A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
The use of the GENETIC VARIATION of known functions or phenotypes to correlate the causal effects of those functions or phenotypes with a disease outcome.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Orosomucoid, also known as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, is an acute phase protein involved in the immune response, functioning as a pattern recognition receptor and having the ability to bind various ligands including drugs and hormones.
A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
'Infant, Premature, Diseases' refers to health conditions or abnormalities that specifically affect babies born before 37 weeks of gestation, often resulting from their immature organ systems and increased vulnerability due to preterm birth.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
Arthritis is a general term used to describe inflammation in the joints, often resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility, which can be caused by various conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or lupus.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss. (1/7727)

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry, concentrations of albumin and C-reactive protein and assessment of appetite, performance status and quality of life using EuroQol-EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Thirty-eight and 35 patients (median weight loss 18%) were randomized to megestrol acetate/placebo or megestrol acetate/ibuprofen, respectively, for 12 weeks. Forty-six (63%) of patients failed to complete the 12-week assessment. Of those evaluable at 12 weeks, there was a decrease in weight (median 2.8 kg) in the megestrol acetate/placebo group compared with an increase (median 2.3 kg) in the megestrol acetate/ibuprofen group (P<0.001). There was also an improvement in the EuroQol-EQ-5D quality of life scores of the latter group (P<0.05). The combination of megestrol acetate/ibuprofen appeared to reverse weight loss and appeared to improve quality of life in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Further trials of this novel regimen in weight-losing patients with hormone-insensitive cancers are warranted.  (+info)

Elevated levels of C-reactive protein at discharge in patients with unstable angina predict recurrent instability. (2/7727)

BACKGROUND: In a group of patients admitted for unstable angina, we investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels remain elevated at discharge and whether persistent elevation is associated with recurrence of instability. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured plasma levels of CRP, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, and Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody titers in 53 patients admitted to our coronary care unit for Braunwald class IIIB unstable angina. Blood samples were taken on admission, at discharge, and after 3 months. Patients were followed for 1 year. At discharge, CRP was elevated (>3 mg/L) in 49% of patients; of these, 42% had elevated levels on admission and at 3 months. Only 15% of patients with discharge levels of CRP <3 mg/L but 69% of those with elevated CRP (P<0.001) were readmitted because of recurrence of instability or new myocardial infarction. New phases of instability occurred in 13% of patients in the lower tertile of CRP (/=8.7 mg/L, P<0.001). The prognostic value of SAA was similar to that of CRP; that of fibrinogen was not significant. Chlamydia pneumoniae but not Helicobacter pylori antibody titers significantly correlated with CRP plasma levels. CONCLUSIONS: In unstable angina, CRP may remain elevated for at >/=3 months after the waning of symptoms and is associated with recurrent instability. Elevation of acute-phase reactants in unstable angina could represent a hallmark of subclinical persistent instability or of susceptibility to recurrent instability and, at least in some patients, could be related to chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  (+info)

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome without systemic inflammation in acutely ill patients admitted to hospital in a medical emergency. (3/7727)

Criteria of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are known to include patients without systemic inflammation. Our aim was to explore additional markers of inflammation that would distinguish SIRS patients with systemic inflammation from patients without inflammation. The study included 100 acutely ill patients with SIRS. Peripheral blood neutrophil and monocyte CD11b expression, serum interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein were determined, and severity of inflammation was evaluated by systemic inflammation composite score based on CD11b expression, C-reactive protein and cytokine levels. Levels of CD11b expression, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were higher in sepsis patients than in SIRS patients who met two criteria (SIRS2 group) or three criteria of SIRS (SIRS3 group). The systemic inflammation composite score of SIRS2 patients (median 1.5; range 0-8, n=56) was lower than that of SIRS3 patients (3.5; range 0-9, n=14, P=0.013) and that of sepsis patients (5.0; range 3-10, n=19, P<0.001). The systemic inflammation composite score was 0 in 13/94 patients. In 81 patients in whom systemic inflammation composite scores exceeded 1, interleukin-6 was increased in 64 (79.0%), C-reactive protein in 59 (72.8%) and CD11b in 50 (61.7%). None of these markers, when used alone, identified all patients but at least one marker was positive in each patient. Quantifying phagocyte CD11b expression and serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein concurrently provides a means to discriminate SIRS patients with systemic inflammation from patients without systemic inflammation.  (+info)

Socioeconomic status and determinants of hemostatic function in healthy women. (4/7727)

Hemostatic factors are reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) is 1 of the determinants of the hemostatic profile, but the factors underlying this association are not well known. Our aim was to examine determinants of the socioeconomic differences in hemostatic profile. Between 1991 and 1994, we studied 300 healthy women, aged 30 to 65 years, who were representative of women living in the greater Stockholm area. Fibrinogen, factor VII mass concentration (FVII:Ag), activated factor VII (FVIIa), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. Educational attainment was used as a measure of SES. Low educational level and an unfavorable hemostatic profile were both associated with older age, unhealthful life style, psychosocial stress, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension. Levels of hemostatic factors increased with lower educational attainment. Independently of age, the differences between the lowest (mandatory) and highest (college/university) education in FVII:Ag levels were 41 microg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 66 microg/L, P=0.001), 0.26 g/L (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.42 g/L, P=0.001) in fibrinogen levels, and 0.11 U/mL (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.12 U/mL, P=0.03) in levels of vWF. The corresponding differences in FVIIa and PAI-1 were not statistically significant. With further adjustment for menopausal status, family history of CHD, marital status, psychosocial stress, lifestyle patterns, biochemical factors, and hypertension, statistically significant differences between mandatory and college/university education were observed in FVII:Ag (difference=34 microg/L; 95% CI, 2 to 65 microg/L, P=0.05) but not in fibrinogen (difference=0.03 g/L; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.19 g/L, P=0.92) or in vWF (difference=0.06 U/mL; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.22 U/mL, P=0.45). An educational gradient was most consistent and statistically significant for FVII:Ag, fibrinogen, and vWF. Age, psychosocial stress, unhealthful life style, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension mediated the association of low educational level with elevated levels of fibrinogen and vWF. Psychosocial stress and unhealthful life style were the most important contributing factors. There was an independent association between education and FVII:Ag, which could not be explained by any of these factors.  (+info)

Randomized secondary prevention trial of azithromycin in patients with coronary artery disease and serological evidence for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: The Azithromycin in Coronary Artery Disease: Elimination of Myocardial Infection with Chlamydia (ACADEMIC) study. (5/7727)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory infection, is vasotropic, causes atherosclerosis in animal models, and has been found in human atheromas. Whether it plays a causal role in clinical coronary artery disease (CAD) and is amenable to antibiotic therapy is uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: CAD patients (n=302) who had a seropositive reaction to C pneumoniae (IgG titers >/=1:16) were randomized to receive placebo or azithromycin, 500 mg/d for 3 days, then 500 mg/wk for 3 months. Circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha), C pneumoniae antibody titers, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 and 6 months. Treatment groups were balanced, with age averaging 64 (SD=10) years; 89% of the patients were male. Azithromycin reduced a global rank sum score of the 4 inflammatory markers at 6 (but not 3) months (P=0. 011) as well as the mean global rank sum change score: 531 (SD=201) for active drug and 587 (SD=190) for placebo (P=0.027). Specifically, change-score ranks were significantly lower for CRP (P=0.011) and IL-6 (P=0.043). Antibody titers were unchanged, and number of clinical cardiovascular events at 6 months did not differ by therapy (9 for active drug, 7 for placebo). Azithromycin decreased infections requiring antibiotics (1 versus 12 at 3 months, P=0.002) but caused more mild, primarily gastrointestinal, adverse effects (36 versus 17, P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In CAD patients positive for C pneumoniae antibodies, global tests of 4 markers of inflammation improved at 6 months with azithromycin. However, unlike another smaller study, no differences in antibody titers and clinical events were observed. Longer-term and larger studies of antichlamydial therapy are indicated.  (+info)

Near-patient test for C-reactive protein in general practice: assessment of clinical, organizational, and economic outcomes. (6/7727)

BACKGROUND: The benefits of near-patient, point-of-care tests have not been fully examined. We have assessed the clinical, organizational, and economic outcomes of implementing a near-patient test for C-reactive protein (CRP) in general practice. METHODS: In a randomized crossover trial during intervention periods, general practitioners (GPs) were allowed to measure CRP within 3 min, using NycoCard(R) CRP. During control periods, they had to mail blood samples for CRP measurements to the hospital laboratory and received test results 24-48 h later. Twenty-nine general practice clinics participated (64 GPs), and 1853 patients were included in the study. Results were evaluated at both the level of participating GPs and the level of included patients. RESULTS: For participating GPs, the overall use of erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESRs) decreased by 8% (95% confidence interval, 1-14%) during intervention periods, and the number of blood samples mailed to the hospital laboratory decreased by 6% (1-10%). No reduction in the prescription of antibiotics was seen. The proportion of study patients having a follow-up telephone consultation was reduced from 63% to 53% (P = 0. 0001), and patients with CRP concentrations >50 mg/L had their antibiotic treatments started earlier when CRP was measured in general practices (P = 0.0161). CONCLUSION: The implementation of the near-patient CRP test was cost-effective mainly on the basis of a reduction in the use of services from the hospital laboratory by GPs. If the implementation is followed by education and clinical guidelines, opportunities exist for additional reduction in the use of ESR and for a more appropriate use of antibiotics.  (+info)

Cerebral vasculopathy in HIV infection revealed by transcranial Doppler: A pilot study. (7/7727)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is growing evidence for affection of cerebral vessels during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We prospectively evaluated cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CRC) in HIV-seropositive patients by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) after systemic administration of acetazolamide. We hypothesized that a disturbed vasoreactivity would reflect the cerebral arteries' involvement in HIV infection. METHODS: We assessed the mean blood flow velocity (BFV) of the middle cerebral artery and its increase after intravenous administration of 1 g acetazolamide (CRC) in 31 HIV-infected individuals without symptoms of cerebrovascular disease (mean+/-SD age, 39+/-11 years). Stenotic or occlusive lesions of the large brain-supplying arteries were excluded by color-coded duplex and transcranial imaging. BFV and CRC were also measured in an age-matched group of 10 healthy control subjects. Patients were classified according to clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiological parameters. We also performed cerebral MRI (n=25) and rheumatological blood tests (n=26). RESULTS: Baseline BFV and CRC both were significantly reduced in HIV-infected patients as compared with control subjects (P<0.05, Student's t test). These findings did not correlate with duration of seropositivity, helper cell count, or other clinical, rheumatological, and neuroradiological findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis of a cerebral vasculopathy etiologically associated with HIV infection.  (+info)

Leptin elimination in hyperleptinaemic peritoneal dialysis patients. (8/7727)

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma concentrations of leptin, a hormone thought to regulate body composition by influencing food intake/metabolic rate, are prevalent in renal failure patients. The mechanism for these increases is not known, but evidence suggests that simple accumulation due to decreased elimination is insufficient explanation. METHODS: We studied the incidence of hyperleptinaemia in 28 end-stage renal disease patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), compared with body-mass-index-and sex-matched controls. Results were separated by gender because women have higher leptin concentrations than men. Excretion of leptin and other substances in dialysis fluid was also studied. RESULTS: Hyperleptinaemia was prevalent in women CAPD subjects, but not in men. Plasma leptin concentrations correlated strongly with the daily excretion of leptin in dialysis fluid. Clearance of leptin in dialysis fluid was greater in men than women CAPD subjects. Single regression analysis found that fasting insulin, glucose content of dialysis fluid, plasma albumin, C-reactive protein, erythropoietin dose, urinary creatinine clearance and plasma beta2-microglobulin were not determinants of plasma leptin concentrations. Stepwise forward multiple regression, examining the dependence of plasma leptin on body mass index, renal creatinine clearance, plasma albumin, daily dialysis fluid glucose load, daily leptin in dialysis fluid, erythropoietin dose and plasma C-reactive protein found only erythropoietin dose as a consistent negative predictor of plasma leptin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that hyperleptinaemia of CAPD was due to predisposing loss of renal elimination capacity combined with increased production due to obesity (more prevalent in women subjects of this study) and potentially female gender.  (+info)

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is named after its ability to bind to the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcus, a type of bacteria. CRP levels can be measured with a simple blood test and are often used as a marker of inflammation or infection. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a variety of conditions, including infections, tissue damage, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP is not specific to any particular condition, so additional tests are usually needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

Blood sedimentation, also known as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), is a medical test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle at the bottom of a tube of unclotted blood over a specific period of time. The test is used to detect and monitor inflammation in the body.

During an acute inflammatory response, certain proteins in the blood, such as fibrinogen, increase in concentration. These proteins cause red blood cells to stick together and form rouleaux (stacks of disc-shaped cells). As a result, the red blood cells settle more quickly, leading to a higher ESR.

The ESR test is a non-specific test, meaning that it does not identify the specific cause of inflammation. However, it can be used as an indicator of underlying conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The test is also used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions.

The ESR test is usually performed by drawing a sample of blood into a special tube and allowing it to sit undisturbed for one hour. The distance that the red blood cells have settled is then measured and recorded as the ESR. Normal values for ESR vary depending on age and gender, with higher values indicating greater inflammation.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by persistent inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and subsequent damage to the articular cartilage and bone. The immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, specifically targeting the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule. This results in swelling, pain, warmth, and stiffness in affected joints, often most severely in the hands and feet.

RA can also have extra-articular manifestations, affecting other organs such as the lungs, heart, skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The exact cause of RA remains unknown, but it is believed to involve a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing rheumatoid arthritis to prevent joint damage, disability, and systemic complications.

The acute-phase reaction is a complex series of physiological responses that occur in response to tissue injury, infection, or stress. It is characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from activated immune cells, including macrophages and neutrophils.

These cytokines trigger a range of systemic effects, including fever, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, decreased appetite, and changes in white blood cell count. They also stimulate the production of acute-phase proteins (APPs) by the liver, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A.

The acute-phase reaction is an important part of the body's immune response to injury or infection, helping to promote healing and fight off pathogens. However, excessive or prolonged activation of the acute-phase reaction can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Serum Amyloid A (SAA) protein is an acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, although it can also be produced by other cells in response to inflammation. It is a member of the apolipoprotein family and is found in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in the blood. SAA protein levels increase rapidly during the acute phase response to infection, trauma, or tissue damage, making it a useful biomarker for inflammation.

In addition to its role as an acute phase protein, SAA has been implicated in several disease processes, including atherosclerosis and amyloidosis. In amyloidosis, SAA can form insoluble fibrils that deposit in various tissues, leading to organ dysfunction. There are four subtypes of SAA in humans (SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4), with SAA1 and SAA2 being the most responsive to inflammatory stimuli.

Miliary tuberculosis is a disseminated form of tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The term "miliary" refers to the tiny millet-like size (2-5 microns in diameter) of the TB foci observed in the lungs or other organs during autopsy or on imaging studies. In military tuberculosis, these small granules are widespread throughout the body, affecting multiple organs such as the lungs, liver, spleen, bones, and brain. It can occur in people with weakened immune systems, including those with HIV/AIDS, or in individuals who have recently been infected with TB bacteria. Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, and cough. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent severe complications and improve outcomes.

Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine, although other joints can also be involved. It causes swelling in the spinal joints (vertebrae) that can lead to stiffness and pain. Over time, some of these joints may grow together, causing new bone formation and resulting in a rigid spine. This fusion of the spine is called ankylosis.

The condition typically begins in the sacroiliac joints, where the spine connects to the pelvis. From there, it can spread up the spine and potentially involve other areas of the body such as the eyes, heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal system.

Ankylosing spondylitis has a strong genetic link, with most people carrying the HLA-B27 gene. However, not everyone with this gene will develop the condition. It primarily affects males more often than females and tends to start in early adulthood.

Treatment usually involves a combination of medication, physical therapy, and exercise to help manage pain, maintain mobility, and prevent deformity. In severe cases, surgery may be considered.

Antirheumatic agents are a class of drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory types of arthritis, and related conditions. These medications work by reducing inflammation in the body, relieving symptoms such as pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints. They can also help slow down or prevent joint damage and disability caused by the disease.

There are several types of antirheumatic agents, including:

1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These medications, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, reduce inflammation and relieve pain. They are often used to treat mild to moderate symptoms of arthritis.
2. Corticosteroids: These powerful anti-inflammatory drugs, such as prednisone and cortisone, can quickly reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. They are usually used for short-term relief of severe symptoms or in combination with other antirheumatic agents.
3. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): These medications, such as methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine, work by slowing down the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and preventing joint damage. They can take several weeks or months to become fully effective.
4. Biologic response modifiers (biologics): These are a newer class of DMARDs that target specific molecules involved in the immune response. They include drugs such as adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab. Biologics are usually used in combination with other antirheumatic agents for patients who have not responded to traditional DMARD therapy.
5. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors: These medications, such as tofacitinib and baricitinib, work by blocking the action of enzymes called JAKs that are involved in the immune response. They are used to treat moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis and can be used in combination with other antirheumatic agents.

It is important to note that antirheumatic agents can have significant side effects and should only be prescribed by a healthcare provider who is experienced in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Regular monitoring and follow-up are essential to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Nephelometry and turbidimetry are methods used in clinical laboratories to measure the amount of particles, such as proteins or cells, present in a liquid sample. The main difference between these two techniques lies in how they detect and quantify the particles.

1. Nephelometry: This is a laboratory method that measures the amount of light scattered by suspended particles in a liquid medium at a 90-degree angle to the path of the incident light. When light passes through a sample containing particles, some of the light is absorbed, while some is scattered in various directions. In nephelometry, a light beam is shone into the sample, and a detector measures the intensity of the scattered light at a right angle to the light source. The more particles present in the sample, the higher the intensity of scattered light, which correlates with the concentration of particles in the sample. Nephelometry is often used to measure the levels of immunoglobulins, complement components, and other proteins in serum or plasma.

2. Turbidimetry: This is another laboratory method that measures the amount of light blocked or absorbed by suspended particles in a liquid medium. In turbidimetry, a light beam is shone through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted light is measured. The more particles present in the sample, the more light is absorbed or scattered, resulting in lower transmitted light intensity. Turbidimetric measurements are typically reported as percent transmittance, which is the ratio of the intensity of transmitted light to that of the incident light expressed as a percentage. Turbidimetry can be used to measure various substances, such as proteins, cells, and crystals, in body fluids like urine, serum, or plasma.

In summary, nephelometry measures the amount of scattered light at a 90-degree angle, while turbidimetry quantifies the reduction in transmitted light intensity due to particle presence. Both methods are useful for determining the concentration of particles in liquid samples and are commonly used in clinical laboratories for diagnostic purposes.

Gold sodium thiomalate is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) that contains gold, which can help reduce pain, swelling, and stiffness in joints caused by rheumatoid arthritis. It works by possibly inhibiting certain enzymes involved in inflammation and modulating the immune system's response to reduce tissue damage.

This medication is given as an intramuscular injection and requires medical supervision due to its potential side effects, including kidney and liver problems, skin rashes, mouth sores, and changes in blood cell counts. Regular monitoring of blood and urine tests is necessary during treatment with gold sodium thiomalate.

It's important to note that the use of this medication has declined over time due to the availability of newer and more effective treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, as well as its potential side effects.

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare, systemic necrotizing vasculitis that affects medium-sized and small muscular arteries. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the walls of the arteries, leading to the formation of microaneurysms (small bulges in the artery wall) and subsequent narrowing or complete occlusion of the affected vessels. This can result in tissue ischemia (reduced blood flow) and infarction (tissue death), causing a wide range of clinical manifestations that vary depending on the organs involved.

The exact cause of PAN remains unclear, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response triggered by various factors such as infections or exposure to certain drugs. The diagnosis of PAN typically requires a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies, often supported by histopathological examination of affected tissues. Treatment usually involves the use of immunosuppressive medications to control inflammation and prevent further damage to the arteries and organs.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis is not a medical definition itself, but rather a statistical epidemiological approach used to estimate the causal effect of an exposure or risk factor on an outcome, typically a disease. It's based on Mendel's laws of inheritance and instrumental variable analysis.

In MR analysis, genetic variants (usually single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) are employed as instrumental variables to estimate the causal effect of an exposure. The basic assumption is that these genetic variants are associated with the exposure but not confounded by other factors, and they do not have a direct effect on the outcome except through the exposure.

The MR analysis aims to minimize or eliminate bias due to reverse causation and unmeasured confounding, which often affect traditional observational epidemiological studies. However, it's essential to ensure that the genetic variants used as instrumental variables meet specific criteria (relevance, independence, and exclusion restriction) for valid MR analysis.

In summary, Mendelian randomization analysis is a statistical method in medical research that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to estimate causal relationships between modifiable risk factors and health outcomes while minimizing confounding bias.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an autoantibody, specifically an immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody, that can be detected in the blood serum of some people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), other inflammatory conditions, and infectious diseases. RF targets the Fc portion of IgG, leading to immune complex formation and subsequent inflammation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of RA. However, not all patients with RA test positive for RF, and its presence does not necessarily confirm a diagnosis of RA. Other conditions can also lead to elevated RF levels, such as infections, liver diseases, and certain malignancies. Therefore, the interpretation of RF results should be considered alongside other clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

Orosomucoid, also known as α-1-acid glycoprotein or AAG, is a protein found in human plasma. It's a member of the acute phase proteins, which are produced in higher amounts during inflammation and infection. Orosomucoid has a molecular weight of approximately 41-43 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain with five N-linked glycosylation sites. It plays a role in protecting tissues from various harmful substances, such as proteases and oxidants, by binding to them and preventing their interaction with cells. Additionally, orosomucoid has been studied as a potential biomarker for several diseases due to its altered levels during inflammation and cancer.

Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) is a geriatric rheumatic disease characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, particularly affecting the neck, shoulders, hips, and thighs. It is often accompanied by symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, and low-grade fever. The onset of PMR can be sudden or gradual, and it tends to affect individuals over 50 years of age, more commonly women than men.

The exact cause of Polymyalgia Rheumatica remains unknown; however, it is believed to involve an autoimmune response leading to inflammation in the affected areas. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (such as elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein), and sometimes imaging studies. Treatment usually includes corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, along with monitoring for potential side effects from long-term steroid use. In many cases, PMR can be successfully managed with appropriate treatment, allowing individuals to return to their normal activities.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Psoriatic arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs in some people with psoriasis, a skin condition characterized by scaly, red, and itchy patches. The Arthritis Foundation defines psoriatic arthritis as "a chronic disease characterized by swelling, pain, and stiffness in and around the joints. It usually affects the fingers and toes but can also affect the lower back, knees, ankles, and spine."

Psoriatic arthritis can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Joint pain, swelling, and stiffness
* Swollen fingers or toes (dactylitis)
* Tenderness, pain, and swelling where tendons and ligaments attach to bones (enthesitis)
* Changes in nail growth, such as pitting, ridging, or separation from the nail bed
* Fatigue and weakness
* Reduced range of motion and mobility

The exact cause of psoriatic arthritis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and physical therapy to manage symptoms and prevent joint damage.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Complement C4 is a protein that plays a crucial role in the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to clear pathogens and damaged cells from the body. Complement C4 is involved in the early stages of the complement activation cascade, where it helps to identify and tag foreign or abnormal cells for destruction by other components of the immune system.

Specifically, Complement C4 can be cleaved into two smaller proteins, C4a and C4b, during the complement activation process. C4b then binds to the surface of the target cell and helps to initiate the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which creates a pore in the cell membrane and leads to lysis or destruction of the target cell.

Deficiencies or mutations in the Complement C4 gene can lead to various immune disorders, including certain forms of autoimmune diseases and susceptibility to certain infections.

Viral meningitis is a form of meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by viral infections, such as enteroviruses, herpesviruses, and HIV. The infection enters the body through the respiratory system or the gastrointestinal tract and then spreads to the central nervous system.

Symptoms of viral meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, photophobia (intolerance to light), and altered mental status. In some cases, patients may also experience vomiting, seizures, or skin rash. However, viral meningitis is generally less severe than bacterial meningitis and has a lower mortality rate.

Most cases of viral meningitis resolve on their own within 7-10 days, and treatment typically involves supportive care such as hydration, pain relief, and fever reduction. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, so they are not used to treat viral meningitis. In some cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed for certain types of viral meningitis, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis.

Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. There is also a vaccine available to protect against enterovirus D68, which can cause viral meningitis in some cases.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Synovitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane, which is the soft tissue that lines the inner surface of joint capsules and tendon sheaths. The synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and allows for smooth movement.

Inflammation of the synovial membrane can cause it to thicken, redden, and become painful and swollen. This can lead to stiffness, limited mobility, and discomfort in the affected joint or tendon sheath. Synovitis may occur as a result of injury, overuse, infection, or autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

If left untreated, synovitis can cause irreversible damage to the joint and surrounding tissues, including cartilage loss and bone erosion. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to reduce inflammation and manage pain.

Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. Specifically, it helps to lower elevated levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are bone cells that break down bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream. Calcitonin also promotes the uptake of calcium in the bones and increases the excretion of calcium in the urine.

Calcitonin is typically released in response to high levels of calcium in the blood, and its effects help to bring calcium levels back into balance. In addition to its role in calcium regulation, calcitonin may also have other functions in the body, such as modulating immune function and reducing inflammation.

Clinically, synthetic forms of calcitonin are sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions related to abnormal calcium levels, such as hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) or osteoporosis. Calcitonin can be administered as an injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet, depending on the specific formulation and intended use.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Latex fixation tests are diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of certain antigens or antibodies in a patient's sample, such as blood or serum. These tests use latex particles that are coated with specific antigens or antibodies that can bind to complementary antigens or antibodies present in the sample. When the sample is added to the latex reagent, if the specific antigen or antibody is present, they will bind to the latex particles, forming an agglutination reaction that can be seen as a visible clumping or agglutination of the latex particles.

Latex fixation tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and genetic disorders. For example, a latex fixation test may be used to detect the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in a patient's sputum sample or to identify the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) antibodies in a patient's blood sample. These tests are known for their simplicity, speed, and sensitivity, making them a valuable tool in clinical laboratories.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

A "premature infant" is a newborn delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. They are at greater risk for various health complications and medical conditions compared to full-term infants, due to their immature organ systems and lower birth weight. Some common diseases and health issues that premature infants may face include:

1. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS): A lung disorder caused by the lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the lungs inflated. Premature infants, especially those born before 34 weeks, are at higher risk for RDS.
2. Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain's ventricles, which can lead to developmental delays or neurological issues. The risk of IVH is inversely proportional to gestational age, meaning that the earlier the infant is born, the higher the risk.
3. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC): A gastrointestinal disease where the intestinal tissue becomes inflamed and can die. Premature infants are at greater risk for NEC due to their immature digestive systems.
4. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, a waste product from broken-down red blood cells. Premature infants may have higher rates of jaundice due to their liver's immaturity.
5. Infections: Premature infants are more susceptible to infections because of their underdeveloped immune systems. Common sources of infection include the mother's genital tract, bloodstream, or hospital environment.
6. Anemia: A condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or insufficient hemoglobin. Premature infants may develop anemia due to frequent blood sampling, rapid growth, or inadequate erythropoietin production.
7. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP): An eye disorder affecting premature infants, where abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the retina. Severe ROP can lead to vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly.
8. Developmental Delays: Premature infants are at risk for developmental delays due to their immature nervous systems and environmental factors such as sensory deprivation or separation from parents.
9. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA): A congenital heart defect where the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects two major arteries in the fetal heart, fails to close after birth. Premature infants are at higher risk for PDA due to their immature cardiovascular systems.
10. Hypothermia: Premature infants have difficulty maintaining body temperature and are at risk for hypothermia, which can lead to increased metabolic demands, poor feeding, and infection.

Synovial fluid is a viscous, clear, and straw-colored fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the inner surface of the capsule surrounding these structures.

The primary function of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between articulating surfaces, providing lubrication for smooth and painless movement. It also acts as a shock absorber, protecting the joints from external forces during physical activities. Synovial fluid contains nutrients that nourish the articular cartilage, hyaluronic acid, which provides its viscoelastic properties, and lubricin, a protein responsible for boundary lubrication.

Abnormalities in synovial fluid composition or volume can indicate joint-related disorders, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infection, or trauma. Analysis of synovial fluid is often used diagnostically to determine the underlying cause of joint pain, inflammation, or dysfunction.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a group of plasma proteins whose concentrations change in response to various inflammatory conditions, such as infection, trauma, or tissue damage. They play crucial roles in the body's defense mechanisms and help mediate the innate immune response during the acute phase of an injury or illness.

There are several types of APPs, including:

1. C-reactive protein (CRP): Produced by the liver, CRP is one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation and increases rapidly in response to various stimuli, such as bacterial infections or tissue damage.
2. Serum amyloid A (SAA): Another liver-derived protein, SAA is involved in lipid metabolism and immune regulation. Its concentration rises quickly during the acute phase of inflammation.
3. Fibrinogen: A coagulation factor produced by the liver, fibrinogen plays a vital role in blood clotting and wound healing. Its levels increase during inflammation.
4. Haptoglobin: This protein binds free hemoglobin released from red blood cells, preventing oxidative damage to tissues. Its concentration rises during the acute phase of inflammation.
5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT): A protease inhibitor produced by the liver, AAT helps regulate the activity of enzymes involved in tissue breakdown and repair. Its levels increase during inflammation to protect tissues from excessive proteolysis.
6. Ceruloplasmin: This copper-containing protein is involved in iron metabolism and antioxidant defense. Its concentration rises during the acute phase of inflammation.
7. Ferritin: A protein responsible for storing iron, ferritin levels increase during inflammation as part of the body's response to infection or tissue damage.

These proteins have diagnostic and prognostic value in various clinical settings, such as monitoring disease activity, assessing treatment responses, and predicting outcomes in patients with infectious, autoimmune, or inflammatory conditions.

Arthritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in one or more joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, and lupus, among others.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by wear and tear on the joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joint lining, causing inflammation and damage.

Arthritis can affect people of all ages, including children, although it is more common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis may include medications to manage pain and reduce inflammation, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of protein that plays a crucial role in communication between cells, especially in the immune system. It is produced by various cells including T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation.

IL-6 has diverse effects on different cell types. In the immune system, it stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies. It also promotes the activation and survival of T-cells. Moreover, IL-6 plays a role in fever induction by acting on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature during an immune response.

In addition to its functions in the immune system, IL-6 has been implicated in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), bone metabolism, and neural development. However, abnormal levels of IL-6 have also been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Unstable angina is a term used in cardiology to describe chest pain or discomfort that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly, often at rest or with minimal physical exertion. It is caused by an insufficient supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle due to reduced blood flow, typically as a result of partial or complete blockage of the coronary arteries.

Unlike stable angina, which tends to occur predictably during physical activity and can be relieved with rest or nitroglycerin, unstable angina is more severe, unpredictable, and may not respond to traditional treatments. It is considered a medical emergency because it can be a sign of an impending heart attack or other serious cardiac event.

Unstable angina is often treated in the hospital with medications such as nitroglycerin, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and antiplatelet agents to improve blood flow to the heart and prevent further complications. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected areas of the heart.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

A "false positive reaction" in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the presence of a specific condition or disease in an individual who does not actually have it. This occurs when the test results give a positive outcome, while the true health status of the person is negative or free from the condition being tested for.

False positive reactions can be caused by various factors including:

1. Presence of unrelated substances that interfere with the test result (e.g., cross-reactivity between similar molecules).
2. Low specificity of the test, which means it may detect other conditions or irrelevant factors as positive.
3. Contamination during sample collection, storage, or analysis.
4. Human errors in performing or interpreting the test results.

False positive reactions can have significant consequences, such as unnecessary treatments, anxiety, and increased healthcare costs. Therefore, it is essential to confirm any positive test result with additional tests or clinical evaluations before making a definitive diagnosis.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Inflammation mediators are substances that are released by the body in response to injury or infection, which contribute to the inflammatory response. These mediators include various chemical factors such as cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamine, among others. They play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory process by attracting immune cells to the site of injury or infection, increasing blood flow to the area, and promoting the repair and healing of damaged tissues. However, an overactive or chronic inflammatory response can also contribute to the development of various diseases and conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Troponin T is a subunit of the troponin complex, which is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. In particular, Troponin T is responsible for binding the troponin complex to tropomyosin, another protein that helps regulate muscle contraction.

In the context of medical diagnostics, Troponin T is often measured as a biomarker for heart damage. When heart muscle cells are damaged or die, such as in a myocardial infarction (heart attack), troponin T is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the levels of Troponin T in the blood can help diagnose and assess the severity of heart damage.

It's important to note that Troponin T is specific to cardiac muscle cells, which makes it a more reliable biomarker for heart damage than other markers that may also be found in skeletal muscle cells. However, it's worth noting that Troponin T levels can also be elevated in conditions other than heart attacks, such as heart failure, myocarditis, and pulmonary embolism, so clinical context is important when interpreting test results.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: C-reactive protein Inflammation, Heart Disease and Stroke: The Role of C-Reactive Protein (American ... CAA39671". NCBI Entrez Protein. "Human C-reactive protein complexed with phosphocholine". Protein Data Bank in Europe. Enocsson ... C-reactive protein C-reactive protein GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132693 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ... May 2012). "Comparison of C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in patients on hemodialysis" (PDF ...
... causing oxidized protein levels to increase. This led researchers to conclude that oxidation of cellular proteins is ... stress Oxygen toxicity Pro-oxidant Reactive nitrogen species Reactive sulfur species Reactive carbonyl species Reactive oxygen ... The sulfur contained in these enzymes acts as the reactive center, carrying reactive electrons from the peroxide to the ... In chemistry and biology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive chemicals formed from diatomic oxygen (O2), water, ...
... s may be incorporated into proteins and peptides in vivo or in vitro. Photo-reactive amino acid ... They are then ultraviolet light (UV)-activated to covalently crosslink proteins within protein-protein interaction domains in ... Photo-reactive amino acid analogs are artificial analogs of natural amino acids that can be used for crosslinking of protein ... Naturally interacting proteins within the cell can be instantly trapped by photoactivation of the diazirine-containing proteins ...
"DyLight Reactive Dyes". Pierce Protein Research Products. 2008. Retrieved 2013-10-17. "DyLight Reactive Dyes". Pierce Protein ... DyLight Fluors are commercially available as reactive succinimidyl-esters for labeling proteins through lysine residues, and as ... "Fisher Biosciences Collaborates with Dyomics to Add Fluorescent Reagents for Protein Research". Press release. BNET. 2006-01-09 ... Pierce Protein Research Products. 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2013-10-17. " ...
"C-reactive protein". GPnotebook. 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease Archived 2008-12-20 ... Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation. Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in ... Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper. Note: ... Electrolytes and metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included. Cardiology diagnostic tests and ...
In the blood sample, clinicians will look at full blood count, C reactive protein, and blood culture. C-reactive protein levels ... Black S, Kushner I, Samols D (November 2004). "C-reactive Protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (47): 48487-48490 ...
... elevated C-reactive protein; failure to sterilize the CSF before immune recovery. IRIS may be the cause of paradoxically worse ... protein, glucose) increase. CSF culture is typically sterile, and there is no increase in CSF cryptococcal antigen titer. The ...
Drahl, C.; Cravatt, B. F.; Sorensen, E. J. (2005). "Protein-reactive natural products". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44 (36): ... There, the cargo will be released when the Ran-GTP protein is hydrolyzed by a cytoplasmic Ran-GTPase enzyme to form Ran-GDP. ... These molecules include regulatory proteins such as Rev, MAPK/MEK1, c-Abl, Cyclin B1, MDM2/p53, IkB, MPF, and PKA. The most ... The acyl groups are loaded onto the acyl carrier protein (ACP) with the help of the acyltransferase (AT) domain. Each module ...
... such as a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein test (CRP) measuring CRP, a protein in found in blood that indicates inflammation ... "C-reactive protein test". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2019-01-18. Ridker PM, Everett BM, Thuren T, MacFadyen JG, Chang WH, ...
Cryptotope Epitope binning Mimotope Odotope Polyclonal B cell response Protein tag TimeSTAMP protein labelling Mahmoudi Gomari ... Epitopes are sometimes cross-reactive. This property is exploited by the immune system in regulation by anti-idiotypic ... The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories, conformational epitopes and linear epitopes, based on their ... Although epitopes are usually non-self proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized (as in the case of ...
... triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production disrupts protein folding and induces the unfolded protein ...
C-reactive protein will be elevated. Liver function tests may show evidence of hepatic inflammation and low serum albumin ... Urinalysis may show white blood cells and protein in the urine (pyuria and proteinuria) without evidence of bacterial growth. ...
... protein kinase C, and other proteins that potentiate cytokine release and other aspects of inflammation. Binding of RASP to ... Reactive aldehyde species (RASP), also known as reactive aldehydes, refer to a class of electrophilic organic aldehyde ... particularly in proteins. Following threshold amounts of binding to the electrophile-responsive proteome, RASP modify protein ... In addition to binding to proteins and other amine or thiol-containing molecules such as glutathione, RASP are metabolized by ...
Paraskevas S, Huizinga JD, Loos BG (April 2008). "A systematic review and meta-analyses on C-reactive protein in relation to ... Periodontitis has been linked to increased inflammation in the body, such as indicated by raised levels of C-reactive protein ... Studies have confirmed an increase in systemic inflammation markers such as C-Reactive Protein and Interleukin-6 to be found in ... D'Aiuto F, Ready D, Tonetti MS (August 2004). "Periodontal disease and C-reactive protein-associated cardiovascular risk". ...
... mediates suppression of C-reactive protein: Explanation for muted C-reactive protein response in lupus flares?". Arthritis & ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. Therefore, it is a better marker for acute phase reaction than ESR. While ... Arik N, Bedir A, Günaydin M, Adam B, Halefi I (October 2000). "Do erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels ... Falk, G.; Fahey, T. (2008). "C-reactive protein and community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory care: systematic review of ...
It is reactive toward DNA and proteins. ONOO− reacts nucleophilically with carbon dioxide. In vivo, the concentration of carbon ... Nitrotyrosine Reactive nitrogen species Bohle, D. Scott; Sagan, Elisabeth S. (2004). "Tetramethylammonium Salts of Superoxide ... Its conjugate acid peroxynitrous acid is highly reactive, although peroxynitrite is stable in basic solutions. ...
Krev interaction trapped protein 1 or Cerebral cavernous malformations 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... KRIT1 has been shown to interact with multiple signaling pathways including; ITGB1BP1., reactive oxygen species, cell death, ... The KRIT1 protein, is 736 amino acids in length and has a variety of functions. ... Related to cerebral cavernous malformations, this protein is required for maintaining the structural integrity of the ...
"Multifunctional Synthetic Protein Nanoparticles via Reactive Electrojetting". Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 41 (23): ... Though, smaller protein attachments are generally tolerated by protein NPs. A significant limitation to direct attachment via ... Protein nanotechnology is a burgeoning field of research that integrates the diverse physicochemical properties of proteins ... Due to the abundance of proteins necessary for proper bodily function, the body has developed processes to update proteins into ...
Mitochondrial SNO-proteins inhibit Complex I of the electron transport chain; modulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species ( ... Hess DT, Matsumoto A, Kim SO, Marshall HE, Stamler JS (February 2005). "Protein S-nitrosylation: purview and parameters". Nat. ... Derakhshan B, Hao G, Gross SS (July 2007). "Balancing reactivity against selectivity: the evolution of protein S-nitrosylation ... It was particularly noteworthy that in cultured normal rat cholangiocytes, GSNO activated protein kinase B, protected against ...
... is also used in protein crystallography. Applied at pressures from 0.5 to 5 MPa (5 to 50 atm) to a protein crystal, xenon ... ISBN 978-0-7803-8265-7. Staff (2007). "Neil Bartlett and the Reactive Noble Gases". American Chemical Society. Retrieved June 5 ... For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can ... Staff (December 21, 2004). "Protein Crystallography: Xenon and Krypton Derivatives for Phasing". Daresbury Laboratory, PX. ...
Peroxynitrite can react directly with proteins that contain transition metal centers. Therefore, it can modify proteins such as ... Reactive oxygen species Reactive sulfur species Reactive carbonyl species Novo E, Parola M (2008). "Redox mechanisms in hepatic ... Reactive nitrogen species act together with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to damage cells, causing nitrosative stress. ... Reactive nitrogen species are also continuously produced in plants as by-products of aerobic metabolism or in response to ...
Reactive and Functional Polymers 54, 37-47(2003). . E. Nagele, M. Vollmer, P. Horth, and C. Vad. 2D-LC/MS techniques for the ... For example, if there is any overlap between the displacer and the protein of interest, these low molecular mass materials can ... For some matrices, reactive groups on the stationary phase can be titrated to temporarily eliminate the binding sites, for ... There are several examples in which displacement chromatography has been applied to the purification of proteins using ion ...
July 2000). "Crystal structure of the allergen Equ c 1. A dimeric lipocalin with restricted IgE-reactive epitopes". The Journal ... Major urinary proteins (Mups), also known as α2u-globulins, are a subfamily of proteins found in abundance in the urine and ... Along with other members of the lipocalin protein family, major urinary proteins can be potent allergens to humans. The reason ... February 2001). "Effect of polymorphisms on ligand binding by mouse major urinary proteins". Protein Science. 10 (2): 411-7. ...
Reactive oxygen species, ROS, such as superoxide (O2- • ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals (HO•), and singlet ... DNA repair protein XRCC4 also known as X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 or XRCC4 is a protein that in humans is ... Two XRCC4 proteins are post-translationally modified for recognition and localization to Ku70/80 (5). The two XRCC4 proteins ... The X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 is one of several core proteins involved in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ ...
Cysteine is a very reactive amino acid that would not be tolerated in high numbers within a small region of a protein. ... heterologous protein expression, medicine, as well as to our understanding of protein evolution. LCRs of eukaryotic proteins ... Proteins with GO terms related to RNA binding and processing were enriched for arginine in their LCRs. Proteins with GO terms ... Proteins with GO terms related to protein folding were enriched for glycine, methionine and phenylalanine in their LCRs. Based ...
C-reactive protein is elevated in most cases. Prostate biopsies are not indicated as the (clinical) features (described above) ...
The breakdown of glucose produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). These induce extracellular Daxx to translocalize into the ... Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. Daxx, a Death domain- ... This protein also associates with centromeres in the G2 phase. In the cytoplasm, the encoded protein may function to regulate ... It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor ...
Uncoupling proteins also reduce generation of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a members ... Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UCP3 gene. The gene is located in chromosome ( ... Uncoupling protein UPC2 and uncoupling protein UPC3 interaction with members of the 14.3.3 family (Benoit pierrat et al., 2000 ... UCP3 (uncoupling protein) deliberates the hypoxia resistance to the renal epithelial cells and its upregulation in renal cell ...
This, in turn, requires them to be protein-reactive. The conjugate formed is then recognized as a foreign body by the ... involving their association with epidermal proteins forming hapten-protein conjugates. ... Langerhans cells (LCs) (and in some cases other Dendritic cells (DCs)), which then internalize the protein; transport it via ...
60 mm/hour (normal 1-40 mm/hour). C-reactive protein, another inflammatory marker, may be elevated. LFTs, liver function tests ...
It is one of a group of proteins, called acute phase reactants that go up in response to ... It is one of a group of proteins, called acute phase reactants that go up in response to ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation in the body. ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation in the body. ...
C-reactive protein(mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXCRP. SAS Label: C-reactive protein(mg/dL). English Text: C-reactive protein (mg/dL ... C-Reactive Protein (CRP) (CRP_E) Data File: CRP_E.xpt First Published: September 2009. Last Revised: NA ... C-reactive protein is considered one of the best measures of the acute-phase response to an infectious disease or other cause ...
The reference range for C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are as follows: CRP: 0-10mg/dL hs-CRP: < 3 ... encoded search term (High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein) and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein What to Read Next on Medscape ... High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Updated: Sep 24, 2020 * Author: Sridevi Devaraj, PhD, DABCC, FAACC, FRSC, CCRP; Chief ... C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease: a critical review. J Intern Med. 2008 Oct. 264(4):295-314. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a non-specific acute phase protein produced in the liver [13] . CRP, an important serum marker of ... Train Driver, Occupational Stress, Angiotensin, C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-8, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha ... Strang, F. and Schunkert, H. (2014) C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: All Said-Is Not It? Mediators of ... Zimmermann, O., Li, K., Zaczkiewicz, M., Graf, M., Liu, Z. and Torzewski, J. (2014) C-Reactive Protein in Human Atherogenesis: ...
The MSDS of C-reactive for protein is available from Karlan upon request. ... C-reactive protein Rapid Test Cassette 20T/kit - 1 vial est en rupture de stock et sera expédié dès quil sera de retour en ... The MSDS of C-reactive for protein is available from Karlan upon request. ... The MSDS of C-reactive for protein is available from Karlan upon request. ...
Association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and coronary atherosclerosis in a general middle-aged population. *Mark ... it is still unknown whether systemic inflammation measured as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with ... it is still unknown whether systemic inflammation measured as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with ... it is still unknown whether systemic inflammation measured as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with ...
C-reactive protein: a useful marker for guiding duration of antibiotic therapy in suspected neonatal septicaemia? ... Sepsis and C-reactive protein. Pediatrics, 1994, 93:693-4.. *Kawamura M, Nishida H. The usefulness of serial C-reactive protein ... C-reactive protein: a useful marker for guiding duration of antibiotic therapy in suspected neonatal septicaemia? ... C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase reactant, is synthesized in the liver in response to inflammatory cytokines and may ...
Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein and Recurrence After Stroke: A Time-Course Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 9,798 ... C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-6 and Vascular Recurrence According to Stroke Subtype: An Individual-Participant Data Meta- ... C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-6 and Vascular Recurrence According to Stroke Subtype: An Individual-Participant Data Meta- ... C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-6 and Vascular Recurrence According to Stroke Subtype : An Individual-Participant Data Meta- ...
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level is widely used in clinical practice as a marker to distinguish between neonates with or ... From: Characteristics of neonates with culture-proven bloodstream infection who have low levels of C-reactive protein (≦10 mg/L ...
C-reactive protein, Beta 2 microglobulin, Ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase, Serum specific protein ... The Levels of Serum C-Reactive Protein, Beta 2 Microglobulin, Ferritin, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Some Specific Proteins in ... C-reactive protein, Beta 2 microglobulin, Ferritin, Lactate dehydrogenase, Serum specific protein ... Objective: The aim of this study was to measure serum C reactive protein, β2 microglobulin, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, ...
Visual Analog Scale and C-Reactive Protein Assessments in Subjects with Arterial Stiffness Risk Drugs R D. 2016 Dec;16(4):355- ... Results for C-reactive protein (CRP) blood levels showed no changes of statistical significance between groups. Mean ...
Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels. C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) are inflammatory biomarkers that ... What is the role of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the evaluation for community-acquired pneumonia ...
... causing oxidized protein levels to increase. This led researchers to conclude that oxidation of cellular proteins is ... stress Oxygen toxicity Pro-oxidant Reactive nitrogen species Reactive sulfur species Reactive carbonyl species Reactive oxygen ... The sulfur contained in these enzymes acts as the reactive center, carrying reactive electrons from the peroxide to the ... In chemistry and biology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive chemicals formed from diatomic oxygen (O2), water, ...
The reference range for C-reactive protein is as follows: CRP: 0-10mg/dL High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP): < 3 mg/L ... encoded search term (C-Reactive Protein) and C-Reactive Protein What to Read Next on Medscape ... C-Reactive Protein Updated: Jan 17, 2014 * Author: Bishnu Prasad Devkota, MD, MHI, FRCS(Edin), FRCS(Glasg), FACP; Chief Editor ... C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease: a critical review. J Intern Med. 2008 Oct. 264(4):295-314. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
The reference range for C-reactive protein is as follows: CRP: 0-10mg/dL High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP): < 3 mg/L ... encoded search term (C-Reactive Protein) and C-Reactive Protein What to Read Next on Medscape ... C-Reactive Protein Updated: Jan 17, 2014 * Author: Bishnu Prasad Devkota, MD, MHI, FRCS(Edin), FRCS(Glasg), FACP; Chief Editor ... C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease: a critical review. J Intern Med. 2008 Oct. 264(4):295-314. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
1. Ratios (%) of detected cross-reactive antibodies to spike protein in saliva.. Cross-reactive antibodies in saliva from 137 ... Cross-reactive sIgA (CRsA) against spike protein. The relative value of CRsA determined by ELISA was set to 0 as the negative ... Design of ELISA for cross-reactive sIgA (CRsA) against spike protein. We modified the ELISA system that could detect IgA cross- ... In contrast, because cross-reactive IgA inhibited the binding of ACE-2 to spike protein, salivary CRsA might prevent SARS-CoV-2 ...
Do you have C-Reactive Protein in your body? It might be a cause of your schizophrenia diagnosis? ... C-reactive protein is merely one factor in the risk for schizophrenia. ... questioning-answers.blogspot.com/2016/06/c-reactive-protein-may-be-causal-risk-schizophrenia.html ...
Increased levels of C-reactive protein in serum from blood donors before the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. In: Arthritis & ... Increased levels of C-reactive protein in serum from blood donors before the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. / Nielen, MM; van ... Dive into the research topics of Increased levels of C-reactive protein in serum from blood donors before the onset of ... Increased levels of C-reactive protein in serum from blood donors before the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis & ...
Studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate up-regulation of TACE activity by direct oxidization or modification ... Inhibition of the p38 substrate, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, completely attenuated TACE activity up-regulation, whereas ... of the protein. However, these investigations have been largely based upon nonphysiological stimulation of promonocytic cell ... Reactive oxygen species and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediate tumor necrosis factor α-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM- ...
... Rev. Bras. Odontol. []. 2015, 72, ... like C-reactive protein) by the liver. Even mild elevations of serum levels of CRP are associated with higher cardiovascular ... that activates the localized release of pro-inflammatory mediators capable of inducing the production of acute-phase proteins ( ...
C-Reactive Protein. C-reactive protein is an antibody found in the blood in certain acute and chronic conditions including ... t-PA is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots. t-PA is used in some cases of diseases that feature blood clots, ... Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the use of carbohydrate is impaired and that of lipid and protein is ... cholesterol circulates in the plasma complexed to proteins of various densities and plays an important role in the pathogenesis ...
Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been linked to excess body weight since adipocytes produce tumor necrosis factor ... Role of C-Reactive Protein in Diabetic Inflammation.. Stanimirovic, Julijana; Radovanovic, Jelena; Banjac, Katarina; Obradovic ...
Viitanen, SJ, Laurila, HP, Lilja-Maula, LI, Melamies, MA, Rantala, M & Rajamäki, MM 2014, Serum C-reactive protein as a ... Serum C-reactive protein as a diagnostic biomarker in dogs with bacterial respiratory diseases. / Viitanen, S. J.; Laurila, H. ... Serum C-reactive protein as a diagnostic biomarker in dogs with bacterial respiratory diseases. In: Journal of Veterinary ... Serum C-reactive protein as a diagnostic biomarker in dogs with bacterial respiratory diseases. Journal of Veterinary Internal ...
ETHYLENE SIGNALING INCREASES REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES THAT DRIVE ROOT DEVELOPMENT VIA OXIDATION OF TARGET PROTEINS. author. ... ETHYLENE SIGNALING INCREASES REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES THAT DRIVE ROOT DEVELOPMENT VIA OXIDATION OF TARGET PROTEINS. Electronic ... reactive oxygen species root hair contributor. Muday, Gloria K (advisor) Hollis, Thomas (committee member) Poole, Leslie B ( ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can also act as signaling molecules to drive developmental changes, including root hair ...
C-reactive protein concentrations were measured, microbial culture for S enterica in feces was performed, and antimicrobial ... Treatment of pigs with tylosin did not affect C-reactive protein concentration or reduce carriage or load of S enterica. There ... Effects of tylosin administration on C-reactive protein concentration and carriage of Salmonella enterica in pigs ... To evaluate the effects of tylosin on C-reactive protein concentration, carriage of Salmonella enterica, and antimicrobial ...
... and C-reactive Protein. Ann. Neurol. 2009, 65, 448-456. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ... including the production of reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species (RNS-ROS), the direct disruption of ... pmol/min/mg of microsomal protein). [40,44]. Blood to plasma: the ratio of a substances concentration in blood compared to its ... These variables included transit times, pH levels in various compartments, pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma protein binding, ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)). While these markers provide valuable information to ... Schenk S, Muser J, Vollmer G, Chiquet-Ehrismann R: Tenascin-C in serum: an acute-phase protein or a carcinoma marker?. Int J ... The neutrophil protein S100A12 is associated with a comprehensive ultrasonographic synovitis score in a longitudinal study of ... Antibodies to CCP were measured by ELISA (Eurodiagnostica, Malmo, Sweden). Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was ...
  • In chemistry and biology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive chemicals formed from diatomic oxygen (O2), water, and hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of jasmonate play a key role in the decision between cell acclimation or cell death in response to elevated levels of this reactive oxygen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive oxygen species and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediate tumor necrosis factor α-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM-17) activation in primary human monocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate up-regulation of TACE activity by direct oxidization or modification of the protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results show that ESE induces apoptosis via the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the role of mitochondria as the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we focused on the hypothesis of a mitochondrial basis of EMF-induced reproductive toxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • Aim: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays important roles in aging. (arizona.edu)
  • Dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence and 4-hydroxylnonenal protein adduct (P-HNE) formation were measured in PBMCs to assess reactive oxygen species production. (cdc.gov)
  • A more sensitive CRP test, called a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) assay, is available to determine a person's risk for heart disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Despite abundant knowledge about the relationship between inflammation and coronary atherosclerosis, it is still unknown whether systemic inflammation measured as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in a general population. (lu.se)
  • Periodontal parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were evaluated at baseline, 2- and 3-months intervals. (who.int)
  • Hydrogen peroxide is not nearly as reactive as these species, but is readily activated and is thus included. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peroxynitrite and nitric oxide are reactive oxygen-containing species as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their antiglycation activities were not only brought about by their antioxidant activities but also related to their trapping abilities of reactive carbonyl species such as methylglyoxal (MGO), an intermediate reactive carbonyl of AGE formation. (acs.org)
  • This is the first report that proanthocyanidins can effectively scavenge reactive carbonyl species and thus inhibit the formation of AGEs. (acs.org)
  • Dyes and probes for detecting Nitric Oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen in cells. (biotium.com)
  • Using the 5XFAD mouse model of AD, we show that PKC-eta (PKCη), an astrocyte-specific stress-activated and anti-apoptotic kinase, plays a role in reactive astrocytes. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Inhibition of the p38 substrate, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2, completely attenuated TACE activity up-regulation, whereas inhibition of ERK had little effect. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Akt (protein kinase B) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a major role in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • This kinase is present in normal cells, but its level is highly elevated in cancer cells, and it inhibits apoptosis by regulating the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins and caspases via the activation of the Akt signaling pathway ( 17 , 18 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Results: We have reported that Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) phosphorylation abolishes the recruitment of phosphatase type 2A C subunit (PP2Ac) to protein kinase C (PKC)βII, which specifically regulates mitochondrial ROS generation by p66shc. (arizona.edu)
  • Mitochondrial proteins, such as the Bcl-2 family of proteins, act on pro- or anti-apoptotic proteins and aid in apoptosis ( 13 , 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The concentrations of angiotensin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined. (scirp.org)
  • C-reactive protein concentrations were measured, microbial culture for S enterica in feces was performed, and antimicrobial resistance genes in feces were quantified. (singerepidemiology.org)
  • Weight and body composition were determined and C-reactive protein and interluekin-6 concentrations were measured. (who.int)
  • The study aimed to determine whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels can be used to identify when antibiotics can safely be discontinued in cases of suspected neonatal septicaemia. (who.int)
  • CRP -- an acute phase serum protein - is a surrogate for the pro-inflammatory interleukin IL-6. (medscape.com)
  • It is one of a group of proteins, called acute phase reactants that go up in response to inflammation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These proteins are produced by white blood cells during inflammation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C-reactive protein is considered one of the best measures of the acute-phase response to an infectious disease or other cause of tissue damage and inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • C-reactive protein elevates with increased inflammation in the body. (learningsuccessblog.com)
  • Role of C-Reactive Protein in Diabetic Inflammation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Background C-reactive protein is definitely a more developed marker of inflammation and continues to be utilized to predict long term coronary disease. (cancerrealitycheck.com)
  • History C-reactive proteins (CRP) can be a more developed biochemical marker of swelling and continues to be used to forecast long term coronary disease [1-3]. (cancerrealitycheck.com)
  • Lately, polymorphisms in the HNF1A gene (also known asTCF1, MIM 142410) have already been from the degrees of C-reactive proteins and coronary artery disease [33-36]. (cancerrealitycheck.com)
  • Amino acids, peptides, and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The simplest, most common and versatile techniques for crosslinking or labeling peptides and proteins such as antibodies involve the use of chemical groups that react with primary amines (-NH2). (thermofisher.com)
  • This easy-to-use guide overviews our portfolio of reagents for bioconjugation, crosslinking, biotinylation, and modification of proteins and peptides. (thermofisher.com)
  • The levels of acute phase reactants increase in response to certain inflammatory proteins called cytokines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is induced by inflammatory cytokines and reflects innate immune activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, they occur predominantly on the outside surfaces of native protein tertiary structures where they are readily accessible to conjugation reagents introduced into the aqueous medium. (thermofisher.com)
  • this makes them easy to target for conjugation with several reactive groups. (thermofisher.com)
  • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, C-Reactive Protein, and White Blood Cell Count after Lumbar Discectomy. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR), C-reactive protein(CRP), and white blood cell(WBC) counts are screening parameter for detection of postoperative infectious complications. (jkns.or.kr)
  • abstract = "Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein and Recurrence After Stroke: A Time-Course Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 9,798 Patients.Background and aimsRCTs of anti-inflammatory therapies for prevention after stroke are ongoing. (ed.ac.uk)
  • However, NHS esters and imidoesters are the most popular amine-specific functional groups that are incorporated into reagents for protein crosslinking and labeling. (thermofisher.com)
  • PKCη activation was associated with elevated levels of reactive astrocytic markers and upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) compared to littermate controls. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Results for C-reactive protein (CRP) blood levels showed no changes of statistical significance between groups. (nih.gov)
  • Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels have been linked to excess body weight since adipocytes produce tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 ( IL-6 ), which are pivotal factors for CRP stimulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 2 ] It is a member of pentraxin family of proteins and is synthesized by liver. (medscape.com)
  • Apical periodontitis is a bacteria-induced disease that activates the localized release of pro-inflammatory mediators capable of inducing the production of acute-phase proteins (like C-reactive protein) by the liver. (bvsalud.org)
  • Amine-reactive chemical groups in biomolecular probes for labeling and crosslinking primary amines include NHS esters (N-hydroxysuccinimide esters) and imidoesters. (thermofisher.com)
  • NHS esters are reactive groups formed by carbodiimide-activation of carboxylate molecules (see Carbodiimide Crosslinker Chemistry ). (thermofisher.com)
  • The functional groups are frequently used in protein biology methods. (thermofisher.com)
  • Similar increase in the release of IL-6 was also observed upon inhibition of either the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) or the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). (bgu.ac.il)
  • In the electron transport chain, electrons are passed through a series of proteins via oxidation-reduction reactions, with each acceptor protein along the chain having a greater reduction potential than the previous. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-reactive protein: a useful marker for guiding duration of antibiotic therapy in suspected neonatal septicaemia? (who.int)
  • The intrinsic apoptosis pathway, a mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, is regulated by several upstream proteins present in the cytosol. (frontiersin.org)
  • C-reactive protein is an antibody found in the blood in certain acute and chronic conditions including infections and cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effects of E. ferox salisb extract (ESE) in A549 lung cancer cells, exerted by the inhibition of the Akt protein and activation of the p53 protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alternative translocations include EWS-ERG t(21;22), EWS-ETV t(7;22), and EWS-FEV t(2;22), all of which involve the ETS family protein. (medscape.com)
  • As for instance, in a patient with a monoclonal protein without any evidence of infection, ESR may be high (in 100) but CRP will be normal. (medscape.com)
  • We found SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive sIgA in the saliva of some participants who had never been infected with the virus, suggesting that sIgA helps prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. (medrxiv.org)
  • C-reactive protein level had a significant association with body mass index ( r = 0.18), adiposity ( r = 0.23), smoking ( r = 0.20), carbohydrate intake ( r = 0.19) and saturated fatty acid ( r = 0.20). (who.int)
  • Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells were also detected in about 40%-60% of unexposed individuals before the pandemic, suggesting that T cells have cross-reactivity to common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 [ 8 ]. (medrxiv.org)
  • H 2 DCFDA (2′,7′-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) is a useful fluorogenic reagent to detect reactive oxygen intermediates in cells. (biotium.com)
  • p53, under the regulation of Akt proteins, is activated in cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • P represents a protein or other molecule that contains the target functional group (i.e., primary amine). (thermofisher.com)
  • Five serious adverse events were reported, of which two were in the vaccine group (pyrexia and transverse myelitis) and three were in the control group (autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, increased C- reactive protein and myelitis). (who.int)
  • Photosensitizers such as chlorophyll may convert triplet (3O2) to singlet oxygen: Singlet oxygen is highly reactive with unsaturated organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • No significant associations were detected between C-reactive protein concentration or S enterica status and tylosin treatment. (singerepidemiology.org)
  • Proportions of SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive IgA-positive individuals were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a biotin-labeled spike S1-mFc recombinant protein covering the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. (medrxiv.org)