The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Glucose in blood.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.

Auto- and alloimmune reactivity to human islet allografts transplanted into type 1 diabetic patients. (1/1227)

Allogeneic islet transplantation can restore an insulin-independent state in C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetic patients. We recently reported three cases of surviving islet allografts that were implanted in type 1 diabetic patients under maintenance immune suppression for a previous kidney graft. The present study compares islet graft-specific cellular auto- and alloreactivity in peripheral blood from those three recipients and from four patients with failing islet allografts measured over a period of 6 months after portal islet implantation. The three cases that remained C-peptide-positive for >1 year exhibited no signs of alloreactivity, and their autoreactivity to islet autoantigens was only marginally increased. In contrast, rapid failure (<3 weeks) in three other cases was accompanied by increases in precursor frequencies of graft-specific alloreactive T-cells; in one of them, the alloreactivity was preceded by a sharply increased autoreactivity to several islet autoantigens. One recipient had a delayed loss of islet graft function (33 weeks); he did not exhibit signs of graft-specific alloimmunity, but developed a delayed increase in autoreactivity. The parallel between metabolic outcome of human beta-cell allografts and cellular auto- and alloreactivity in peripheral blood suggests a causal relationship. The present study therefore demonstrates that T-cell reactivities in peripheral blood can be used to monitor immune mechanisms, which influence survival of beta-cell allografts in diabetic patients.  (+info)

Prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids desensitizes the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo in rats. (2/1227)

Prolonged exposure of pancreatic islets to free fatty acids (FFAs) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in vitro. However, FFA inhibition of GSIS has not been clearly demonstrated in vivo. We examined the in vivo effect of prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs on GSIS using a two-step hyperglycemic clamp in rats treated with a 48-h intravenous infusion of either 20% Intralipid plus heparin (INT) (5 microl/min plus heparin, 0.1 U/min; n = 8), oleate (OLE) (1.3 microEq/min; n = 6), saline (SAL) (n = 6), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (vehicle for OLE; n = 5). Because there was no difference in any of the parameters between BSA and SAL rats, these groups were combined as control rats (CONT) (n = 11). At the end of the 48-h OLE/INT/CONT infusions, after an overnight fast, plasma glucose was clamped for 2 h at 13 mmol/l and for another 2 h at 22 mmol/l. Preclamp plasma FFAs were elevated twofold (P < 0.01) versus CONT with both INT and OLE (NS, INT vs. OLE). Preclamp glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were higher in INT than in CONT rats (P < 0.05), suggesting insulin resistance, but they were not different in OLE and CONT rats. The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from basal to 13 mmol/l were lower in OLE (336 +/- 72 pmol/l and 1.2 +/- 0.1 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) than in CONT (552 +/- 54 and 1.9 +/- 0.1) rats, but they were not different between CONT and INT rats (648 +/- 150 and 2.0 +/- 0.4). The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from 13 to 22 mmol/l were lower in both INT (1,188 +/- 204 pmol/l and 3.0 +/- 0.3 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) and OLE (432 +/- 60 and 1.7 +/- 0.2, P < 0.001 vs. CONT or INT) rats than in CONT rats (1,662 +/- 174 and 5.0 +/- 0.6). In summary, 1) both INT and OLE decreased GSIS in vivo in rats, and 2) the impairing effect of INT on GSIS was less than that of OLE, which might be due to the different type of fatty acid (mostly polyunsaturated in INT versus monounsaturated as OLE) and/or to differential effects of INT and OLE on insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs can desensitize the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo, thus inducing a beta-cell defect that is similar to that found in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Resistance to insulin's acute direct hepatic effect in suppressing steady-state glucose production in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (3/1227)

We and others have shown that insulin acutely suppresses glucose production in fasting nondiabetic humans and dogs, by both a direct hepatic effect and an indirect (extrahepatic) effect, and in diabetic dogs by an indirect effect alone. In type 2 diabetes, there is resistance to insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production, but it has not previously been determined whether the resistance is primarily at the level of the hepatocyte or the peripheral tissues. To determine whether the diabetic state reduces the direct effect of insulin in humans, we studied nine patients with untreated type 2 diabetes who underwent three studies each, 4-6 weeks apart. 1) Portal study (POR): intravenous tolbutamide was infused for 3 h with calculation of pancreatic insulin secretion from peripheral plasma C-peptide. 2) Peripheral study (PER): equidose insulin was infused by peripheral vein. 3) Half-dose peripheral insulin study (1/2 PER): matched peripheral insulin levels with study 1. In all studies, glucose was clamped at euglycemia, glucose turnover was measured with the constant specific activity method, and 3-[3H]glucose was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral insulin was lower in POR versus PER but slightly higher in POR versus 1/2 PER, although most of the difference could be accounted for by higher proinsulin levels in POR (stimulated by tolbutamide). Calculated portal insulin was approximately 1.3-fold higher in POR versus PER and approximately 2.2-fold higher in POR versus 1/2 PER. In the final 30 min of the clamp, glucose production reached a lower steady-state level in PER than in POR (4.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.5 pmol(-1) x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05), despite the higher hepatic insulin level in POR. In contrast with our studies in nondiabetic individuals, glucose production was not more suppressed at steady state in POR versus 1/2 PER (5.3 +/- 0.4 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), despite much higher hepatic insulin levels in POR. In conclusion, this is the first study in patients with type 2 diabetes to characterize insulin resistance to the acute direct suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production.  (+info)

Effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies on basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. (4/1227)

The objective of this study was to assess the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) as insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes. To this end, basal insulin secretion rates (ISR) in response to acute increases in plasma FFAs were evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects during 1) intravenous infusion of lipid plus heparin (L/H), which stimulated intravascular lipolysis, and 2) the FFA rebound, which followed lowering of plasma FFAs with nicotinic acid (NA) and was a consequence of increased lipolysis from the subject's own adipose tissue. At comparable euglycemia, diabetic patients had similar ISR but higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels during L/H infusion and higher plasma FFA and beta-OHB levels during the FFA rebound than nondiabetic control subjects. Correlating ISR with plasma FFA plus beta-OHB levels showed that in response to the same changes in FFA plus beta-OHB levels, diabetic patients secreted approximately 30% less insulin than nondiabetic control subjects. In addition, twice as much insulin was secreted during L/H infusion as during the FFA rebound in response to the same FFA/beta-OHB stimulation by both diabetic patients and control subjects. Glycerol, which was present in the infused lipid (272 mmol/l) did not affect ISR. We concluded that 1) assessment of FFA effects on ISR requires consideration of effects on ISR by ketone bodies; 2) ISR responses to FFA/beta-OHB were defective in patients with type 2 diabetes (partial beta-cell lipid blindness), but this defect was compensated by elevated plasma levels of FFAs and ketone bodies; and 3) approximately two times more insulin was released per unit change in plasma FFA plus beta-OHB during L/H infusion than during the FFA rebound after NA. The reason for this remains to be explored.  (+info)

Within- and between-subject variation in commonly measured anthropometric and biochemical variables. (5/1227)

BACKGROUND: The biological variation of some commonly assessed metabolic variables in healthy subjects has not been studied extensively. The aim of the study was to assess, in 12 healthy subjects (6 male and 6 female; mean (SD) age; 22.7 (1.5) years) following an overnight fast, the day-to-day variation of body fat (impedance method), triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFAs), glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB), lactate, glucose, insulin (RIA), C-peptide, and glucagon on 12 consecutive days. METHODS: Between- and within-subject coefficients of variation (CVG and CVW) were estimated using a random effects analysis of variance, and assay variation was subtracted to give the coefficient of within-subject biological variation (CVI). Individuality indices were calculated as CVW/CVG. RESULTS: The overall means, CVI, and individuality indices were as follows: for body fat, 24.2%, 10%, and 0.3; for triglycerides, 0.61 mmol/L, 21%, and 1.1; for NEFAs, 376 micromol/L, 45%, and 1.4; for glycerol, 48 micromol/L, 36%, and 0.8; for 3-OHB, 43 micromol/L, 61%, and 1.5; for lactate, 0.88 mmol/L, 31%, and 1.1; for glucose, 4.9 mmol/L, 4.8%, and 0.7; for insulin, 52 pmol/L, 26%, and 1.0; for C-peptide, 0.39 nmol/L, 24%, and 0.9; and for glucagon, 53 ng/L, 19%, and 0.8. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here are necessary for the evaluation of several important metabolic variables in individual and group studies. The biological variation of some metabolites makes it difficult to characterize the status of healthy subjects with a single measurement.  (+info)

Intact proinsulin and beta-cell function in lean and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. (6/1227)

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease in which both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are pathogenetic factors. Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia (elevated proinsulin/insulin) is another abnormality in type 2 diabetes whose mechanism is unknown. Increased demand due to obesity and/or insulin resistance may result in secretion of immature beta-cell granules with a higher content of intact proinsulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the impact of obesity on beta-cell secretion in normal subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients by measuring intact proinsulin, total proinsulin immunoreactivity (PIM), intact insulin, and C-peptide (by radioimmunoassay) by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the fasting state and during a 120-min glucagon (1 mg i.v.) stimulation test. Lean (BMI 23.5 +/- 0.3 kg/m2) (LD) and obese (30.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) (OD) type 2 diabetic patients matched for fasting glucose (10.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/l) were compared with age- and BMI-matched lean (22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m2) (LC) and obese (30.8 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) (OC) normal control subjects. RESULTS: Diabetic patients (LD vs. LC and OD vs. OC) had elevated fasting levels of intact proinsulin 6.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.3 pmol/l and 7.7 +/- 2.0 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.2 pmol/l; PIM: 19.9 +/- 2.5 vs. 5.4 +/- 1.0 pmol/l and 29.6 +/- 6.1 vs. 6.1 +/- 0.9 pmol/l; and total PIM/intact insulin: 39 +/- 4 vs. 15 +/- 2% and 35 +/- 5 vs. 13 +/- 2%, all P < 0.01. After glucagon stimulation, PIM levels were disproportionately elevated (PIM/intact insulin based on area under the curve analysis) in diabetic patients (LD vs. LC and OD vs. OC): 32.6 +/- 6.7 vs. 9.2 +/- 1.1% and 22.7 +/- 5.2 vs. 9.1 +/- 1.1%, both P < 0.05. Intact insulin and C-peptide net responses were significantly reduced in type 2 diabetic patients, most pronounced in the lean group. The ratio of intact proinsulin to PIM was higher in diabetic patients after stimulation in both LD versus LC: 32 +/- 3 vs. 23 +/- 2%, and OD versus OC: 28 +/- 4 vs. 16 +/- 2%, both P < 0.01. In obese normal subjects, intact proinsulin/PIM was lower both in the fasting state and after glucagon stimulation: OC versus LC: 22 +/- 3 vs. 33 +/- 3% (fasting) and 16 +/- 2 vs. 23 +/- 2% (stimulated), both P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Increased secretory demand from obesity-associated insulin resistance cannot explain elevated intact proinsulin and disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes. This abnormality may be an integrated part of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in this disease.  (+info)

Effect of calorie restriction on in vivo glucose metabolism by individual tissues in rats. (7/1227)

We evaluated the effects of 8 mo of calorie restriction [CR: 60% of ad libitum (AL) food intake] on glucose uptake by 14 tissues in unanesthetized, adult (12 mo) F344xBN rats. Glucose metabolism was assessed by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose tracer technique at 1500 or 2100. Despite an approximately 60% decline in insulinemia with CR, plasma 2-[3H]deoxyglucose clearance for CR was greater than for AL at both times. A small, CR-related decrease in glucose metabolic index (R'g) occurred only at 1500 in the spleen and heart, and this decrease was reversed at 2100. In some tissues (cerebellum, lung, kidney, soleus, and diaphragm), R'g was unaffected by diet, regardless of time. In the other tissues (brown fat, 3 white fat pads, epitrochlearis, plantaris, and gastrocnemius), R'g was higher or tended to be higher for CR vs. AL at one or both times. These findings indicate that 8 mo of CR did not cause a continuous reduction in in vivo glucose uptake by any tissue studied, and, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, glucose uptake was at times greater for CR vs. AL rats.  (+info)

C-peptide induces a concentration-dependent dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles only in presence of insulin. (8/1227)

In this study we tested the hypothesis that C-peptide alone or in conjunction with insulin may cause a dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles. First-order arterioles (88 microm) isolated from rat cremaster muscles were pressurized (65 mmHg), equilibrated in a Krebs bicarbonate-buffered solution (pH 7.4), gassed with 10% O2 (balance 5% CO2, 85% N2), and studied in a no-flow state. C-peptide administered at concentrations of 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 100, 300, and 1,000 ng/ml evoked arteriolar dilation that was not concentration dependent. In contrast, the administration of the four lower physiological concentrations of C-peptide to arterioles exposed to a nondilating concentration of insulin evoked a significant concentration-dependent increase in arteriolar diameter from 8.6 to 42.3% above control. The arteriolar dilation to C-peptide in the presence of insulin was completely inhibited by administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine (10(-4) M). Responses to ACh and adenosine were not enhanced when these drugs were administered in the presence of insulin. These results indicate that C-peptide has the capacity to evoke arteriolar dilation in skeletal muscle via a nitric oxide-mediated mechanism that appears to be enhanced by an interaction with insulin. Furthermore, the effects of insulin appear to be specific for C-peptide and are not the result of a general enhancement of endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent dilation.  (+info)

Postprandial responsiveness M|sub|I|/sub| may be more relevant to glucose control than AUC|sub|Cpep|/sub| . Baseline C-peptide corrected for baseline glucose appears to be a suitable surrogate of AUC|sub|Cpep|/sub| if MMTT is not performed.
This study evaluated the association between serum C-peptide levels and chronic vascular complications in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Data for 1,410 patients with type 2 diabetes were evalua
C-peptide reduces diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetic patients and experimental animal models. However, the mechanisms mediating the beneficial effect of C-peptide remain unclear. We investigated whether altered renal afferent-efferent arteriole tonus or alterations in tubular Na+ transport (T(Na)) in response to C-peptide administration mediate the reduction of diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration. Glomerular filtration rate, filtration fraction, total and cortical renal blood flow, total kidney O2 consumption (QO2), T(Na), fractional Na+ and Li+ excretions, and tubular free-flow and stop-flow pressures were measured in anesthetized adult male normoglycemic and streptozotocin-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. The specific effect of C-peptide on transport-dependent QO2 was investigated in vitro in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells. C-peptide reduced glomerular filtration rate (-24%), stop-flow pressure (-8%), and filtration fraction (-17%) exclusively in diabetic ...
Western style diets and lifestyles are associated with increasing rates of obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. Higher circulating insulin levels may modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis either directly or indirectly by increasing the bioactivity of IGF-I and decreasing the bioactivity of some of its binding proteins. The objective of this study was to determine the association of increasing levels of serum C-peptide, a biomarker of pancreatic insulin secretion, and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) -1 and -2 with colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large cohort involving 10 Western European countries. A total of 1,078 colorectal cancer cases were matched (age, date of blood donation, fasting status, gender, study center) to an equal number of control subjects. Relative cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Serum C-peptide concentration was positively ...
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Insulin is a kind of peptide hormone which is critical for glucose homeostasis. The mature Insulin peptide is derived from Proinsulin, which includes the Insulin A and B chains connected by a peptide fragment (C-peptide). Proinsulin is processed within the endoplasmic reticulum of pancreatic beta cells into equimolar ratios of mature Insulin and C-peptide. Mouse C-peptide 1 is a single chain peptide composed of 29 amino acids, while C-peptide 2 is composed of 31 residues. C-peptide is secreted together with insulin.. The role of C-peptide has been considered to keep the best configuration to form three disulfide bonds, and has no biological activity, however, recent studies indicated that C-peptide can bind, probably, a G-protein coupling specific receptor present on the surface of endothelial cells, kidney microtubule cells and fibroblasts, resulting in activation of calcium-dependent intracellular signaling, activation of Na+-K+-ATPase, and enhancement of NO synthesis. Administration of ...
OBJECTIVE-Mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) area under the curve C-peptide (AUC CP) is the gold-standard measure of endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetes but is intensive and invasive to perform. The 90-minMMTT-stimulated CP andgt;= 0.2 nmol/L (90CP) is related to improved clinical outcomes, and CP andgt;= 0.1 nmol/L is the equivalent fasting measure (FCP). We assessed whether 90CP or FCP are alternatives to a full MMTT. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-CP was measured during 1,334 MMTTs in 421 type 1 diabetes patients aged, 18 years at 3, 9, 18, 48, and 72 months duration. We assessed: 1) correlation between mean AUC CP and 90CP or FCP; 2) sensitivity and specificity of 90CP andgt;= 0.2 nmol/L and FCP andgt;= 0.1 nmol/L to detect peak CP andgt;= 0.2 nmol/L and the equivalent AUC CP; and 3) how the time taken to reach the CP peak varied with age of diagnosis and diabetes duration. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS-AUC CP was ...
ABSTRACT. Background: Increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) commonly develops in early diabetes and is closely correlated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Objective: The aim was to study the relationship between GFR, C-peptide level and other parameters at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes. Methods: We determined GFR, Cpeptide level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI) SDS and loss of weight at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes in 495 children (231 females). Linear and multiple regression analysis was used to test for the associations between GFR and other parameters. Results: In the 495 patients, GFR median (interquartile range) was increased vs normal values (p = 0.0001). GFR was significantly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001) and C-peptide level (p = 0.001), and positively correlated with weight loss (p = 0.02). The multiple regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.001) and C-peptide level (p = 0.05) were independently and negatively related to GFR. ...
Normal and mildly diabetic subjects each have their own set of basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Diabetic patients have raised basal plasma glucose, with low-normal basal plasma C-peptide concentrations. Restoring normal glucose levels in mild diabetes by an insulin infusion further reduces the C-peptide concentration, but both the plasma glucose and the C-peptide return to their set level when the insulin is withdrawn. These results accord with the action of beta cells and liver in a negative feedback loop that maintains basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations.
Abstract. INTRODUCTION: C-peptide is a widely used marker of endogenous insulin secretion. It is used for assessing residual beta cell function and in the diagnostic workup of hypoglycemia. C-peptide is routinely measured in the clinical laboratory by immunoassays, which are sensitive but prone to limitations such as cross-reactivity, between-lot variability, and a lack of concordance across different platforms. LC-MS/MS methods are more specific and can be multiplexed. Previous LC-MS/MS methods developed for serum c-peptide measurement detected intact peptide. Unfortunately, intact peptide is poorly ionized, requiring immunoaffinity extraction or solid phase extraction with two-dimensional chromatography. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a novel enzyme (Glu-C) digestion-based LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of serum c-peptide. METHODS: The internal standard was isotopically labeled at two leucine residues: EAED*LQVGQVELGGGPGAGSLQP*LALEGSLQ. Serum proteins ...
C-peptide and leptin levels were positively related and IGF-I was negatively related to higher categories of BMI (P , 0.0001), whereas C-peptide and leptin were negatively related and IGF-I was positively related to lower levels of sports/recreational physical activity among breast cancer survivors (P , 0.05). Whereas the BMI and C-peptide, leptin, and IGF-I associations remained statistically significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including physical activity, the physical activity and C-peptide, leptin, and IGF-I associations became less statistically significant or nonsignificant in C-peptide after adjusting for BMI. Our findings imply that BMI explains more of the variation in these hormones and peptides than physical activity.. Our insulin and leptin associations with BMI and physical activity are consistent with studies conducted among healthy women (4, 17-19, 24) and the one study conducted among cancer survivors (23). Published studies in healthy, overweight/obese ...
For years an assumption was made that C-peptide, a byproduct of insulin biosynthesis, possessed no appreciable physiologic role. As other contributions in this volume amply testify, the time has come to re-evaluate that notion. C-peptide either directly through interaction with its specific cell-surface receptor or indirectly through an interaction with a related membrane entity, exerts a unique effect on several intracellular processes.We review here results of studies attempting to elucidate such molecular effects of C-peptide in different cell systems and tissues. Lacking a purified C-peptide receptor, we also demonstrate C-peptide effects on distinct elements of the insulin signal transduction pathways.
Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes and a higher concentration of serum C-peptide are more likely to develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in the 5 years after delivery, according to findings published in the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. “Our study suggested that elevated C-peptide levels may be a predictor of diabetes and prediabetes,” Gang Hu, MD,
BACKGROUND In the Joslin Medalist Study (Medalists), we determined whether significant associations exist between β cell function and pathology and clinical characteristics.METHODS Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 or more years underwent evaluation including HLA analysis, basal and longitudinal autoantibody (AAb) status, and β cell function by a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and a hyperglycemia/arginine clamp procedure. Postmortem analysis of pancreases from 68 Medalists was performed. Monogenic diabetes genes were screened for the entire cohort.RESULTS Of the 1019 Medalists, 32.4% retained detectable C-peptide levels (,0.05 ng/mL, median: 0.21 ng/mL). In those who underwent a MMTT (n = 516), 5.8% responded with a doubling of baseline C-peptide levels. Longitudinally (n = 181, median: 4 years), C-peptide levels increased in 12.2% (n = 22) and decreased in 37% (n = 67) of the Medalists. Among those with repeated MMTTs, 5.4% (3 of 56) and 16.1% (9 of 56) had waxing and waning ...
BACKGROUND In the Joslin Medalist Study (Medalists), we determined whether significant associations exist between β cell function and pathology and clinical characteristics.METHODS Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 or more years underwent evaluation including HLA analysis, basal and longitudinal autoantibody (AAb) status, and β cell function by a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and a hyperglycemia/arginine clamp procedure. Postmortem analysis of pancreases from 68 Medalists was performed. Monogenic diabetes genes were screened for the entire cohort.RESULTS Of the 1019 Medalists, 32.4% retained detectable C-peptide levels (,0.05 ng/mL, median: 0.21 ng/mL). In those who underwent a MMTT (n = 516), 5.8% responded with a doubling of baseline C-peptide levels. Longitudinally (n = 181, median: 4 years), C-peptide levels increased in 12.2% (n = 22) and decreased in 37% (n = 67) of the Medalists. Among those with repeated MMTTs, 5.4% (3 of 56) and 16.1% (9 of 56) had waxing and waning ...
BACKGROUND In the Joslin Medalist Study (Medalists), we determined whether significant associations exist between β cell function and pathology and clinical characteristics.METHODS Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 or more years underwent evaluation including HLA analysis, basal and longitudinal autoantibody (AAb) status, and β cell function by a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and a hyperglycemia/arginine clamp procedure. Postmortem analysis of pancreases from 68 Medalists was performed. Monogenic diabetes genes were screened for the entire cohort.RESULTS Of the 1019 Medalists, 32.4% retained detectable C-peptide levels (,0.05 ng/mL, median: 0.21 ng/mL). In those who underwent a MMTT (n = 516), 5.8% responded with a doubling of baseline C-peptide levels. Longitudinally (n = 181, median: 4 years), C-peptide levels increased in 12.2% (n = 22) and decreased in 37% (n = 67) of the Medalists. Among those with repeated MMTTs, 5.4% (3 of 56) and 16.1% (9 of 56) had waxing and waning ...
Insulin production. A. C-peptide levels in mice fed with normal chow diet (CD) and after high fat diet (HFD) challenge. B. C-peptide/Insulin ratios in mice fed
The endogenous insulin secretion capacity of 171 insulin-treated middle-aged persons with diabetes (81 men, 90 women) of the Kuopio University Central Hospital district (population 250,000), East Finland, was measured by the C-peptide response to glucagori. The prevalence of insulin deficiency among initially non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) individuals was calculated on the basis of those who were initially treated with diet or oral drugs and 3 yr or more after diagnosis had been treated with insulin and were insulin deficient in this study. The prevalence of complete insulin deficiency (postglucagon C-peptide undetectable) was among initially NIDDM individuals of the same region, 0.7% in menand 1.2% in women. Using the postglucagon C-peptide level of 0.20 nmol/L as a cut-offpoint, the prevalence of insulin deficiency was 2.0% in men and 1.9% in women and, on thebasis of C-peptide level of 0.60 nmol/L, the prevalence of insulin deficiency was 3.5% in men and 2.7% in women. Our data ...
There has been long-standing debate about whether diabetes is a causal risk factor for pancreatic cancer or a consequence of tumour development. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown variable relationships between pancreatic cancer risk and blood markers of glucose and insulin metabolism, overall and as a function of lag times between marker measurements (blood donation) and date of tumour diagnosis.Pre-diagnostic levels of HbA(1c) and C-peptide were measured for 466 participants with pancreatic cancer and 466 individually matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs for pancreatic cancer.Pancreatic cancer risk gradually increased with increasing pre-diagnostic HbA(1c) levels up to an OR of 2.42 (95% CI 1.33, 4.39 highest [≥ 6.5%, 48 mmol/mol] vs lowest [≤ 5.4%, 36 mmol/mol] category), even for individuals with HbA(1c) levels within the non-diabetic range. C-peptide levels showed no
Stimulated C-peptide provides a good approximation of endogenous insulin secretion (and thus residual β-cell function). This parameter, while not a direct measure of β-cell mass, is the currently accepted primary efficacy end point parameter in immune intervention studies in type 1 diabetes (3). Clinical benefits are generally evaluated as secondary end points to support the primary efficacy end point.. The DIA-AID 1 study indicated significant preservation of β-cell function supported by clinical benefits when the stimulation of C-peptide secretion was evaluated by GST. However, changes in C-peptide secretion stimulated by MMTT were not significant and did not correlate with the observed clinical benefits (12).. The current analysis was undertaken to elucidate this inconsistency using two independent data sets from the DIA-AID 1 and LADA trials. It revealed that the absolute values of stimulated C-peptide measured by GST and MMTT were reproducible and well correlated when evaluated at each ...
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To our knowledge, our study is the first to comprehensively assess islet cell responsivity in people with T1D using gold-standard methods across the spectrum of detectable C-peptide production. The group with high peak C-peptide (,0.400 pmol/mL) during an MMTT exhibited lower fasting glucose (111 ± 31 mg/dL), hemoglobin A1c (6.8% ± 1.0%), and mean glucose (140 ± 25 mg/dL), and greater CGM-derived time in target range (72% ± 12%). Given that the high C-peptide group was considerably less often hyperglycemic based on CGM, the lack of difference in peripheral or hepatic insulin sensitivity across the groups supports that insulin resistance in T1D is not strongly related to hyperglycemia as suggested by others (26). The high C-peptide group was the only group who demonstrated β cell responsivity to glucose during the hyperglycemic clamp conducted during the GPA test, with measurable increases in C-peptide and proinsulin secretion. Furthermore, this group also demonstrated α cell responsivity ...
C-peptide, like the hormone insulin, is produced in the pancreas. Both are released simultaneously from the pancreas when the compound called proinsulin is split into two pieces.. Insulin is responsible for regulating the bodys glucose levels. Glucose, the bodys main source of energy, is a sugar that comes from foods.. After a meal, our bodies break down the foods we eat into glucose and other nutrients, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. Glucose levels in the blood rise after a meal and trigger the pancreas to make insulin and release it into the blood. When insulin is released, so is C-peptide.. Insulin works like a key that opens the doors to cells and allows the glucose in. Without insulin, glucose cant get into the cells and it stays in the bloodstream. The most common cause of abnormal fluctuations in blood glucose is diabetes.. C-peptide, on the other hand, has no effect on blood sugar. It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, ...
In 2-wk-old ob/ob mice serum, insulin levels were 2.5-fold higher than in wild-type (WT) littermates, resulting in a ,30% decrease of blood glucose levels after feeding. Remarkably, hyperinsulinemia and low blood glucose levels were also present in newborn and 1-wk-old ob/ob mice (Fig. 1, B and C). To understand how this marked hyperinsulinemia develops in mice that are otherwise metabolically normal, we studied islet gene expression and β-cell proliferation in WT and ob/ob mice. Expression of the Insulin genes and of Glucokinase, a central component of the glucose-sensing machinery of β cells (Grupe et al., 1995), was increased 50% and 140%, respectively, in ob/ob mice (Fig. 1 D), at least partly explaining the aforementioned increased insulin levels. Serum c-peptide levels were increased 2.5-fold in ob/ob mice (Fig. S1 E). There was also a small but detectable and reproducible increase in insulin content in ob/ob pancreata (Fig. S1 F). In addition, expression of Cdk4, a gene favoring β-cell ...
BCG-treated patients and one placebo-treated patient who, after enrollment, unexpectedly developed acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, a known tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inducer, exclusively showed increases in dead insulin-autoreactive T cells and induction of Tregs. C-peptide levels (pmol/L) significantly rose transiently in two BCG-treated subjects (means, 3.49 pmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.95-3.8]; 2.57 [95% CI 1.65-3.49]) and the EBV-infected subject (3.16 [95% CI, 2.54-3.69]) vs.1.65 [95% CI, 1.55-3.2] in reference diabetic subjects. BCG-treated subjects each had more than 50% of their C-peptide values above the 95th percentile of the reference subjects. The EBV-infected subject had 18% of C-peptide values above this level.. ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplant) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplant) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests ...
Plasma insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide responses to 25 g glucose orally and intravenously administered were measured in 10 healthy males. Plasma insulin response was higher during the oral load in accordance with the incretin concept. However, the actual amountof insulin secreted, as measured by the plasma C-peptide response, was similar during the two glucose loads. The higher plasma insulin response after oral glucose was not due to crossreactivity with proinsulin in the insulin assay. These results suggest that the higher plasma insulin response during an oral glucose load is due at least partially to a lower hepatic extraction of insulin.. ...
The identification of biomarkers distinguishing diabetes subtypes from each other could have great clinical value. LADA, which is associated with a faster progression to insulin replacement therapy compared with T2D, may be difficult to distinguish from T2D at diagnosis (3). This is largely due to the heterogeneity of LADA, combining different metabolic (3) and genetic (6) features of T1D and T2D. In this study, we examined whether metabolite profiling could identify metabolites with improved capability of distinguishing LADA from T1D and T2D.. LADA was found to be a metabolic intermediate of T1D and T2D, overlapping significantly with both of these types. Hence, the metabolome mirrors the clinical heterogeneity. Consequently, no unique metabolic marker could be identified that had the capacity of distinguishing between LADA and the other diabetes types. Instead, all three diabetes types were found along a metabolic continuum, extending from T1D via LADA to T2D. Plasma C-peptide levels was found ...
OBJECTIVE: To assess age-related changes in stimulated plasma C-peptide in a population-based sample of adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Wadena, Minnesota, a city of 4,699 residents (1980 census) in west central Minnesota, approximately 150 miles from Minneapolis/St. Paul. STUDY SUBJECTS: 344 non-diabetic subjects (NDDG standards) from a stratified random sample of the total adult population of Wadena, MN. The six-study strata were men and women from three age groups: young, 20-39 years of age; middle-aged, 40-59; and older, greater than 60 years of age. MEASUREMENTS: During a liquid meal of Ensure-Plus (Ensure-Plus challenge test; EPCT; Ross Laboratories), blood samples were taken for glucose, free fatty acids, creatinine, and C-peptide. Plasma C-peptide taken 90 minutes after the EPCT was used as a surrogate measure for insulin. Clinical tests included one-time samples for hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins. Physical ...
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare provider. Test results are given in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). Normal results are within the range of 0.5 to 2.0 ng/mL, but can vary depending upon the lab that is used for testing. A high level of C-peptide could mean a number of conditions. These include a kidney problem or an insulinoma, a tumor of the insulin-making cells in the pancreas. It could also mean you need to adjust the amount of insulin you take. A level of C-peptide thats lower than normal means that your body isnt making enough insulin or that your pancreas isnt working properly. ...
C-Peptide, Human, 10 mg. The measurement of the C-peptide under standardized conditions provides a sensitive well accepted and clinically validated assessment of ��-cell function.
A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 25 subjects: 17 subjects received ATG (2.5 mg/kg intravenously) followed by pegylated G-CSF (6 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 doses) and 8 subjects received placebo. The primary outcome was the 1-year change in AUC C-peptide following a 2-hour mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). At baseline, the age (mean ± SD) was 24.6 ± 10 years; mean BMI was 25.4 ± 5.2 kg/m2; mean A1c was 6.5% ± 1.1%; insulin use was 0.31 ± 0.22 units/kg/d; and length of diagnosis was 1 ± 0.5 years.. ...
1992 (English)In: Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolism. Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0394-3402, E-ISSN 1720-8343, Vol. 5, no 4, 243-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
A substance your pancreas releases into your bloodstream in equal amounts to insulin. A test of C-peptide levels shows how much insulin the body is making ...
Press release - Allied Market Research - Glycosylated Hemoglobin and C-Peptide Market to Obtain Awesome Hike in Revenues - published on
O.k. everyone, I just got my test results back in my inbox. I was only able to get three done at this particular lab--C-Peptide, Serum; GAD-65 Autoantibody; Antipancreatic Islet Cells. Im going to need you to help me interpret them. The C-Peptide Serum - Result = 9.1 (HIGH); Range (1.1 - 4.4) ---...
Ive been doing some reading online about the C-Peptide test. I recently had one, and the results didnt make much sense to me~most of the articles that I read have said that insulin can cause a false reading. So my results it sounds like are worthless because I had my pump running. I also understand that there are some diabetics that take oral meds in addition to insulin, and that too can cause problems with test results. ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] ...
A C-peptide test can help doctors tell the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also can help find the cause of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
A C-peptide test can help doctors tell the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also can help find the cause of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
This is in response to Sharons? question about receiving results of a normal c-peptide even though she is type 1. My heart goes out to you for I posted a month or two back about having the same experience. I have had diabetes 29 years (since age 12) with lots of DKA episodes and have all of the complications. When my endo received a 0.7 reading back he and I both were angry. I cried and he assured me that the lab who did the test was lousy and he had the same problem with other pts. who had diabetes even longer than me. I learned that the test is a hard assay to do and you have to deal with a reliable lab. They redrew the blood and sent it off to a reliable lab and it came back below normal at less than 0.3. He said that everybodys results even if they are type 1 and have a dead pancreas like mine would have the numbers range from 0-1.0 if you tested them each day for a week( in other words it varies alot). I learned a valuable lesson that day that blood tests are not always accurate or tell ...
Aggregation of the highly amyloidogenic IAPP is endogenously inhibited inside beta-cell granules at millimolar concentrations. Combining in vitro experiments and computer simulations, we demonstrated that the stabilization of IAPP upon the formation of zinc-coordinated ion molecular complex with C-peptide mi
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Recent results indicate that proinsulin C-peptide, contrary to previous views, exerts important physiological effects and shows the characteristics of a bioactive peptide. Studies in type 1 diabetes, involving animal models as well as patients, demonstrate that C-peptide in replacement doses has the ability to improve peripheral nerve function and prevent or reverse the development of nerve structural abnormalities. Peripheral nerve function, as evaluated by determination of sensory nerve conduction velocity and quantitative sensory testing, is improved by C-peptide replacement in diabetes type 1 patients with early stage neuropathy. Similarly, autonomic nerve dysfunction is ameliorated following administration of C peptide for up to 3 months. As evaluated in animal models of type 1 diabetes, the improved nerve function is accompanied by reversal or prevention of nerve structural changes, and the mechanisms of
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Proinsulin is converted into insulin by the action of two endoproteases. Type I (PC1/PC3) is thought to cleave between the B-chain and the connecting peptide (C-peptide) and type II (PC2) between the C-peptide and the A-chain. An acidic region immediately C-terminal to the point of cleavage at the B-chain/C-peptide junction is well conserved throughout evolution and has been suggested to be important for proinsulin conversion [Gross, Villa-Komaroff, Kahn, Weir and Halban (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 21486-21490]. We have here compared the precise role of this region as a whole and just the first acidic residue C-terminal to the point of cleavage in processing of proinsulin by PC3. To this end, several mutations were introduced in this region of human proinsulin (native sequence, B-chain RREAEDL C-peptide): RRPAEDL (C1Pro mutant); RRLAEDL (C1Leu mutant); RRL (C1-C4del mutant); RRE (del-C1Glu mutant). Mutant and native cDNAs were stably transfected into AtT20 (pituitary corticotroph) cells, in which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin secretion. AU - Zangeneh, Farhad. AU - Arora, Puneet S.. AU - Dyck, Peter J.. AU - Bekris, Lynn. AU - Lernmark, Ake. AU - Achenbach, Sara J.. AU - Oberg, Ann L.. AU - Rizza, Robert A.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Objective: To gain insight into the effects of duration of type 2 diabetes on insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: C-peptide concentrations were measured every 2 years before and after intravenous injection of 1 mg of glucagon in 89 patients with type 2 diabetes (51 men and 38 women) as part of the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study in those subjects who participated in follow-up (median, 12 years; range, 6 to 14). Results: Although insulin secretion decreased over time (P,0.001) in the group as a whole, both the pattern and the rate of decline in C-peptide concentration differed considerably among the study subjects. Insulin secretion, whether measured as fasting C-peptide, ...
0046] For example, glucose and insulin were markedly elevated by the two highest lard concentration and consequently also the HOMA value indicating a state of insulin resistance (FIG. 2). Plasma glucose levels in week 15 were 11.8 mM, 13.9 mM, 15.7 mM and 16.5 for group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Plasma C-peptide levels (C-peptide is co-secreted with insulin but has a greater plasma half-life) in week 12 were 2.0, 3.0, 3.1 and 3.7 ng/mL for group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Plasma cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were markedly elevated by all diets. More specifically, plasma cholesterol levels in week 18 were 8, 19, 24, 26 mM and plasma triglyceride levels in week 18 were 1, 3, 4, 5 mM for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The increase in total plasma cholesterol was mainly confined to cholesterol in LDL particles (as revealed by lipoprotein analysis, not shown). Systemic inflammation (quantified by serum amyloid A in plasma) was 2.5, 7.1, 8.3, 22.8 μg/mL for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, ...
Looking for the definition of c-peptide? Find out what is the full meaning of c-peptide on! Signal Peptide is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Hi... Boy these comments and posts are helpful. I am a patient that has had autnomic neuropathy symptoms for 3 yrs, which were manageable and tought to actually be carcinoid syndrome instead for a while. I am now seeing a doc who thinks that it was diabetes/metabolic syndrome the entire time. In Dec. my FBS was 219, my 1 hr PP was 79... Haha (so weird) and my C-peptide was 2.1 ...also had a lot of assessment looks of a diabetic to my doc (scleroedema, tight tendons in feet/hands, swollen fingers and face), but weight 143 @ 5ft 8in. My HgbA1c was 5.5. In March i was starting to have peripheral neuropathy symptoms and my my C-peptide had gone up to 3.3, but no FBS was done. I finally bought my own BS equipment and started testing.. I have had mostly 89s and the range of BS have been 78-98 with one outlier of 128. I am losing more weight and am now 139 and my peripheral neuropathy is increasing and is obviously small fiber neuropathy. My doc will not come down on any real specifics of my diabetes ...
Hi... Boy these comments and posts are helpful. I am a patient that has had autnomic neuropathy symptoms for 3 yrs, which were manageable and tought to actually be carcinoid syndrome instead for a while. I am now seeing a doc who thinks that it was diabetes/metabolic syndrome the entire time. In Dec. my FBS was 219, my 1 hr PP was 79... Haha (so weird) and my C-peptide was 2.1 ...also had a lot of assessment looks of a diabetic to my doc (scleroedema, tight tendons in feet/hands, swollen fingers and face), but weight 143 @ 5ft 8in. My HgbA1c was 5.5. In March i was starting to have peripheral neuropathy symptoms and my my C-peptide had gone up to 3.3, but no FBS was done. I finally bought my own BS equipment and started testing.. I have had mostly 89s and the range of BS have been 78-98 with one outlier of 128. I am losing more weight and am now 139 and my peripheral neuropathy is increasing and is obviously small fiber neuropathy. My doc will not come down on any real specifics of my diabetes ...
A frail 79-year-old lady with dementia presented with a 2-year history of frequent falls. Recurrent hypoglycaemic episodes were diagnosed and treated with continuous glucose infusion in multiple hospital admissions. Hypoadrenalism and hypothyroidism were ruled out. Whilst hypoglycaemic (blood glucose 1.6 mmol/L), both plasma C-peptide and proinsulin concentrations, were inappropriately elevated at 4210 pmol/L (174-960) and ,200 pmol/L (0-7) respectively with plasma insulin suppressed at 12 pmol/L (0-180). Whilst reported cases of proinsulinoma are typically pancreatic in origin, radiological investigations of the pancreas in this patient did not identify abnormalities. Unexpectedly contrast CT identified a heterogeneously enhancing mass (6.6 cm) at the lower pole of the left kidney consistent with renal cell carcinoma. Non-islet cell tumour-induced hypoglycaemia has been associated with renal malignancy; however, a serum IGF2:IGF1 ratio measured at ,10 effectively excludes this diagnosis. ...
BOSTON - Researchers may have found a specific dietary pattern linked to levels of C-peptide concentrations that increase a womans risk for colorectal cancer.. High red meat intake, fish intake, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, but low coffee, whole grains and high-fat dairy intake, when taken as a whole, seemed to be associated with higher levels of C-peptide in the blood, said Teresa T. Fung, S.D., R.D., professor of nutrition at Simmons College in Boston, who presented the data at the 10th AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, held Oct. 22-25, 2011.. C-peptide is a marker of insulin secretion that can be measured in a persons blood. High levels of insulin may promote cell growth and multiplication. One of the major characteristics of cancer is aberrant cell growth. Higher levels of C-peptide, and therefore insulin, may promote cancer cell growth. Colon cancer seems to be one of the cancers that are sensitive to insulin, Fung said. This research has ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests.
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This is a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, single-center study to evaluate stimulated C-peptide secretion after exogenous administration of mild immunosuppression and growth-promoting factors to women with preexisting T1DM who had a decline in insulin requirement or had detectable C-peptide during a previous pregnancy. Fifteen subjects will be enrolled and randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to either active treatment or placebo in a parallel group design.. Participation for individual subjects will consist of an initial Screening Visit, a 2-week baseline period, a Baseline Visit, visits at week 2 and 4 of the treatment period, a visit at the end of the treatment period (week 6), and a follow-up visit 2 weeks after study treatment discontinuation.. Subjects will receive either active treatment or matching placebo of estradiol 1 mg every 8 hours; medroxyprogesterone 2.5 mg every 24 hours; hydrocortisone 2.5 mg every morning, 1.25 mg every afternoon, and 1.25 mg at bedtime each night; ...
The ratio between proinsulin and insulin levels by IDA increased from in non-diabetics to in type II diabetics, whereas the ratio between C-peptide and insulin levels by IDA decreased.
The investigators previous research (Taubel et al., 2013) has shown that in healthy individuals glucose by itself can prolong (with C-peptide antagonising the effects) the QT interval, which has long been used as a clinical index of the duration of ventricular repolarisation. This observation warrants serious attention because it suggests that high glucose levels by themselves may be pro-arrhythmogenic. To investigate whether glucose has an effect on cardiac repolarisation, it would be advantageous to test this in an environment uncomplicated by C-peptide. In order to elucidate the effects of glucose on the QTc in the absence of C-peptide, the investigators will use diabetic patients who are no longer able to release endogenous C-peptide. This will allow better understanding to whether (1) the well established QTc prolongation caused by moxifloxacin is exaggerated by elevated levels of blood glucose, which would be important for evaluating the risk in diabetic patients using an IKr blocking drug ...
C peptide is an active peptide hormone with potentially important physiological effects. C peptide has the capacity to diminishglomerular hyperfiltration and reduce urinary albumin excretion in both experimental and human type 1 diabetes. The presentstudy is aimed at correlating the serum C peptide level with that of renal clearance, urinary albumin excretion and duration ofdiabetes. This is a prospective cross sectional study. Patients with diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus were evaluated fortheir baseline clinical and laboratory profile. Both males and females above the age of 18 years were included in the study.The laboratory investigations include fasting serum C peptide, HbA1C, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urine albumin and creatinine. Creatinine clearance was calculated using modification of diet in renal disease formula from serum creatinine value.A total of 168 patients were included in the study, among them 90 were females (53.57%) and 78 males (46.43%). Mean ageof the ...
Purified Recombinant Human Proinsulin protein from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human Proinsulin protein can be used for research.
The overall goal of this project is to identify and define changes in temporal patterns of insulin secretion and the interactions between insulin secretion and...
OBJECTIVE To understand the relationships between maternal glycemia during pregnancy and prenatal and early postnatal development by evaluating cable C-peptide and IGF-I simply because mediating biomarkers in children separately. on delivery fat was mediated by fetal insulin and IGF-I in both children. However, in young ladies just, higher concentrations of wire C-peptide (however, not wire IGF-I or maternal blood sugar) were connected with slower pounds development in the 1st three months of existence. CONCLUSIONS Our research underlines the part from the fetal insulinCIGF-I axis in the partnership between maternal glycemia during being pregnant and birth pounds. We also display for the very first time that high insulin focus in feminine fetuses is connected with slower early postnatal development. This slow, early development design may be designed by fetal hyperinsulinemia, and women Cldn5 may be more vulnerable than boys to its consequences. A U-shaped romantic relationship has been proven ...
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This blood test is used to evaluate your bodys production of insulin. Its used to help diagnose blood sugar disorders such as diabetes.
This blood test is used to evaluate your bodys production of insulin. Its used to help diagnose blood sugar disorders such as diabetes.
Purpose of Review To explore the impact of age on type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Recent Findings Children progress more rapidly from autoantibody positivity to T1D and have lower C-peptide levels compared to adults. In histological analysis of post-mortem pancreata, younger age of diagnosis is associated with reduced numbers of insulin containing islets and a hyper-immune CD20hi infiltrate. Moreover compared to adults, children exhibit decreased immune regulatory function and increased engagement and trafficking of autoreactive CD8+ T cells, and age-related differences in β cell vulnerability may also contribute to the more aggressive immune phenotype observed in children. To account for some of these differences, HLA and non-HLA genetic loci that influence multiple disease characteristics, including age of onset, are being increasingly characterized. Summary The exception of T1D as an autoimmune disease more prevalent in children than adults results from a combination of immune, ...
The pathway is something like this : Pre proinsulin produced in Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum of Pancreas --, Transported to the Golgi apparatus and cleaved to form Proinsulin --, Packed into secretory granules --, In these granules proinsulin is converted to : Insulin and C peptide. - Traditionally it is said to have no intrinsic activity but recent studies say it might have anti oxidant and anti inflammatory properties. 2. What does it indicate ? ...
A human protein may effectively prevent and even reverse cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Researchers discovered that large doses of C-peptide, a by-product of the production of insulin, repaired damaged blood vessels and nerves in diabetic rats. The study is described in the July 25, 1997, issue of Science.
Peptides: somatostatin, substance P, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, opioid peptides Purines: adenosine ... TAAR1 is a high-affinity receptor for METH/AMPH and DA Lin Y, Hall RA, Kuhar MJ (October 2011). "CART peptide stimulation of G ... Nevertheless, in some cases a peptide is the primary transmitter at a synapse. β-endorphin is a relatively well-known example ... In addition, over 50 neuroactive peptides have been found, and new ones are discovered regularly. Many of these are "co- ...
One of these peptides is calciseptine. It makes up 2.8% of the venom of the Black Mamba. When first purified, the peptide was ... Although peptides from the three-fingered family are alike in structure, only some of them are able to bind and block calcium ... In general, toxic peptides of 10-40 amino acids have been found to have a relatively poor bioavailability due to their size and ... Although the toxic peptides are generally small (about 60 amino acids), their size is sufficient to prevent them from crossing ...
"Use of Merrifield solid phase peptide synthesis in investigations of biological deamidation of peptides and proteins". Peptide ... Robinson, Arthur B.; McKerrow, James H.; Cary, Paul (1970). "Controlled Deamidation of Peptides and Proteins: An Experimental ... "Distribution of glutamine and asparagine residues and their near neighbors in peptides and proteins". PNAS. 88 (20): 8880-8884 ...
... covalent crosslinking of the peptide bonds by the cyclol reaction above. The cyclol crosslink draws the two peptide groups ... The classic cyclol reaction is the addition of the NH amine of a peptide group to the C=O carbonyl group of another; the ... Peptides are naturally produced from the reversion of azacylols, a key prediction of the cyclol model. Hundreds of cyclol ... In this case, the key hypothesis was that the cyclol form of the peptide group could be favored over the amide form. This ...
Fuchs, S. M.; Raines, R. T. (2006). "Internalization of cationic peptides: The road less (or more?) traveled". Cell. Mol. Life ... Mechanistic Insight on cellular redox homeostasis and on imperatives for the uptake of cationic proteins and peptides by ... Peptide Science; Protein Engineering, Design & Selection; and Scientific Advisory Board of the Keystone Symposia. "Professors ...
... a frog opioid peptide of methionine in deltorphin, also a frog opioid peptide protein splicing, self-catalytic removal of ... For instance, the peptide hormone insulin is cut twice after disulfide bonds are formed, and a propeptide is removed from the ... Other forms of post-translational modification consist of cleaving peptide bonds, as in processing a propeptide to a mature ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Bradbury AF, Smyth DG (1991). "Peptide amidation". Trends Biochem Sci. 16 (3): ...
The fusion peptide region is normally buried or hidden by the non-covalent interactions between gp120 and gp41, at a point ... The fusion peptide on the N-terminus of the gp41 is also a potential target because it contains neutralizing antibody epitopes ... N36 and C34, or NHR- and CHR-based peptides (or short sequences of amino acids that mimic portions of gp41) can also act as ... In a free virion, the fusion peptides at the amino termini of gp41 are buried within the envelope complex in an inactive non- ...
Among peptides obtained from biopannings, mimotopes can be considered as a kind of peptide aptamers. All the peptides panned ... Peptide aptamers. They consist of one (or more) short variable peptide domains, attached at both ends to a protein scaffold. ... Stabilisation of the peptide upon the protein scaffold constrains the possible conformations which the peptide may take, thus ... Peptide aptamers can also be selected from combinatorial peptide libraries constructed by phage display and other surface ...
"Ribosomal biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide toxins of Amanita mushrooms". Peptide Science. 94 (5): 659-664. doi:10.1002/bip. ... Phalloidin was one of the first cyclic peptides to be discovered. It was isolated from the death cap mushroom and crystallized ... After translation, the peptide must be proteolyticly excised, cyclized, hydroxylated, Trp-Cys cross-linked to form ... Essentially, it follows typical small peptide synthesis, using hydroxyl-proline. The major difficulty in synthesis is the ...
"Son peptide". Voet D, Voet JG (2011). Biochemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-57095-1. ...
Tuchscherer, Gabriele (April 20, 1999). "Extending the concept of template-assembled synthetic proteins". J. Peptide Res. 54: ...
RF(Arg-Phe)amide family 26 amino acid peptide, also known as P518, is a human protein. The 26-amino acid RF-amide peptide, P518 ... The 43-amino acid QRFP peptide, a longer form of the P518 peptide is necessary to exhibit full agonistic activity with GPR103. ... 2005). "Structural studies on 26RFa, a novel human RFamide-related peptide with orexigenic activity". Peptides. 26 (5): 779-89 ... doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.01.006. PMID 15808908. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and ...
"Awards". American Peptide Society. Retrieved 17 February 2017. "Josef Rudinger Memorial Award". European Peptide Society. ... In 2015 he was awarded the R. Bruce Merrifield Award by the American Peptide Society. In 2008 he was jointly awarded the Josef ... In 2002 he was awarded the Vincent du Vigneaud Award by the American Peptide Society. In 2001 he was awarded the Max Planck ... "Awards". American Peptide Society. Retrieved 17 February 2017. "Zwölf Wissenschaftler mit dem Max-Planck-Forschungspreis ...
For these peptides, cross-polymerization (fibrils of one polypeptide sequence causing other fibrils of another sequence to form ... "BioPure Amyloid Peptides". Morley, JF; Brignull, HR; Weyers, JJ; Morimoto, RI (Aug 2002). "The threshold for polyglutamine- ... Wise-Scira O, Xu L, Kitahara T, Perry G, Coskuner O (October 2011). "Amyloid-β peptide structure in aqueous solution varies ... The major component of pancreatic amyloid is a 37-amino acid residue peptide known as islet amyloid polypeptide or amylin. This ...
... signal peptide and 3 peptide encoded by exon 1, 2, and 3. The signal peptide guides pro resilin into extracellular space, where ... Exon 1 encoded peptide is mainly hydrophilic, and is more extended when immersed in water. In contrast, exon 3 encoded peptide ... which allows the peptide sequence segment to be very soft and highly flexible. Exon 3 encoded peptide takes on the unstructured ... Cross linked peptides encoded by exon 1 have a resilience greater than 93%, while that encoded by exon 3 has a resilience of 86 ...
C domain forms a peptide bond between two amino acids, D-Phe and L-Pro. L-Val, L-Orn, and L-Leu are incorporated sequentially ... Another interesting point is that it utilizes two amino acids uncommon in peptides: ornithine as well as the atypical ... After repeating the whole module synthesis once again, TE domain cyclizes and releases the two peptides and dimerize them ... Gramicidin S biosynthetic pathway consists of two-enzyme of nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs), gramicidin S synthetase I ( ...
Agouti related peptide Agouti signalling peptide Albumin I Covalitoxin-II Grammotoxin Guangxitoxin Hainantoxin Hanatoxin ... The mammalian proteins Agouti signalling peptide and Agouti related peptide are the only known mammalian examples of this motif ... ICK peptide components of venoms target voltage-gated ion channels but members of the family also act as antibacterial and ... "Novel Inhibitor Cystine Knot Peptides from Momordica charantia". PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e75334. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075334. ...
This includes innovative therapeutic and diagnostic products; novel drug delivery systems; protein/peptide therapeutics; ...
"Optimized Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of the cysteine-rich peptide linaclotide" (PDF). Biopolymers (Peptide Science). 96 (1): 69 ... It is a synthetic tetradecapeptide (14 amino acid peptide) with the sequence CCEYCCNPACTGCY by one-letter abbreviation,[ ... is an oligo-peptide agonist of guanylate cyclase 2C. It was approved by the FDA in August 2012 and by the European Medicines ... Linaclotide is a peptide mimic of endogenous guanylin and uroguanylin. ...
Peptide Letters. 15 (6): 612-616. doi:10.2174/092986608784966930. PMID 18680458. Tree of Life project: Eukaryotes. ...
Azimov, Rustam; Kagan, Bruce L. (2015-01-01). "Amyloid Peptide Channels". In Delcour, Anne H. Amyloid Peptide Channels. ... Peptides. Amyloid Peptides. 23 (7): 1311-1315. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(02)00067-0. PMID 12128087. Arispe, N; Pollard, H B; Rojas ... Peptide in Aqueous Media is Reversible: A Step by Step Conformational Analysis Suggests the Location of β Conformation Seeding ... peptides". The FASEB Journal. 16 (12): 1526-1536. doi:10.1096/fj.02-0829com. ISSN 0892-6638. PMID 12374775. Liu, Dong; Pitta, ...
Peptide Science is the affiliate journal of the American Peptide Society. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the ... "Journal". American Peptide Society. Retrieved 14 May 2017. "Journals Ranked by Impact: Biophysics". 2015 Journal Citation ... The journal has three sections: Peptide Science (established in 1995, published bimonthly), Nucleic Acid Sciences (established ...
2008). "Binding of Tris to Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase can affect its starch hydrolysis activity". Protein Peptide ...
Peptide Letters. 18 (10): 966-978. doi:10.2174/0929866511107010966. PMID 21592084. ...
... thanks to the crystal structure determinations of amino acids and peptides and Pauling's prediction of planar peptide bonds; ... Introduction to Peptides and Proteins. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 36-57. ISBN 9781439882047. Terwilliger TC (March 2010). " ... Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin (1998). "A Helix Propensity Scale Based on Experimental Studies of Peptides and Proteins". ... Milner-White EJ (November 1997). "The partial charge of the nitrogen atom in peptide bonds". Protein Science. 6 (11): 2477-82. ...
The prolactin-releasing peptide identified in 1998 was a candidate for this function, however as of 2008 it appears its ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin axis Lin, S. H. (2008). "Prolactin-Releasing Peptide". Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors and ... vasoactive intestinal peptide and estrogen) those have primary functions other than stimulating prolactin release and the ...
Protein and Peptide Letters. 10 (1): 91-7. doi:10.2174/0929866033408273. PMID 12625830. Yu Y, Ji H, Doudna JA, Leary JA (June ...
α-MSH and ACTH are both peptides derived from processed POMC, and both activate the other MCR's, but ACTH is the only agonist ... Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... Tatro JB (1997). "Receptor biology of the melanocortins, a family of neuroimmunomodulatory peptides". Neuroimmunomodulation. 3 ... Peptide Science. 17 (5): 488-96. doi:10.2174/1389203717666160226145330. PMID 26916163. Iwen KA, Senyaman O, Schwartz A, ...
... , also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that ... I. A CD conformational study". Journal of Peptide Science. 8 (2): 66-79. doi:10.1002/psc.370. PMID 11860030. ... Simonetti M, Di BC (February 2002). "Structural motifs in the maturation process of peptide hormones. The somatostatin ... Secretin Motilin Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) Enteroglucagon Decrease rate of ...
Several peptides, named Pi1-Pi7 were purified from the Pi venom and their primary structure has been identified. The Pandinus ... It is a potent blocker of voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3 and is closely related to another peptide found in the venom, ... The classification of the short peptide toxins is based on the conserved cysteine residues and the phylogenetic analysis of the ... Miller C (July 1995). "The charybdotoxin family of K+ channel-blocking peptides". Neuron. 15 (1): 5-10. doi:10.1016/0896-6273( ...
A C-peptide test can help doctors tell the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also can help find the cause of ... In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin and little or no C-peptide. In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels ... In general, high C-peptide levels are associated with increased insulin production, while low C-peptide levels indicate ... C-peptide, on the other hand, has no effect on blood sugar. It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, since the ...
Dictionary Definition: C-peptide. C-peptide. A substance your pancreas releases into your bloodstream in equal amounts to ... A test of C-peptide levels shows how much insulin the body is making.. ...
A C-peptide test can help doctors tell the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also can help find the cause of ... In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin and little or no C-peptide. In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels ... In general, high C-peptide levels are associated with increased insulin production, while low C-peptide levels indicate ... C-peptide, on the other hand, has no effect on blood sugar. It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, since the ...
... What It Is. C-peptide, like the hormone insulin, is produced in the pancreas. Both are released ... In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin and little or no C-peptide. In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels ... In general, high C-peptide levels are associated with increased insulin production, while low C-peptide levels indicate ... C-peptide, on the other hand, has no effect on blood sugar. It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, since the ...
... copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work from chemists at UC ... The new study looked at C-peptide, or connecting peptide, a short chain of amino acids. C-peptide is being investigated for ... C-peptide is then cut out, stored along with insulin and released at the same time. C-peptide used to be considered a byproduct ... The metals had subtle effects on the structure of C-peptide, notably on its ability to curl into a helix in some conditions. ...
This is in response to Sharons? question about receiving results of a normal c-peptide even though she is type 1. My heart ...
... Hike in Revenues - published on ... EMEA Glycosylated Peptide Market at a Rapid Pace Until 2022 Worldwide Market Reports added Latest Research Report titled " EMEA ... Glycosylated Peptide Market - Global Industry Insights, Trends, Outlook, and Opp … Glycosylation is the reaction in which a ... Global Glycosylated Peptide Market:Key Drivers, Restraints, and Future Prospects … LOS ANGELES, United States: Considering the ...
A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ... Peptide classes[edit]. Peptides are divided into several classes, depending on how they are produced:. Milk peptides Two ... The term peptide has been used to mean secretagogue peptides and peptide hormones in sports doping matters: secretagogue ... Well-known peptide families[edit]. The peptide families in this section are ribosomal peptides, usually with hormonal activity ...
In the example shown, peptide A, but not peptide B, can bind to the HLA molecule. Self-peptides presented to T cells in this ... Three of these peptides were present at levels (,100 copies/cell) that place them among the top 5% of all peptides in the drug- ... To set up the assay, 5 × 105 PBMCs were then exposed to 10 μg/mL of exogenous peptides, either singly or as peptide pools ... D) Abacavir binding in the F pocket does not alter the peptide conformation compared with other peptide/HLA-B complexes. A ...
... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides ... cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides ... immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, ... A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ...
The development of peptide chemistry in the second half of this century is so closely related to hormone research that it ... Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Human Insulin Disulfide Bridge Peptide Hormone Arginine Vasopressin These keywords were added by ... R. Guillemin, Peptides in the brain: the new endocrinology of the neuron. (Nobel Lecture) Science 202: 390-402 (1978).PubMed ... The development of peptide chemistry in the second half of this century is so closely related to hormone research that it ...
... peptide microarrays will likely expand beyond being just a research tool into an a ... In Peptide Microarrays: Methods and Protocols, experts in the field provide a cutting-edge view of peptide array technology, ... A Designed Peptide Chip: Protein Fingerprinting Technology with a Dry Peptide Array and Statistical Data Mining ... Synthesis of Peptide Arrays Using SPOT-Technology and the CelluSpots-Method Dirk F.H. Winkler, Kai Hilpert, Ole Brandt, Robert ...
... shorter strings of linked amino acids are known as peptides). ... Peptide Bond A peptide bond is a linkage between the building ... Peptide Bond. A peptide bond is a linkage between the building blocks of proteins called amino acids (shorter strings of linked ... The synthesis of proteins involves the formation of many peptide bonds. Cleavage of peptide bonds, involved in digestion of ... peptide bond A chemical bond that links 2 or more amino acids by a reaction between carboxyl and amino groups. According to the ...
... a peptide, one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels. There are three forms of angiotensin. ... peptide. Peptide. , any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins, but smaller. The ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. One peptide, angiotensin (angiotonin or hypertensin), is formed in the blood from ... Angiotensin, a peptide, one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels. ...
The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of ... Peptide molecules are composed of two or more ... Peptide, any organic substance of which the molecules are ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target ...
atrial n. p. (*ANP*) a peptide produced in the atria of the heart in response to a rise in atrial pressure. ... any of several peptides that stimulate diuresis and vasodilatation. They act on the kidney tubules to promote excretion of ... Others include brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), produced in the central nervous system, and type C natriuretic peptide (CNP).. ... natriuretic peptide Any of several peptide hormones that promote the excretion of sodium ions in the urine (i.e. natriuresis). ...
... Featured events. IMAP 12018, the 8th International Meeting on Antimicrobial Peptides. 2 ... IMAP 2018 will cover both the antimicrobial activity of peptides as well as their role in regulation and modulation of the ...
... of how peptides (and proteins) interact with lipid bilayers. This session will address the simplest membrane and peptide ... The behaviour of peptides and proteins within membranes will be considered further in this session. Discussion in the first two ... Chair, Peptide-membrane interactions. Format of the Discussion. Faraday Discussions remain amongst the only conferences to ... Peptide-membrane interactions and biotechnology; enabling next-generation synthetic biology. This session will consider how the ...
... opioid peptides, pituitary peptides, hypothalamic releasing hormones, and a catch-all category containing all other peptides ... such as substance P and the opioid peptides, are involved in the perception of pain (see Chapter 10). Still other peptides, ... the release of multiple neuroactive peptides from a single vesicle often elicits complex postsynaptic responses. Peptides are ... Such processing can result in a number of different neuroactive peptides such as ACTH, γ-lipotropin, and β-endorphin (A), or ...
Bioactive peptides are small protein fragments that promote metabolic health by exerting a positive influence on biological ... Typical opioid peptides have the same N-terminal sequence of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, while atypical opioid peptides have varying amino ... Marine-derived bioactive peptides, such as jellyfish collagen peptides, protein hydrolysates from muscles of goby fish and ... Milk-Derived Bioactive Peptides. Milk-derived bioactive peptides also exert multiple therapeutic functions, such as ...
peptide: [home, info] *peptide: Macmillan Dictionary [home, info] *Peptide, peptide: Wordnik [home, info] * ... peptide: Rhymezone [home, info] *peptide: Free Dictionary [home, info] *peptide: Mnemonic Dictionary [home, info] *peptide: ... Peptide: AIDSinfo Glossary [home, info] *Peptide: Diabetes Dictionary [home, info] *Peptide: Diabetes [home, info] *peptide: ... Phrases that include peptide: peptide bond, vasoactive intestinal peptide, b type natriuretic peptide, c-type natriuretic ...
The subgroup of peptides having the target property can then be selected, and either each peptide isolated and sequenced, or ... thereof which have a target property and optionally to determine the amino acid sequence of a selected peptide or peptides to ... the method of the invention comprises synthesizing a mixture of randomly or deliberately generated peptides using standard ... A method to obtain selected individual peptides or families ... The peptide mixture of claim 8, wherein at least one peptide in ...
Os peptides Bioactive são os fragmentos pequenos da proteína que promovem a saúde metabólica exercendo uma influência positiva ... Aplicações terapêuticas de Peptides Bioactive Marinho-Derivados. os peptides bioactive Marinho-derivados, tais como peptides do ... Os peptides típicos do opiáceo têm a mesma seqüência do N-terminal de Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, quando os peptides atípicos do opiáceo ... Propriedades farmacológicas de Peptides Bioactive. O tipo de ácido aminado do n e do C-terminal, o comprimento chain do peptide ...
Find Insulin C-peptide information, treatments for Insulin C-peptide and Insulin C-peptide symptoms. ... MedHelps Insulin C-peptide Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Insulin C-peptide. ... I got the results for my blood test, and the Dr said my c-peptide was very low and my A... ... C-peptide, Insulin, Hemoglobin glycated results to confirm - Diabetes Prevention & Pre-Diabetes Community ...
... Naveed Natanzi,1,2 Mazyar Amini,1,2 David Yamini,1,2 Shawn Nielsen,1,2 and Ramin Ram1,2 ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor is a rare neoplasm associated with significant morbidity and mortality through secretion of ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm which causes voluminous watery diarrhea via ... and Cochrane databases in collection of data using MeSH terms including vasoactive intestinal peptide, VIPoma, and WDHA. ...
... Tom mdp96tab at Wed Feb 23 12:52:38 EST 2000 *Previous message: Peptide ELISA ... peptide from a 10 mg/ml peptide stock was added to 10 mls of , carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (enough for one plate). 100 ml per ... In article ,87l6cc$jgq$1 at,, jack_horner at wrote: , From the method I use: , 1. Antigen (peptide/ ... I guess its just a desperate attempt to get peptide to stick down ( and beleive me I was desperate!). Thanks to all for your ...
The insulin C-peptide test measures the amount of this product in the blood. ... C-peptide is a substance that is created when the hormone insulin is produced and released into the body. ... Normal C-peptide level is based on blood sugar level. C-peptide is a sign that your body is producing insulin. A low level (or ... C-peptide is a substance that is created when the hormone insulin is produced and released into the body. The insulin C-peptide ...
Prediction of peptide retention times.. Sakamoto Y1, Kawakami N, Sasagawa T. ... A new approach for predicting the retention times of peptides, either with isocratic or gradient elution is described. The ... it is possible to calculate the retention time of a peptide eluted by a gradient, for any slope of gradient, flow-rate and ... isocratic capacity factors of peptides are correlated with their molecular weights and with their hydrophobicities. Given the ...
... based protein identification via peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) is a key component in high-throughput proteome research. ... peptide mass fingerprinting peak bagging protein identification new peak random peak subset single m pmf algorithm multiple pmf ... Motivation: Mass Spectrometry(MS) based protein identification via peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) is a key component in high ...
This conceptual illustration shows how peptide heteropolymers can be programmed from smaller components to explore a diverse ... This conceptual illustration shows how peptide heteropolymers can be programmed from smaller components to explore a diverse ... Computational strategies overcome obstacles in peptide therapeutics development. University of Washington Health Sciences/UW ...
A research team led by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now determined how peptides can be designed so that they ... Peptides, short amino acid chains that control many functions in the human body, represent a billion-dollar market, also in the ... Breakthrough for peptide medication The Holy Grail of peptide chemistry: New strategy makes peptide active agents available ... "In the past, experts have designated the oral availability of peptide-based medications as the holy grail of peptide chemistry ...
More specifically the invention relates to the use of such peptide-based compounds used as targeting vectors that bind to ... This invention relates to new peptide-based compounds and their use in therapeutically effective treatments as well as for ... The peptide was synthesised on an ABI 433A automatic peptide synthesiser starting with Fmoc-Gly-Wang resin on a 0.25 mmol scale ... The peptide was synthesised on a ABI 433A automatic peptide synthesiser starting with Fmoc-Gly Wang resin (Novabiochem) on a ...
... mdp96tab at mdp96tab at Mon Apr 2 10:33:46 EST 2001 *Previous message: Random ... So my question is this, do any of you out there have a small amount of a phage based random peptide library that youd be ... Ive been using a couple of commercially available libraries (7mer to 12mer) to look for peptide sequences which bind cell ... Dear All, Im mailing to request further information and possible donations of random peptide libraries. ...
... showing how the peptide is oriented within the protein. ... GFP Peptide - Explores the structure of an oligopeptide, then ... GFP Peptide - Explores the structure of an oligopeptide, then zooms out to the whole GFP protein, showing how the peptide is ... GFP Peptide - Explores the structure of an oligopeptide, then zooms out to the whole GFP protein, showing how the peptide is ... GFP Peptide. Website Address: ...
Polly Peptides Latest Activity. * Confused about this Offer?? HELP! Polly Peptide replied to Nursinggetways topic in NP ...
The IPL reaction allows ligation of a synthetic peptide or a protein with an N-terminal cysteine residue to the C-terminus of ... Peptide Ligation. Product Listing Application Overview The IPL reaction allows the ligation of a synthetic peptide or a protein ... fuses two synthetic peptides when the N-terminal cysteine of one peptide attacks a C-terminal thioester of another peptide (2,3 ... Home Applications Protein Analysis & Tools Protein Labeling Peptide Ligation ...
  • C-peptide is being investigated for potential in treating kidney disease and nerve damage in diabetes, so any better understanding of how it behaves in different conditions could be useful in drug development. (
  • We can use the C-peptide levels to screen high-risk people for diabetes and prediabetes. (
  • Researchers used logistic regression analysis to assess the associations of C-peptide and the risk for developing prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. (
  • In restricted cubic spline models, researchers observed a positive, linear association between C-peptide as a continuous variable and the risks for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, with results persisting when stratified by healthy weight and overweight participants. (
  • The C-peptide measurement is the most suitable primary outcome for clinical trials of therapies aimed at preserving or improving endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetes patients. (
  • Clinical studies demonstrated that C-peptide administration in type 1 diabetes patients who lack the peptide alleviates the diabetes-induced renal and nerve dysfunctions. (
  • Stimulated C-peptide concentrations (after a standard meal challenge such as Sustacal or after glucagon) are somewhat preserved until late in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • If c-peptide is not present at the time of diagnosis, then total beta-cell failure has occurred, suggesting type 1 diabetes. (
  • several years type 2 diabetes often become insulin and C-peptide de﫿cient. (
  • Type 1 diabetes, c- peptide, mortality. (
  • Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have immunity to cow's-milk albumin, with antibodies to an albumin peptide that are capable of reacting with a beta-cell-specific surface protein. (
  • The clinical utility of C-peptide measurement in the care of patients with diabetes. (
  • Sep 01, 2000 · Normal C-peptide levels for a fasting test are generally considered to be anything between 0.5 nanograms (ng) per millileter (ml) and 3 ng/ml, although people who do not have diabetes may occasionally stray out of this range. (
  • Determine C-peptide concentration of samples from standard curve. (
  • Since the increases in absorbance are directly proportional to the amount of captured C-peptide, the unknown sample concentration can be interpolated from a reference curve included in each assay. (
  • Generate a standard curve by plotting the absorbance obtained (y-axis) against C-peptide concentrations (x-axis). (
  • Metals such as zinc, copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work from chemists at the University of California, Davis. (
  • C-peptide used to be considered a byproduct of insulin production but now scientists know that it acts as a hormone in its own right. (
  • The results show that metals can potentially "tune" the activity of hormones such as C-peptide by altering their structure or affecting uptake into cells, Heffern said. (
  • The researchers measured how readily zinc, copper and chromium bound to C-peptide in test tubes, and how the metals affected the ability of cells to take up C-peptide. (
  • After the last wash step, TMB substrate is added and color develops in proportion to the amount of C-peptide bound initially. (
  • Preprohormones, peptide hormone precursors, are then processed in several stages, typically in the endoplasmic reticulum, including removal of the N-terminal signal sequence and sometimes glycosylation, resulting in prohormones. (
  • In attempts to prolong the half-life of GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs in order to develop a suitable compound for therapeutic use, the Human Serum Albumin (HSA) has been envisioned for the systemic transport of these peptides. (
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