaky as temperatures approach 0 °C. Reliance on SR Ca 2+ stores in both cold stenothermal burbot and cold-acclimated eurythermal teleosts suggests that enhanced SR Ca 2+ -release is a common characteristic of cold-living fish and may improve cardiac contractility in the cold. (
  • Knockout mice lacking both TRIC-A and TRIC-B channels suffer embryonic cardiac failure, and the mutant cardiac myocytes display severe dysfunction in SR Ca 2+ handling. (
  • Cardiac pathology was not apparent at midgestation but was evident by day 2 of postnatal life, and by 42 days, hearts exhibited multifocal interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, cellular hypertrophy, and occasional myocyte degeneration. (
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane contain Ca,Mg-ATPases that remove Ca 2+ from the cytosol. (
  • Here, we report single and higher-order loss-of-function mutants in members of the cation/proton antiporters-2 antiporter superfamily KEA1 , KEA2 , and KEA3 . (
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ content was assessed by the rapid-cooling contracture (RCC) technique. (
  • Adult forms of the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • The effects of atropine (2×10 -8 M), atosiban (0.5 IU), THG113.31 (10 μM), oxodipine (0.25 mM), EDTA (1 mM), 2-amino-ethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB) (40 mM) and thapsigargin (1 mM) on the maximum force of contraction (Emax) achieved following 2 mg/ml FDA administration were also investigated. (
  • Contraction, however, was not dependent on the Ca 2+ release from the internal stores. (
  • Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle. (
  • 5 If glycolytically inhibited hearts were reperfused transiently with perfusate containing low Ca 2+ , functional recovery was similar to that of hearts without glycolytic inhibition. (
  • magnesium is required not for the transport process per se , but for the transduction of the volume stimulus (7) H-K pump - Mg activates this system. (
  • 14. He W, Hu Z (2012) The role of the Golgi-resident SPCA Ca(2) + /Mn(2) + pump in ionic homeostasis and neural function. (
  • This approach clearly demonstrated Ca 2+ pump immunoreactivity in each of these preparations. (
  • Evidence emerged by the end of the 1970s that the newly discovered proton pump (H + /K + ATPase) in the secretory membrane of the parietal cell was the final step in acid secretion. (
  • Analysis of membrane bound Na + K + and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA 2 treatment when compared to untreated membranes. (
  • Our results indicate a significant dependence on SR Ca 2+ stores for contractile activation in the burbot heart at temperatures that are known to inhibit SR function in mammalian heart. (
  • Similar activation promoted by these cations was observed with various mammalian Ca(2+)-ATPase preparations when they were incubated in the presence of low concentrations of sulphated polysaccharides. (
  • The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA 2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. (
  • It seems, however, that lipid composition of SR membranes and temperature dependence of SR Ca-ATPase are altered by seasonal acclimation. (
  • In plasma membranes isolated from cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells, the (Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ )-ATPase was not readily measured. (
  • Plasma membrane (Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ )-ATPase and Ca 2+ transport activities, best characterized in human erythrocytes, are stimulated by calmodulin and thought to play a crucial role in the termination of cellular Ca 2+ signaling in all cells. (
  • Moreover, addition of exogenous calmodulin (10 -9 to 10 -6 mol/L) produced no measurable stimulation of ATPase activities, suggesting a permanently activated state or, alternatively, a complete lack thereof. (
  • Endogenous phosphatases were stimulated with 15 mM MgCl 2 and 1.3 mM CaCl 2 in the absence of ATP and NaF (+Mg 2+ /+Ca 2+ /-NaF). (
  • In addition, when SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify the phosphoprotein intermediates of the ATPase, one phosphoprotein intermediate (approx M.W. of 115,000) was observed in the presence of Ca²⁺ alone (endogenous Mg "r =1.5-2 μM) but upon the addition of both Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ , a second phosphoprotein intermediate was revealed (M.W. 130,000). (
  • These results strongly suggest that the sea cucumber Ca(2+)-ATPase is activated by monovalent cations because of the presence of endogenous sulphated polysaccharides. (
  • This study provides the first evidence for the existence of a GSK3β-I-2-PP1 positive feedback loop in human cancer cells, and identifies OLA1 as an endogenous suppressor of this signaling motif. (
  • A better knowledge of CA isoform expression in a given tissue would facilitate a systematic examination of any associations with such transporters. (
  • In the human genome, 48 different ABC transporters have been identified and divided into seven subfamilies (A-G) based on sequence similarities ( 2 ). (
  • Ca 2+ ATPases of prokaryotes and eukaryotes comprise a very diverse family (Family 2) including in eukaryotes plasma membrane, golgi, and sarcoplasmic reticular types. (
  • Normal plasma magnesium concentrations typically run between 1.7 and 2.2 mg/dL, 0.75 to 0.95 mmol/L, or 1.5 to 1.9 mEq/L, depending on the units reported (Mg molecular weight=24.3, valence=+2). (
  • Real-time PCR analysis showedαA-crystalline, lens-specific m-calpain (Lp84), lens-specific intermediates (filensin and phakinin), and antiapoptotic factor (Bcl-2) were downregulated, and the apoptotic factors (caspase-3 and Bax) and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA-1) were upregulated in group 2 compared to group 1. (
  • In parallel to, the degree of exchange of Na + , K + and Mg 2+ between tissues and plasma varies greatly. (
  • During relaxation, receptor- and voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels in the plasma membrane close resulting in a reduced Ca 2+ entry into the cell. (
  • Different approaches were utilized to investigate the mechanism by which fusicoccin (FC) induces the activation of the H + -ATPase in plasma membrane (PM) isolated from radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings treated in vivo with (FC-PM) or without (C-PM) FC. (
  • Our previous studies with Rana pipiens oocytes indicate that progesterone binds to a plasma membrane site within the external loop between the M1 and M2 helices of the α-subunit of Na/K-ATPase, triggering a cascade of lipid second messengers and the release of the block at meiotic prophase. (
  • 7. Dunn T, Gable K, Beeler T (1994) Regulation of cellular Ca 2+ by yeast vacuoles. (
  • However, this review describes that the regulation is quite different in terms of [Ca.sup.2+] regulation. (
  • 23), (24) I would like to describe how [Ca.sup.2+] exerts a regulatory effect on actomyosin via the inhibitory mode of Ca regulation. (
  • This coupled approach using a combination of radioisotopic and colorimetric assays provides a new, more powerful assay to investigate ER Ca 2+ flux and can be highly useful for understanding the mechanism of drug, toxin and ATP action on ER Ca 2+ regulation. (
  • Ca 2+ dependent kinetics were complex with an apparent K m ranging from 0.7 to 2 micromolar. (
  • ATPase dependent on Ca +2 , Mg +2 and H 2 O 2 increased in all regions of animals that received 3-NPA alone. (
  • This hemodynamic effect was associated with an enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation and an induction of gene expression (of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) within the arterial wall, which together maintain unchanged agonist-induced contractility. (
  • Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor 2 has been shown to interact with SGK, Actinin alpha 4, Parathyroid hormone receptor 1, Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, EZR, PODXL, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and PLCB3. (
  • Stimulation of the PM H + -ATPase is variable and erratic when FC is added to isolated PM, whereas it becomes more dramatic when FC is fed in vivo. (
  • Frozen tissue samples (0.2 g) from euthermic or hibernating S. lateralis were homogenized 1:5 w/v in homogenization buffer (25 mM imidazole, pH 7.4, 25 mM NaF, 2 mM EDTA, 2 mM EGTA, 250 mM sucrose, 0.2% w/v deoxycholate, 1 mM dithiothreitol) with 1 mM phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) added at the time of homogenization. (
  • Tissue samples from euthermic or hibernating animals were homogenized and desalted by centrifugation through a Sephadex G-25 column pre-equilibrated in 50 mM imidazole, pH 7.0, 25% (v/v) glycerol, 0.2% (w/v) deoxycholate, 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 0.1 mM EDTA (Incubation Buffer). (
  • The observed controversy that N-(4-cyanophenylmethyl)-4-(2-diphenyl)-1-piperazinehexanamide (LP-211), a selective serotonin (5-HT 7 ) receptor agonist, may either modify or exacerbate imbalances in serum electrolyte concentrations and renal tissue of spinal cord trauma cases has not been reported yet. (
  • Since only 20-60 mg of tissue is required for the measurements, the method can also be used for biopsies obtained in clinical studies. (
  • Cells from the osteoblastic lineage are based on mesenchymal stem cells, a multipotent cell human population with capability to differentiate into osteoblasts, osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and myoblasts.1, 2 The primary function of osteoblasts is bone tissue formation. (
  • It has also been reported that H 2 O 2 potentiates a decrease in Δψm induced by glutamate excitotoxicity ( Scanlon and Reynolds, 1998 ). (
  • 12. Palmgren MG, Axelsen KB (1998) Evolution of P-type ATPases. (
  • Remarkably, neither the [Na + ] i load nor exposure to H 2 O 2 had any major effect on [Ca 2+ ] i , mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), or ATP level. (
  • In this study we specifically examined the energy state, mitochondrial function, and ion homeostasis in nerve terminals during H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress superimposed on a disruption in Na + homeostasis. (
  • Mfn-1 KO myocytes are protected from mitochondrial depolarization and exhibit improved viability when challenged with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). (
  • Disrupting mitochondrial fusion via Mfn-1 or Mfn-2 ablation alters the distribution and morphology of mitochondria and precipitates a stochastic process of mitochondrial dysfunction ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • The first evidence of S-nitrosation involvement in this class of pathologies involves the S-nitrosation, and the subsequent hyperactivation, of the [Ca.sup.2+] release channel ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1). (
  • The progesterone receptor on the Rana pipiens oocyte surface appears to be localized within the N-terminal external loop of the α1-subunit of Na/K-ATPase [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • CA XII mRNA was found in kidney and colon. (
  • Hypoxia caused an increase in Na(+)/K(+) ATPase alpha-subunit mRNA abundance pointing to either reduced mRNA degradation during exposure to hypoxia or enhanced expression of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase alpha-subunit relative to other genes. (
  • We conclude that the vacuolar-derived system is a Ca 2+ /H + antiport located on the tonoplast and that the microsomal transport system is a Ca,Mg-ATPase enriched on the ER. (
  • Roles of vacuolar H + -ATPase and cellular ATP. (
  • Genome minimalization led to preferential loss of P-type ATPase genes. (
  • Moreover, the SR from TRIC channel-deficient skeletal muscle shows reduced K + permeability and weakened Ca 2+ release. (
  • CA XIV was abundant in metabolically active tissues such as liver, heart, lung, and skeletal muscle. (
  • 2010 ) analyzed P-type ATPases in all major prokaryotic phyla for which complete genome sequence data were available and compared the results with those for eukaryotic P-type ATPases. (
  • Here, we identified 20 heavy metal ATPase (HMA) family members in the soybean genome, presented as 10 paralogous pairs, which is significantly greater than the number in Arabidopsis or rice, and was likely caused by the latest whole genome duplication event in soybean. (
  • Release of Ca 2+ from the SR/ER generates a negative potential on the luminal side, which is likely to inhibit subsequent Ca 2+ release processes. (
  • 0.05) level of Mn (0.04 ± 0.01 mg/l) and vitamins A (undetectable), C (1.87 ± 0.01 mg/100 g), and E (0.12 ± 0.01 mg/100 g) compared to those of soy milk. (
  • 0.05) Ca 2+ -adenosine triphosphate synthase (Ca 2+ -ATPase) at low dose (3.1 µl/g animal wt. (
  • 0.05) Mg 2+ -ATPase at high dose (9.2 µl/g animal wt. (
  • 0.05), but not C-13 deoxydoxorubicin (33 +/- 2%) compared to age-matched pair-fed controls. (
  • and at various Ca 2+ concentrations. (
  • Since H 2 O 2 and oxyradicals were found to produce biphasic changes in the β-adrenergic signal transduction mechanism, it is likely that the observed changes in the ischemic and ischemic-reperfused hearts may be due to the accumulation of low vs. high concentrations of oxyradicals and oxidants such as H 2 O 2 . (
  • Up to 2 Mg2+ ions were also able to enter the binding sites electrogenically and to compete with the transported substrate ions (K1/2(Mg) = 165 µM, K1/2(Mg2) = 7.4 mM). (
  • However, each transporter can translocate unique compounds, in addition to their overlapping substrate specificity ( 2 ). (
  • The levels of the membrane Ca~2, Mg~2-Adenosine Triphosphatase (Ca~2, Mg~(2+)-ATPase) and the cytoplasm reduced Glutathione (GSH) and Gluthione Peroxidase (GPx) in the rat livers were studied in various age groups. (
  • Each of the membrane-associated forms exhibits exceptionally high catalytic rates of CO 2 hydration, particularly CAs IV, IX, and XIV ( 2 , 14 , 15 , 32 , 33 ). (
  • carbonic anhydrase (ca) catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO 2 and dehydration of carbonic acid. (
  • Nonetheless, ischemia-reperfusion-induced changes in the β-adrenoceptors and adenylyl cyclase system have been demonstrated to be prevented by the presence of superoxide dismutase plus catalase, a combination which is known to remove the actions of H 2 O 2 . (
  • Diltiazem protects the isolated rabbit heart from the mechanical and ultrastructural damage produced by transient hypoxia, low flow ischemia and exposure to Ca + -free medium. (
  • Additional support for the idea that Myo2p is a nonprocessive motor comes from actin cosedimentation assays, which show that Myo2p has a low affinity for F-actin in the presence of ATP and Ca 2+ , unlike chick brain M5a. (
  • The activation was about two orders lower than that fully activated by Ca 2+ and F-actin. (
  • Dolomite CaMg (SO 3 ) 2 is as the name suggests abundant in the Dolomite mountain range of the Alps [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Published evidence suggests that uncharacterized families of P-type ATPases with novel specificities exist. (
  • Besides, the study suggests that B 2 or B 6 vitamins restored the levels of DA and reduced oxidative stress in brain of rats. (
  • Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (
  • For example, in the NOD mouse, administration of β cell autoantigens (insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, or IA-2) protects from diabetes through the induction of Th2 cytokines ( 6 ), an effect not observed in IL-4 o/o mice ( 7 ). (
  • 4-Hydroxynonenal, CAS 75899-68-2, is a major aldehyde product formed by peroxidation of ω-6-unsaturated fatty acids that is regarded as a specific marker of lipid peroxidation. (
  • The lipid peroxidation increased in cortex, striatum, and cerebellum/medulla oblongata, of animals treated with B 2 vitamin alone. (
  • Addition of a soluble hexokinase ATP trap eliminated 45 Ca transport fueled by exogenous ATP but had markedly less effect on 45 Ca transport supported by endogenously produced ATP (via glycolysis). (