An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC; at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC EC
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
A macrolide antibiotic of the oligomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces rutgersensis. It is used in cytochemistry as a tool to inhibit various ATPases and to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport and also clinically as an antifungal agent.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.

The main symptoms of Menkes syndrome are:

1. Steel-gray or kinky hair, which starts to appear within the first few months of life.
2. Failure to thrive, poor muscle tone, and low birth weight.
3. Developmental delays and intellectual disability.
4. Seizures and poor coordination.
5. Poor immune function and recurrent infections.
6. Gradual loss of vision and hearing.
7. Osteoporosis and fragile bones.
8. Increased risk of liver disease, including cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

The diagnosis of Menkes syndrome is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing complications, and may include copper supplements, anticonvulsants, and other medications.

The prognosis for Menkes syndrome is poor, with most individuals dying in childhood or adolescence due to complications such as liver disease, infections, or seizures. However, some individuals may live into their 20s or 30s with appropriate management and care.

Darier disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the skin and mucous membranes, characterized by thickened, crusted, or scaly skin plaques and blisters on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme keratin 5 (KRT5), which leads to abnormal production of keratin proteins that are essential for maintaining the skin's integrity. The disease is named after Dr. Jean Darier, a French dermatologist who first described it in the early 20th century.

Etymology: Named after Jean Darier, a French dermatologist who first described the condition in the early 20th century.

Symptoms of Darier disease typically appear in the first few months of life and may include:

* Thickened, crusted, or scaly skin plaques on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
* Blisters that may burst and crust over
* Cracks in the skin that can become infected
* Redness and swelling around the affected areas
* Skin fold dermatitis (inflammation of the skin folds, such as those found in the armpits or groin)

Darier disease is a rare condition, affecting approximately 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 individuals worldwide. It can be challenging to diagnose, as it can resemble other skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis. A diagnosis of Darier disease is typically made based on a combination of clinical features and genetic testing.

Treatment for Darier disease may include topical medications, such as corticosteroids or retinoids, to reduce inflammation and promote skin healing. In severe cases, systemic medications such as antibiotics or immunosuppressants may be prescribed. Phototherapy, which involves exposure to specific wavelengths of light, can also be helpful in managing the condition.

In addition to these treatments, individuals with Darier disease may need to take precautions to protect their skin from irritation and infection. This may include avoiding harsh soaps or detergents, wearing loose-fitting clothing, and staying hydrated to maintain skin moisture.

Overall, while Darier disease can be a challenging condition to manage, with appropriate treatment and self-care, individuals with this condition can lead fulfilling lives. It is important for individuals with Darier disease to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that meets their individual needs.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

The symptoms of BFP typically appear in early adulthood and can include:

* Blisters and sores on the skin and mucous membranes
* Pain and discomfort
* Scarring and disfigurement
* Difficulty swallowing (in severe cases)

BFP is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, family history, and genetic testing. Treatment for the condition typically involves managing the symptoms and preventing complications. This may include:

* Topical medications to reduce inflammation and promote healing
* Oral medications to suppress the immune system and prevent further blistering
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and reduce pain

While there is no cure for BFP, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help to manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. The condition is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. However, some cases may be caused by spontaneous mutations rather than inheritance.

There are several types of RTA, including:

1. Type 1 RTA: This is caused by a defect in the genes that code for the proteins involved in acid secretion in the renal tubules.
2. Type 2 RTA: This is caused by damage to the renal tubules, such as from exposure to certain drugs or toxins.
3. Type 4 RTA: This is caused by a deficiency of the hormone aldosterone, which helps regulate electrolyte levels in the body.

Symptoms of RTA can include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Dehydration
* Increased heart rate
* Decreased urine production

RTA can be diagnosed through blood tests that measure the pH levels in the body, as well as tests that assess kidney function and electrolyte levels. Treatment for RTA typically involves correcting any underlying causes, such as stopping certain medications or addressing electrolyte imbalances. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help regulate acid levels in the body.

Prevention of RTA includes maintaining proper hydration, avoiding exposure to harmful substances, and managing any underlying medical conditions that may increase the risk of developing RTA. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for individuals with RTA.

The hepatolenticular tract is a complex system of nerve fibers that connect the liver and other organs in the body, allowing for the exchange of information and coordination of bodily functions. HLD occurs when these nerve fibers are damaged or destroyed, leading to problems with brain function and communication.

The symptoms of HLD can vary depending on the severity of the damage and the specific areas of the brain affected. Common symptoms include difficulty with memory and cognitive function, poor coordination and balance, and changes in behavior and personality. In severe cases, HLD can lead to coma or even death.

There is currently no cure for HLD, but there are several treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as physical therapy and rehabilitation to improve cognitive and motor function. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary to treat underlying liver disease.

Overall, hepatobilayer degeneration is a serious condition that can have significant effects on brain function and quality of life. If you suspect that you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of HLD, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Medical Term: Cardiomegaly

Definition: An abnormal enlargement of the heart.

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling of legs and feet, chest pain, and palpitations.

Causes: Hypertension, cardiac valve disease, myocardial infarction (heart attack), congenital heart defects, and other conditions that affect the heart muscle or cardiovascular system.

Diagnosis: Physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray, echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests as necessary.

Treatment: Medications such as diuretics, vasodilators, and beta blockers, lifestyle changes such as exercise and diet modifications, surgery or other interventions in severe cases.

Note: Cardiomegaly is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications such as heart failure and death. If you suspect you or someone else may have cardiomegaly, seek medical attention immediately.

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

Causes of Potassium Deficiency:

There are several factors that can contribute to potassium deficiency, including:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is low in potassium-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, can lead to a deficiency.
2. Diarrhea and vomiting: These gastrointestinal issues can cause the body to lose excessive amounts of potassium, leading to a deficiency.
3. Certain medications: Diuretics, laxatives, and certain antibiotics can cause potassium loss in the urine or stool.
4. Kidney problems: Kidney disease or dysfunction can impair the body's ability to retain potassium, leading to a deficiency.
5. Hormonal imbalances: Certain hormonal imbalances, such as excessive production of aldosterone, can cause potassium loss and deficiency.

Symptoms of Potassium Deficiency:

The symptoms of potassium deficiency can vary in severity and may include:

1. Muscle weakness and cramping
2. Fatigue and lethargy
3. Heart palpitations and arrhythmias
4. Abnormal heart rhythms
5. Constipation
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Headaches
8. Muscle twitching and spasms
9. Inability to regulate blood pressure
10. Decreased reflexes and response to stimuli

Diagnosis of Potassium Deficiency:

Potassium deficiency is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

1. Blood tests: Measurement of potassium levels in the blood can confirm a deficiency.
2. Urine tests: Measurement of potassium excretion in the urine can help identify excessive potassium loss.
3. Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG can detect abnormal heart rhythms and signs of potassium deficiency.
4. Physical examination: Signs such as muscle weakness, cramping, and twitching can indicate potassium deficiency.

Treatment of Potassium Deficiency:

The treatment of potassium deficiency typically involves correcting the underlying cause and supplementing with potassium salts. The goal is to restore normal potassium levels and prevent complications such as cardiac arrhythmias and muscle weakness. Treatment may include:

1. Dietary changes: Increasing potassium-rich foods such as bananas, avocados, and leafy greens can help restore normal potassium levels.
2. Potassium supplements: Oral or intravenous supplements can be used to replenish potassium stores.
3. Addressing underlying causes: Identifying and treating conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or excessive vomiting can help resolve the potassium deficiency.
4. Monitoring: Regular blood tests and electrocardiograms are necessary to monitor potassium levels and ensure that the treatment is effective.

In conclusion, potassium deficiency can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition. If you suspect you or someone you know may have a potassium deficiency, consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

There are several types of acidosis, including:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the lung's ability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood is impaired, leading to an increase in blood acidity.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This type of acidosis occurs when there is an excessive production of acid in the body due to factors such as diabetes, starvation, or kidney disease.
3. Mixed acidosis: This type of acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis.
4. Severe acute respiratory acidosis (SARA): This is a life-threatening condition that occurs suddenly, usually due to a severe lung injury or aspiration of a corrosive substance.

The symptoms of acidosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
4. Headaches
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Difficulty breathing
8. Rapid heart rate
9. Muscle twitching

If left untreated, acidosis can lead to complications such as:

1. Kidney damage
2. Seizures
3. Coma
4. Heart arrhythmias
5. Respiratory failure

Treatment of acidosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Oxygen therapy
2. Medications to help regulate breathing and heart rate
3. Fluid and electrolyte replacement
4. Dietary changes
5. Surgery, in severe cases.

In conclusion, acidosis is a serious medical condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have acidosis. With prompt and appropriate treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

There are many different types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Tachycardias: These are fast heart rhythms that can be too fast for the body's needs. Examples include atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
2. Bradycardias: These are slow heart rhythms that can cause symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. Examples include sinus bradycardia and heart block.
3. Premature beats: These are extra beats that occur before the next regular beat should come in. They can be benign but can also indicate an underlying arrhythmia.
4. Supraventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate above the ventricles, such as atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.
5. Ventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate in the ventricles, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Cardiac arrhythmias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and holter monitors. Treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias vary depending on the type and severity of the condition and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or implantable devices like pacemakers or defibrillators.

Types of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus include:

1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of streptozotocin, a chemical that damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
2. Alloxan-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of alloxan, a chemical that also damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
3. Pancreatectomy-induced diabetes: In this type of EDM, the pancreas is surgically removed or damaged, leading to loss of insulin production and high blood sugar levels.

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus has several applications in research, including:

1. Testing new drugs and therapies for diabetes treatment: EDM allows researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments on blood sugar control and other physiological processes.
2. Studying the pathophysiology of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the progression of diabetes and its effects on various organs and tissues.
3. Investigating the role of genetics in diabetes: Researchers can use EDM to study the effects of genetic mutations on diabetes development and progression.
4. Evaluating the efficacy of new diagnostic techniques: EDM allows researchers to test new methods for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring blood sugar levels.
5. Investigating the complications of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the development of complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

In conclusion, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus is a valuable tool for researchers studying diabetes and its complications. The technique allows for precise control over blood sugar levels and has numerous applications in testing new treatments, studying the pathophysiology of diabetes, investigating the role of genetics, evaluating new diagnostic techniques, and investigating complications.

MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.

The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.

The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.

The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.

Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.

In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

There are several types of cardiomyopathies, each with distinct characteristics and symptoms. Some of the most common forms of cardiomyopathy include:

1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): This is the most common form of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by an abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, particularly in the left ventricle. HCM can lead to obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract and can increase the risk of sudden death.
2. Dilated cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by a decrease in the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to enlargement of the heart and potentially life-threatening complications such as congestive heart failure.
3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by stiffness of the heart muscle, which makes it difficult for the heart to fill with blood. This can lead to shortness of breath and fatigue.
4. Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC): This is a rare type of cardiomyopathy that occurs when the left ventricle does not properly compact, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
5. Cardiac amyloidosis: This is a condition in which abnormal proteins accumulate in the heart tissue, leading to stiffness and impaired cardiac function.
6. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy (RVCM): This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by impaired function of the right ventricle, which can lead to complications such as pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.
7. Endocardial fibroelastoma: This is a rare type of cardiomyopathy that occurs when abnormal tissue grows on the inner lining of the heart, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
8. Cardiac sarcoidosis: This is a condition in which inflammatory cells accumulate in the heart, leading to impaired cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
9. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): This is a condition in which the heart muscle thickens, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications such as arrhythmias and sudden death.
10. Hypokinetic left ventricular cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by decreased contraction of the left ventricle, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications such as heart failure.

It's important to note that some of these types of cardiomyopathy are more common in certain populations, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy being more common in young athletes. Additionally, some types of cardiomyopathy may have overlapping symptoms or co-occurring conditions, so it's important to work with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The exact cause of malignant hyperthermia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a genetic predisposition and exposure to certain anesthetic agents. The condition can be triggered by a variety of factors, including the use of certain anesthetics, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, and changes in blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of malignant hyperthermia can include:

* Elevated body temperature (usually above 104°F/40°C)
* Muscle rigidity and stiffness
* Heart arrhythmias and palpitations
* Shivering or tremors
* Confusion, agitation, or other neurological symptoms
* Shortness of breath or respiratory failure

If left untreated, malignant hyperthermia can lead to serious complications such as seizures, brain damage, and even death. Treatment typically involves the immediate discontinuation of any triggering anesthetic agents, cooling measures such as ice packs or cold compresses, and medications to help regulate body temperature and reduce muscle rigidity. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support breathing.

Overall, malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.

There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:

1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.

Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.

The normal range for potassium levels in the blood varies depending on age, gender, and other factors, but generally it is between 3.5 and 5.5 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter).

Hypokalemia can be caused by a variety of factors such as diarrhea, vomiting, certain medications (diuretics, laxatives), kidney disease or malfunctioning of the parathyroid glands.

The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is an autoimmune disorder called Graves' disease, which causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Other causes include inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis), thyroid nodules, and certain medications.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Rapid weight loss
* Nervousness or irritability
* Increased heart rate
* Heat intolerance
* Changes in menstrual cycle
* Fatigue
* Muscle weakness
* tremors

If left untreated, hyperthyroidism can lead to more serious complications such as heart problems, bone loss, and eye problems. Treatment options for hyperthyroidism include medications to reduce hormone production, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part of the thyroid gland, and surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

In pregnant women, untreated hyperthyroidism can increase the risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and intellectual disability in the baby. Treatment options for pregnant women with hyperthyroidism are similar to those for non-pregnant adults, but may need to be adjusted to avoid harm to the developing fetus.

It is important for individuals suspected of having hyperthyroidism to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive proper diagnosis and treatment. Early treatment can help prevent complications and improve quality of life.

There are several possible causes of dilated cardiomyopathy, including:

1. Coronary artery disease: This is the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, and it occurs when the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. High blood pressure: Prolonged high blood pressure can cause the heart muscle to become weakened and enlarged.
3. Heart valve disease: Dysfunctional heart valves can lead to an increased workload on the heart, which can cause dilated cardiomyopathy.
4. Congenital heart defects: Some congenital heart defects can lead to an enlarged heart and dilated cardiomyopathy.
5. Alcohol abuse: Chronic alcohol abuse can damage the heart muscle and lead to dilated cardiomyopathy.
6. Viral infections: Some viral infections, such as myocarditis, can cause inflammation of the heart muscle and lead to dilated cardiomyopathy.
7. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic disorders, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, can cause dilated cardiomyopathy.
8. Obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for developing dilated cardiomyopathy, particularly in younger people.
9. Diabetes: Diabetes can increase the risk of developing dilated cardiomyopathy, especially if left untreated or poorly controlled.
10. Age: Dilated cardiomyopathy is more common in older adults, with the majority of cases occurring in people over the age of 65.

It's important to note that many people with these risk factors will not develop dilated cardiomyopathy, and some people without any known risk factors can still develop the condition. If you suspect you or someone you know may have dilated cardiomyopathy, it's important to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.


Cardiac output is typically measured using invasive or non-invasive methods. Invasive methods involve inserting a catheter into the heart to directly measure cardiac output. Non-invasive methods include echocardiography, MRI, and CT scans. These tests can provide an estimate of cardiac output based on the volume of blood being pumped out of the heart and the rate at which it is being pumped.


There are several factors that can contribute to low cardiac output. These include:

1. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fatigue and shortness of breath.
2. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can reduce the amount of oxygen being delivered to the body's tissues, leading to fatigue and weakness.
3. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as beta blockers, can slow down the heart rate and reduce cardiac output.
4. Sepsis: A severe infection can lead to inflammation throughout the body, which can affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively.
5. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): This occurs when the heart muscle is damaged due to a lack of oxygen, leading to reduced cardiac output.


Low cardiac output can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Dizziness and lightheadedness
3. Shortness of breath
4. Pale skin
5. Decreased urine output
6. Confusion and disorientation


The treatment of low cardiac output depends on the underlying cause. Treatment may include:

1. Medications to increase heart rate and contractility
2. Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
3. Oxygen therapy to increase oxygenation of tissues
4. Mechanical support devices, such as intra-aortic balloon pumps or ventricular assist devices
5. Surgery to repair or replace damaged heart tissue
6. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, to improve cardiovascular health.


Preventing low cardiac output involves managing any underlying medical conditions, taking medications as directed, and making lifestyle changes to improve cardiovascular health. This may include:

1. Monitoring and controlling blood pressure
2. Managing diabetes and other chronic conditions
3. Avoiding substances that can damage the heart, such as tobacco and excessive alcohol
4. Exercising regularly
5. Eating a healthy diet that is low in saturated fats and cholesterol
6. Maintaining a healthy weight.

Neuroblastoma is caused by a genetic mutation that affects the development and growth of nerve cells. The cancerous cells are often sensitive to chemotherapy, but they can be difficult to remove surgically because they are deeply embedded in the nervous system.

There are several different types of neuroblastoma, including:

1. Infantile neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in children under the age of one and is often more aggressive than other types of the cancer.
2. Juvenile neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in children between the ages of one and five and tends to be less aggressive than infantile neuroblastoma.
3. Adult neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in adults and is rare.
4. Metastatic neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma has spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones or liver.

Symptoms of neuroblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Bone pain
* Swelling in the abdomen or neck
* Constipation
* Increased heart rate

Diagnosis of neuroblastoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRI scans, and biopsies to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Treatment for neuroblastoma usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for neuroblastoma varies depending on the type of cancer, the age of the child, and the stage of the disease. In general, the younger the child and the more aggressive the treatment, the better the prognosis.

Insulinoma is a rare type of pancreatic tumor that produces excess insulin, leading to low blood sugar levels. These tumors are typically benign and can be treated with surgery or medication.

Insulinomas account for only about 5% of all pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. They usually occur in the head of the pancreas and can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

1. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar): The excess insulin produced by the tumor can cause blood sugar levels to drop too low, leading to symptoms such as shakiness, dizziness, confusion, and rapid heartbeat.
2. Hyperinsulinism (elevated insulin levels): In addition to hypoglycemia, insulinomas can also cause elevated insulin levels in the blood.
3. Abdominal pain: Insulinomas can cause abdominal pain and discomfort.
4. Weight loss: Patients with insulinomas may experience unexplained weight loss.
5. Nausea and vomiting: Some patients may experience nausea and vomiting due to the hypoglycemia or other symptoms caused by the tumor.

Insulinomas are usually diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and by measuring insulin and C-peptide levels in the blood. Treatment options for insulinomas include surgery to remove the tumor, medications to control hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinism, and somatostatin analogs to reduce hormone secretion.

Insulinoma is a rare and complex condition that requires careful management by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including endocrinologists, surgeons, and radiologists. With appropriate treatment, most patients with insulinomas can experience long-term remission and improved quality of life.

2001). "Differentiation induces up-regulation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and concomitant increase in Ca(2+) efflux in ... Wang MG, Yi H, Hilfiker H, et al. (1994). "Localization of two genes encoding plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases isoforms 2 (ATP2B2) ... 1991). "Protein kinase C phosphorylates the carboxyl terminus of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase from human erythrocytes". J ... 1993). "von Hippel-Lindau syndrome: cloning and identification of the plasma membrane Ca(++)-transporting ATPase isoform 2 gene ...
... ca(2+) mg(2+)-atpase MeSH D08.811. - ca(2+)-transporting atpase MeSH D08.811. - dynein atpase ... chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811. - h(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D08.811.277.040. ... proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811. - bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040. ... proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.249 - bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696 ...
Agrawal, SK; Fehlings, MG (1996). "Mechanisms of secondary injury to spinal cord axons in vitro: role of Na+, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ... The Royal Society of Canada. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2017. ... "CAHS Fellows Directory". Canadian Academy of Health Sciences (CAHS). 2017. Archived from the original on 23 ... "UHN Doctor Profile Page, Michael G Fehlings". 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017. "University of Toronto Department of ...
Each vial of DigiFab, which will bind approximately 0.5 mg digoxin, contains 40 mg of digoxin immune Fab, 75 mg (approx) of ... DiDomenico RJ, Walton SM, Sanoski CA, Bauman JL (2000). "Analysis of the use of digoxin immune fab for the treatment of non- ... patent to use digoxin immunoglobulins C07k16/44 as a regulator of the preeclamptic/eclamptic patient's sodium/potassium ATPase ... Prior to 2011, Digibind and DigiFab pricing was US $797 per 38 mg vial and US $786 per 40 mg vial respectively. After GSK ...
Kim JH, Lee-Kwon W, Park JB, Ryu SH, Yun CH, Donowitz M (June 2002). "Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) ... Takeda T, McQuistan T, Orlando RA, Farquhar MG (2001). "Loss of glomerular foot processes is associated with uncoupling of ... DeMarco SJ, Chicka MC, Strehler EE (2002). "Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2b interacts preferentially with Na+/H+ ... 2002). "Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) requires an NHE3-E3KARP-alpha-actinin-4 complex for ...
Fischer MG, Suttle CA (April 2011). "A virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons". Science. 332 (6026): 231-4. Bibcode: ... and a DNA-packaging ATPase. The two capsids are almost universally found in a conserved block. The MCP has two vertical jelly ... Fischer MG, Hackl (December 2016). "Host genome integration and giant virus-induced reactivation of the virophage mavirus". ... Born, D; Reuter, L; Mersdorf, U; Mueller, M; Fischer, MG; Meinhart, A; Reinstein, J (10 July 2018). "Capsid protein structure, ...
Candia, S; Garcia, ML; Latorre, R (1992). "Mode of action of iberiotoxin, a potent blocker of the large conductance Ca(2+)- ... Patients with hypertension on admission are given a single dose of 5 mg sublingual nifedipine and oral prazosin. The blood ... myocarditis and changes in cardiac sarcolemmal ATPase and by these abnormalities it can finally cause death. In rural India the ... 63 (2): 583-90. Bibcode:1992BpJ....63..583C. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(92)81630-2. PMC 1262182. PMID 1384740. Bawaskar, HS; ...
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) block the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) and inhibit gastric acid secretion. ... A clinical study showed that nocturnal acid breakthrough duration was significantly shorter for 40 mg of tenatoprazole than for ... half-life ca. 20 h). The acid protective coating prevents conversion to the active principle in the lumen of the stomach, which ... That is, they block the action of the H+/K+ ATPase by binding to or near the site of the K+ channel. Since the binding is ...
Hsu H, Shu HB, Pan MG, Goeddel DV (1996). "TRADD-TRAF2 and TRADD-FADD interactions define two distinct TNF receptor 1 signal ... Miki K, Eddy EM (2002). "Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 is an ATPase regulated by silencer of death domain". Mol. Cell. Biol ... Baker E, Chen LZ, Smith CA, Callen DF, Goodwin R, Sutherland GR (November 1991). "Chromosomal location of the human tumor ... 57 (2-3): 117-8. doi:10.1159/000133127. PMID 1655358. Schall TJ, Lewis M, Koller KJ, Lee A, Rice GC, Wong GH, Gatanaga T, ...
Abdellatif M, Ghozy S, Kamel MG, Elawady SS, Ghorab MM, Attia AW, Le Huyen TT, Duy DT, Hirayama K, Huy NT (March 2019). " ... Munita JM, Arias CA (April 2016). "Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance". Microbiology Spectrum. 4 (2): 481-511. doi:10.1128/ ... a highly cytotoxic benzolactone from Myxobacteria is a novel selective inhibitor of mitochondrial F1-ATPases". FEBS Letters. ... 37 (2): 166-96. doi:10.1128/br.37.3.166-196.1973. PMC 413810. PMID 4578757. Kunze B, Sasse F, Wieczorek H, Huss M (July 2007 ...
Normal plasma Mg is 1.7-2.3 mg/dL (0.69-0.94 mmol/L). The kidneys regulate the serum magnesium. About 2400 mg of magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for the adequate function of the Na+/K+-ATPase pumps in cardiac myocytes, the muscles cells of the heart. A ... There is a direct effect on sodium (Na), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) channels. Magnesium has several effects: Potassium ... Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M (September 2003). "Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a ...
Rao ST, Rossmann MG (May 1973). "Comparison of super-secondary structures in proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 76 (2): ... ", Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrate Skeleta". Archived from the original on 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2014-08-15. ... K+-ATPase α-subunit in multiple insect species spanning 6 orders. Here is a list of examples in which unrelated proteins have ... Buller, AR; Townsend, CA (Feb 19, 2013). "Intrinsic evolutionary constraints on protease structure, enzyme acylation, and the ...
Colon BL, Rice CA, Guy RK, Kyle DE (March 2019). "Phenotypic Screens Reveal Posaconazole as a Rapidly Acting Amebicidal ... "Noxafil 100 mg Gastro-resistant Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)". (emc). 10 January 2022. Archived from the ... impairing the functions of certain membrane-bound enzyme systems such as ATPase and enzymes of the electron transport system, ... Ashley ED, Perfect JR (October 2017). "Pharmacology of azoles". In Kauffman CA (ed.). UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Archived ...
Vallerand AH, Sanoski CA, Deglin JH (2015). Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses (14th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. pp. 924-925. ISBN 978 ... It is a specific H+/K+ATPase inhibitor. This is the enzyme needed for the final step in the secretion of gastric acid. ... "Omeprazole 40 mg Powder for Solution for Infusion". EMC. 10 February 2016. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. ... It has high plasma protein binding of 95%. Omeprazole, as well as other PPIs, are only effective on active H+/K+-ATPase pumps. ...
Rosenbloom KR, Sloan CA, Malladi VS, Dreszer TR, Learned K, Kirkup VM, Wong MC, Maddren M, Fang R, Heitner SG, Lee BT, Barber ... As with all ATPases, ATP binding and hydrolysis is essential for the chaperoning function of Hsp90 in vivo. Hsp90 inhibitors ... Marcu MG, Doyle M, Bertolotti A, Ron D, Hendershot L, Neckers L (Dec 2002). "Heat shock protein 90 modulates the unfolded ... Marcu MG, Chadli A, Bouhouche I, Catelli M, Neckers LM (Nov 2000). "The heat shock protein 90 antagonist novobiocin interacts ...
Liu SB, Zhang N, Guo YY, Zhao R, Shi TY, Feng SF, Wang SQ, Yang Q, Li XQ, Wu YM, Ma L, Hou Y, Xiong LZ, Zhang W, Zhao MG (April ... Simão F, Matté A, Matté C, Soares FM, Wyse AT, Netto CA, Salbego CG (October 2011). "Resveratrol prevents oxidative stress and ... inhibition of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity induced by transient global cerebral ischemia in rats". J. Nutr. Biochem. 22 (10): 921- ... Papandreou MA, Kanakis CD, Polissiou MG, Efthimiopoulos S, Cordopatis P, Margarity M, Lamari FN (2006). "Inhibitory activity on ...
K+-ATPase Na+/ K+-ATPase Plasma membrane H+-ATPase Sarco/endoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Palmgren MG, Nissen P (2011). "P- ... "A structural model for the catalytic cycle of Ca(2+)-ATPase". Journal of Molecular Biology. 316 (1): 201-211. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... P1 ATPases (or Type I ATPases) consists of the transition/heavy metal ATPases. Topological type I (heavy metal) P-type ATPases ... twofold). P2A ATPases (or Type IIA ATPases) are Ca2+ ATPases that transport Ca2+. P2A ATPases are split into two groups. ...
Galea CA, Huq A, Lockhart PJ, Tai G, Corben LA, Yiu EM, et al. (March 2016). "Compound heterozygous FXN mutations and clinical ... Leonardi L, Aceto MG, Marcotulli C, Arcuria G, Serrao M, Pierelli F, et al. (March 2017). "A wearable proprioceptive stabilizer ... acyl carrier protein and ATPase-mediated transfer to recipient proteins". Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 55: 34-44. doi: ... 3.0.CO;2-U. PMID 9989622. S2CID 24885238. Lazaropoulos M, Dong Y, Clark E, Greeley NR, Seyer LA, Brigatti KW, et al. (August ...
Zhao XQ, Naka M, Muneyuki M, Tanaka T (January 2000). "Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of actin-activated myosin ATPase activity by ... Schäfer BW, Wicki R, Engelkamp D, Mattei MG, Heizmann CW (February 1995). "Isolation of a YAC clone covering a cluster of nine ... Tomasetto C, Régnier C, Moog-Lutz C, Mattei MG, Chenard MP, Lidereau R, Basset P, Rio MC (August 1995). "Identification of four ... November 2003). "S100C/A11 is a key mediator of Ca(2+)-induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes". The Journal ...
... failure of the Na/K ATPase, resulting in a loss of the gradient to drive the Na/Ca antiporter, which normally keeps Ca+ 2 out ... 50-150 mg/day) or high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (1 g/day) for 3-7 days. Thyroid hormone treatment is also included ... Schiess N, Pardo CA (October 2008). "Hashimoto's encephalopathy". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1142 (1): 254-65 ... An additional feature of a low-energy state is failure to maintain axonal transport via dynein/kinesin ATPases, which in many ...
California has also pursued initiatives to reduce the effect of copper leaching, with the U.S. EPA pursuing research. Copper is ... The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a limit of 0.1 mg/m3 for copper fumes (vapor generated from ... "Function and Regulation of Human Copper-Transporting ATPases". Physiological Reviews. 87 (3): 1011-46. doi:10.1152/physrev. ... but tends to be pegged at 1.3 mg/L. So low is the toxicity of copper that copper(II) sulfate is a routine reagent in ...
Single 20 to 40 mg oral doses generally give rise to peak plasma esomeprazole concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/L within 1-4 hours, ... It works by blocking H+/K+-ATPase in the parietal cells of the stomach. It was patented in 1993 and approved for medical use in ... Stedman CA, Barclay ML (August 2000). "Review article: comparison of the pharmacokinetics, acid suppression and efficacy of ... Vimovo is available in two dosage strengths: 500/20 mg and 375/20 mg. Clinical trials of naproxen/esomeprazole demonstrated an ...
PTX 251D also completely inhibits the activity of Ca2+-stimulated ATPase. This results in a decreased reuptake of Ca2+ and thus ... Mortari MR, Schwartz EN, Schwartz CA, Pires OR, Santos MM, Bloch C, Sebben A (March 2004). "Main alkaloids from the Brazilian ... It rapidly induces convulsions and death to mice and insects (LD50 being, respectively, 10 mg/kg and 150 ng/larvae). These ... Tamburini R, Albuquerque EX, Daly JW, Kauffman FC (September 1981). "Inhibition of calcium-dependent ATPase from sarcoplasmic ...
At low heart rates, phospholamban is active and slows down the activity of the ATPase so that Ca2+ does not have to leave the ... Nikolaidis MG, Kyparos A, Spanou C, Paschalis V, Theodorou AA, Vrabas IS (2012). "Redox biology of exercise: an integrative and ... Crespo LM, Grantham CJ, Cannell MB (June 1990). "Kinetics, stoichiometry and role of the Na-Ca exchange mechanism in isolated ... Following systole, intracellular calcium is taken up by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA) pump back into the ...
Aubry F, Mattéi MG, Galibert F (Jun 1998). "Identification of a human 17p-located cDNA encoding a protein of the Snf2-like ... Tong JK, Hassig CA, Schnitzler GR, Kingston RE, Schreiber SL (Oct 1998). "Chromatin deacetylation by an ATP-dependent ... domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. This protein is one of the components of a histone deacetylase complex ... Tong JK, Hassig CA, Schnitzler GR, Kingston RE, Schreiber SL (Oct 1998). "Chromatin deacetylation by an ATP-dependent ...
Paciullo CA, McMahon Horner D, Hatton KW, Flynn JD (July 2010). "Methylene blue for the treatment of septic shock". ... a drug that inhibits the Na/K-ATPase of cell membranes. Methylene blue has been used as a placebo; physicians would tell their ... 0.7 is used to determine by photometric measurements sulfide concentration in the range 0.020 to 1.50 mg/L (20 ppb to 1.5 ppm ... California: Dako North America, Inc. p. 172. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2012. What is Giemsa's stain and how ...
Brailoiu, E; Churamani, D; Cai, X; Schrlau, MG; Brailoiu, GC; Gao, X; Hooper, R; Boulware, MJ; Dun, NJ; Marchant, JS; Patel, S ... Lee HC, Zhao YJ (2019). "Resolving the topological enigma in Ca 2+ signaling by cyclic ADP-ribose and NAADP". Journal of ... As noted above, this usually entails collapsing the H+ gradient with either V-ATPase inhibitors (e.g. Bafilomycin A1) or ... CA; Moser, M; Spahn, S; Lüllmann-Rauch, R; Fendel, C; Klugbauer, N; Griesbeck, O; Haas, A; Mann, M; Bracher, F; Teupser, D; ...
Ball CA, Osuna R, Ferguson KC, Johnson RC (December 1992). "Dramatic changes in Fis levels upon nutrient upshift in Escherichia ... Vos SM, Stewart NK, Oakley MG, Berger JM (November 2013). "Structural basis for the MukB-topoisomerase IV interaction and its ... Zawadzka K, Zawadzki P, Baker R, Rajasekar KV, Wagner F, Sherratt DJ, Arciszewska LK (January 2018). "MukB ATPases are ... MukB belongs to a family of ATPases called structural maintenance of chromosome proteins (SMCs), which participate in higher- ...
Domingues MG, Jaeger MM, Araújo VC, Araújo NS (February 2000). "Expression of cytokeratins in human enamel organ". European ... University of Southern California School of Dentistry. "The Bell Stage: Image 30". Retrieved December 11, 2005. University of ... Patients with osteopetrosis display enamel abnormalities, suggesting that the a3 gene mutation found in V-ATPases also plays a ... ISBN 978-0-7216-9382-8. University of Southern California School of Dentistry, The Bell Stage: Image 26 found here [1]. ...
Kaplitt MG, Feigin A, Tang C, Fitzsimons HL, Mattis P, Lawlor PA, Bland RJ, Young D, Strybing K, Eidelberg D, During MJ (June ... Myers MW, Laughlin CA, Jay FT, Carter BJ (July 1980). "Adenovirus helper function for growth of adeno-associated virus: effect ... Jay FT, Laughlin CA, Carter BJ (May 1981). "Eukaryotic translational control: adeno-associated virus protein synthesis is ... Kotin RM, Siniscalco M, Samulski RJ, Zhu XD, Hunter L, Laughlin CA, McLaughlin S, Muzyczka N, Rocchi M, Berns KI (March 1990 ...
... and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) compared with these measures in control rats. These authors concluded that ... 161] conducted a crossover cohort study to determine the pharmacokinetics of 10 mg oral melatonin or 10 mg intravenous ... 10 mg or 20 mg capsule once daily) increased the ejection fraction associated with a significant decline in heart rate [149]. ... Also, ALS patients receiving a high dose (300 mg/day) of rectal melatonin over the course, over two years, were found to have ...
Calcium-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(++)-ATPase) and sodium, potassium, magnesium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+, K+, Mg(++)- ... ATPase and Ca(++)-ATPase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ... ATPase activity most markedly, with a significant increase ... These data demonstrate that Triol alters the activity of certain membrane-bound enzymes, particularly Na+, K+, Mg(++)- ... Compared with all concentrations tested 40 microM Triol increased Ca(++)- ...
It is found on the surface of vascular adventitial cells and accessory vascular cells (1). CD39L1 is a Ca2+- and Mg2+-dependent ... Zimmermann, H. et al. 2000 Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Ecto-ATPases and Related Ectonucleotidases:18. ... Ecto-ATPase 2; Ecto-ATPase; Ecto-ATPDase 2; ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2; ENTPD2; NTPD2; NTPDase 2; NTPDase ... 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.. *6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after ...
CPF (30 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to rats beforehand (24 h) whereas CPO (15 mg/kg) was added into the perfusate ... Regarding the genotoxic parameters, when rats are treated either with CPE-E or CPF-M, liver DNA, chromosomal aberration (CA), ... ATP-ase), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione reduced (GSH) in serum showed a significant decline in ... The attenuating effect of 150 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the oral administration of 7.88 and 202.07 mg/kg/day for ...
Secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1) Ca(2)+ pumps, not SERCAs, regulate complex [Ca(2+)](i) signals in human spermatozoa. ... Stockwin LH; Han B; Yu SX; Hollingshead MG; ElSohly MA; Gul W; Slade D; Galal AM; Newton DL; Bumke MA. Int J Cancer; 2009 Sep; ... 8. Paradoxical effects of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activator gingerol on NG115-401L neuronal cells: ... Doan NT; Paulsen ES; Sehgal P; Møller JV; Nissen P; Denmeade SR; Isaacs JT; Dionne CA; Christensen SB. Steroids; 2015 May; 97 ...
25 mg/kg/day, p.o), ferulic acid (10 mg/kg/day, p.o) and standard drug Pregabalin (30 mg/kg/day i.p). One group received the ... and membrane-bound ATPases activities were also studied. Neuropathic pain induced rats showed a significant alteration in ... combination of antioxidants, i.e.,α-lipoic acid (12mg/kg, p.o) and ferulic acid (05 mg/kg/day, p.o) respectively, for two weeks ... Diabetic neuropathy in rats was induced by administering a freshly prepared single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p). ...
Provides 216 mg catechins, 90 mg EGCG, 45 mg caffeine. Non-medicinal Ingredients:. Hypromellose, magnesium stearate, rice flour ... Available at: Accessed May 21, 2015.. 8 Yanagida A, Shoji A, Shibusawa Y, et al. Analytical separation of tea ... and maintaining calcium-ATPase activity. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;51(1):45-54. ... Green tea leaf extract (12.5:1) / (Camellia sinensis) 360 mg (4500 mg crude). Standardized to 60% catechins, 25% EGCG ( ...
Calbiochem Sulfhydryl alkylating reagent that inhibits H+-ATPase and suppresses the short circuit current (IC₅₀ = 22 µM) in ... Also a potent inhibitor of both Mg2+ and Ca2+/Mg2+-stimulated DNA fragmentation in rat liver nuclei. Stimulates arachidonic ... Life Science Research > Inhibitors and Biochemicals > Small Molecules & Inhibitors > ATPase/GTPase Inhibitors > ATPase ... Also a potent inhibitor of both Mg2+ and Ca2+/Mg2+-stimulated DNA fragmentation in rat liver nuclei.. ...
More than 0.25 mg/ml in random fresh urine is considered increased glucosuria and can be due to elevated plasma glucose or ... In normal individuals, glucosuria can be up to 0.25 mg/ml. ... Bingham C, Ellard S, Nicholls AJ, Pennock CA, Allen J, James AJ ... renal glucose absorption impairment, or both.[1][2] Physiologic glucosuria is a condition where individuals consume an ... These transporters bind to Na before they bind to glucose; the electrochemical sodium gradient generated by the Na/K-ATPase is ...
A multi-laboratory benchmark study of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using Ca and Mg binding to EDTA. ... An intrinsically disordered motif regulates the interaction between the p47 adaptor and the p97 AAA+ ATPase. ... Zhao HGhirlando RAlfonso CArisaka FAttali IBain DLBakhtina MMBecker DFBedwell GJBekdemir ABesong TMBirck CBrautigam CA ... Juul-Madsen KTroldborg AWittenborn TRAxelsen MGZhao HKlausen LHLuecke SPaludan SRStengaard-Pedersen KDong MMøller HJThiel S ...
ATPase Inhibitory Protein UI - D000097795 MN - D12.776.575.140 MS - CA(2+) MG(2+)-ATPASE inhibitor found in membranes of ... F1-ATPase Epsilon Subunit BX - Inhibitor Factor 1, ATPase BX - Na-K ATPase Inhibitor MH - Avatar UI - D000095902 MN - L1.224. ... Fire ants are now found in many states from California to Florida. Fire ant bites typically cause a burning sensation, welts ... HN - 2024 (1978) BX - Epsilon Subunit, F1-ATPase BX - F(0)F(1)-Inhibitor Protein BX - ...
Ca2+-ATPase), sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+-ATPase) and calcium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+-Mg ... Benzo(a)pyrene exposure caused the significant decrease in the ATPase activity in the hippocampus and caused Ca2+ overload in ... 0.02 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg B(a)P-exposed group). Rats were treated with B(a)P by the intragastric administration from ... which were mediated by the decreased ATPase activity and elevated Ca2+ concentration. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2 ...
These data show a strong positive correlation between low Mg content and decreased longevity, and between high Ca and Mg ... surface membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase on the mechanism were investigated and shown not to be involved. Therefore, it is concluded that ... 16 mg vs 43 +/- 14 mg; and cumulatively, 344 +/- 27 mg vs 178 +/- 20 mg, CO2 group vs controls [p , 0.01]). As a consequence of ... mg vs 34 +/- 15 mg; and cumulatively, 317 +/- 25 mg vs 159 +/- 20 mg, CO2 group vs controls, respectively [p , 0.01]). There ...
The inhibition was dose related, starting at about 0.6 mg/ml and completely inhibited binding at 10 mg/ml. ... Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A. Arentz S, et al. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Dec 18;14:511. doi: 10.1186/1472- ... Effects of stinging nettle root extracts and their steroidal components on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the benign prostatic ... 2017 Apr;6(2):167-175. doi: 10.21037/tau.2017.04.04. Transl Androl Urol. 2017. PMID: 28540223 Free PMC article. Review. ...
... to further investigate the role of ER Ca2+ and the part played by (Ca2+ + Mg 2+) ATPases (SERCAs) in the activation of SOCs. ... to further investigate the role of ER Ca2+ and the part played by (Ca2+ + Mg 2+) ATPases (SERCAs) in the activation of SOCs. ... When extra-cellular Ca2+ was added to cells depleted of their ER Ca2+ by a brief pre-treatment with 2,5-di-tert-butyl ... This increase in [Ca2+]er) was reduced in the presence of SERCA inhibitors (thapsigargin and BHQ); an ER Ca2+ chelator ( ...
Ca, Mg and K on the positive side of the component 1 axis, and proline, Na, Zn on the negative side of the component 1 axis. ... Organic acid complexation, heavy metal distribution and the effect of ATPase inhibition in hairy roots of hyperaccumulator ... Experiment 1: concentrations of Na, K and Ca in shoots The concentrations of K and Ca in the shoot of control plants were the ... Ca, Mg and S on the positive axis side, and increases in proline, citrate, malate, succinate and Na with increasing NaCl ...
Ca Cd, Ni, Pb and Hg) in different medici-nal plants often used in Indian Ayurvedic system. The samples were irradiated with ... mended daily dietary allowance of Ca for children is between 500 and 1000 mg, and 800 mg for adults. The ... human cells by the action of the Na+, K+-ATPase (so-. dium pump) and it is an activator of some enzymes; in ... adult is 20 mg/day and for a child is 10 mg/day. From ... analyzed varies from 1.58 mg/g in Karranj Beej to 15.1 mg/g in ...
MICs of tetracycline and chloramphenicol were 0.25 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L, respectively, but streptomycin (256 mg/L) and penicillin ... How SJ, Hobson D, Hart CA. Studies in vitro of the nature and synthesis of the cell wall of Chlamydia trachomatis. Curr ... The sctN gene encodes a type III secretion system ATPase, which is highly conserved among these bacteria (23). Sequence ... dilutions of antimicrobial agents from 1 mg/L down to 0.06 mg/L and doubling increases in concentration from 1 mg/L to 256 mg/L ...
... receptor activity and the presence of ryanodine receptors and calcium ATPase pumps. The observed calcium transient activity ... The plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) pumps, and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers extrude Ca2+ to the outside, whereas the endoplasmic ... diaminobenzidine (50 mg 3.3. -diaminobenzidine (Sigma-Aldrich) and 33 μl H2O2 per 100 ml TBS for 5-10 min). After rinsing for ... The turnover rate of the Na+/Ca2+ exchangers is considerable higher than that of the Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) pumps while the ...
0.05 mg ml−1 gentamycin and 0.05 mg ml−1 tetracycline and gently shaken at 18 °C until the day of the experiment. ... and continuously perfused with Ca2+-free ND96 solution (in mM: 96 NaCl, 2 KCl, 1.8 BaCl2, 1 MgCl2, 5 HEPES, pH 7.4) through an ... and mouse anti-Na+/K+-ATPase (05-369; EMD Merck Millipore) at 4 °C overnight. Dilutions of secondary antibody was prepared for ... In support of this notion, their activation is fine-tuned by Mg2+, which when bound to ATP renders it a very ineffective ...
Mg2+, and Ca2+. The anion gap (AG) is the difference between the concentration of the major measured cation Na+ and the major ... As mentioned previously, H+ is secreted by the apical H+-ATPase and, to a lesser extent, by the apical K+/H+-ATPase. The K+/H+- ... H+/ATPase or H+ -K+/ATPase. The secretion of H+ in these segments is influenced by Na+ reabsorption in the adjacent principal ... H+-ATPase or K+/H+-ATPase, that can be acquired or congenital. This may lead to loss of function (ie, secretory defect) or a ...
In naïve hESCs, OCT4 is associated with both BRG1 and BRM, the two paralog ATPases of the BAF complex. Genome-wide location ... gRNAs targeting the ATPase domain of BRG1 were introduced into WT and two independent clones of BRM−/− naïve hESCs. The ... For primed hESCs, the colonies were collected by Collagenase IV (Gibco, 1 mg/ml) treatment and separated from feeder cells by ... primed hESC by nucleofection using the Amaxa P3 Primary Cell 4D-Nucleofector X Kit and 4D-Nucleofector device with program CA- ...
0.23 to 8.38 mg/kg/day), carbofuran (0.03 to 1.05 mg/kg/day), and methyl parathion (0.036 to 1.479 mg/kg/day), for four weeks ... 7-9. University of California, Davis CA. BIRDS 36 Colten, H. R.; Borsos, T. 1974. Biosynthesis of the second and fourth ... Significant decreases in Na+-K+ and mitochondrial (oligomycin sensitive) Mg2++ ATPase activities were noted in brain and liver ... Using the fluorescent antibody technique, significant suppression was noted with doses as low as 0.92 mg/kg DDT, 0.04 mg/kg ...
1.6 mg) iv 1 weekly with 25 mg/m2 paclitaxel up to six months br / Dosage even now escalatingHu14.l8-IL2 br / (EMD273063)Merck ... Igepal CA-630, and 1 mm sodium orthovanadate). The nuclear pellet was removed by centrifugation at 11,000 for 10 min at 4 C, ... AE syng7.5 mg/m2 iv (melanoma) br / 12.5 mg/m2 iv (neuroblastoma) br / 3 weekly for three cycles (3 weeks)L19-IL2 br / 2,4- ... VE650 g per injection in ILP with 10 mg/L limb quantity melphalan (up to at least one 1 mg well tolerated) br / 13 g/kg iv 1 ...
Effects in vitro of mercury on rat brain Mg (__)-ATPase. Arch Int Physiol Biochim 98:261_267; & Freitas AJ, Rocha JB, Wolosker ... Similar tests in the California juvenile justice system as well as other studies have found significant relations of trace ... Cherian MG. Effects of heavy metal cations and sulfhydyl reagents on striatal D2 dopamine receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 1985, 34 ... Communities with a higher percentage of children having blood lead over 10 mg/dL are significantly more likely to have higher ...
  • Apoaequorin was targeted to the cytosol, nucleus, and endoplasmic reticulum of HeLa cells in order to determine the effect of Ca(2+) release from the ER on protein degradation. (
  • Also inhibits sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (IC 50 = 5 - 50 μ M). (
  • One of the main physiological roles of SOCs is to maintain an adequate Ca 2+ concentration in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • The bacteria interfere with BiP-assisted folding of newly-made Na-K-ATPase subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum, accelerating their ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation and decreasing efficiency of the assembly of native enzyme. (
  • Calcium-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(++)-ATPase) and sodium, potassium, magnesium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+, K+, Mg(++)-ATPase) activities were significantly increased after 4 or 2 hours incubation with 20 microM Triol, respectively. (
  • Almost all enzymes involved in phosphorus reactions (eg, adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase]) require magnesium for activation. (
  • The activity of calcium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca 2+ -ATPase), sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na + -K + -ATPase) and calcium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase) in the hippocampus were detected by commercial kits. (
  • To test this hypothesis, endothelial monolayers were treated with 20 microM Triol and the activities of selected membrane enzymes were measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours. (
  • On the last day of the treatment, the animals´ brains were extracted to measure the levels of oxidative stress markers [H2O2, Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase, glutathione and lipid peroxidation (TBARS)], dopamine and 5-HIAA in the cortex, striatum and cerebellum/medulla oblongata by validated methods. (
  • Their brains were extracted to measure H2O2, Ca+2, Mg+2 ATPase, glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (Tbars) and Dopamine. (
  • The animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained and used to measure lipoperoxidation (TBARS), H2O2, Na+, K+ ATPase, glutathione (GSH), serotonin metabolite (5-HIAA) and dopamine. (
  • Biochemical parameters of blood glucose, nitric oxide, level of lipid peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and membrane-bound ATPases activities were also studied. (
  • 2. Intracellular Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase regulates calcium influx and acrosomal exocytosis in bull and ram spermatozoa. (
  • We provide evidence for the existence of intracellular calcium stores that respond to muscarinic activation of the cells, having sensitivity for ryanodine and thapsigargin possibly reflecting IP 3 receptor activity and the presence of ryanodine receptors and calcium ATPase pumps. (
  • Removal of calcium was dependent on plasma membrane calcium pump activity and Na + -Ca 2+ exchange [ 25 - 27 ]. (
  • 1-Mekail, A., Raof, A. Study the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca+2-Mg+2- ATPase in Neonatal and adult rats intoxicated with Diazinon,Carbaryl, And Lambdacyhalothrin. (
  • Eighty neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (untreated control group, vehicle group, 0.02 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg B(a)P-exposed group). (
  • Benzo(a)pyrene exposure caused the significant decrease in the ATPase activity in the hippocampus and caused Ca 2+ overload in the synaptic, besides, the ROS concentration increased significantly which may further induce neurobehavioral impairment of the neonatal rats. (
  • Our findings suggest that postnatal B(a)P exposure may cause the neurobehavioral impairments in the neonatal rats, which were mediated by the decreased ATPase activity and elevated Ca 2+ concentration. (
  • Hemoglobin degradation, lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of Na /K( )-ATPase in rat erythrocytes exposed to acrylonitrile. (
  • 2-Abdal TA et al.Effects of aloe vera extracted on liver and kidney function changes induced by hydrogen peroxide in rats.Int J Res Med Sci. (
  • Diabetic neuropathy in rats was induced by administering a freshly prepared single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p). (
  • After development of neuropathy the rats were treated with α-lipoic acid (25 mg/kg/day, p.o), ferulic acid (10 mg/kg/day, p.o) and standard drug Pregabalin (30 mg/kg/day i.p). (
  • However, release of Ca(2+) from the ER, initiated by the addition of inhibitors of the ER Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ATPase such as 2 microM thapsigargin or 1 microM ionomycin, initiated rapid loss of apoaequorin in the ER, but had no detectable effect on apoaequorin turnover in the cytosol nor the nucleus. (
  • Compared with all concentrations tested 40 microM Triol increased Ca(++)-ATPase activity most markedly, with a significant increase already after a 2-hour exposure. (
  • Sulfhydryl alkylating reagent that inhibits H + -ATPase and suppresses the short circuit current (IC₅₀ = 22 µM) in pancreatic duct cells. (
  • Normal plasma magnesium concentration is 1.7-2.1 mg/dL (0.7-0.9 mmol, or 1.4-1.8 mEq/L). (
  • Fura-2 pentakis(acetoxymethyl) (Fura-2/AM) probe and reactive oxygen species (ROS) reagent kit were used for measuring the concentration of Ca 2+ and ROS in the hippocampus synapse, respectively. (
  • It is clear, however, that the activation of SOCs is triggered by a decrease in the concentration of Ca 2+ in the ER. (
  • 4. Thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+)-ATPases account for Ca2+ uptake to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive and caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ stores in adrenal chromaffin cells. (
  • Transient increases in aequorin-generated luminescence induced by Ca 2+ addition were also imaged in single H4-IIE cells using a Photon Imaging Microscope. (
  • Transient receptor potential melastatin member 4 (TRPM4), a Ca 2+ -activated nonselective cation channel, has been found to mediate cell membrane depolarization in immune response, insulin secretion, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. (
  • An effect of around the Na-K-ATPase has been suggested in the past, in two studies with data demonstrating that broth culture filtrate from cytotoxin-producing strains of prospects to a decrease in K+-dependent Prasugrel Hydrochloride phosphatase activity (55, 58). (
  • Also a potent inhibitor of both Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -stimulated DNA fragmentation in rat liver nuclei. (
  • Paxilline is a potent blocker of high-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (BK Ca , K Ca 1.1) channels. (
  • We studied the spatial distribution, mobility, and trafficking of plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase-2 (PMCA2), a protein enriched in the hair cell apical membrane and essential for hair cell function. (
  • Plasticity in structure and assembly of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. (
  • 7. An inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-gated intracellular Ca(2+) store is involved in regulating sperm hyperactivated motility. (
  • Hypomagnesemia-serum levels of magnesium levels below the usual reference range of 1.5 to 2.5 mg/dL-can result from decreased intake, redistribution of magnesium from the extracellular to the intracellular space, or increased renal or gastrointestinal loss. (
  • One of the central pathophysiological mechanisms leading to axonal and cellular injury is intracellular Na + /Ca 2+ overload to which neurons and oligodendrocytes demonstrate a selective vulnerability [ 5 ]. (
  • 2000 Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Ecto-ATPases and Related Ectonucleotidases:18. (
  • Kumaran Ramamurthi received his Ph.D. in Molecular Biology from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he studied the secretion of bacterial virulence proteins. (
  • Stimulates arachidonic acid release through activation of PLA 2 in endothelial cells. (
  • Zyrianova T, Lopez B, Liao A, Gu C, Wong L, Ottolia M, Olcese R, Schwingshackl A. BK Channels Regulate LPS-induced CCL-2 Release from Human Pulmonary Endothelial Cells. . (
  • However, these studies did not directly measure Na-K-ATPase large quantity or activity, so the aim of the present study was to determine whether indeed targets the Na-K-ATPase in gastric epithelial cells. (
  • Reformulation of an extant ATPase active site to mimic ancestral GTPase activity reveals a nucleotide base requirement for function. (
  • Store-Operated Ca 2+ Channels (SOCs) are present in the plasma membrane of liver cells, all other "non-excitable" cells and many "excitable" animal cells. (
  • The Na-K-ATPase is an essential membrane transport enzyme expressed in the vast majority of animal cells. (
  • The results demonstrate that this attachment of to gastric cells impairs chaperone-assisted maturation of the Na-K-ATPase in the ER, leading to the defective assembly of /-heterodimers, accelerates ER-associated degradation of unassembled subunits, and decreases levels of mature Na-K-ATPase molecules in the plasma membrane. (
  • Thus, katanin levels are stringently controlled upon the species catalyze ATP-dependent microtubule severing in transition from meiosis to mitosis via two parallel proteo- vitro, and fidgetin causes microtubule disassembly when lytic degradation pathways, the CUL-3 and MBK-2 path- overexpressed in vivo [7 ]. (
  • CD39L1 is a Ca 2+ - and Mg 2+ -dependent enzyme that activates platelets by preferentially converting ATP to ADP (2). (
  • It is considered to be a therapeutic target for thromboregulation and the treatment of vascular inflammation (2, 4). (
  • Binds to the α -subunit of BK Ca (K i = 1.9 nM for block of currents in α -subunit-expressing oocytes) and enhances binding of charybdotoxin to BK Ca channels in vascular smooth muscle. (
  • Cln1 −/− mice received an oral dose (100 mg/kg/day) of CBD for six months and were evaluated for changes in pathological markers of disease and seizures. (
  • The hallmark of demyelinating disease is the formation of the sclerotic plaque, which represents the end of a pathological process involving inflammation, oligodendrocyte depletion, astrocytosis, and neuronal and axon degeneration [ 2 ]. (
  • One group received the combination of antioxidants, i.e.,α-lipoic acid (12mg/kg, p.o) and ferulic acid (05 mg/kg/day, p.o) respectively, for two weeks. (
  • Several studies have reported the preventive role of antioxidants in the progression of neuropathic pain [2]. (
  • 1,2,3,4 Antioxidants are required to help quench these toxins and reduce damage to surrounding environments. (
  • group 4, insulin + three doses of sildenafil every 24 hours (50 U kg-1 + 50 mg kg-1). (
  • Doses up to 240 mg daily have been administered. (
  • The aim of my project was to use aequorin, a Ca 2+ -sensitive photoprotein, specifically targeted to the ER (ERAEQ) to further investigate the role of ER Ca 2+ and the part played by (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ ) ATPases (SERCAs) in the activation of SOCs. (
  • A 2-dimensional ratchet model describes assembly initiation of a specialized bacterial cell surface. (
  • 20 mg, light yellow to yellow color, oval shaped, biconvex, delayed-release tablets imprinted "A6" with black ink on one side and plain on the other side. (
  • 20 min) was completely inhibited in the presence of 1 mM Ca(2+), and this effect was independent of the ER retention signal KDEL at the C-terminus. (
  • and 5 ) The degree of ER-refilling that occurs in the presence of the cytoplasmic Ca 2+ chelator DBB-AM, suggests that Ca 2+ entering the cell via SOCs passes into the ER by a more direct route through the subplasmalemmal space, rather than through the deeper cytoplasmic space. (
  • The Na-K-ATPase comprises a catalytic -subunit and a structural could represent a potential source of gastric injury. (
  • Na/Ca exchange in the atrium: Role in sinoatrial node pacemaking and excitation-contraction coupling. (
  • Direct evidence for the role of severing in microtubule elegans that identified two genes, MEI-1 and MEI-2 nucleation was uncovered in plants. (
  • In contrast with other ions, magnesium is treated differently in two major respects: (1) bone, the principal reservoir of magnesium, does not readily exchange magnesium with circulating magnesium in the extracellular fluid space and (2) only limited hormonal modulation of urinary magnesium excretion occurs. (