C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type: A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gastrin-Releasing Peptide: Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein PrecursorsTrypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aptamers, Peptide: Peptide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor: Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred C57BLCarrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Bombesin: Cell surface proteins that bind bombesin or closely related peptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP); GRP 18-27 (neuromedin C), and neuromedin B are endogenous ligands of bombesin receptors in mammals.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Trifluoroethanol: A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II: A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.PhosphopeptidesAlamethicin: A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Auto- and alloimmune reactivity to human islet allografts transplanted into type 1 diabetic patients. (1/1227)

Allogeneic islet transplantation can restore an insulin-independent state in C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetic patients. We recently reported three cases of surviving islet allografts that were implanted in type 1 diabetic patients under maintenance immune suppression for a previous kidney graft. The present study compares islet graft-specific cellular auto- and alloreactivity in peripheral blood from those three recipients and from four patients with failing islet allografts measured over a period of 6 months after portal islet implantation. The three cases that remained C-peptide-positive for >1 year exhibited no signs of alloreactivity, and their autoreactivity to islet autoantigens was only marginally increased. In contrast, rapid failure (<3 weeks) in three other cases was accompanied by increases in precursor frequencies of graft-specific alloreactive T-cells; in one of them, the alloreactivity was preceded by a sharply increased autoreactivity to several islet autoantigens. One recipient had a delayed loss of islet graft function (33 weeks); he did not exhibit signs of graft-specific alloimmunity, but developed a delayed increase in autoreactivity. The parallel between metabolic outcome of human beta-cell allografts and cellular auto- and alloreactivity in peripheral blood suggests a causal relationship. The present study therefore demonstrates that T-cell reactivities in peripheral blood can be used to monitor immune mechanisms, which influence survival of beta-cell allografts in diabetic patients.  (+info)

Prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids desensitizes the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo in rats. (2/1227)

Prolonged exposure of pancreatic islets to free fatty acids (FFAs) inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in vitro. However, FFA inhibition of GSIS has not been clearly demonstrated in vivo. We examined the in vivo effect of prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs on GSIS using a two-step hyperglycemic clamp in rats treated with a 48-h intravenous infusion of either 20% Intralipid plus heparin (INT) (5 microl/min plus heparin, 0.1 U/min; n = 8), oleate (OLE) (1.3 microEq/min; n = 6), saline (SAL) (n = 6), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (vehicle for OLE; n = 5). Because there was no difference in any of the parameters between BSA and SAL rats, these groups were combined as control rats (CONT) (n = 11). At the end of the 48-h OLE/INT/CONT infusions, after an overnight fast, plasma glucose was clamped for 2 h at 13 mmol/l and for another 2 h at 22 mmol/l. Preclamp plasma FFAs were elevated twofold (P < 0.01) versus CONT with both INT and OLE (NS, INT vs. OLE). Preclamp glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were higher in INT than in CONT rats (P < 0.05), suggesting insulin resistance, but they were not different in OLE and CONT rats. The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from basal to 13 mmol/l were lower in OLE (336 +/- 72 pmol/l and 1.2 +/- 0.1 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) than in CONT (552 +/- 54 and 1.9 +/- 0.1) rats, but they were not different between CONT and INT rats (648 +/- 150 and 2.0 +/- 0.4). The insulin and C-peptide responses to the rise in plasma glucose from 13 to 22 mmol/l were lower in both INT (1,188 +/- 204 pmol/l and 3.0 +/- 0.3 nmol/l, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) and OLE (432 +/- 60 and 1.7 +/- 0.2, P < 0.001 vs. CONT or INT) rats than in CONT rats (1,662 +/- 174 and 5.0 +/- 0.6). In summary, 1) both INT and OLE decreased GSIS in vivo in rats, and 2) the impairing effect of INT on GSIS was less than that of OLE, which might be due to the different type of fatty acid (mostly polyunsaturated in INT versus monounsaturated as OLE) and/or to differential effects of INT and OLE on insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, prolonged elevation of plasma FFAs can desensitize the insulin secretory response to glucose in vivo, thus inducing a beta-cell defect that is similar to that found in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Resistance to insulin's acute direct hepatic effect in suppressing steady-state glucose production in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (3/1227)

We and others have shown that insulin acutely suppresses glucose production in fasting nondiabetic humans and dogs, by both a direct hepatic effect and an indirect (extrahepatic) effect, and in diabetic dogs by an indirect effect alone. In type 2 diabetes, there is resistance to insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production, but it has not previously been determined whether the resistance is primarily at the level of the hepatocyte or the peripheral tissues. To determine whether the diabetic state reduces the direct effect of insulin in humans, we studied nine patients with untreated type 2 diabetes who underwent three studies each, 4-6 weeks apart. 1) Portal study (POR): intravenous tolbutamide was infused for 3 h with calculation of pancreatic insulin secretion from peripheral plasma C-peptide. 2) Peripheral study (PER): equidose insulin was infused by peripheral vein. 3) Half-dose peripheral insulin study (1/2 PER): matched peripheral insulin levels with study 1. In all studies, glucose was clamped at euglycemia, glucose turnover was measured with the constant specific activity method, and 3-[3H]glucose was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral insulin was lower in POR versus PER but slightly higher in POR versus 1/2 PER, although most of the difference could be accounted for by higher proinsulin levels in POR (stimulated by tolbutamide). Calculated portal insulin was approximately 1.3-fold higher in POR versus PER and approximately 2.2-fold higher in POR versus 1/2 PER. In the final 30 min of the clamp, glucose production reached a lower steady-state level in PER than in POR (4.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.5 pmol(-1) x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05), despite the higher hepatic insulin level in POR. In contrast with our studies in nondiabetic individuals, glucose production was not more suppressed at steady state in POR versus 1/2 PER (5.3 +/- 0.4 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), despite much higher hepatic insulin levels in POR. In conclusion, this is the first study in patients with type 2 diabetes to characterize insulin resistance to the acute direct suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production.  (+info)

Effects of fatty acids and ketone bodies on basal insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. (4/1227)

The objective of this study was to assess the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) as insulin secretagogues in patients with type 2 diabetes. To this end, basal insulin secretion rates (ISR) in response to acute increases in plasma FFAs were evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes and in age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects during 1) intravenous infusion of lipid plus heparin (L/H), which stimulated intravascular lipolysis, and 2) the FFA rebound, which followed lowering of plasma FFAs with nicotinic acid (NA) and was a consequence of increased lipolysis from the subject's own adipose tissue. At comparable euglycemia, diabetic patients had similar ISR but higher plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) levels during L/H infusion and higher plasma FFA and beta-OHB levels during the FFA rebound than nondiabetic control subjects. Correlating ISR with plasma FFA plus beta-OHB levels showed that in response to the same changes in FFA plus beta-OHB levels, diabetic patients secreted approximately 30% less insulin than nondiabetic control subjects. In addition, twice as much insulin was secreted during L/H infusion as during the FFA rebound in response to the same FFA/beta-OHB stimulation by both diabetic patients and control subjects. Glycerol, which was present in the infused lipid (272 mmol/l) did not affect ISR. We concluded that 1) assessment of FFA effects on ISR requires consideration of effects on ISR by ketone bodies; 2) ISR responses to FFA/beta-OHB were defective in patients with type 2 diabetes (partial beta-cell lipid blindness), but this defect was compensated by elevated plasma levels of FFAs and ketone bodies; and 3) approximately two times more insulin was released per unit change in plasma FFA plus beta-OHB during L/H infusion than during the FFA rebound after NA. The reason for this remains to be explored.  (+info)

Within- and between-subject variation in commonly measured anthropometric and biochemical variables. (5/1227)

BACKGROUND: The biological variation of some commonly assessed metabolic variables in healthy subjects has not been studied extensively. The aim of the study was to assess, in 12 healthy subjects (6 male and 6 female; mean (SD) age; 22.7 (1.5) years) following an overnight fast, the day-to-day variation of body fat (impedance method), triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFAs), glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB), lactate, glucose, insulin (RIA), C-peptide, and glucagon on 12 consecutive days. METHODS: Between- and within-subject coefficients of variation (CVG and CVW) were estimated using a random effects analysis of variance, and assay variation was subtracted to give the coefficient of within-subject biological variation (CVI). Individuality indices were calculated as CVW/CVG. RESULTS: The overall means, CVI, and individuality indices were as follows: for body fat, 24.2%, 10%, and 0.3; for triglycerides, 0.61 mmol/L, 21%, and 1.1; for NEFAs, 376 micromol/L, 45%, and 1.4; for glycerol, 48 micromol/L, 36%, and 0.8; for 3-OHB, 43 micromol/L, 61%, and 1.5; for lactate, 0.88 mmol/L, 31%, and 1.1; for glucose, 4.9 mmol/L, 4.8%, and 0.7; for insulin, 52 pmol/L, 26%, and 1.0; for C-peptide, 0.39 nmol/L, 24%, and 0.9; and for glucagon, 53 ng/L, 19%, and 0.8. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here are necessary for the evaluation of several important metabolic variables in individual and group studies. The biological variation of some metabolites makes it difficult to characterize the status of healthy subjects with a single measurement.  (+info)

Intact proinsulin and beta-cell function in lean and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. (6/1227)

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease in which both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are pathogenetic factors. Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia (elevated proinsulin/insulin) is another abnormality in type 2 diabetes whose mechanism is unknown. Increased demand due to obesity and/or insulin resistance may result in secretion of immature beta-cell granules with a higher content of intact proinsulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the impact of obesity on beta-cell secretion in normal subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients by measuring intact proinsulin, total proinsulin immunoreactivity (PIM), intact insulin, and C-peptide (by radioimmunoassay) by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the fasting state and during a 120-min glucagon (1 mg i.v.) stimulation test. Lean (BMI 23.5 +/- 0.3 kg/m2) (LD) and obese (30.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) (OD) type 2 diabetic patients matched for fasting glucose (10.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/l) were compared with age- and BMI-matched lean (22.4 +/- 0.6 kg/m2) (LC) and obese (30.8 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) (OC) normal control subjects. RESULTS: Diabetic patients (LD vs. LC and OD vs. OC) had elevated fasting levels of intact proinsulin 6.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.3 pmol/l and 7.7 +/- 2.0 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.2 pmol/l; PIM: 19.9 +/- 2.5 vs. 5.4 +/- 1.0 pmol/l and 29.6 +/- 6.1 vs. 6.1 +/- 0.9 pmol/l; and total PIM/intact insulin: 39 +/- 4 vs. 15 +/- 2% and 35 +/- 5 vs. 13 +/- 2%, all P < 0.01. After glucagon stimulation, PIM levels were disproportionately elevated (PIM/intact insulin based on area under the curve analysis) in diabetic patients (LD vs. LC and OD vs. OC): 32.6 +/- 6.7 vs. 9.2 +/- 1.1% and 22.7 +/- 5.2 vs. 9.1 +/- 1.1%, both P < 0.05. Intact insulin and C-peptide net responses were significantly reduced in type 2 diabetic patients, most pronounced in the lean group. The ratio of intact proinsulin to PIM was higher in diabetic patients after stimulation in both LD versus LC: 32 +/- 3 vs. 23 +/- 2%, and OD versus OC: 28 +/- 4 vs. 16 +/- 2%, both P < 0.01. In obese normal subjects, intact proinsulin/PIM was lower both in the fasting state and after glucagon stimulation: OC versus LC: 22 +/- 3 vs. 33 +/- 3% (fasting) and 16 +/- 2 vs. 23 +/- 2% (stimulated), both P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Increased secretory demand from obesity-associated insulin resistance cannot explain elevated intact proinsulin and disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes. This abnormality may be an integrated part of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in this disease.  (+info)

Effect of calorie restriction on in vivo glucose metabolism by individual tissues in rats. (7/1227)

We evaluated the effects of 8 mo of calorie restriction [CR: 60% of ad libitum (AL) food intake] on glucose uptake by 14 tissues in unanesthetized, adult (12 mo) F344xBN rats. Glucose metabolism was assessed by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose tracer technique at 1500 or 2100. Despite an approximately 60% decline in insulinemia with CR, plasma 2-[3H]deoxyglucose clearance for CR was greater than for AL at both times. A small, CR-related decrease in glucose metabolic index (R'g) occurred only at 1500 in the spleen and heart, and this decrease was reversed at 2100. In some tissues (cerebellum, lung, kidney, soleus, and diaphragm), R'g was unaffected by diet, regardless of time. In the other tissues (brown fat, 3 white fat pads, epitrochlearis, plantaris, and gastrocnemius), R'g was higher or tended to be higher for CR vs. AL at one or both times. These findings indicate that 8 mo of CR did not cause a continuous reduction in in vivo glucose uptake by any tissue studied, and, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, glucose uptake was at times greater for CR vs. AL rats.  (+info)

C-peptide induces a concentration-dependent dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles only in presence of insulin. (8/1227)

In this study we tested the hypothesis that C-peptide alone or in conjunction with insulin may cause a dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles. First-order arterioles (88 microm) isolated from rat cremaster muscles were pressurized (65 mmHg), equilibrated in a Krebs bicarbonate-buffered solution (pH 7.4), gassed with 10% O2 (balance 5% CO2, 85% N2), and studied in a no-flow state. C-peptide administered at concentrations of 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 100, 300, and 1,000 ng/ml evoked arteriolar dilation that was not concentration dependent. In contrast, the administration of the four lower physiological concentrations of C-peptide to arterioles exposed to a nondilating concentration of insulin evoked a significant concentration-dependent increase in arteriolar diameter from 8.6 to 42.3% above control. The arteriolar dilation to C-peptide in the presence of insulin was completely inhibited by administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine (10(-4) M). Responses to ACh and adenosine were not enhanced when these drugs were administered in the presence of insulin. These results indicate that C-peptide has the capacity to evoke arteriolar dilation in skeletal muscle via a nitric oxide-mediated mechanism that appears to be enhanced by an interaction with insulin. Furthermore, the effects of insulin appear to be specific for C-peptide and are not the result of a general enhancement of endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent dilation.  (+info)

*Peptide

Argireline Beefy meaty peptide Bis-peptide CLE peptide Epidermal growth factor Journal of Peptide Science Lactotripeptides ... Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; PHM27) PACAP Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Peptide PHI 27 (Peptide Histidine ... All peptides except cyclic peptides have an N-terminal and C-terminal residue at the end of the peptide (as shown for the ... A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone. A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ...

*Peptide vaccine

A peptide vaccine is any peptide which serves to immunize an organism against a pathogen. Peptide vaccine are often synthetic ... "Synthetic peptide vaccines". World Health Organization. Retrieved 24 July 2015. ...

*MCD peptide

... has immunotoxic as well as neurotoxic properties due to different active sites of the MCD peptide. The MCD peptide ... MCD peptide is a cationic 22-amino acid residue peptide with two disulfide bridges. Although the MCD peptide sequence shows ... Buku, A (1999). "Mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide: a prototypic peptide in allergy and inflammation". Peptides. 20 (3): ... MCD peptide is a component of bumblebee (Megabombus pennsylvanicus) venom. In addition to MCD peptide, melittin and apamin have ...

*Peptide computing

... is a form of computing which uses peptides and molecular biology, instead of traditional silicon-based ... For instance, while DNA is made of four building blocks, peptides are made of twenty building blocks. The peptide-antibody ... Similar to DNA computing, the parallel interactions of peptide sequences and antibodies have been used by this model to solve a ... ISBN 978-3-540-43775-8. Hubert Hug & Rainer Schuler (2001). "Strategies for the development of a peptide computer". ...

*Opioid peptide

Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides ... Such peptides may be produced by the body itself, for example endorphins. The effects of these peptides vary, but they all ... Exorphins include opioid food peptides like Gluten exorphin and opioid food peptides and are mostly contained in cereals and ... hemoglobin-derived opioid peptides, including hemorphin-4, valorphin, and spinorphin, among others. While not peptides, codeine ...

*Peptide library

A peptide library is a tool for protein-related study. A peptide library contains a great number of peptides that have a ... Usually, peptide library is synthesized on solid phase, mostly on resin, which can be made as flat surface or beads. The ... As a general formula, if you made a completely random peptide library with n amino acids for each link in the chain with a ... this peptide library would be useful for analyzing the effect of the post-translational modification acetylation on lysine ...

*Cyclic peptide

Cyclic peptides can be classified according to the types of bonds that comprise the ring. Homodetic cyclic peptides, such as ... Other bicyclic peptides include echinomycin, triostin A, and Celogentin C. There are a number of cyclic peptide hormones which ... Nonribosomal peptide lantibiotics, 19-37 residues and 1 to 5 'bridges' Jensen, Knud (2009-09-01). Peptide and Protein Design ... Cyclic peptides tend to be extremely resistant to the process of digestion, enabling them to survive in the human digestive ...

*Peptide amphiphile

A peptide amphiphile typically comprises a hydrophilic peptide sequence with an attached lipid chains, in this case being a ... Peptide amphiphiles are peptide-based molecules that self-assemble into structures including high aspect ratio nanofibers. ... It has been shown that injection of peptide amphiphile solutions in vivo leads to in situ gel formation due to the presence of ... "Self-Assembling Amphiphilic Peptides." doi:10.1002/psc.2633 Hamley, I.W. Lipopeptides: From Self-Assembly to Bioactivity. Chem ...

*C-peptide

"C-peptide - Creative Peptides -". AdisInsight. Retrieved 22 October 2016. "C-peptide - Eli Lilly". AdisInsight. Retrieved 22 ... The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid polypeptide that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in ... C-peptide levels are measured instead of insulin levels because C-peptide can assess a person's own insulin secretion even if ... Creative Peptides, Eli Lilly, and Cebix all had drug development programs for a C-peptide product. Cebix had the only ongoing ...

*Nonribosomal peptide

Each nonribosomal peptide synthetase can synthesize only one type of peptide. Nonribosomal peptides often have cyclic and/or ... Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and ... Nonribosomal peptides are synthesized by one or more specialized nonribosomal peptide-synthetase (NRPS) enzymes. The NRPS genes ... Nonribosomal peptides are synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases, which, unlike the ribosomes, are independent of ...

*Target peptide

... which is commonly referred to as the signal peptide, signal sequence or leader peptide. Signal peptides form alpha-helical ... A target peptide is a short (3-70 amino acids long) peptide chain that directs the transport of a protein to a specific region ... Target Peptide at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SPdb (Signal Peptide DataBase) SignalP - ... The NLS normally is located anywhere on the peptide chain. A nuclear export signal (NES) is a target peptide that directs ...

*Beta-peptide

Generally speaking, β-peptides form a more stable helix than α-peptides. β-peptides are stable against proteolytic degradation ... Because the backbones of β-peptides are longer than those of peptides that consist of α-amino acids, β-peptides form different ... an important advantage over natural peptides in the preparation of peptide-based drugs. β-Peptides have been used to mimic ... Two main types of β-peptides exist: those with the organic residue (R) next to the amine are called β3-peptides and those with ...

*Polysaccharide peptide

... (PSP) is a protein-bound polysaccharide extracted from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor. PSP is ... Abba Kastin (2013-01-26). Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides. Academic Press. pp. 180-. ISBN 978-0-12-385096-6. Lu H, ...

*Peptide bond

However, not all peptide groups have the same effect on folding; nonnative isomers of other peptide groups may not affect ... A peptide bond can be broken by hydrolysis (the addition of water). In the presence of water they will break down and release 8 ... A peptide bond, also known as an amide bond, is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a ... Peptides are synthesized by specific enzymes. For example, the tripeptide glutathione is synthesized in two steps from free ...

*Stapled peptide

A stapled peptide is a peptide that has a synthetic brace ("staple"). Peptides with multiple, tandem staples are sometimes ... Peptide stapling is used to enhance pharmacologic performance of peptides. The two primary classes of therapeutics are small ... Additionally, protein and peptides are often subject to proteolytic degradation. Furthermore, small peptides (such as single ... Beta-peptide Druggability Non-proteinogenic amino acids Peptide synthesis Peptidomimetic Peptoid Douse, CH; Maas, SJ; Thomas, ...

*Signal peptide

... transit peptide, leader sequence or leader peptide) is a short peptide (usually 16-30 amino acids long) present at the N- ... Signal Peptide at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) SPdb (Signal Peptide DataBase) SignalP - ... Signal peptides are extremely heterogeneous and many prokaryotic and eukaryotic signal peptides are functionally ... Nucleus aiming signal peptides can be found at both the N-terminus and the C-terminus of a protein and are in the majority of ...

*Peptide synthesis

The biosynthesis of peptides or proteins (long peptides) in living organisms occurs in the opposite direction, and is known as ... In peptide synthesis, microwave irradiation has been used to complete long peptide sequences with high degrees of yield and low ... Chemical peptide synthesis most commonly starts at the carboxyl end of the peptide, and proceeds toward the amino-terminus. ... J. Peptide Res. Therap. 13 (1-2): 31-44. doi:10.1007/s10989-006-9059-7. Jones J (1992). Amino Acid and Peptide Synthesis. ...

*P3 peptide

... also known as amyloid β- peptide (Aβ)17-40/42 is the peptide resulting from the α- and γ-secretase cleavage from the ... However, p3 peptide's role in these diseases is not truly known yet. There is little information related to the p3 peptides ... This confirms the absence of N-terminal domain Aβ1-16 in p3 peptides. p3 peptide generates from the 17-40 or 17-42 sequence of ... That is why p3 peptide represents the benign form of amyloid. Energy plays a very important role in p3 peptides. While Aβ ...

*Chemerin peptide

Chemerin Peptides are short peptides (on the order of 9 amino acids) that are produced from the carboxyl terminus of the ... Cash, J; Greaves DR (May 2010). "Chemerin peptides promote phagocytosis in a ChemR23 and Syk dependent manner". J immuno. 184 ( ... A particular synthetic chemerin-derived peptide, termed C15, was developed at Oxford University. It showed anti-inflammatory ... "Synthetic chemerin-derived peptides suppress inflammation through ChemR23". J. Exp. Med. 205 (4): 767-75. doi:10.1084/jem. ...

*CLE peptide

CLE peptides are coded by the CLE genes. These peptides vary in structure with each peptide structure performing a different ... The specicific peptides are: A-type peptides CLE 1/3/4 CLE 2 CLE 5/6 CLE 7 CLE 8 CLE 9 CLE 10 CLE 11 CLE 12 CLE 13 CLE 14 CLE ... CLE peptides (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED) are a group of peptides found in plants that are involved with cell ... The secretion of A-type peptides speeds up the vascular development of the plant that is mediated by the B-type peptides. This ...

*Photoactivated peptide

The initial peptides were successfully used to kill B-cell lymphoma cancer cells. The reference synthetic short peptide was ... Photoactivated peptides are modified natural or synthetic peptides the functions of which can be activated with light. This can ... Caged peptides which contain photocleavable protecting groups belong to irreversibly activated peptides. Reversible activation/ ... in the side chains or in the backbone of peptide templates to get the photo-controlled peptides, which can reversibly change ...

*Peptide PHI

... (or peptide histidine isoleucine) is a peptide which functions as a hormone. It plays a role in the regulation of ... "The relative importance of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as physiological regulators of ... Peptide PHI at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*Peptide hormone

... s are produced by many different organs and tissues, including the heart (atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) or ... Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have ... Peptide Hormone Secretion/Peptide Hormone Action: A Practical Approach, K. Siddle, J. C. Hutton, Oxford University Press, 1991 ... to act within their nuclei Like all peptides and proteins, peptide hormones and protein hormones are synthesized in cells from ...

*Natriuretic peptide

Known natriuretic peptides include: Atrial natriuretic peptide, also known as ANP Brain natriuretic peptide, also known as BNP ... Natriuretic peptide refers to a peptide which induces natriuresis, the excretion of sodium by the kidneys. ... C-type natriuretic peptide, also known as CNP Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide, also known as DNP Urodilatin Nesiritide ... Carperitide CD-NP Ularitide Natriuretic peptides at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*Peptide microarray

A peptide microarray (also commonly known as peptide chip or peptide epitope microarray) is a collection of peptides displayed ... However, peptide synthesis on chip allows the parallel synthesis of tens of thousands of peptides providing larger peptide ... Peptides are ideally covalently linked through an chemoselective bond leading to peptides with the same orientation for ... The assay principle of peptide microarrays is similar to an ELISA protocol. The peptides (up to tens of thousands in several ...
This study evaluated the association between serum C-peptide levels and chronic vascular complications in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Data for 1,410 patients with type 2 diabetes were evalua
C-peptide reduces diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetic patients and experimental animal models. However, the mechanisms mediating the beneficial effect of C-peptide remain unclear. We investigated whether altered renal afferent-efferent arteriole tonus or alterations in tubular Na+ transport (T(Na)) in response to C-peptide administration mediate the reduction of diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration. Glomerular filtration rate, filtration fraction, total and cortical renal blood flow, total kidney O2 consumption (QO2), T(Na), fractional Na+ and Li+ excretions, and tubular free-flow and stop-flow pressures were measured in anesthetized adult male normoglycemic and streptozotocin-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. The specific effect of C-peptide on transport-dependent QO2 was investigated in vitro in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells. C-peptide reduced glomerular filtration rate (-24%), stop-flow pressure (-8%), and filtration fraction (-17%) exclusively in diabetic ...
OBJECTIVE-Mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) area under the curve C-peptide (AUC CP) is the gold-standard measure of endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetes but is intensive and invasive to perform. The 90-minMMTT-stimulated CP andgt;= 0.2 nmol/L (90CP) is related to improved clinical outcomes, and CP andgt;= 0.1 nmol/L is the equivalent fasting measure (FCP). We assessed whether 90CP or FCP are alternatives to a full MMTT. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-CP was measured during 1,334 MMTTs in 421 type 1 diabetes patients aged, 18 years at 3, 9, 18, 48, and 72 months duration. We assessed: 1) correlation between mean AUC CP and 90CP or FCP; 2) sensitivity and specificity of 90CP andgt;= 0.2 nmol/L and FCP andgt;= 0.1 nmol/L to detect peak CP andgt;= 0.2 nmol/L and the equivalent AUC CP; and 3) how the time taken to reach the CP peak varied with age of diagnosis and diabetes duration. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS-AUC CP was ...
Normal and mildly diabetic subjects each have their own set of basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Diabetic patients have raised basal plasma glucose, with low-normal basal plasma C-peptide concentrations. Restoring normal glucose levels in mild diabetes by an insulin infusion further reduces the C-peptide concentration, but both the plasma glucose and the C-peptide return to their set level when the insulin is withdrawn. These results accord with the action of beta cells and liver in a negative feedback loop that maintains basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations.
Abstract. INTRODUCTION: C-peptide is a widely used marker of endogenous insulin secretion. It is used for assessing residual beta cell function and in the diagnostic workup of hypoglycemia. C-peptide is routinely measured in the clinical laboratory by immunoassays, which are sensitive but prone to limitations such as cross-reactivity, between-lot variability, and a lack of concordance across different platforms. LC-MS/MS methods are more specific and can be multiplexed. Previous LC-MS/MS methods developed for serum c-peptide measurement detected intact peptide. Unfortunately, intact peptide is poorly ionized, requiring immunoaffinity extraction or solid phase extraction with two-dimensional chromatography. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a novel enzyme (Glu-C) digestion-based LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of serum c-peptide. METHODS: The internal standard was isotopically labeled at two leucine residues: EAED*LQVGQVELGGGPGAGSLQP*LALEGSLQ. Serum proteins ...
Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes and a higher concentration of serum C-peptide are more likely to develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in the 5 years after delivery, according to findings published in the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. “Our study suggested that elevated C-peptide levels may be a predictor of diabetes and prediabetes,” Gang Hu, MD,
BACKGROUND In the Joslin Medalist Study (Medalists), we determined whether significant associations exist between β cell function and pathology and clinical characteristics.METHODS Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 or more years underwent evaluation including HLA analysis, basal and longitudinal autoantibody (AAb) status, and β cell function by a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and a hyperglycemia/arginine clamp procedure. Postmortem analysis of pancreases from 68 Medalists was performed. Monogenic diabetes genes were screened for the entire cohort.RESULTS Of the 1019 Medalists, 32.4% retained detectable C-peptide levels (,0.05 ng/mL, median: 0.21 ng/mL). In those who underwent a MMTT (n = 516), 5.8% responded with a doubling of baseline C-peptide levels. Longitudinally (n = 181, median: 4 years), C-peptide levels increased in 12.2% (n = 22) and decreased in 37% (n = 67) of the Medalists. Among those with repeated MMTTs, 5.4% (3 of 56) and 16.1% (9 of 56) had waxing and waning ...
BACKGROUND In the Joslin Medalist Study (Medalists), we determined whether significant associations exist between β cell function and pathology and clinical characteristics.METHODS Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 or more years underwent evaluation including HLA analysis, basal and longitudinal autoantibody (AAb) status, and β cell function by a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and a hyperglycemia/arginine clamp procedure. Postmortem analysis of pancreases from 68 Medalists was performed. Monogenic diabetes genes were screened for the entire cohort.RESULTS Of the 1019 Medalists, 32.4% retained detectable C-peptide levels (,0.05 ng/mL, median: 0.21 ng/mL). In those who underwent a MMTT (n = 516), 5.8% responded with a doubling of baseline C-peptide levels. Longitudinally (n = 181, median: 4 years), C-peptide levels increased in 12.2% (n = 22) and decreased in 37% (n = 67) of the Medalists. Among those with repeated MMTTs, 5.4% (3 of 56) and 16.1% (9 of 56) had waxing and waning ...
BACKGROUND In the Joslin Medalist Study (Medalists), we determined whether significant associations exist between β cell function and pathology and clinical characteristics.METHODS Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 or more years underwent evaluation including HLA analysis, basal and longitudinal autoantibody (AAb) status, and β cell function by a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and a hyperglycemia/arginine clamp procedure. Postmortem analysis of pancreases from 68 Medalists was performed. Monogenic diabetes genes were screened for the entire cohort.RESULTS Of the 1019 Medalists, 32.4% retained detectable C-peptide levels (,0.05 ng/mL, median: 0.21 ng/mL). In those who underwent a MMTT (n = 516), 5.8% responded with a doubling of baseline C-peptide levels. Longitudinally (n = 181, median: 4 years), C-peptide levels increased in 12.2% (n = 22) and decreased in 37% (n = 67) of the Medalists. Among those with repeated MMTTs, 5.4% (3 of 56) and 16.1% (9 of 56) had waxing and waning ...
Insulin production. A. C-peptide levels in mice fed with normal chow diet (CD) and after high fat diet (HFD) challenge. B. C-peptide/Insulin ratios in mice fed
The endogenous insulin secretion capacity of 171 insulin-treated middle-aged persons with diabetes (81 men, 90 women) of the Kuopio University Central Hospital district (population 250,000), East Finland, was measured by the C-peptide response to glucagori. The prevalence of insulin deficiency among initially non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) individuals was calculated on the basis of those who were initially treated with diet or oral drugs and 3 yr or more after diagnosis had been treated with insulin and were insulin deficient in this study. The prevalence of complete insulin deficiency (postglucagon C-peptide undetectable) was among initially NIDDM individuals of the same region, 0.7% in menand 1.2% in women. Using the postglucagon C-peptide level of 0.20 nmol/L as a cut-offpoint, the prevalence of insulin deficiency was 2.0% in men and 1.9% in women and, on thebasis of C-peptide level of 0.60 nmol/L, the prevalence of insulin deficiency was 3.5% in men and 2.7% in women. Our data ...
Stimulated C-peptide provides a good approximation of endogenous insulin secretion (and thus residual β-cell function). This parameter, while not a direct measure of β-cell mass, is the currently accepted primary efficacy end point parameter in immune intervention studies in type 1 diabetes (3). Clinical benefits are generally evaluated as secondary end points to support the primary efficacy end point.. The DIA-AID 1 study indicated significant preservation of β-cell function supported by clinical benefits when the stimulation of C-peptide secretion was evaluated by GST. However, changes in C-peptide secretion stimulated by MMTT were not significant and did not correlate with the observed clinical benefits (12).. The current analysis was undertaken to elucidate this inconsistency using two independent data sets from the DIA-AID 1 and LADA trials. It revealed that the absolute values of stimulated C-peptide measured by GST and MMTT were reproducible and well correlated when evaluated at each ...
To our knowledge, our study is the first to comprehensively assess islet cell responsivity in people with T1D using gold-standard methods across the spectrum of detectable C-peptide production. The group with high peak C-peptide (,0.400 pmol/mL) during an MMTT exhibited lower fasting glucose (111 ± 31 mg/dL), hemoglobin A1c (6.8% ± 1.0%), and mean glucose (140 ± 25 mg/dL), and greater CGM-derived time in target range (72% ± 12%). Given that the high C-peptide group was considerably less often hyperglycemic based on CGM, the lack of difference in peripheral or hepatic insulin sensitivity across the groups supports that insulin resistance in T1D is not strongly related to hyperglycemia as suggested by others (26). The high C-peptide group was the only group who demonstrated β cell responsivity to glucose during the hyperglycemic clamp conducted during the GPA test, with measurable increases in C-peptide and proinsulin secretion. Furthermore, this group also demonstrated α cell responsivity ...
C-peptide, like the hormone insulin, is produced in the pancreas. Both are released simultaneously from the pancreas when the compound called proinsulin is split into two pieces.. Insulin is responsible for regulating the bodys glucose levels. Glucose, the bodys main source of energy, is a sugar that comes from foods.. After a meal, our bodies break down the foods we eat into glucose and other nutrients, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. Glucose levels in the blood rise after a meal and trigger the pancreas to make insulin and release it into the blood. When insulin is released, so is C-peptide.. Insulin works like a key that opens the doors to cells and allows the glucose in. Without insulin, glucose cant get into the cells and it stays in the bloodstream. The most common cause of abnormal fluctuations in blood glucose is diabetes.. C-peptide, on the other hand, has no effect on blood sugar. It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, ...
BCG-treated patients and one placebo-treated patient who, after enrollment, unexpectedly developed acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, a known tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inducer, exclusively showed increases in dead insulin-autoreactive T cells and induction of Tregs. C-peptide levels (pmol/L) significantly rose transiently in two BCG-treated subjects (means, 3.49 pmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.95-3.8]; 2.57 [95% CI 1.65-3.49]) and the EBV-infected subject (3.16 [95% CI, 2.54-3.69]) vs.1.65 [95% CI, 1.55-3.2] in reference diabetic subjects. BCG-treated subjects each had more than 50% of their C-peptide values above the 95th percentile of the reference subjects. The EBV-infected subject had 18% of C-peptide values above this level.. ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplant) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplant) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests ...
The identification of biomarkers distinguishing diabetes subtypes from each other could have great clinical value. LADA, which is associated with a faster progression to insulin replacement therapy compared with T2D, may be difficult to distinguish from T2D at diagnosis (3). This is largely due to the heterogeneity of LADA, combining different metabolic (3) and genetic (6) features of T1D and T2D. In this study, we examined whether metabolite profiling could identify metabolites with improved capability of distinguishing LADA from T1D and T2D.. LADA was found to be a metabolic intermediate of T1D and T2D, overlapping significantly with both of these types. Hence, the metabolome mirrors the clinical heterogeneity. Consequently, no unique metabolic marker could be identified that had the capacity of distinguishing between LADA and the other diabetes types. Instead, all three diabetes types were found along a metabolic continuum, extending from T1D via LADA to T2D. Plasma C-peptide levels was found ...
The significance of the minimal secretory capacity of pancreatic β-cells for the stability of the plasma glucose level was studied in 20 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Changes in plasma concentrations of major counterregulatory hormones in response to hypoglycemia were also investigated in these patients to clarify their contribution to diabetic brittleness. β-Cell function was evaluated on the basis of elevation of plasma C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) during the intravenous glucagon test with a highly sensitive assay for plasma CPR that could detect as little as 0.03 ng/ml. After stimulation with glucagon, a significant increase in plasma CPR was observed in 10 of the patients whose β-cell function had been evaluated as completely depleted by a conventional assay for plasma CPR. A clear inverse correlation was found between the secretory capacity of pancreatic β-cells measured in this way and the degree of glycemic instability (r = −.74, P , .01). Infusion of ...
OBJECTIVE: To assess age-related changes in stimulated plasma C-peptide in a population-based sample of adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Wadena, Minnesota, a city of 4,699 residents (1980 census) in west central Minnesota, approximately 150 miles from Minneapolis/St. Paul. STUDY SUBJECTS: 344 non-diabetic subjects (NDDG standards) from a stratified random sample of the total adult population of Wadena, MN. The six-study strata were men and women from three age groups: young, 20-39 years of age; middle-aged, 40-59; and older, greater than 60 years of age. MEASUREMENTS: During a liquid meal of Ensure-Plus (Ensure-Plus challenge test; EPCT; Ross Laboratories), blood samples were taken for glucose, free fatty acids, creatinine, and C-peptide. Plasma C-peptide taken 90 minutes after the EPCT was used as a surrogate measure for insulin. Clinical tests included one-time samples for hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins. Physical ...
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare provider. Test results are given in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). Normal results are within the range of 0.5 to 2.0 ng/mL, but can vary depending upon the lab that is used for testing. A high level of C-peptide could mean a number of conditions. These include a kidney problem or an insulinoma, a tumor of the insulin-making cells in the pancreas. It could also mean you need to adjust the amount of insulin you take. A level of C-peptide thats lower than normal means that your body isnt making enough insulin or that your pancreas isnt working properly. ...
C-Peptide, Human, 10 mg. The measurement of the C-peptide under standardized conditions provides a sensitive well accepted and clinically validated assessment of ��-cell function.
A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 25 subjects: 17 subjects received ATG (2.5 mg/kg intravenously) followed by pegylated G-CSF (6 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 doses) and 8 subjects received placebo. The primary outcome was the 1-year change in AUC C-peptide following a 2-hour mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). At baseline, the age (mean ± SD) was 24.6 ± 10 years; mean BMI was 25.4 ± 5.2 kg/m2; mean A1c was 6.5% ± 1.1%; insulin use was 0.31 ± 0.22 units/kg/d; and length of diagnosis was 1 ± 0.5 years.. ...
1992 (English)In: Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolism. Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0394-3402, E-ISSN 1720-8343, Vol. 5, no 4, 243-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
O.k. everyone, I just got my test results back in my inbox. I was only able to get three done at this particular lab--C-Peptide, Serum; GAD-65 Autoantibody; Antipancreatic Islet Cells. Im going to need you to help me interpret them. The C-Peptide Serum - Result = 9.1 (HIGH); Range (1.1 - 4.4) ---...
Ive been doing some reading online about the C-Peptide test. I recently had one, and the results didnt make much sense to me~most of the articles that I read have said that insulin can cause a false reading. So my results it sounds like are worthless because I had my pump running. I also understand that there are some diabetics that take oral meds in addition to insulin, and that too can cause problems with test results. ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] ...
A C-peptide test can help doctors tell the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also can help find the cause of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
This is in response to Sharons? question about receiving results of a normal c-peptide even though she is type 1. My heart goes out to you for I posted a month or two back about having the same experience. I have had diabetes 29 years (since age 12) with lots of DKA episodes and have all of the complications. When my endo received a 0.7 reading back he and I both were angry. I cried and he assured me that the lab who did the test was lousy and he had the same problem with other pts. who had diabetes even longer than me. I learned that the test is a hard assay to do and you have to deal with a reliable lab. They redrew the blood and sent it off to a reliable lab and it came back below normal at less than 0.3. He said that everybodys results even if they are type 1 and have a dead pancreas like mine would have the numbers range from 0-1.0 if you tested them each day for a week( in other words it varies alot). I learned a valuable lesson that day that blood tests are not always accurate or tell ...
Aggregation of the highly amyloidogenic IAPP is endogenously inhibited inside beta-cell granules at millimolar concentrations. Combining in vitro experiments and computer simulations, we demonstrated that the stabilization of IAPP upon the formation of zinc-coordinated ion molecular complex with C-peptide mi
Severn Biotech, Limited : C-Peptide and Related Peptides - Electrophoresis Products PBS & Saline Solutions Hybridisation Reagents Biological Buffers & SDS Sodium Azide Solutions General Bio-chemical Products Fingerprinting Chemical Product Forensic Dyes & Chemicals HPLC Laboratory Solvents DNA / RNA Extraction Specialist Pure Water Products Protein Linker Conjugates Peptide Synthesis Reagents Alcohol Sprays Hand Sanitiser Products Customised Services Comet Assay Products Protein Antibody Reagents Scientific Plastics Catalogue Peptides Affinity Purification Materials Cytology Screening Antibodies Specials severn, biotech
OBJECTIVEPrevious work has shown a correlation between β-cell number in cultured islet cell grafts and their ability to induce C-peptide secretion after intraportal implantation in C-peptide-negative type1 diabetic patients. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the minimal functional β-cell mass (FBM) in the implant that induces metabolic improvement.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSGlucose clamps assessed FBM in 42 recipients with established implants. C-peptide release during each phase was expressed as percentage of healthy control values. Its relative magnitude during a second hyperglycemic phase was most discriminative and therefore selected as a parameter to be correlated with metabolic effects.RESULTSRecipients with functioning β-cell implants exhibited average FBM corresponding to 18% of that in normal control subjects (IQR 10-33%). Its relative magnitude negatively correlated with HbA1c levels (r = -0.47), daily insulin dose (r = -0.75), and coefficient of variation of fasting ...
Nachschlagewerk für Laborärzte, Medizinisch-technische Assistenten, Einkäufer in Krankenhäusern, Medizinstudenten und angehende MTAs. Die Website bietet einen unabhängigen Marktüberblick über Produkte vom Blutzuckermessgerät bis zum Großanalyser, vom Autoklaven bis zur Zentrifuge. Seite: C-Peptide
Well, my device is only slightly mechanical, but should do the trick. Its modeled after Sernovas islet cell pouch system, but takes it a bit further. My device is a patch that is similar to a nicotine patch. It is removable and discreet. It is easily applied to any area of the skin. It holds an incredible amount of islet cells (pig), that were created to be able to elude the bodys immune system. No immunosuppression is necessary. Its only electronic function is to perform a weekly C-peptide. When the C-peptide value decreases to a minimal value, the patch will be removed and replace with another. Glucose monitoring would not be necessary because there would be no significant fluctuations in blood sugar anyway ...
Methods. Seven healthy volunteers will be randomly assigned to one of the following groups:. A. Insulin-ODF following treatment group; Or B. commercial NPH Insulin treatment.. The study is designed a crossover, in which each group is treated 3-7 days of washout.. The volunteer subjects will arrive to the clinic after eight hours fasting. Each subject will be examined by a physician, evaluating the elegibilities to the trial (i.e. inclusion and exclusion criteria).. An I.V catheter will be administrated assessing the Glucose, Insulin and C-peptide levels, ten minutes and five minutes before injecting the NPH Insulin or the Insulin-ODF.. Blood Insulin and glucose levels will be evaluated at baseline, and after the following time points: 15,30,60,90,120,150,180,210,240,270,300,330,360 minutes. C-peptide levels will be evaluated at baseline and after the following time points: 60,120,240, 360 minutes. ...
Incremental and/or peak C-peptide response, Time to peak C-peptide, insulin requirement per kg body weight per day,frequency of insulin free state with maintenance of HbA1c ,7.5%, HbA1c, Means of fasting glucose values, circulating IL-6 and ...
Stimulated C-peptide concentrations (after a standard meal challenge such as Sustacal or after glucagon) are somewhat preserved until late in the course
Objective: A missense polymorphism (rs2297518) of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene causing a serine to leucine substitution at amino acic position 608 has previously been associated to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Activation of iNOS is a main effector pathway in cytokine mediated beta-cell destruction. Here, we evaluate whether rs2297518 associates to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, metabolic control and development of autoantibodies 12 months post-diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The International Hvidoere cohort includes 275 children from 18 paediatric centers. The rs2297518 was tested in 256 participants and analyzed for its association to serum IL-1β levels, concentration of autoantibodies and residual beta-cell function as assessed by stimulated C-peptide, HbA1c and calculated insulin dose adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c) at 1, 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Results: At 1 month IL-1β was detected more frequently in CC-genotype individuals as compared to CT and TT ...
On the pump front, I ordered my pump yesterday with mixed emotions. Pure excitement over the pump, but a little depression over my test results. My endo sent me a letter Wednesday with the instructions to order the pump and included my c-peptide and A1C. A1c was good, but my C-peptide was unmeasurable with a fasting BG of 176. 6 months ago, I had a positive c-peptide. I guess I still have lingering feelings that I am not "insulin dependent". Tests now show otherwise. I guess, I knew it was inevitable. Now, I have to wait on insurance approval and waiting is not my strong suit, but at least its Friday. I have all weekend for my eye to recover without worrying about work. For that I am grateful ...
Content: What is c-peptide? C-peptide assay The rate of c-peptide Causes of reduced level of the chain The reasons for the increase in the norm What to do when
sample_1: C-peptide 6 mM; D2O 5%; H2O 95%. sample_2: C-peptide 3 mM; TFE-d2 50%; H2O 50%. sample_3: C-peptide 1.2 mM; TFE-d2 80%; H2O 20%. conditions_1: pH: 7.0; temperature: 283 K ...
Tolerx Focused on Continuing to Advance Its Pipeline of Immunotherapy Candidates that Normalize the Immune System. CAMBRIDGE, Mass., London, UK - March 11, 2011: Tolerx, Inc. and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) today announced that the Phase 3 DEFEND-1 study of otelixizumab, an investigational humanized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, did not meet the primary efficacy endpoint of change in C-peptide at month 12 in patients with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Following preliminary review of the data, no new or unexpected treatment-related safety concerns have emerged during the DEFEND-1 study. Study investigators and regulatory agencies have been notified of the DEFEND-1 study outcome.. GSK will continue to explore additional dosing regimens to inform decisions about the future clinical development programme for otelixizumab. New recruitment and dosing in the DEFEND-2 study, the ongoing confirmatory Phase 3 study with a design similar to DEFEND-1, has been suspended pending review of the DEFEND-1 ...
This is a five year follow up on Diamyds phase-II clinical trial of their GAD65 treatment on LADA patients. Sometimes called "type 1.5" LADA is immunity based diabetes that effects older people. So the results seen here are likely to be relevant to type 1 diabetics. The results were good, especially in avoiding insulin use. The 47 patients got several different doses. The best dose seemed to be 20ug. At the start of the trial, none of the patients required insulin. For the 20ug dose, only 14% of the people required insulin after 5 years. For the no-dose group, 64% required insulin. Put another way, of the 11 people who did not get GAD65, 7 of them required insulin at the end of the study. Of the 7 people who got 20ug, only 1 did. The 20ug group, had very slightly better C-peptide numbers at the end of the trial than at the beginning, while the no-dose group had worse C-peptide numbers at the end. That suggests that the GAD65 prevented the destruction of beta cells ...
Metals such as zinc, copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work from chemists at UC Davis. The research is part of a new field of
This test measures how much insulin your body produces. This is important if you have hypoglycemia or other issues related to diabetes.
Well I decided to get into the endo dept at the VA. He wanted some baselines(namely a C-peptide) so I asked if he would authorize a GAD test. First time a VA doc has said yes. C-peptide came back as low but GAD was very high. He wanted to test Cortisole and I wanted THS, TS3/TS4. He tested it all...
Doctors give unbiased, helpful information on indications, contra-indications, benefits, and complications: Dr. Rubin on when dialysis doesn t work: The pancreas has digestive functions as well as production of insulin. Also, why expose someone to unnecessary surgery? Most people with diabetes have some endogenous Insulin secretion from their pancreas. Those with type 1 diabetes generally do not/.
Have any of u had a C-peptide test taken ??? I hear its the common test to see if your pancreas is still producing insulin ... Type 1 , cells in pancreas r a...
C-peptide is a protein fragment made as a by-product of insulin manufacture and can be used to determine how well beta cells are working. By 12 weeks after treatment all the patients who received the therapy had improved levels of C -peptide. This continued to improve at 24 weeks and was maintained to the end of the study. This meant that the daily dose of insulin required to maintain their blood glucose levels could be reduced. In accordance with these results the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) indicator of long term glucose control also dropped for people receiving the treatment, but not the control group ...
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The tests consisted of bloodwork that measured glucose tolerance, C-peptide, CBC, kidney and liver function, and immune status to a variety of diseases. A 24hr. urine was collected. An EKG was performed. A stress echo of my heart, and an ultrasound of my liver, and many other tests that I dont remember, or dont understand. There was also a test, the PRA, that measured how many antibodies I already had in my serum. If this number is too high, I would not be a good candidate, because I would be very capable of rejecting the new cells. This was the number I was most worried about. There is no way of predicting what it might be ...
Autologous UCB Infusion followed by Oral DHA and Vitamin D (VitD) Supplementation for C-Peptide Preservation in Children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)
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Proinsulin is converted into insulin by the action of two endoproteases. Type I (PC1/PC3) is thought to cleave between the B-chain and the connecting peptide (C-peptide) and type II (PC2) between the C-peptide and the A-chain. An acidic region immediately C-terminal to the point of cleavage at the B-chain/C-peptide junction is well conserved throughout evolution and has been suggested to be important for proinsulin conversion [Gross, Villa-Komaroff, Kahn, Weir and Halban (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 21486-21490]. We have here compared the precise role of this region as a whole and just the first acidic residue C-terminal to the point of cleavage in processing of proinsulin by PC3. To this end, several mutations were introduced in this region of human proinsulin (native sequence, B-chain RREAEDL C-peptide): RRPAEDL (C1Pro mutant); RRLAEDL (C1Leu mutant); RRL (C1-C4del mutant); RRE (del-C1Glu mutant). Mutant and native cDNAs were stably transfected into AtT20 (pituitary corticotroph) cells, in which ...
0046] For example, glucose and insulin were markedly elevated by the two highest lard concentration and consequently also the HOMA value indicating a state of insulin resistance (FIG. 2). Plasma glucose levels in week 15 were 11.8 mM, 13.9 mM, 15.7 mM and 16.5 for group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Plasma C-peptide levels (C-peptide is co-secreted with insulin but has a greater plasma half-life) in week 12 were 2.0, 3.0, 3.1 and 3.7 ng/mL for group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Plasma cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were markedly elevated by all diets. More specifically, plasma cholesterol levels in week 18 were 8, 19, 24, 26 mM and plasma triglyceride levels in week 18 were 1, 3, 4, 5 mM for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The increase in total plasma cholesterol was mainly confined to cholesterol in LDL particles (as revealed by lipoprotein analysis, not shown). Systemic inflammation (quantified by serum amyloid A in plasma) was 2.5, 7.1, 8.3, 22.8 μg/mL for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, ...
Looking for the definition of c-peptide? Find out what is the full meaning of c-peptide on Abbreviations.com! Signal Peptide is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Hi... Boy these comments and posts are helpful. I am a patient that has had autnomic neuropathy symptoms for 3 yrs, which were manageable and tought to actually be carcinoid syndrome instead for a while. I am now seeing a doc who thinks that it was diabetes/metabolic syndrome the entire time. In Dec. my FBS was 219, my 1 hr PP was 79... Haha (so weird) and my C-peptide was 2.1 ...also had a lot of assessment looks of a diabetic to my doc (scleroedema, tight tendons in feet/hands, swollen fingers and face), but weight 143 @ 5ft 8in. My HgbA1c was 5.5. In March i was starting to have peripheral neuropathy symptoms and my my C-peptide had gone up to 3.3, but no FBS was done. I finally bought my own BS equipment and started testing.. I have had mostly 89s and the range of BS have been 78-98 with one outlier of 128. I am losing more weight and am now 139 and my peripheral neuropathy is increasing and is obviously small fiber neuropathy. My doc will not come down on any real specifics of my diabetes ...
Hi... Boy these comments and posts are helpful. I am a patient that has had autnomic neuropathy symptoms for 3 yrs, which were manageable and tought to actually be carcinoid syndrome instead for a while. I am now seeing a doc who thinks that it was diabetes/metabolic syndrome the entire time. In Dec. my FBS was 219, my 1 hr PP was 79... Haha (so weird) and my C-peptide was 2.1 ...also had a lot of assessment looks of a diabetic to my doc (scleroedema, tight tendons in feet/hands, swollen fingers and face), but weight 143 @ 5ft 8in. My HgbA1c was 5.5. In March i was starting to have peripheral neuropathy symptoms and my my C-peptide had gone up to 3.3, but no FBS was done. I finally bought my own BS equipment and started testing.. I have had mostly 89s and the range of BS have been 78-98 with one outlier of 128. I am losing more weight and am now 139 and my peripheral neuropathy is increasing and is obviously small fiber neuropathy. My doc will not come down on any real specifics of my diabetes ...
BOSTON - Researchers may have found a specific dietary pattern linked to levels of C-peptide concentrations that increase a womans risk for colorectal cancer.. "High red meat intake, fish intake, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, but low coffee, whole grains and high-fat dairy intake, when taken as a whole, seemed to be associated with higher levels of C-peptide in the blood," said Teresa T. Fung, S.D., R.D., professor of nutrition at Simmons College in Boston, who presented the data at the 10th AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, held Oct. 22-25, 2011.. C-peptide is a marker of insulin secretion that can be measured in a persons blood. High levels of insulin may promote cell growth and multiplication. One of the major characteristics of cancer is aberrant cell growth. Higher levels of C-peptide, and therefore insulin, may promote cancer cell growth. "Colon cancer seems to be one of the cancers that are sensitive to insulin," Fung said. "This research has ...
C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). It is also sometimes measured as an additional means (more resistant to hemolysis than is insulin itself) for evaluating glucose tolerance tests.
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OBJECTIVE To understand the relationships between maternal glycemia during pregnancy and prenatal and early postnatal development by evaluating cable C-peptide and IGF-I simply because mediating biomarkers in children separately. on delivery fat was mediated by fetal insulin and IGF-I in both children. However, in young ladies just, higher concentrations of wire C-peptide (however, not wire IGF-I or maternal blood sugar) were connected with slower pounds development in the 1st three months of existence. CONCLUSIONS Our research underlines the part from the fetal insulinCIGF-I axis in the partnership between maternal glycemia during being pregnant and birth pounds. We also display for the very first time that high insulin focus in feminine fetuses is connected with slower early postnatal development. This slow, early development design may be designed by fetal hyperinsulinemia, and women Cldn5 may be more vulnerable than boys to its consequences. A U-shaped romantic relationship has been proven ...
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This blood test is used to evaluate your bodys production of insulin. Its used to help diagnose blood sugar disorders such as diabetes.
The pathway is something like this : Pre proinsulin produced in Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum of Pancreas --, Transported to the Golgi apparatus and cleaved to form Proinsulin --, Packed into secretory granules --, In these granules proinsulin is converted to : Insulin and C peptide. - Traditionally it is said to have no intrinsic activity but recent studies say it might have anti oxidant and anti inflammatory properties. 2. What does it indicate ? ...
A human protein may effectively prevent and even reverse cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Researchers discovered that large doses of C-peptide, a by-product of the production of insulin, repaired damaged blood vessels and nerves in diabetic rats. The study is described in the July 25, 1997, issue of Science.
Bappal et al. (1999) estimated the prevalence and incidence rates of permanent neonatal insulin dependant diabetes mellitus (PNIDDM) and described its profile in Oman by studying all children (five children) diagnosed with this condition between 1991 and 1995. They were also investigated by viral serology for TORCH and Coxackie virus, presence of islet cells antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence technique on human pancreatic sections, plasma C-peptide concentration by radioimmunoassay, and glycated hemoglobin. HLA typing of all the children was also undertaken. The treatment plan was the same in all the children with a combination of intermediate and short acting human insulin once or twice a day according to the patients needs. The prevalence and incidence rates (which included the prevalence of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus among the children of under five years) were estimated by using the final results of the general census of population which was published yearly by the Ministry ...
Define Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults synonyms, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults pronunciation, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults translation, English dictionary definition of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults. n. 1. Any of a group of diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels caused by insufficient production of insulin, impaired response to insulin, or...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Chinese C-peptide Calibrator Industry, 2016 Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese C-peptide Calibrator Industry, 2011-2021...
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Insulin testing may be used to help diagnose an insulinoma, and diagnose the cause of hypoglycemia in an individual with signs and symptoms Identify insulin resistance - Monitor the amount of insulin produced by the beta cells in the pancreas (endogenous); in this case, a C-peptide test may also be done. Insulin and C-peptide are produced by the body at the same rate as part of the conversion of proinsulin to insulin in the pancreas. - Determine when a type 2 diabetic might need to start taking insulin to supplement oral medications - Determine and monitor the success of an islet cell transplant intended to restore the ability to make insulin, by measuring the insulin-producing capacity.Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreas. It leads to Type 1 diabetes caused by Insulin deficiency & Type 2 diabetes caused by insulin resistance. This assay is useful in the management of Diabetes. It is also used for diagnosing Insulinoma when used in conjunction with Proinsulin and C-peptide ...
LADA may be the most name-challenged of all types of diabetes. It has at least three names other than LADA, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults.
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Post 4915758 - Health related message boards offering discussions of numerous health topics including allergies, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, exercise, attention deficit disorder, diet, and nutrition.
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Creative Peptides offers C peptide for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
MacroGenics and Eli Lilly announced that they achieved their targeted patient enrollment for their Phase 2/3 PROTEGE trial evaluating teplizumab for the treatment of recent-onset type 1 diabetes.
I have always had a problem with food, body image and the bad press that T2 gets. And as time continued to pass (it always does), it became more and more apparent that I was NOT the classic T2. I hadnt responded to the sulfonylureas I was originally put on, and went on insulin 5 months after my diagnosis, but I was always troubled by questions as to what type of diabetes I had, and my REAL wish was for it to go away while I was not looking. Losing weight didnt help (but I was never obese to begin with), exercise didnt help, and eating low-carb didnt allow me to get off insulin, either. With the help of friends on TuDiabetes, I finally found my peace with my diabetes -- I found the courage to have my C-peptide tested (it turned out to be low), and I have come to accept that the diabetes will never go away, and its NOT my fault ...
Human insulin monoclonal antibody may be used for the analysis of the structure, function, and metabolism of insulin. This anti-insulin antibody, also known as INS antibody, is applicable for Western blot (WB) analysis under non-reducing and non-heating conditions and for immunohistological (IHC) studies of frozen tissue sections.. Antibodies to the proinsulin C-peptide (also known as insulin C) are frequently used to study the structure, function, and metabolism of insulin as well as proinsulin. Insulin C antibodies can also be used for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and for immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of paraffin-embedded or frozen tissue sections. The following insulin C antibodies are available:. ...
Human insulin monoclonal antibody may be used for the analysis of the structure, function, and metabolism of insulin. This anti-insulin antibody, also known as INS antibody, is applicable for Western blot (WB) analysis under non-reducing and non-heating conditions and for immunohistological (IHC) studies of frozen tissue sections.. Antibodies to the proinsulin C-peptide (also known as insulin C) are frequently used to study the structure, function, and metabolism of insulin as well as proinsulin. Insulin C antibodies can also be used for immunocytochemistry (ICC) and for immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of paraffin-embedded or frozen tissue sections. The following insulin C antibodies are available:. ...
Results: In each group, 15 patients were analysed. The results showed that over the whole 180 min post-meal period, glucose levels were reduced by 28% after whey pre-load with a uniform reduction during both early and late phases. Insulin and C-peptide responses were both significantly higher (by 105% and 43%, respectively) with whey pre-load. Notably, the early insulin response was 96% higher after whey. Similarly, both total GLP-1 (tGLP-1) and intact GLP-1 (iGLP-1) levels were significantly higher (by 141% and 298%, respectively) with whey pre-load. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 plasma activity did not display any significant difference after breakfast between the groups. ...
The average patient age at tadalafil 20mg lowest price diagnosis was 30.6 years and the mean followup was 65 months. Responses in the human auditory cortex to natural speech reveal a dual character.. The evolution of pharmacokinetics and clinically useful drug assays tadalafil cost at walmart has led to pharmacokinetic dosing, a more sophisticated and exact method of dosing certain agents. Recent data suggest that insulin/C-peptide deficiency may exert a primary and key effect in diabetic encephalopathy.. Since the human heart has a complex anatomy, the two-dimensional analysis of myocardial scintigrams obviously is not satisfactory. A range of factors influence health-related quality of life in people with heart failure. Atrophic and a mixed pattern tadalafil online of acne scars improved with a 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser. Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient. The need to measure the level of surgical risk ...
OBJECTIVE - Proinsulin is a precursor of mature insulin and C-peptide. Higher circulating proinsulin levels are associated with impaired b-cell function, raised glucose levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies of the insulin processing pathway could provide new insights about T2D pathophysiology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We have conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association tests of ;2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and fasting proinsulin levels in 10,701 nondiabetic adults of European ancestry, with follow-up of 23 loci in up to 16,378 individuals, using additive genetic models adjusted for age, sex, fasting insulin, and study-specific covariates. RESULTS - Nine SNPs at eight loci were associated with proinsulin levels (P , 5 × 10 -8 ). Two loci (LARP6 and SGSM2) have not been previously related to metabolic traits, one (MADD) has been associated with fasting glucose, one (PCSK1) has been implicated in obesity, and four ...
Table 1 Comparative results between BMI, HbA1c, glycemia, and C-peptide in different collection moments PRE , 3M (p,0.001a)PRE , 6M (p,0.001a)3M = 6M (p=0.732a) PRE , 3M (p,0.001a)PRE , 6M (p,0.001a)3M , 6M (p,0.001a) PRE , 3M (p,0.001a)PRE , 6M (p,0.001a)3M , 6M (p=0.047a) PRE = 3M (p=0.848a)PRE , 6M (p,0.001a)3M , 6M (p,0.001a) Fig. 6 HbA1c up to the sixth postoperative month. PRE preoperative PRE preoperative data, 3M 3 months, 6M 6 months in the regulation of glucose metabolism , TheHbA1c reduction was the result of a better glycemic control In recent years, some procedures have been proposed in the and the C-peptide increase was the result of improvement literature for the treatment of T2DM in non-obese and of the pancreatic function, probably as a consequence of obese patients, as the duodenal-jejunal exclusion and the ileal interposition ]. We have chosen the duodenal- The idea of bypassing the duodenum and proximal jejunal exclusion based on the consistent results on jejunum as a means ...
BACKGROUND: BETA-2 score using a single fasting blood sample was developed to estimate beta-cell function after islet transplantation (ITx) and was validated internally by a high ITx volume center (Edmonton). The goal was to validate BETA-2 externally, in our center. METHODS: Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) were obtained to see if beta score or BETA-2 would better detect insulin independence and glucose intolerance. RESULTS: We analyzed values from 48 mixed meal tolerance tests (MMTTs) in 4 ITx recipients with a long-term follow-up to 140 months (LT group) and from 54 MMTTs in 13 short-term group patients (ST group ...
Many people with type 1 diabetes still have endogenous beta cell function after 10 years with type 1 diabetes. This study reveals these persons are immunologically different from other long-time type 1 diabetics. Researchers conducted a study to look at the immunological differences between those with or without measurable remaining endogenous insulin production after 10 or more years of type 1 diabetes. Study Details They recruited 113 patients of 18 years of age or older who had lived with type 1 diabetes for 10 or more years. Then they determined residual beta cell function using an ultra sensitive C-peptide ELISA test. They also checked the patients plasma for circulating cytokines, like IL-35. The researchers found that the blood concentration of the cytokine IL-35 was lower in the C-peptide-negative patients and this was linked to a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of IL-35+ regulatory T cells, IL-35+ regulatory B cells, and IL-35
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Difference between plasma and serum - posted in Immunology: Hallo, Id like to ask about probably trivial thing but could somebody explain the difference between plasma and serum? I need to asssay for C-peptide and anti-GAD from the human blood specimens and am looking for any helpful information. Thank you very much. Paja
Assayed, liquid human serum based control for Intact PTH, Anti-Tg, Anti-TPO, 25-OH Vitamin D, IGF-I, C-Peptide, Osteocalcin, and EPO; level 2 of 4 (6 x 5 mL)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Umbilicial cord glycosylated hemoglobin in infants of diabetic mothers. T2 - Relationships to neonatal hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and cord serum C-peptide. AU - Sosenko, J. M.. AU - Kitzmiller, J. L.. AU - Fluckiger, R.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Relationships of neonatal glycemia and birthweight to antecedent fetal glycemia and insulinemia have been examined in the offspring of 63 insulin-dependent diabetic and 29 nondiabetic mothers. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels in maternal and cord blood were measured by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetric technique to estimate antecedent fetal and maternal glycemia; cord serum C-peptide was assayed to estimate fetal insulinemia. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly elevated in the diabetic mothers and their offspring as compared with controls (P , 0.001), and maternal and cord blood levels were highly correlated in the diabetic group (r = 0.61, P , 0.001). Cord serum C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin levels ...
Type 1 Diabetes has confused doctors for centuries. Characterised by the auto-immune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, sudden and debilitating symptoms can arise without insulin treatment. Insulin is only one amongst three known hormones produced by the beta cell, leading researchers at Michigan State University (MSU) to examine one of these mysterious molecules, called C-peptide.. The life expectancy of a person with type-1 diabetes has increased significantly compared to pre-20th century, but unfortunately chronic complications still may develop, such as heart disease, nerve damage and retinopathy. However, there is evidence that short-term replacement of C-peptide could improve the progression of the disease, by enhancing the ability of red blood cells to affect blood flow. Using a 3D-printed fluidic device, Researchers at MSU tested the hypothesis that C-peptide combined with a charged form of zinc (Zn2+) would cause blood vessel dilation, by increasing the amounts of ATP, an ...
The maternal secondary outcome measurements are outlined in Figure 2 and described more in detail below.. Blood sampling for fasting glucose concentrations and the other blood markers will be taken after a 10 hour overnight fast, and glucose tolerance will be measured by a 2 hour 75 mg per-oral glucose tolerance test. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed as fasting glucose ≥ 6.9 mmol/L or 2 h concentration ≥ 7.8 mmol/L [22]. Insulin resistance will be calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). We will analyse fasting blood for concentrations of lipids, ferritin, haemoglobin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and insulin c-peptide. We will also collect whole blood and serum to be frozen at -80C and stored in a biobank for later analyses of hormones associated with female reproduction and blood markers associated with adiposity and insulin resistance. We will also collect Tempus blood RNA tubes and urinarysamples to be frozen for later analyses.. Body height will be measured by ...
Studies have shown that cigarette smoking can impair insulin action in persons with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus and in those who do not have diabetes. Other studies have demonstrated that persons who are not diabetic but are chronic cigarette smokers are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic when compared with nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking is believed to contribute to hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and may possibly accelerate atherosclerosis. Targher and associates examined whether chronic cigarette smoking has an adverse effect on insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.. Forty adult patients of average weight with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the two-part study. Twenty-eight study subjects were smokers, and 12 were nonsmokers. During the first part of the study, patients were given a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in which plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels were evaluated at baseline and 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes ...
Halil Coskun, MD, Suleyman Bozkurt, MD, Naim Memmi, MD, Gokhan Cipe, MD, Yeliz Emine Ersoy, MD, Oguzhan Karatepe, MD, Mustafa Hasbahceci, MD, Erhan Aysan, MD, Adem Akcakaya, MD, Mahmut Muslumanoglu, MD. Bezmialem Vakif University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Istanbul Turkey. Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health problem worldwide especially in obese population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass in obese T2DM patients.. Material and Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with BMI ,35 kg/m2 plus T2DM underwent LMGB at our hospital from January 2010 to January 2012. Preoperative T2DM related data including glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and 2 h postprandial glucose, C-peptide levels were compared with data collected at 1, 3 and 6 postoperative months.. Results: Eighteen patients were female. Mean age was 39.9 years (range 27-58 years), mean preoperative BMI was 39.2 kg/m2 (range ...
The University of Chicago (USA). The Selection Committee highly recognized that the research you have been carrying out over the years-the discovery of proinsulin and characterization of the proinsulin processing pathway, clinical applications of C-peptide radioimmunoassay for measuring endogenous insulin production, and identification of a point mutation in the insulin gene causing various abnormalities in glucose metabolism, among many other findings-has greatly contributed to our increased understanding in the mechanism of insulin secretion and related disorders.. Dr. Donald F. Steiner was therefore selected a Prize winner of 2009. ...
Diabetic Retinopathy, Retinal, Association, Autoantibodies, C-peptide, Genes, Eyes, Cells, Epithelium, Human, Photocoagulation, Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Researchers say elevated insulin production in patients is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Elevated insulin production is known as
Two dogs belonging to an Alberta couple were killed Tuesday morning after someone shot the animals and left them on train tracks east of Edmonton.
A 66-year-old male complained of thickening of the skin at the face, posterior neck and back after a febrile episode. The patient had obesity, elevated levels of HbA1C and urinary C-peptide. The seological tests for collagen diseases were negative. The serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was elevated. The biopsied skin specimen revealed the thickening of the dermis by the increased proliferation of collagen fibers, thickening of collagen bundles with fenestrations and infiltration of lymphocytes. Scleredema caused by diabestes mellitus and obesity was diagnosed, accompanied with insulin resistance. The patient was initially treated with administration of prednisolone, followed with diet therapy. Scleredema ameliorated partially, however elevated level of VEGF persisted after 6 months of discharge. It is unclear whether elevated level of VEGF may be related to the pathogenesis of the disease or may be an aggravating factor ...
5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to be a metabolic master switch regulating various aspects of muscle glucose and fat metabolism. In isolated rat skeletal muscle, glucose suppresses the activity of AMPK and in human muscle glycogen loading decreases exercise-induced AMPK activation. We hypothesized that oral glucose ingestion during exercise would attenuate muscle AMPK activation. Nine male subjects performed two bouts of one-legged knee-extensor exercise at 60% of maximal workload. The subjects were randomly assigned to either consume a glucose containing drink or a placebo drink during the two trials. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 2 h of exercise. Plasma glucose was higher (6.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.1 mmol L-1, P , 0.001), whereas glycerol (44.8 +/- 7.8 vs. 165.7 +/- 22.3 micromol L-1), and free fatty acid (169.3 +/- 9.5 vs. 1161 +/- 144.9 micromol L-1) concentrations were lower during the glucose compared to the placebo trial ...
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus is a distinct clinical entity subdivided into protein-deficient diabetes mellitus (PDDM) and fibrocalculus pancreatic diabetes (FCPD). Whereas FCPD has obvious pancreatitis manifested by pancreatic duct calculi, the evidence for involvement of the pancreas in PDDM is limited to the presence of ketosis-resistant hyperglycaemia. METHODS: We studied 10 patients with PDDM biochemically and radiologically. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed to determine if they had any evidence of chronic pancreatitis. RESULTS: Their mean faecal chymotrypsin level was low (13.2+/-5.72 microg/g), as was their basal c-peptide value (0.35+/-0.15 mmol/L). Islet cell antibodies were not detected in any of these patients. Ultrasound examination revealed pancreatic atrophy. In two patients, however, the pancreas was bulky. The ERCP showed generalized thinning of the pancreatic duct, measuring 2.4+/-0.06mm in the head, 2.01+/-0.08 mm in the body and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free fatty acid-induced peripheral insulin resistance augments splanchnic glucose uptake in healthy humans. AU - Bajaj, Mandeep. AU - Berria, Rachele. AU - Pratipanawatr, Thongchai. AU - Kashyap, Sangeeta. AU - Pratipanawatr, Wilailak. AU - Belfort, Renata. AU - Cusi, Kenneth. AU - Mandarino, Lawrence. AU - Defronzo, Ralph A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - To investigate the effect of elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU), we measured SGU in nine healthy subjects (age, 44 ± 4 yr; body mass index, 27.4 ± 1.2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose, 5.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l) during an Intralipid-heparin (LIP) infusion and during a saline (Sal) infusion. SGU was estimated by the oral glucose load (OGL)insulin clamp method: subjects received a 7-h euglycemic insulin (100 mU·m-2·min-1) clamp, and a 75-g OGL was ingested 3 h after the insulin clamp was started. After glucose ingestion, the steady-state glucose infusion rate (GIR) during the insulin ...

PAMP - proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide | AcronymAtticPAMP - proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide | AcronymAttic

PAMP stands for proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide. PAMP is defined as proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide rarely. ... This film is loaded with the proangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial peptide, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 ... S.v. "PAMP." Retrieved March 31 2020 from https://www.acronymattic.com/proadrenomedullin-N_terminal-20-peptide-(PAMP).html ... a href=https://www.acronymattic.com/proadrenomedullin-N_terminal-20-peptide-(PAMP).html,PAMP,/a,. ...
more infohttps://www.acronymattic.com/proadrenomedullin-N_terminal-20-peptide-

Molluscan Cardioexcitatory Peptide (CAS 152165-14-5) Market Research Report 2017Molluscan Cardioexcitatory Peptide (CAS 152165-14-5) Market Research Report 2017

... aims at providing comprehensive data on ... Molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide prices in other regions. 7. MOLLUSCAN CARDIOEXCITATORY PEPTIDE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. Molluscan ... 6. MOLLUSCAN CARDIOEXCITATORY PEPTIDE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide prices in Europe. 6.2. Molluscan ... 3. MOLLUSCAN CARDIOEXCITATORY PEPTIDE MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. MOLLUSCAN CARDIOEXCITATORY PEPTIDE PATENTS. Abstract. ...
more infohttps://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/molluscan_cardioexcitatory_peptide_152165-14-5_market_research_report.html

Human neutrophil peptide. Causes, symptoms, treatment Human neutrophil peptideHuman neutrophil peptide. Causes, symptoms, treatment Human neutrophil peptide

Treatment Human neutrophil peptide. Symptoms and causes Human neutrophil peptide Prophylaxis Human neutrophil peptide ... Peptide-1. Peptides , Defensins , HNP-1, Defensin Human Neutrophil Peptide-1; Mammalian defensins are abundant in the ... Role of human neutrophil peptides in the initial interaction .... Role of human neutrophil peptides in the initial interaction ... Role of human neutrophil peptides in lung inflammation .... TRANSLATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY. Role of human neutrophil peptides in lung ...
more infohttp://drugster.info/medic/term/human-neutrophil-peptide/

Human C-type natriuretic peptide<...Human C-type natriuretic peptide<...

We isolated the human C-type natriuretic peptide gene and identified the peptide in the brain. The human C-type natriuretic ... abstract = "We isolated the human C-type natriuretic peptide gene and identified the peptide in the brain. The human C-type ... N2 - We isolated the human C-type natriuretic peptide gene and identified the peptide in the brain. The human C-type ... AB - We isolated the human C-type natriuretic peptide gene and identified the peptide in the brain. The human C-type ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/human-c-type-natriuretic-peptide

natriuretic peptidenatriuretic peptide

... natriuretic peptide.ws www.natriuretic peptide.cn www.natriuretic peptide.sg www.natriuretic peptide.be www.natriuretic peptide ... natriuretic peptide.fm www.natriuretic peptide.tk www.natriuretic peptide.de www.natriuretic peptide.sh www.natriuretic peptide ... natriuretic peptide.jp www.natriuretic peptide.vc www.natriuretic peptide.gs www.natriuretic peptide.tm www.natriuretic peptide ... natriuretic peptide.ms www.natriuretic peptide.im www.natriuretic peptide.la www.natriuretic peptide.vg www.natriuretic peptide ...
more infohttp://fesion.awardspace.co.uk/1.php?go=natriuretic%20peptide

Peptide - WikipediaPeptide - Wikipedia

A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ... Peptide classes[edit]. Peptides are divided into several classes, depending on how they are produced:. Milk peptides Two ... The term peptide has been used to mean secretagogue peptides and peptide hormones in sports doping matters: secretagogue ... Well-known peptide families[edit]. The peptide families in this section are ribosomal peptides, usually with hormonal activity ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptide

Vasoactive intestinal peptide test: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaVasoactive intestinal peptide test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount of VIP in the blood. ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount of VIP in the blood. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm

Drug hypersensitivity caused by alteration of the MHC-presented self-peptide repertoire | PNASDrug hypersensitivity caused by alteration of the MHC-presented self-peptide repertoire | PNAS

In the example shown, peptide A, but not peptide B, can bind to the HLA molecule. Self-peptides presented to T cells in this ... Three of these peptides were present at levels (,100 copies/cell) that place them among the top 5% of all peptides in the drug- ... To set up the assay, 5 × 105 PBMCs were then exposed to 10 μg/mL of exogenous peptides, either singly or as peptide pools ... D) Abacavir binding in the F pocket does not alter the peptide conformation compared with other peptide/HLA-B complexes. A ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/109/25/9959.long

Peptide - WikipediaPeptide - Wikipedia

... fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides ... cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood-brain peptides ... immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, ... A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptone

Peptide Microarrays | SpringerLinkPeptide Microarrays | SpringerLink

... provides insights into the technological fundamentals together with a comprehensive overview of the potentialities of peptide ... Peptides and Anti-peptide Antibodies for Small and Medium Scale Peptide and Anti-peptide Affinity Microarrays: Antigenic ... strategies Enzyme activity screening Epitope mapping Medical applications Peptide array technology Peptide binding Peptide ... Peptide Arrays: Cutting-Edge Methods and Technology. * Front Matter Pages 1-1 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4939-3037-1

Peptide Hormones | SpringerLinkPeptide Hormones | SpringerLink

The development of peptide chemistry in the second half of this century is so closely related to hormone research that it ... Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Human Insulin Disulfide Bridge Peptide Hormone Arginine Vasopressin These keywords were added by ... R. Guillemin, Peptides in the brain: the new endocrinology of the neuron. (Nobel Lecture) Science 202: 390-402 (1978).PubMed ... The development of peptide chemistry in the second half of this century is so closely related to hormone research that it ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-75850-8_7

Peptide | chemical compound | BritannicaPeptide | chemical compound | Britannica

The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of ... Peptide molecules are composed of two or more ... Peptide, any organic substance of which the molecules are ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. Small peptides have been discovered that, like hormones, act on certain target ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/peptide

peptide - Everything2.compeptide - Everything2.com

A peptide is any of a class of organic molecules that are composed of (and hydrolyze into) amino acids and form the basic ... And finally, many peptides have other uses in a variety of industries. Aspartame is a peptide that has gained fame as an ... Peptides can also be an important cell biology research tool; several types of marker peptides can be created by linking a ... Peptides can act as systemic regulators and as substances for signalling between cells. For instance, peptides called ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/peptide

Peptide Bond | Encyclopedia.comPeptide Bond | Encyclopedia.com

... shorter strings of linked amino acids are known as peptides). ... Peptide Bond A peptide bond is a linkage between the building ... Peptide Bond. A peptide bond is a linkage between the building blocks of proteins called amino acids (shorter strings of linked ... The synthesis of proteins involves the formation of many peptide bonds. Cleavage of peptide bonds, involved in digestion of ... peptide bond A chemical bond that links 2 or more amino acids by a reaction between carboxyl and amino groups. According to the ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/chemistry/chemistry-general/peptide-bond

Natriuretic Peptide | Encyclopedia.comNatriuretic Peptide | Encyclopedia.com

atrial n. p. (*ANP*) a peptide produced in the atria of the heart in response to a rise in atrial pressure. ... any of several peptides that stimulate diuresis and vasodilatation. They act on the kidney tubules to promote excretion of ... Others include brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), produced in the central nervous system, and type C natriuretic peptide (CNP).. ... natriuretic peptide Any of several peptide hormones that promote the excretion of sodium ions in the urine (i.e. natriuresis). ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/natriuretic-peptide

Bioactive Peptide ApplicationsBioactive Peptide Applications

Bioactive peptides are small protein fragments that promote metabolic health by exerting a positive influence on biological ... Typical opioid peptides have the same N-terminal sequence of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, while atypical opioid peptides have varying amino ... Marine-derived bioactive peptides, such as jellyfish collagen peptides, protein hydrolysates from muscles of goby fish and ... Milk-Derived Bioactive Peptides. Milk-derived bioactive peptides also exert multiple therapeutic functions, such as ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Bioactive-Peptide-Applications.aspx

Blood Test: C-PeptideBlood Test: C-Peptide

A C-peptide test can help doctors tell the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also can help find the cause of ... In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin and little or no C-peptide. In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels ... In general, high C-peptide levels are associated with increased insulin production, while low C-peptide levels indicate ... C-peptide, on the other hand, has no effect on blood sugar. It is, however, useful as a marker of insulin production, since the ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/ChildrensHealthNetwork/en/parents/test-cpeptide.html

Protein & Peptide Science GroupProtein & Peptide Science Group

... The Protein and Peptide Science Group (PPSG) is one of the RSCs many Interest Groups. The ... MyRSC Protein and Peptide Science Group You will be required to register for MyRSC, then you can sign up to become a member of ... Peptide chemists and biologists, medics, members of the biotechnology, food and pharmaceutical industries. Community. We also ...
more infohttp://www.rsc.org/Membership/Networking/InterestGroups/ProteinPeptideScience/index.asp

RhymeZone: peptide definitionsRhymeZone: peptide definitions

Search for peptide at other dictionaries: OneLook, Oxford, American Heritage, Merriam-Webster, Wikipedia. See peptide used in ... Definitions of peptide: *noun: amide combining the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another; usually ...
more infohttp://www.rhymezone.com/r/d=peptide

signal-peptidesignal-peptide

... weller1 at agri.huji.ac.il weller1 at agri.huji.ac.il Tue Feb 4 10:55:10 EST 1992 *Previous message: Types of ... are they known polymorphisms in the sequence of the signal peptide? thank You for Your answers *Previous message: Types of file ... function and possible polymorphism in signal-peptides? what influence has a polymorphism ? ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/proteins/1992-February/000254.html

Peptide ELISAPeptide ELISA

... Tom mdp96tab at my-deja.com Wed Feb 23 12:52:38 EST 2000 *Previous message: Peptide ELISA ... peptide from a 10 mg/ml peptide stock was added to 10 mls of , carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (enough for one plate). 100 ml per ... In article ,87l6cc$jgq$1 at nnrp1.deja.com,, jack_horner at my-deja.com wrote: , From the method I use: , 1. Antigen (peptide/ ... I guess its just a desperate attempt to get peptide to stick down ( and beleive me I was desperate!). Thanks to all for your ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/immuno/2000-February/015557.html

Angiotensin | peptide | Britannica.comAngiotensin | peptide | Britannica.com

... a peptide, one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels. There are three forms of angiotensin. ... peptide. Peptide. , any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins, but smaller. The ... protein: Peptides with hormonelike activity. One peptide, angiotensin (angiotonin or hypertensin), is formed in the blood from ... Angiotensin, a peptide, one form of which, angiotensin II, causes constriction of blood vessels. ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/angiotensin

Insulin C-peptide - PostsInsulin C-peptide - Posts

Find Insulin C-peptide information, treatments for Insulin C-peptide and Insulin C-peptide symptoms. ... MedHelps Insulin C-peptide Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Insulin C-peptide. ... I got the results for my blood test, and the Dr said my c-peptide was very low and my A... ... C-peptide, Insulin, Hemoglobin glycated results to confirm - Diabetes Prevention & Pre-Diabetes Community ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/tags/show/124493/Insulin-C-peptide?section=subjects

Aplicações Bioactive do PeptideAplicações Bioactive do Peptide

Os peptides Bioactive são os fragmentos pequenos da proteína que promovem a saúde metabólica exercendo uma influência positiva ... Aplicações terapêuticas de Peptides Bioactive Marinho-Derivados. os peptides bioactive Marinho-derivados, tais como peptides do ... Os peptides típicos do opiáceo têm a mesma seqüência do N-terminal de Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, quando os peptides atípicos do opiáceo ... Propriedades farmacológicas de Peptides Bioactive. O tipo de ácido aminado do n e do C-terminal, o comprimento chain do peptide ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Bioactive-Peptide-Applications-

Peptide-membrane interactions: Faraday DiscussionPeptide-membrane interactions: Faraday Discussion

... of how peptides (and proteins) interact with lipid bilayers. This session will address the simplest membrane and peptide ... The behaviour of peptides and proteins within membranes will be considered further in this session. Discussion in the first two ... Chair, Peptide-membrane interactions. Format of the Discussion. Faraday Discussions remain amongst the only conferences to ... Peptide-membrane interactions and biotechnology; enabling next-generation synthetic biology. This session will consider how the ...
more infohttps://www.rsc.org/events/detail/37143/peptide-membrane-interactions-faraday-discussion
  • derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide ( amide ) bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptides are termed "residues" due to the release of either a hydrogen ion from the amine end or a hydroxyl ion from the carboxyl end, or both, as a water molecule is released during formation of each amide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide molecules are composed of two or more amino acids joined through amide formation involving the carboxyl group of each amino acid and the amino group of the next. (britannica.com)
  • The chemical bond between the carbon and nitrogen atoms of each amide group is called a peptide bond . (britannica.com)
  • These molecule s link to each other by forming a bond (an amide linkage) between the amino group of one peptide to the carboxyl group of another. (everything2.com)
  • For example, opioid peptides are short amino acid sequences with similar pharmacological activity as opium. (news-medical.net)
  • Typical opioid peptides have the same N-terminal sequence of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, while atypical opioid peptides have varying amino acid sequences at their N-terminal region with conserved tyrosine residue. (news-medical.net)
  • Others, such as substance P and the opioid peptides, are involved in the perception of pain (see Chapter 10). (nih.gov)
  • Substance P is also a sensory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord , where its release can be inhibited by opioid peptides released from spinal cord interneurons, resulting in the suppression of pain (see Chapter 10). (nih.gov)
  • The opioid peptides were discovered in the 1970s during a search for endogenous compounds that mimicked the actions of morphine . (nih.gov)
  • The endogenous ligands of the opioid receptors have now been identified as a family of more than 20 opioid peptides that fall into three classes: the endorphins , the enkephalins , and the dynorphins . (nih.gov)
  • Opioid peptides are widely distributed throughout the brain and are often co-localized with other small-molecule neurotransmitters such as GABA and 5-HT. (nih.gov)
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount of VIP in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A review of literature was performed using MEDLINE, Pubmed, and Cochrane databases in collection of data using MeSH terms including vasoactive intestinal peptide, VIPoma, and WDHA. (hindawi.com)
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor is a rare neoplasm associated with significant morbidity and mortality through secretion of water and electrolytes in the gastrointestinal tract. (hindawi.com)
  • The pharmacologic interaction with immune receptors (p-i) model states that drugs can induce the formation of HLA-drug complexes that can activate T-cell immune responses directly without requiring a specific peptide ligand ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Angiotensin -converting enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme that targets a specific peptide bond, forming a chemical signal that increases blood pressure . (encyclopedia.com)
  • This is an important breakthrough because peptides are considered to be a possible solution in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (empa.ch)
  • The research carried out by Empa and the University of Copenhagen could, therefore, be a first step in the successful fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as peptides use a different mechanism from that used by antibiotics and destroy the membrane of bacteria. (empa.ch)
  • For example, cytotoxic peptides such as KLAK are conjugated onto dendrimers (polymeric materials with nanometer-scale dimensions) to enhance intracellular delivery and deep tumor penetration capacity. (news-medical.net)
  • Single-blind case-control studies have demonstrated that marine collagen peptides improve skin elasticity and sebum production in healthy participants. (news-medical.net)
  • os estudos Único-cegos do caso-controle demonstraram que os peptides marinhos do colagénio melhoram a elasticidade de pele e a produção do sebum em participantes saudáveis. (news-medical.net)
  • Other nonribosomal peptides are most common in unicellular organisms , plants , and fungi and are synthesized by modular enzyme complexes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases . (wikipedia.org)
  • In type 2 diabetes, C-peptide levels will typically be normal or high, as the pancreas works harder to overcome insulin resistance (when the tissues become less sensitive to the effects of insulin) by producing more insulin. (kidshealth.org)
  • C-Peptide is useful in the evaluation of pancreatic beta cell function (e.g., helping distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus, or monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants) and for determining the source of insulin in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (e.g., distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors from exogenous insulin administration). (questdiagnostics.com)
  • In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin and little or no C-peptide. (kidshealth.org)
  • A C-peptide test is not ordered to help diagnose diabetes, but when a person has been newly diagnosed with diabetes, it may be ordered by itself or along with an insulin level to help determine how much insulin a person's pancreas is still producing (endogenous insulin). (labcorp.com)
  • C-peptide levels may be ordered when a person has been newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes as part of an evaluation of the person's "residual beta cell function. (labcorp.com)
  • Um formulário puro da enzima proteolytic é usado para hydrolyze a proteína para produzir seqüências curtos do peptide. (news-medical.net)
  • Estas bactérias ou o fermento segregam suas enzimas proteolytic em momento oportuno para liberar peptides das proteínas. (news-medical.net)
  • They occur in many organisms and constitute natural weapons against bacteria in the body, being known as antimicrobial peptides. (empa.ch)
  • Peptides are already effective against bacteria when working "alone" - but in combination with the carrier structure they are even stronger. (empa.ch)
  • Peptides are catabolized into inactive amino acid fragments by enzymes called peptidases, usually located on the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • In many metabolic disorder s, the body may inadvertently produce toxic peptides that it cannot break down which build up in the system and damage organs. (everything2.com)
  • Sometimes a C-peptide test may be used to help evaluate a person diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, a set of risk factors that includes abdominal obesity, increased blood glucose and/or insulin resistance, unhealthy blood lipid levels, and high blood pressure (hypertension). (labcorp.com)
  • The biological activity of the peptide neurotransmitters depends on their amino acid sequence (see, for example, Figure 6.4 ). (nih.gov)
  • Other peptides are studied because they have or may have value in treating diseases such as cancer , AIDS , and other viral and bacterial diseases. (everything2.com)
  • The reason for this lies in their structure, which results in peptides being broken down relatively quickly inside the human body, before they can have an anti-bacterial impact. (empa.ch)
  • Initial tests with bacterial cultures have shown that the peptides are completely enclosed by the nanocarriers and thus remain stable. (empa.ch)
  • Here we show that abacavir can bind within the F pocket of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-B*57:01, thereby altering its specificity. (pnas.org)
  • The tyrosine residue is an important structural motif that is required for the opioid peptide to bind with its corresponding receptor. (news-medical.net)
  • These peptides are so named because they bind to the same postsynaptic receptors activated by opium (see Chapter 10). (nih.gov)
  • In general, peptides are linear, although lariat structures have been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • With recent advances in computational modelling, it is now feasible to model membranes that can deliver realistic representations of multi-lipid assemblies and the interactions of peptides with these structures with atomistic detail seems also within reach. (rsc.org)
  • a , b , Comparison of DDA and DIA data for individual peptides under each experimental condition. (nature.com)
  • As already described, propeptide precursors are typically larger than their active peptide products and can give rise to more than one species of neuropeptide ( Figure 6.14 ). (nih.gov)
  • For 1639 combinations of peptide and sample, the log 10 of the fragment-ion area was compared to the log 10 of the MS1 area. (nature.com)