The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
Genes that are used transgenically, i.e., via GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES to induce CELL DEATH.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Water-soluble, copper-containing low molecular weight polypeptides obtained from the culture medium of Streptomyces verticillus. They are specific inhibitors of DNA synthesis in bacteria and have been found to act as antitumor agents. They have also been used against rust fungi of plants.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.

Bystander effects caused by nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I. (1/402)

A three-dimensional tissue culture model was used to investigate the biological effects of nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster V79 cells were labeled with (125)I-iododeoxyuridine, mixed with unlabeled cells, and multicellular clusters ( approximately 1.7 mm in diameter) were formed by gentle centrifugation. The highly localized energy deposition caused by (125)I decays results in very high equivalent doses delivered to the labeled cells and low equivalent doses delivered to the unlabeled cells. The clusters were assembled and then maintained at 10.5 degrees C for 72 h to allow (125)I decays to accumulate, dismantled, and the cells were plated for colony formation. When 100% of the cells were labeled, the survival fraction was exponentially dependent on the mean radioactivity per labeled cell. A two-component exponential response was observed when either 50 or 10% of the cells were labeled. These experimental data, coupled with theoretical dosimetry calculations, indicate that bystander effects play an important role in the killing of unlabeled cells when nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I are present.  (+info)

Neonatal exposure to antigen primes the immune system to develop responses in various lymphoid organs and promotes bystander regulation of diverse T cell specificities. (2/402)

Neonatal exposure to Ag has always been considered suppressive for immunity. Recent investigations, however, indicated that the neonatal immune system could be guided to develop immunity. For instance, delivery of a proteolipid protein (PLP) peptide on Ig boosts the neonatal immune system to develop responses upon challenge with the PLP peptide later. Accordingly, mice given Ig-PLP at birth and challenged with the PLP peptide as adults developed proliferative T cells in the lymph node that produced IL-4 instead of the usual Th1 cytokines. However, the spleen was unresponsive unless IL-12 was provided. Herein, we wished to determine whether such a neonatal response is intrinsic to the PLP peptide or could develop with an unrelated myelin peptide as well as whether the T cell deviation is able to confer resistance to autoimmunity involving diverse T cell specificities. Accordingly, the amino acid sequence 87-99 of myelin basic protein was expressed on the same Ig backbone, and the resulting Ig-myelin basic protein chimera was tested for induction of neonatal immunity and protection against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Surprisingly, the results indicated that immunity developed in the lymph node and spleen, with deviation of T cells occurring in both organs. More striking, the splenic T cells produced IL-10 in addition to IL-4, providing an environment that facilitated bystander deviation of responses to unrelated epitopes and promoted protection against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis involving diverse T cell specificities. Thus, neonatal exposure to Ag can prime responses in various organs and sustain regulatory functions effective against diverse autoreactive T cells.  (+info)

In vivo gene therapy for colon cancer using adenovirus-mediated, transfer of the fusion gene cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. (3/402)

Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) utilising cytosine deaminase (CD) converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and has entered into a clinical trial for metastatic colon cancer. To improve this system, a replication-deficient adenovirus, containing a bifunctional fusion gene, CD:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), was constructed (AdCDUPRT). UPRT enhances the conversion of 5-FU into its active metabolites, which inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis. In vitro, AdCDUPRT infection of colon cancer cells resulted in a marked increase in sensitisation to 5-FU, compared with AdCD-infected or uninfected cells. The corollary is a approximately 100-fold and approximately 10 000-fold increase in sensitisation to 5-FC in AdCDUPRT-infected cells, compared to AdCD-infected and uninfected cells, respectively. There was a strong bystander effect in vitro, 70% of tumour cells were killed by 5-FC when only 10% of cells expressed CDUPRT. In vivo, athymic mice with colon cancer xenografts treated with intratumoral AdCDUPRT and intraperitoneal 5-FC, significantly reduced tumour growth rates compared with untreated controls (P = 0.02), whereas AdCD/5-FC treated mice did not. At higher AdCDUPRT virus doses, 5-FC and 5-FU were equally effective at delaying tumour growth compared with controls. In summary, VDEPT for colon cancer utilising AdCDUPRT is more effective than AdCD and the bifunctional CDUPRT gene enables the use of either 5-FC or 5-FU as prodrugs.  (+info)

Inflammatory-type responses after exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo: a mechanism for radiation-induced bystander effects? (4/402)

Haemopoietic tissues exposed to ionizing radiation are shown to exhibit increased macrophage activation, defined by ultrastructural characteristics and increased lysosomal and nitric oxide synthase enzyme activities. Macrophage activation post-irradiation was also associated with enhanced respiratory burst activities and an unexpected neutrophil infiltration. Examination of p53-null mice demonstrated that macrophage activation and neutrophil infiltration were not direct effects of irradiation, but were a consequence of the recognition and clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells. Increased phagocytic cell activity was maintained after apoptotic bodies had been removed. These findings demonstrate that, contrary to expectation, recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells after exposure to radiation produces both a persistent macrophage activation and an inflammatory-type response. We also demonstrate a complexity of macrophage activation following radiation that is genotype dependent, indicating that the in vivo macrophage responses to radiation damage are genetically modified processes. These short-term responses of macrophages to radiation-induced apoptosis and their genetic modification are likely to be important determinants of the longer-term consequences of radiation exposure. Furthermore, in addition to any effects attributable to immediate radiation-induced damage, our findings provide a mechanism for the production of damage via a 'bystander' effect which may contribute to radiation-induced genomic instability and leukaemogenesis.  (+info)

Local inflammation and devascularization--in vivo mechanisms of the "bystander effect" in VPC-mediated HSV-Tk/GCV gene therapy for human malignant glioma. (5/402)

Somatic gene therapy with the herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir (HSV-Tk/GCV) system and murine retroviral vector producer cells (VPCs) was introduced as a new adjuvant treatment modality to treat tumor bulk and to prevent tumor recurrence in patients harboring malignant glioma. The single-center experience after treatment of 27 patients undergoing tumor resection followed by intracerebral VPC injection for HSV-Tk suicide gene therapy will be presented focused on findings of systematic and close MRI follow-up and a few histological specimens. The data indicate that hemorrhagic necrosis due to endothelial cell transfection mediated vessel necrosis and that local inflammatory immune response occurs frequently after gene therapy. These phenomena seem to be specific because none of the patients of a control group showed any similar features. The prognosis (time to progression, survival) of the patients with "bystander effects" after gene therapy was better, but compared to those patients without bystander effects, they were also privileged by a favorable constellation of prognostic factors. Therefore, the appearance of these neuroradiologic features cannot serve as an indicator for treatment effectiveness and outcome.  (+info)

Indirect IL-4 pathway in type 1 immunity. (6/402)

Recall Ag-specific IL-4 was detected in the spleen and in the blood, but not in lymph nodes of mice in which polarized type 1 immunity was induced. This IL-4 was not produced by T cells, but soluble factors secreted by the recall Ag-activated T cells, including IL-3, triggered cells of the innate immune system, primarily mast cells, to secrete IL-4. This notion has profound implications for immunodiagnostics: the detection of apparently recall Ag-specific IL-4 does not necessarily reflect the presence of Th2 or Th0 memory T cells with long-term cytokine commitment as is of interest for assessing adoptive immunity. We found that in vivo the indirect IL-4 pathway did not suffice to trigger IgE isotype switching, but promoted IgG1 production and inhibited type 1 T cell differentiation. Therefore, the indirect IL-4 pathway can explain partial type 2 immune response phenotypes in vivo in face of unipolar Th1 T cell immunity. The representation of mast cells in different tissues may explain why immune responses in certain organs are more type 2 biased. Therefore, the indirect pathway of IL-4 production represents a novel type of interaction between the innate and the adoptive immune system that can contribute to the outcome of host defense and immune pathology.  (+info)

Characteristics of ovarian cancer cells transduced by the bicistronic retroviral vector containing GM-CSF and HSV-TK genes. (7/402)

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) genes could be linked by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in one retroviral vector and expressed by ovarian cancer cells following transfection, and to observe the characteristics of the transduced cells. METHODS: Retroviral vector pLGM-I-TK was constructed by linking the HSV-TK gene and GM-CSF gene with the IRES sequence. By using the "ping-pong" technique, pLGM-I-TK was transfected into the packaging cell line, PA317, to produce a PA317/TK-GM cell line. Using the resulting viral supernatant to infect the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, PCR and RT-PCR were used to explore the integration and transcription of HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes. The cytotoxicity of GCV (gancyclovir) on SKOV3/TK-GM was determined by MTT assay and the bystander effect of the HSV-TK/GCV system was also assessed. ELISA was used to measure the expression of GM-CSF by the transgene cells. RESULTS: The bicistronic retroviral vector constructed could be successfully transduced into PA317 and the titer of the retroviral vector was about 8.6 x 10(5) cfu/ml. PCR and RT-PCR demonstrated the successful integration and transcription of HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes transduced into the SKOV3 cell. SKOV3/TK-GM cells could be killed by GCV, and the IC50 was 0.7 microgram/ml. The bystander effect was demonstrated. The expression level of GM-CSF in SKOV3/TK-GM was 60.4 x 10(6) cells-1 x 2 days-1. CONCLUSION: The IRES sequence can be used to construct retroviral vectors to facilitate co-transfection of two genes. SKOV3/TK-GM cells can simultaneously express the HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes with biological activities which could be useful for enhancing the function of immune cells on the basis of suicide gene therapy.  (+info)

Sensitization of prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine induced by adenoviral vector carrying a CD transcription unit. (8/402)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of the cytosine deaminase adenoviral/5-fluorocytosine system on prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS: We used cell culture, infectivity and sensitivity tests, to observe bystander effect by animal tests. RESULTS: Established prostate cancer cell lines are eventually infectible by adenoviral vector. The ratio of vector/cell at which infection occurs depends on the specific cell line. The peak of expression of the transferred cytosine deaminase gene occurred in cells at different time, but persisted beyond 11 days. These prostate cell lines are sensitized to 5-fluorocytosine by infection with adenoviral vector carrying the cytosine deaminase gene. Only 5% of the LNCap and 10% of the RM-1 cells were infected and produced 100% cell death. In the animal test, there was significant inhibition of tumor growth at a ratio of 400 vector particles/cell with the systematic treatment of 5-fluorocytosine. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral vector carrying a cytosine deaminase transcription unit can sensitize prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine. The system can significantly inhibit the growth of prostatic tumors in mice.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-Term consequences of radiation-induced bystander effects depend on radiation quality and dose and correlate with oxidative stress. AU - Buonanno, Manuela. AU - De Toledo, Sonia M.. AU - Pain, Debkumar. AU - Azzam, Edouard I.. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Widespread evidence indicates that exposure of cell populations to ionizing radiation results in significant biological changes in both the irradiated and nonirradiated bystander cells in the population. We investigated the role of radiation quality, or linear energy transfer (LET), and radiation dose in the propagation of stressful effects in the progeny of bystander cells. Confluent normal human cell cultures were exposed to low or high doses of 1GeV/u iron ions (LET ∼151 keV/μ m), 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET ∼51 keV/μ m), or 1 GeV protons (LET ∼0.2 keV/μ m). Within minutes after irradiation, the cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with nonirradiated cells for 5 h. During this time, irradiated and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of TGF-beta1 and nitric oxide in the bystander response of irradiated glioma cells.. AU - Shao, C.. AU - Folkard, M.. AU - Prise, Kevin. PY - 2008/1/17. Y1 - 2008/1/17. N2 - The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) increases the probability of cellular response and therefore has important implications for cancer risk assessment following low-dose irradiation and for the likelihood of secondary cancers after radiotherapy. However, our knowledge of bystander signaling factors, especially those having long half-lives, is still limited. The present study found that, when a fraction of cells within a glioblastoma population were individually irradiated with helium ions from a particle microbeam, the yield of micronuclei (MN) in the nontargeted cells was increased, but these bystander MN were eliminated by treating the cells with either aminoguanidine (an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase) or anti-transforming growth factor beta1 (anti-TGF-beta1), indicating ...
Evidence has accumulated that ionizing radiation induces biological effects in non-irradiated bystander cells having received signals from directly irradiated cells; however, energetic heavy ion-induced bystander response is incompletely characterized. Here we performed microarray analysis of irradiated and bystander fibroblasts in confluent cultures. To see the effects in bystander cells, each of 1, 5 and 25 sites was targeted with 10 particles of carbon ions (18.3 MeV/u, 103 keV/microm) using microbeams, where particles traversed 0.00026, 0.0013 and 0.0066% of cells, respectively. diated cells, cultures were exposed to 10% survival dose (D), 0.1D and 0.01D of corresponding broadbeams (108 keV/microm). Irrespective of the target numbers (1, 5 or 25 sites) and the time (2 or 6h postirradiation), similar expression changes were observed in bystander cells. Among 874 probes that showed more than 1.5-fold changes in bystander cells, 25% were upregulated and the remainder downregulated. These ...
p,Radiation induced bystander effects have given the cancer risk analysis a whole new paradigm. However the actual mechanism involved in producing the effects is still not clear. The basic bystander signal is assumed to be a biological signal. In this study we proposed and tried to quantify the presence of a physical signal in the form of electromagnetic radiation that can trigger a biological response in the bystander cells. In bystander effect studies where the cells are exposed to very low fluence of charged particles there could be several regions that can produce electromagnetic radiation due to the process of atomic/molecular excitations and relaxations. We focused on quantifying the number of ultraviolet photons emitted when charged particles pass through different media that have relevance to radiation biology experiments. The choice of UV photons was made due to the reason that its effects on living cells are very well documented. For this purpose we developed a system which employed ...
It is now well accepted that radiation induced bystander effects can occur in cells exposed to media from irradiated cells. The aim of this study was to follow the bystander cells in real time following addition of media from irradiated cells and to determine the effect of inhibiting these signals. A human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT cells, was irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) with γ irradiation, conditioned medium was harvested after one hour and added to recipient bystander cells. Reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, Glutathione levels, caspase activation, cytotoxicity and cell viability was measured after the addition of irradiated cell conditioned media to bystander cells. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide levels in bystander cells treated with 0.5Gy ICCM were analysed in real time using time lapse fluorescence microscopy. The levels of reactive oxygen species were also measured in real time after the addition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase
Best stories, art and poetry about bystander effect. Authors who write about bystander effect. Other Red Fez members intersted in bystander effect.
Introduction: Brachytherapy is a preferred choice of radiotherapy in the treatment of sensitive tissues cancer like intestine and gonad. The treatment is expensive because of the frequent replacement of radionuclide sources. A better understanding of cell killing and the cellular responses at different dose rates, might aid in tumor cell killing with fewer doses thereby enhancing a better prognosis.. Methods: The cervix cancer cell line was irradiated with doses ranging from 2Gy-10 Gy at three different dose-rates as used in brachytherapy along with unexposed sample as control. The biological effects of different doses and dose rate of the cells was assessed by measuring its cytotoxicity,genotoxicity and clonogenic ability of exposed cells. The bystander effect was examined by co-culturing the exposed tumor cells with the unexposed normal blood lymphocyte and vice-versa. Results: A significant and dose dependent changes in cell viability (trypan blue exclusion), genotoxicity (Micronucleus assay) ...
Tumor vascular endothelium has certain properties that render it an attractive target for cancer gene therapy, such as accessibility to circulating vectors, expression of endothelial surface receptors distinct from those of normal quiescent vasculature, and a potential amplifying effect caused by hypoxia. Ligand-directed adeno-associated virus/phage can mediate targeted HSVtk suicide gene transfer to tumor vascular endothelium in several experimental models (20, 21). However, the precise cytotoxic mechanism of such profound antitumor effects after vascular-targeted suicide gene transfer has not as yet been entirely understood. Here, we show that vascular targeted HSVtk suicide gene delivery results in efficient cell killing mediated by a heterotypic bystander effect between endothelial and parenchymal tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.. The bystander effect has initially been described as a phenomenon in homotypic cultures, in which neighboring (bystander) HSVtk-nonexpressing tumor cells were ...
Tilbud på Jazz and Sleep på dansk. Ever since the first Jazz Festival in Ribe, Jens at Danhostel Ribe and Jazz´in Ribe have worked together to start the last day of the festival in an enjoyable way with jazz and brunch at the hostel. Latest in 2009 when Jens Chr. Kwellas kvartet plaid jazz for the brunch eaters and jazz lovers. Jazz Festival in Ribe 2010 will take place 23th, 24th. and 25th of ...
EMS providers recorded bystander assistance 11% of the time. The logistic regression model correctly predicted bystander intervention occurrence 71.4% of the time. Bystanders were more likely to intervene when the patient was male (aOR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.12-1.3) and if the patient was older (progressive aOR = 1.10, 1.46 age group 20-29 through age group 60-99). Bystanders were less likely to intervene in rural areas compared to urban areas (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.58-0.59). The highest likelihood of bystander intervention occurred in a residential institution (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.85-1.86) and the lowest occurred on a street or a highway (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95-0.96). Using death as a reference group, bystanders were most likely to intervene when the patient had cardiac distress/chest pain (aOR = 11.38, 95% CI = 10.93-11.86), followed by allergic reaction (aOR = 7.63, 95% CI = 7.30-7.99), smoke inhalation (aOR = 6.65, 95% CI = 5.98-7.39), and respiration arrest/distress (aOR = 6.43, 95% CI = ...
Despite many years of potent antiretroviral therapy, latently infected cells and low levels of plasma virus have been found to persist in HIV-infected patients. The factors influencing this persistence and their relative contributions have not been fully elucidated and remain controversial. Here, we address these issues by developing and employing a simple, but mechanistic viral dynamics model. The model has two novel features. First, it assumes that latently infected T cells can undergo bystander proliferation without transitioning into active viral production. Second, it assumes that the rate of latent cell activation decreases with time on antiretroviral therapy due to the activation and subsequent loss of latently infected cells specific for common antigens, leaving behind cells that are successively less frequently activated. Using the model, we examined the quantitative contributions of T cell bystander proliferation, latent cell activation, and ongoing viral replication to the stability ...
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To date, acalabrutinib has been used in trials studying the treatment of B-All, Myelofibrosis, Ovarian Cancer, Multiple Myeloma, and Hodgkin Lymphoma, among others. As of October 31, 2017 the FDA approved Astra Zenecas orally administered Calquence (acalabrutinib) medication as a Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) inhibitor indicated for the treatment of adult patients with Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) who have already received at least one prior therapy, marking the companys first entry into the treatment of blood cancers. Also known as ACP-196, acalabrutinib is also considered a second generation BTK inhibitor because it was rationally designed to be more potent and selective than ibrutinib, theoretically expected to demonstrate fewer adverse effects owing to minimized bystander effects on targets other than BTK. Nevertheless, acalabrutinib was approved under the FDAs accelerated approval pathway, which is based upon overall response rate and faciliates earlier approval of medicines that treat serious
Kystdirektoratet Gr Nr.3 Location of pilot study area Ribe Dike length ca. 18,4 km protected area ha year of construction reinforcement reinforcement (flattening of outer slope) sluices (Ribe Å and Konge Å) and 2 smaller outlets
Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-g secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production)
We wanted to assess whether B-cell and/or T-cell reactions to collagen and thereby the course of collagen-induced arthritis could be suppressed by regulatory mechanisms associated with oral tolerance to an unrelated protein. splenocyte secretion of IFN- and IL-10 in response to BCII. Our results demonstrate that OVA-specific regulatory occasions induced by nourishing OVA, i.e. bystander suppression, decreased the severe nature of arthritis in animals immunized with OVA and BCII. Anti-BCII particular antibody replies and cytokine secretion by types 1 and 2 T helper cells had been also reduced. Keywords: bystander suppression, collagen-induced joint disease, mice, dental tolerance, Th1/Th2 cells Launch It is today more developed that intestinal contact with antigen decreases T-cell-mediated swelling and BILN 2061 specific B-cell reactions to the antigen in question. This ability of the intestinal immune system has been shown, for example, with respect to antigens such as food proteins [1] and ...
Jackson: I recognize that I am using a very broad definition for bystander engagement: ANYONE who has peers, friends or colleagues, or anyone who plays a leadership role in a social group or institutional setting - which means virtually EVERYBODY. What is required is not just individual but institutional change. This is beginning to happen in the military. MVP has been doing bystander-focused prevention training in the military for 14 years, and it is exciting that now all four major branches of the U.S. military have decided to employ bystander programming system-wide to prevent sexual and domestic violence. For example, by the summer of 2012 the Air Force has mandated that all personnel at every level need to go through what theyre calling Bystander Intervention Training. This training includes examining and interrupting behaviors on an abuse continuum, and also includes elements of media literacy education.. That level of commitment represents an institutional shift. It is promising in part ...
Family lore has it that from ages one to four, hed tied my right hand behind my back so Id grow up to be left-handed, right-brained, and well-centered. I was eight when my father wanted to test the bystander effect as it applies to the black community. He replicated the infamous Kitty Genovese case with a prepubescent me standing in for the ill-fated Ms. Genovese, who, in 1964, was robbed, raped, and stabbed to death in the apathetic streets of New York, her plaintive Psychology 101 textbook cries for help ignored by dozens of onlookers and neighborhood residents. Hence, the bystander effect: the more people around to provide help, the less likely one is to receive help. Dad hypothesized that this didnt apply to black people, a loving race whose very survival has been dependent on helping one another in times of need. So he made me stand on the busiest intersection in the neighborhood, dollar bills bursting from my pockets, the latest and shiniest electronic gadgetry jammed into my ear ...
Workplace bullying has reached epidemic proportions, but often workers dont see it. Why not? Here are some reasons and some solutions to stop bullying at work.
Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide that is particularly refractory to chemotherapy. Several studies have proposed combination chemotherapy regimen...
Women are less likely than men to get CPR from a bystander and more likely to die, a new study suggests, and researchers think reluctance to touch a womans chest might be one reason.
After seeing a verbal assault on the Metro, one student took steps to deescalate the situation, and told us: Really grateful for your training!. After this class, give myself permission to speak up, I have plans of action, and feel confident to engage.. Inspiring! She makes me feel comfortable addressing scary & uncomfortable situations.. After taking the bystander intervention class, I feel a lot more confident that I could deescalate a dangerous situation.. I feel more safe and proud when I walk down the street. When I see a potentially unsafe situation up ahead, instead of just getting nervous, I can make a plan.. Its apparent that youre genuinely concerned about each student learning the techniques and becoming more confident in verbal confrontations. Its nice to be the recipient of that level of dedication.. ...
Matthew 26 - A little later the bystanders came up and said to Peter, Surely you too are [one] of them; for even the way you talk *gives you away.
In anticipation of a phase I clinical trial in GBM patients using an immunotherapeutic approach that combines Ad-Flt3L with Ad-TK+GCV, it was critical to determine the optimal cytotoxic agent to use in this approach. Therefore, we compared the efficacy and neurotoxicity of Ad-TK+GCV with Ad vectors encoding the proapoptotic cytokines TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL. Our hypothesis was that Ad-TK+GCV would exhibit superior efficacy and safety when compared with Ads expressing proapoptotic cytokines. Because Ad-TK kills proliferating cells in the presence of GCV (37), we expected this agent to have a powerful antitumor effect due to the presence of mitotic tumor cells within GBM. Also, the bystander effect of phosphorylated GCV would amplify the cytotoxic effect of this approach (37). The highest therapeutic efficacy was indeed achieved when using Ad-TK+GCV by itself for small tumors, and in combination with Ad-Flt3L for large tumors. Although all the proapoptotic Ads certainly induced apoptosis in vitro ...
In January JNM: PET/MRI biomarkers in breast cancer … bystander effects of 223Ra … Mitochondria and synaptic PET biomarkers … The AQARA Principle … A discussion between Martin Pomper and Peter Choyke … PSMA-guided surgery … hybrid tracers and surgical guidance … and much more!
Naša spletna stran uporablja piškotke. Brez njih vam ne moremo zagotoviti pravilnega delovanja in prikaza vsebine. Več o naših piškotkih ...
LOKARDE S POVRCEM IZ PECNICE Ako vas muci przenje,pecenje ribe u stanu,ako mrzite sto vam od plave ribe/koja je zdrava,ukusna i jeftina/cije ...
LOKARDE S POVRCEM IZ PECNICE Ako vas muci przenje,pecenje ribe u stanu,ako mrzite sto vam od plave ribe/koja je zdrava,ukusna i jeftina/cije ...
I think the permit idea is interesting, in a sense. Its interesting in the sense of not being able to turn away, like when you see a bad car accident. Its not that the permit idea is grotesque - its grotesque that society has reached a point where thats a compromise.. It seems to me weve got a pretty good compromise already. Concerned Bystander has to make a choice - and really, its no choice at all. If you really think a child is dying in that car, you break the window, knowing two things: first, that no sane court will convict you on vandalism, etc. charges, second, that even if you would face those charges, youd do it anyway. If you dont really think a child is in danger - if youre trying to feel superior, engage in virtue-flash, etc., its pretty obvious - you dont break the window. Any Concerned Bystander who doesnt actually break into the car, but instead stands around, complaining, pesters the parents when they come back, etc. - either didnt really think the kid was in danger, ...
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A clip plays. In the clip, a man in his twenties gropes a woman in her twenties at a party, as another man in his twenties films. The woman looks hazy and drunk. Both men turn to the camera ...
Karakteristicno za Masterbih Amino Fruit Mix boile je to sto u sebi sadrze slatku aminokiselinu, ujedno i jedan od magneta za krupne ribe ...
We show here that CD8 T cells undergo apoptosis and decline in number in response to IFN and that non-virus-specific bystander CD8 T cells are driven to apoptosis during the T-cell response to virus infections. Apoptosis and cell loss in each of these systems were most pronounced in CD8 T cells of the memory phenotype (CD44hi). IFN-induced attrition and apoptosis of memory cells were confirmed using MHC tetramer analysis of a well-defined LCMV memory population from poly(I:C)-injected LCMV-immune mice (Fig. 4 and Table 3). An early virus-induced peak in T-cell apoptosis and attrition correlated with the peak in virus-induced IFN-α/β, and the IFN-α/β inducer poly(I:C) dramatically induced apoptosis and attrition in the memory CD8 T-cell compartment. Poly(I:C) is a very potent IFN-α/β inducer, but it also induces potentially cytotoxic cytokines like TNF alpha (44). IFN-α/β, in turn, can stimulate the synthesis of a number of other cytokines, such as IL-15 (20, 54), which is known to act on ...
In comparison to last year, Ribe has moved upwards in terms of its place among the best restaurants in Estonia. Better still, the restaurant has regained the position that was clearly theirs. Ribe has been one of the best restaurants in Estonia for years and earned that position in every way possible.. The interpretations of Estonian cuisine delivered by the Slovakian head chef are fresh and surprising for the locals. His culinary skills are definitely among the best in Estonia. This is confirmed by his previous work experience in some of the top restaurants in the world.. Its food is just as good of a reason to visit Ribe as its wine selection. Ribe has unquestionably earned its title as the best beverage provider in Estonia. In the vestibule of the restaurant, you will find an open wine bar with a selection that always includes some beverages unavailable anywhere else in Tallinn.. body { background-color: transparent!important; }. ...
The modern concepts of sustainable cities and smart grids have caused an increase in the installation of solar systems in urban and suburban areas, where, due to the presence of many obstacles or design constraints, photovoltaic (PV) modules can operate in operating conditions that are very different from the optimal ones (e.g., standard test conditions, STC). Shading and reflection are the main phenomena that cause uneven distribution of irradiance on PV cells; in turn, they create a nonuniform distribution of PV cell temperatures. The latter problem can also be caused by different ventilation regimes in various parts of the PV array. On the other hand, due to the need to exploit different solar technologies (solar thermal and photovoltaic), problems related to the availability of a useful surface can arise. In this context, there is a technology that produces heat end electrical energy at the same time, such a technology is referred to as a solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T). Here, the ...
To investigate the signal factor and its function in the medium-mediated bystander effect during heavy-ion irradiation of human salivary gland (HSG) neoplastic
T cell proliferation in vivo is presumed to reflect a T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated polyclonal response directed to various environmental antigens. However, the massive proliferation of T cells seen in viral infections is suggestive of a bystander reaction driven by cytokines instead of the TCR. In mice, T cell proliferation in viral infections preferentially affected the CD44hi subset of CD8+ cells and was mimicked by injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], an inducer of type I interferon (IFN I), and also by purified IFN I; such proliferation was not associated with up-regulation of CD69 or CD25 expression, which implies that TCR signaling was not involved. IFN I [poly(I:C)]-stimulated CD8+ cells survived for prolonged periods in vivo and displayed the same phenotype as did long-lived antigen-specific CD8+ cells. IFN I also potentiated the clonal expansion and survival of CD8+ cells responding to specific antigen. Production of IFN I may thus play an important role in the ...
Increases in cell proliferation are widely viewed as being of importance in carcinogenesis. We report that exposure of normal human lung fibroblasts to a low dose of alpha particles like those emitted by radon/radon progeny stimulates their prolifera
The effect of gamma radiation delivered over 24 h on the induction of bystander signals of three earthworm species exposed in vivo was investigated: A. chlorotica, A. caliginosa, and E. tetraedra. Worms were exposed to external gamma irradiation (Co-60 source) for 24 h and samples of head, body, and clitellum were dissected from exposed and control worms and placed in culture medium for 24 h at 19 ...
A GM-CSF and CD40L bystander vaccine is effective in a murine breast cancer model Hatem Soliman,1 Melanie Mediavilla-Varela,2 Scott J Antonia,3 1Department of Women's Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2Department of Immunology, 3Department of Thoracic Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA Background: There is increasing interest in using cancer vaccines to treat breast cancer patients in the adjuvant setting to prevent recurrence in high risk situations or in combination with other immunomodulators in the advanced setting. Current peptide vaccines are limited by immunologic compatibility issues, and engineered autologous cellular vaccines are difficult to produce on a large scale. Using standardized bystander cell lines modified to secrete immune stimulating adjuvant substances can greatly enhance the ability to produce immunogenic cellular vaccines using unmodified autologous cells or allogeneic medical grade tumor cell lines as targets. We investigated the efficacy of a cellular
Intestinal commensals are potential important contributors to the etiology of sporadic colorectal cancer, but mechanisms by which bacteria can initiate tumors remain uncertain. Herein, we describe mechanisms that link Enterococcus faecalis, a bacterium known to produce extracellular superoxide, to t …
In HIV-1-infected patients, increased numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells are linked to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Here, we identified a bystander mechanism that promotes CD8 T cell activation and expansion in untreated HIV-1-infected patients. Compared with healthy controls, untreated HIV-1-infected patients have an increased population of proliferating, granzyme B+, CD8+ T cells in circulation. Vβ expression and deep sequencing of CDR3 revealed that in untreated HIV-1 infection, cycling memory CD8 T cells possess a broad T cell repertoire that reflects the repertoire of the resting population. This suggests that cycling is driven by bystander activation, rather than specific antigen exposure. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IL-15 induced a cycling, granzyme B+ phenotype in CD8+ T cells. Moreover, elevated IL-15 expression in the lymph nodes of untreated HIV-1-infected patients correlated with circulating CD8+ T cell counts and was normalized in these ...
In HIV-1-infected patients, increased numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells are linked to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Here, we identified a bystander mechanism that promotes CD8 T cell activation and expansion in untreated HIV-1-infected patients. Compared with healthy controls, untreated HIV-1-infected patients have an increased population of proliferating, granzyme B+, CD8+ T cells in circulation. Vβ expression and deep sequencing of CDR3 revealed that in untreated HIV-1 infection, cycling memory CD8 T cells possess a broad T cell repertoire that reflects the repertoire of the resting population. This suggests that cycling is driven by bystander activation, rather than specific antigen exposure. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IL-15 induced a cycling, granzyme B+ phenotype in CD8+ T cells. Moreover, elevated IL-15 expression in the lymph nodes of untreated HIV-1-infected patients correlated with circulating CD8+ T cell counts and was normalized in these ...
Multiple viral and host factors determine the variability in HIV-1 disease progression [17, 23-26]. Cellular tropism and receptor/co-receptor usage for viral entry are major factors influencing HIV pathogenesis. Despite extensive research, the exact mechanism of how those factors contribute to the gradual loss of CD4 T cells is still enigmatic. Bystander CD4 T cell death plays a major contribution towards AIDS progression. A recent report has revealed a mechanism for HIV-induced CD4 T cell depletion, which involves abortive non-productive HIV infection in resting CD4 T cells, followed by IFI16 activation and caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis [27-29]. Besides the abortive RT products in non-productively infected resting cells, several HIV-1 proteins have also been reported to contribute to the depletion of bystander (uninfected and non-productively infected) CD4 T cells, including the Env [4, 5, 17, 19], Vpr [30], Nef [31, 32] and Tat [33]. The Env protein is of specific interest in mediating AIDS ...
Commentary No. 24 - Health Effects of Low Doses of Radiation: Perspectives on Integrating Radiation Biology and Epidemiology (2015 ...
Transplant recipients can be sensitized against allo-HLA antigens by previous transplantation, blood transfusion, or pregnancy. While there is growing awareness that multiple components of the immune system can act as effectors of the alloresponse, the role of infectious pathogen exposure in triggering sensitization and allograft rejection has remained a matter of much debate. Here, we describe that exposure to pathogens may enhance the immune response to allogeneic HLA antigens via different pathways. The potential role of allo-HLA cross-reactivity of virus-specific memory T cells, activation of innate immunity leading to a more efficient induction of the adaptive alloimmune response by antigen-presenting cells, and bystander activation of existing memory B cell activation will be discussed in this review ...
Van Braeckel-Budimir, N., Martin, M. D., Hartwig, S. M., Legge, K. L., Badovinac, V. P. & Harty, J. T. (2017). Antigen Exposure History Defines CD8 T Cell Dynamics and Protection during Localized Pulmonary Infections. Frontiers in immunology, 8, 40. PMID: 28191007.. Shan, Q., Zeng, Z., Xing, S., Li, F., Hartwig, S. M., Gullicksrud, J. A., Kurup, S. P., Van Braeckel-Budimir, N., Su, Y., Martin, M. D., Varga, S. M., Taniuchi, I., Harty, J. T., Peng, W., Badovinac, V. P. & Xue, H. H. (2017). The transcription factor Runx3 guards cytotoxic CD8,sup,+,/sup, effector T cells against deviation towards follicular helper T cell lineage. Nature immunology. PMID: 28604718.. Martin, M. D., Shan, Q., Xue, H. H. & Badovinac, V. P. (2017). Time and Antigen-Stimulation History Influence Memory CD8 T Cell Bystander Responses. Frontiers in immunology, 8, 634. PMID: 28642758.. Gullicksrud, J. A., Li, F., Xing, S., Zeng, Z., Peng, W., Badovinac, V. P., Harty, J. T. & Xue, H. H. (2017). Differential Requirements for ...
Q: What is the chest compression rate for adult CPR? A. 50/min B. 100/min C. 100-120/min D. As many as you can The basics of CPR has changed since 2010. Major changes for all rescuers, all of which are intended to simplify CPR for rescuers and improve bystander response,... Read More ...
The distinction between pathogen mediated and autoaggressive inflammation is becoming increasingly blurred. Current thoughts on the mechanisms of autoimmune disease broadly fall into two camps, not necessarily mutually exclusive. The molecular mimicry theory holds that tolerant self reactive T cells which have escaped deletion in the thymus generally ignore self antigens mostly as a result of factors such as low affinity of their receptors for antigen, and it is not until they are exposed to antigens from micro-organisms which have homology to self antigens that they receive a sufficiently strong stimulus to be activated. The alternative theory of bystander activation suggests that tissue damage induced by micro-organisms releases a variety of cytokines, not always the same set, which under appropriate circumstances activate self reactive T cells which happen to be in the vicinity as they travel through the tissues. Recently, evidence in support of the latter theory has been reported in a model ...
Unfortunately, despite its beautiful aroma, Smugglers Soul isnt very long-lasting. After massaging it into my wrists and neck, I found that I couldnt detect the perfume a mere fifteen minutes after it has been applied. I thought that perhaps it was one of those perfumes thats subtle on the wearer but leaves an impression on bystanders. However, neither of my flatmates were able to pick up the scent on me, even when I applied multiple helpings to my skin. ...
As soon as Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) are isolated from whole blood, some cells begin dying. The rate of apoptotic cell death is increased when PBMC are shipped, cryopreserved, or stored under suboptimal conditions. Apoptotic cells secrete cytokines that suppress inflammation while promoting phagocytosis. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells in PBMC may modulate T cell functions in antigen-triggered T cell assays. We assessed the effect of apoptotic bystander cells on a T cell ELISPOT assay by selectively inducing B cell apoptosis using α-CD20 mAbs. The presence of large numbers of apoptotic B cells did not affect T cell functionality. In contrast, when PBMC were stored under unfavorable conditions, leading to damage and apoptosis in the T cells as well as bystander cells, T cell functionality was greatly impaired. We observed that measuring the number of apoptotic cells before plating the PBMC into an ELISPOT assay did not reflect the extent of PBMC injury, but measuring apoptotic cell
Jedi v počasnem štedilniku pomagajo določiti nizko kalorični meni.. Vzorčni meni za teden v tabeli:. Prigrizek: naribana korenček.. Kosilo: kuhan riž s paro.. Prigrizek: rezina sadja.. Večerja: jed iz piščanca in mešana zelenjava.. Prigrizek: jogurt in pol grenivke.. Kosilo: postrežemo parne ribe in juho.. Prigrizek: rezina črnega kruha s trdim sirom.. Večerja: postrežena z zelenjavo omleto narezano.. Prigrizek: kuhani beluši.. Kosilo: postreženo zelenjavno juho z zelenim grahom.. Čaj: mlečni smoothie.. Prigrizek: kuhana teletina.. Kosilo: juha-pire.. Prigrizek: toast s paradižnikom in sirom.. Večerja: pari zelenjava s piščančjim mesom.. Prigrizek: narezan korenček in jabolko.. Kosilo: juha z ajdo in mesne kroglice.. Čaj: pijte pomarančni sok.. Večerja: parjene ribe, narezana zelenjava.. Prigrizek: kozarec kefirja z nizko vsebnostjo maščob.. Kosilo: kuhano goveje meso z rezanjem ajde in zelenjave.. Kosilo: mlečno-banani smoothie.. Večerja: parne ribe, šparglji in ...
A new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests that CPR given by ordinary bystanders is linked to higher survival rates among sudden cardiac arrest victims.
DALLAS, TX--Concerns about inappropriate contact or causing injury may help explain why bystanders are less likely to perform CPR on women - even
To examine temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increas
Bystander video, first posted to YouTube and used with permission, shows Burlington police officers and Langevin on the ground. Then one officer fires pepper spray at Michael Mazza after they say he interfered with arrest.
Researchers have found that those who suffer cardiac arrests in upper income are nearly twice as likely to get cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than people who collapse in low-income.
Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit einem neuartigen proteinbasierten, suizidgentherapeutischen Ansatz zur sicheren und effektiven Behandlung von soliden Tumoren. Verwendet wurden zellpermeable Fusionsproteine auf der Grundlage des bakteriellen Enzyms Cytosin Desaminase, welches spezifisch die Umsetzung der inaktive, nichttoxische Substanz (Prodroge) 5-Fluorcytosin in den hochwirksamen, stark toxischen Wirkstoff 5-Fluoruracil katalysiert. Dieser bewirkt die selektive Zerstörung von Tumorzellen. Durch die Fusion der bakteriellen Cytosin Desaminase (bCD) mit der Sequenz des Zellpermeabilität vermittelnden Peptides HBV-Translokationsmotiv (TLM) des Hepatits B-Virus (HBV) wurden zunächst zellpermeable E.coli Cytosin Desaminase Suizidfusionskonstrukte generiert. Für die bakteriell synthetisierten HBV-TLM-Fusionsproteine konnten eine Hexamerisierung sowie eine spezifische enzymatische Aktivität bei der Umsetzung von Cytosin zu Uracil als strukturelle und funktionelle Voraussetzungen für ...
The Step Up!© Program is an amazing resource for information on ways to change your thinking, change your behavior, and step up to the challenge of being an empowered bystander. Read additional Sample Scenarios and answer the question, what would you do? Check out a variety of Strategies for Effective Helping, including sample approaches and scripts to help you Step Up. View the entire Bystander Intervention Video Series. Humanities Troupe Videos:
Mike Brady, a surprise participant in ABCs undercover investigation show, What Would You Do? In this past Fridays episode, the network set up a camera to capture what would happen when three teens surrounded and taunted a fourth teen for being gay. They report that most people passed by without taking any action - one man claiming, It wasnt at a point where I thought I should jump in. Brady, however, did step in despite having only one functioning hand due to an old hit-and-run accident. (ABC / What Would You Do?). ...
The opposite of a hero is not a villain: its a bystander. (Matt Langdon) Should not our politicians aspire to be the heroes of our nation? Yet how many are content to be bystanders when it comes to the matter of asylum seekers in detention? What a poor example they are setting for their constituents. Surely it is time for them to rebel against cruel and illegal party policies and govern from the heart. (Matt Langdon is the founder and chair of the Hero Construction Company, and creator of the Hero Round Table conferences. He is also my grandson ...
Remove Diversity Efforts: provides annual sexual harassment, bystander, and climate training (directly or through our institution) filter Diversity Efforts: provides annual sexual harassment, bystander, and climate training (directly or through our institution ...
WHEN a foul-mouthed bystander decided to sabotage a live TV broadcast, he hadnt counted on this presenters UNBELIEVABLE reply.
Not being reported by the media is the rebel activity-taking place in Libya concerning blacks. It is being reported that Gaddafi is using black mercenaries to fight the rebels. reports bystanders, including women and children...
When a woman falls to the ground, bystanders rush to help her to her feet, but how can a simple wardrobe change affect peoples willingness to lend a hand?. ...
Supermans disguise is fueled by Refuge in Audacity Basically, to bystanders, Clark Kent is such a transparent disguise that people think its more likely …
p53 Promotes Radiation-Induced Lymphomagenesis: Explaining Henry Kaplans Non-Targeted Effort of Radiation Carcinogenesis. David Kirsch, MD, PhD. Professor & Vice Chair for Basic & Translational ...
... "bystander effect"[edit]. Cell death[edit]. The "bystander effect" with its connotations of the innocent bystander being killed ... This can cause the otherwise unaffected healthy bystander cells to also die.[65] The bystander effect is, therefore, important ... bystander effect': association of U-87 cell death with ganciclovir-mediated apoptosis of nearby cells and lack of effect in ... Ripps, Harris (March 2002). "Cell death in retinitis pigmentosa: gap junctions and the 'bystander' effect". Exp. Eye Res. 74 (3 ...
Also known as the bystander effect, bystander apathy occurs when, during an emergency, those standing by do nothing to help but ... "Latane and Darley: Bystander Apathy". Retrieved 25 February 2014. "Bystander Effect". Psychology Today. ... The bystander effect grows to an apathetic level as people lose interest in caring for others who are not in their "circle" and ... Sometimes this can be caused by one bystander observing other bystanders and imitating their behavior. If other people are not ...
Bystander effectEdit. Main article: Bystander effect. The bystander effect is demonstrated in a series of famous experiments by ... Zimbardo, P.G. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House. ... Asch SE (1951). "Effects of group pressure on the modification and distortion of judgments". In Guetzkow H. Groups, Leadership ... This effect has been shown to promote the diffusion of responsibility by concluding that, when surrounded by others, the ...
July 2001). "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed by bystanders does not increase adverse effects as assessed by chest ... McCormack AP, Damon SK, Eisenberg MS (March 1989). "Disagreeable physical characteristics affecting bystander CPR". Annals of ... Most bystanders are worried that they might do something wrong. On October 28, 2009 the American Heart Association and the Ad ... Bystanders more commonly administer CPR when in public than when at the person's home, although health care professionals are ...
So-called bystander or non-targeted effects may have enormous consequences for space exploration. Non-targeted effects may lead ... Seymour, Colin B.; Mothersill, Carmel (2004). "Radiation-induced bystander effects - implications for cancer". Nature Reviews ... Tissue effects that are independent of DNA damage and that have been associated with cancer initiation or progression include ... These effects also suggest important targets for biological countermeasures that are likely to be more effective than are ...
Observing bystander effect in a naturalistic setting results in behavior that is consistent as per the classic bystander effect ... However, if the same effect were to be done with surveys, one will get a very different results. Reports of attitudes and ... The case of the "bystander effect"" (PDF). External link in ,journal= (help) Fisher, Robert J. (1993- ... So called "below conscious awareness" is much more likely to influence an initial impression than effect change. Value-action ...
Studies investigating bystander effects also support situationism. For example, in 1973, Darley and Batson conducted a study ...
His research interests are micro-RNA responses to radiation exposure, radiation-induced bystander effect, cell cycle ... Chaudhry, M.A.(2006). Bystander effect: Biological endpoints and microarray analysis. Mutation Research 597:98-112. Chaudhry, M ...
Also bystanders were affected. Police initially claimed they had been pelted with bottles and furnishings, but later corrected ... The regulation also affected other former East German teams including SG Dynamo Dresden with its eight titles, 1. FC Frankfurt ... The football resolution of 1970 was approved in 1969 but came into effect in the summer of 1970. It is therefore sometimes also ... their defection had little effect on the team. According to Christian Backs, the team only received more political training, ...
Nualart F, Rivas C, Montecinos V, Godoy A, Guaiquil V, Golde D, Vera J (2003). "Recycling of vitamin C by a bystander effect". ... Furuya A, Uozaki M, Yamasaki H, Arakawa T, Arita M, Koyama AH (2008). "Antiviral effects of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids ... The literature contains many reports on the antiviral effects of vitamin C, and one study suggests dehydroascorbic acid has ... "Vitamin C antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of antineoplastic drugs". Cancer Research. 68 (19): 8031-8038. doi:10.1158/0008- ...
Buck passing Bystander effect Externality First they came ... Global issue Inattentional blindness NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) ... where it is compared to other fictional effects such as the perception filter in Doctor Who, as well as cognitive biases such ...
The effects of the bystander effect on compassion fade is heightened where the number of people in need of aid increases, the ... The bystander effect is the concept that people are less willing to help in the presence of other people than when they are ... Compassion fade is affected by situational factors such as the number of people available to help that in turn affects the ... Effects of compassion fade on the valuation of victim numbers is seen through the singularity effect. Research showed as more ...
John Darley and Bibb Latané demonstrate the bystander effect. Walter Mischel publishes Personality and Assessment. January - ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Darley, J. M. & Latané, B. (1968). "Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of ...
"Harold Takooshian on Kitty Genovese and the Bystander Effect". SoundCloud. "Eye For Film: Interview with Harold Takooshian ... "bystander effect" played therein. Takooshian graduated from City University of New York in 1979 with a PhD. At CUNY Takooshian ...
Group size and bystander effects in virtual knowledge sharing". Human Relations. 61 (2): 273-297. doi:10.1177/0018726707087787 ...
"Recursive Mentalizing and Common Knowledge in the Bystander Effect". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 145 (5): 621-629. doi: ... Current research on bystander apathy by psychologist Kyle Thomas et al. found that people's decisions to help are influenced by ... Although this number was proven to be exaggerated, this murder was known as what was coined "bystander apathy" by social ... The authors concluded that situational factors play an influential role in bystander apathy. People are less likely to help in ...
... may help to explain the bystander effect. If no-one acts, onlookers may believe others believe action is ... The false consensus effect considers that in predicting an outcome, people will assume that the masses agree with their opinion ... Pluralistic ignorance can be contrasted with the false consensus effect. In pluralistic ignorance, people privately disdain but ... own behavior choice affected the estimates of commonness. Although it would seem as if the two are built on the same premise of ...
... the Bystander effect). Greater numbers of bystanders decrease individual feelings of responsibility. However, a witness with a ... Hudson, James M.; Bruckman, Amy S. (2004). "The Bystander Effect: A Lens for Understanding Patterns of Participation". Journal ... Research also suggests that the number of bystanders witnessing distress or suffering affects the likelihood of helping ( ... They tend to help less if they see non-cooperativeness by others and this effect tend to be stronger than the opposite effect ...
This is done, in part, by explaining the bystander effect. The U of M also has a TXT-U emergency notification text messaging ...
Philip Zimbardo on the bystander effect and the murder of Kitty Genovese". Bystander Revolution. Retrieved December 18, 2014. ... The incident prompted inquiries into what became known as the bystander effect or "Genovese syndrome", and the murder became a ... In his response, KSAN's Scoop Nisker mentioned the bystander effect and the Genovese story. Korean indie rock band Nell wrote ... Thomas, Kristin (June 8, 2018). "The murder of "Kitty" Genovese that led to the Bystander Effect". Vintage News. Retrieved ...
... demonstrating the bystander effect. The bystander effect is a specific type of diffusion of responsibility-when people's ... Fischer, Peter (2011). "The Bystander-Effect: A Meta-Analytic Review on Bystander Intervention in Dangerous and Non-dangerous ... doi:10.1016/0022-1031(72)90069-8. Bickman, L (1971). "The effect of another bystander's ability to help on bystander ... The bystander effect occurs when multiple individuals are watching a situation unfold but do not intervene (or delay or ...
Bystander effect Death of Wang Yue Minter, Adam (8 January 2012). "China's Infamous 'Good Samaritan' Case Gets a New Ending". ... though some have voiced concerns that the chilling effect of Peng's false narrative on bystander intervention still remains. ... who agreed to the release of information on their case to rectify the initial chilling effect caused by Peng's false initial ...
THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER [affecting great distinction of speech] Thenk you, teacher. Haw haw! So long [he touches his hat with ... THE BYSTANDER. So it has. Why didn't you say so before? and us losing our time listening to your silliness. [He walks off ... Its appearance even had the effect of converting Mr Parish, who commented "I admit having said some harsh things about its ... towards the Strand]. THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER. I can tell where you come from. You come from Anwell. Go back there. THE NOTE ...
Mason, David; Allen, Bem P. (1976). "The Bystander Effect as a Function of Ambiguity and Emergency Character". The Journal of ... With regard to the bystander effect, studies have shown that emergencies deemed ambiguous trigger the appearance of the classic ... bystander effect (wherein more witnesses decrease the likelihood of any of them helping) far more than non-ambiguous ... How he got in my pajamas, I'll never know". Songs and poetry often rely on ambiguous words for artistic effect, as in the song ...
Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects Clastogenic Factors and Transgenerational Effects". Radiation ... The effects of radiation on fetal formation are also particularly relevant as a women's health issue to the extent that female ... Adverse effects on a mother carrying a female fetus may therefore be multigenerational and increase both the daughter's and ... While "downwinders" refers to those who live and work closest to the explosion site and are thus most acutely affected, there ...
Blyth, Benjamin J.; Sykes, Pamela J. (2011). "Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects: What Are They, and How Relevant Are They to ... Health effects of radon § Bathing Given the uncertain effects of low-level and very-low-level radiation, there is a pressing ... II: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Annex G: Biological effects at low radiation doses. BEIR VII Phase 2 2006 ... II: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Annex G: Biological effects at low radiation doses. page 160, paragraph 541. ...
My thoughts and prayers with everyone affected.. *^ Sadiq Khan (4 June 2017). "Tweet Number 871163762102947844". Twitter. ... An unidentified bystander received an accidental gunshot wound as a result of the police gunfire, which was "not critical".[60] ... the attackers went back up the steps to Borough High Street and attacked three bystanders. Police tried to fight the attackers ... Democrat leader Tim Farron and the Mayor of London Sadiq Khan all wrote on Twitter that their thoughts were with those affected ...
Effects. Effect upon mutual British-Arab interests. Anglo-Arab relations were of vital importance to British strategic concerns ... a civilian bystander was killed during an attack on a British armoured car in Tel Aviv, and shots were fired at British troops ... Effects upon independence movements worldwide. According to the BBC documentary The Age of Terror: In the Name of Liberation, ... and movement in and out of the affected areas required a permit. British soldiers conducted searches throughout the affected ...
This affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes ... This mark is not simply a late acting bystander in apoptosis as yeast carrying mutations of this residue are resistant to ... The addition of one, two, or many methyl groups to lysine has little effect on the chemistry of the histone; methylation leaves ... Addition of an acetyl group has a major chemical effect on lysine as it neutralises the positive charge. This reduces ...
... the Bystander effect). Greater numbers of bystanders decrease individual feelings of responsibility.[23][29] However, a witness ... Hudson, James M.; Bruckman, Amy S. (2004). "The Bystander Effect: A Lens for Understanding Patterns of Participation". Journal ... Research also suggests that the number of bystanders witnessing distress or suffering affects the likelihood of helping ( ... They tend to help less if they see non-cooperativeness by others and this effect tend to be stronger than the opposite effect ...
... and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his life, effects so ... Gage, during the time I was examining this wound, was relating the manner in which he was injured to the bystanders. I did not ... Inter-hemispheric connections of the frontal and limbic lobes as well as basal ganglia were also affected."[22] (Quotations ... False-color representation of cerebral fiber pathways affected, per Van Horn et al.[22] ...
... and this protective effect was stronger than the effect for non-Whites.». ... The video, recorded by a bystander, shows 46-year-old Floyd, who is black, face-down on the ground as a white officer kneeled ... mai 2020). «Curfews go into effect in cities around the country». NBC News. Arkivert fra originalen 31. mai 2020. Besøkt 1. ... In 1968 the virus was flu and the space mission Apollo 8. But the injustice had the same corrosive effect. As James Baldwin ...
By inhibiting autophagy genes in these tumors cells, regression of the tumor and extended survival of the organs affected by ... "Systematic analysis of ribophagy in human cells reveals bystander flux during selective autophagy". Nature Cell Biology. 20 (2 ... Research suggests that autophagy is required for the lifespan-prolonging effects of caloric restriction. A 2010 French study of ... The first strategy has been tested by looking at dose-response anti-tumor effects during autophagy-induced therapies. These ...
... when it might affect them, and its potential adverse effects.[2] The normalcy bias causes many people to not adequately prepare ... Normalcy bias has also been called analysis paralysis, the ostrich effect,[4] and by first responders, the negative panic.[5] ... Effects[edit]. About 70% of people reportedly display normalcy bias in disasters.[3] Normalcy bias has been described as "one ... The negative effects of normalcy bias can be combated through the four stages of disaster response:[19] ...
Hank has a cavalier exterior, but in reality the dark side of his job affects him more than he cares to admit leading him to ... Marco strode after Hank, shooting and killing a passerby who surprised him, while another bystander escaped the same fate when ... as well as her father Donald's deep depression which affects him to the point that he fails in his duties as an air-traffic ... Hank is affected by his culture and nerdiness, reflecting that such a "big brain" could have contributed to humanity if applied ...
The public began to realize that homelessness affected not only single men, but also women, children, and entire families.[50] ... changes were implemented by the Police Department to avoid escalation of violence and to protect bystanders during protests.[46 ... "What is Rent Control? ... and How Does It Affect Me?". City of Berkeley. Archived from the original on April 18, 2017. ... It contains a discussion of the 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake and its effects, and includes a number of photos taken by Lawson ...
a b Drucker, Peter F. Adventures of a Bystander, 1979.. *^ Peter F. Drucker: A Biography in Progress[permanent dead link], p. 1 ... Drucker was interested in the growing effect of people who worked with their minds rather than their hands. He was intrigued by ... Drucker, Peter F., Adventures of a Bystander, p. 288, (1979). *^ Drucker, Peter F., Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, ... Drucker, Peter F. Adventures of a Bystander, 1979, p. 159.. *^ "Obituary: Peter Drucker, 95, Economist Who Prized Value of ...
This can result in either a positive or negative effect. Social groups affected include both membership groups, in which ... Klee, Ernst; Dressen, Willi; Reiss, Volker (1996). The Good Old Days: The Holocaust as Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bystanders ... a statistically significant but far weaker effect than the 8.1 percentage point effect reported by Gerber, Green, and Larimer.[ ... "The extent and effects of peer pressure among high school students: A retrospective analysis". Journal of Youth and Adolescence ...
Many bystanders later said that they heard what they first thought to either be a firecracker or the backfire of one of the ... investigation on the assassination by FBI and CIA were fundamentally deficient and that facts that may have greatly affected ...
A demonstration in the centre was being forcibly dispersed when a bystander named Benno Ohnesorg was shot in the head and ... effecting on the one hand, the extinction of the GDR and the re-establishment of Länder on the territory of East Germany; and ... which affected up to 16.5 million Germans. This helped Germany to more than double the value of its exports during the war. ... several bystanders and eventually two prominent West Germans, whom they had taken captive in order to force the release of ...
Again, some bystanders complained, this time at Caesar's wasteful extravagance. A riot broke out, and only stopped when Caesar ... in effect, transformed the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator.[104] ...
Effects[edit]. It is possible for an individual who has sexsomnia to experience a variety of negative emotions due to the ... Whether the significant other is directly involved, in the case of sexual intercourse, or a bystander, in the case of ... "The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Brain and Behavior , Serendip Studio". Retrieved 2017-11-15.. ... Sexsomnia affects individuals of all age groups and backgrounds but present as an increased risk for individuals who possess ...
Lamm, C., Batson, C.D., & Decety, J. (2007). The neural substrate of human empathy: effects of perspective-taking and cognitive ... defined as reassurance behavior by an uninvolved bystander towards one of the combatants in a previous aggressive incident.[9] ...
With effect from January 2005 and based primarily on safety grounds, the UK's Highways Agency's policy is that all new motorway ... Modern safety barriers are designed to absorb impact energy and minimize the risk to the occupants of cars and bystanders. For ... Traveled distance effectEdit. In some countries, the safety is computed mixing two metrics: the fatalities and the traveled ... and may even have negative effect on road safety in general. Safe Speed is a UK group set up specifically to campaign against ...
That is, expert or bystander observers examine the data, interpret it via forming an impression and report their impression in ... How Policy Uncertainty Affects Organizational Responses to Flexible Environmental Regulations". British Journal of Management. ...
The BDC feature compensates for the effect of gravity on the bullet at given distances (referred to as "bullet drop") in flat ... The muzzle brake prevents backblast from reaching the firer, although it is reported to be harsh on bystanders as the muzzle ... Early 5.45×39mm ballistics tests demonstrated a pronounced tumbling effect with high speed cameras.[33] Some Western ... Most organs and tissue were too flexible to be severely damaged by the temporary cavity effect caused by yaw and cavitation of ...
A systemic disease is a disease that affects the entire body, such as influenza or high blood pressure.. Classifications[edit] ... The patient or the healthcare provider is a warrior, rather than a passive victim or bystander. The agents of communicable ... A localized disease is one that affects only one part of the body, such as athlete's foot or an eye infection.. Disseminated ... Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also mentally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the ...
However, the battles brought about more death and destruction in Gaza whilst the city was still recovering from the effects of ... and that Israeli air strikes targeting militants in the densely populated areas have often killed bystanders as well.[63] In ... The agriculture sector was hard hit, affecting nearly 40,000 workers dependent on cash crops.[8] ... The currently downtrodden economy has affected education in the Gaza Strip severely. In September 2007, a UNRWA survey in the ...
Dealing with-or reporting-"unacceptable" behavior (with additional thoughts about the "Bystander Effect") Mary Rowe MIT, Linda ... See also "Dealing with - or Reporting - 'Unacceptable' Behavior (With additional thoughts about the 'Bystander Effect')" © ... Robinson, S. N., Robertson, J. C., & Curtis, M. B. "The Effects of Contextual and Wrongdoing Attributes on Organizational ... It is widely agreed that implementing a dedicated service for whistleblowers has a positive effect on an organizational culture ...
The police stated that the doll was "incredibly lifelike" and that bystanders who thought a baby was dying were frightened by ... The effects of the blue color wash combined with the outside layers of paint creates the appearance of veins, and layers of ... a soft stuffed body filled with pellets/fine glass beads/fiberfill.The weight corresponds with its age to achieve a real effect ...
... a condition that was to have a significant effect on his life and writing.[8] To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live ... while the eponymous hero is a bystander who must weigh the evidence and decide where to take a stand. Scott's positive ...
... removing or modifying one component leads to an effect in another. In a living organism, this can have disastrous effects, ... Released viral particles and proteins present in extracellular fluid are able to induce apoptosis in nearby "bystander" T ... Whilst a number of viruses can block the effects of TNF and Fas. For example, the M-T2 protein of myxoma viruses can bind TNF ... Apoptotic proteins that target mitochondria affect them in different ways. They may cause mitochondrial swelling through the ...
As soldiers they'd been able to function well in combat, but the effects of life-threatening stress had affected them. At that ... Often, the contradiction in communication is not apparent to bystanders unfamiliar with previous communications. ... Bateson is undoubtedly correct in believing that the effects of the double bind on the child are particularly devastating. All ... The future orientation of his desires-that is, the choice of his future models-will be significantly affected by the ...
As a result of the belief, those in Indonesian culture tolerated amok and dealt with the after-effects with no ill will towards ... Amok episodes of this kind normally end with the attacker being killed by bystanders or committing suicide, eliciting theories ...
Part 8: Bystanders to the Holocaust, Volume 1. Westport and London: Meckler. pp. 80-98.. Conway, John S. (1979). "Frühe ... 1966). "Effects of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the fate of glucose carbon atoms in the mouse". Journal of Biochemistry, 99 ... Hilberg, Raul (1995). Perpetrators Victims Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe, 1933-1945. London: Secker and Warburg.. Kahn, ... 1955). "Effect of physical stress on metabolic function of the brain. III. Formation of ammonia and structure of proteins in ...
Bystander effect, the inhibiting influence of the presence of others on a persons willingness to help someone in need. ... Research has shown that, even in an emergency, a bystander is less likely to extend help when he or she is in the real or ... Bystander intervention. The bystander effect became a subject of significant interest following the brutal murder of American ... Bystander effect, the inhibiting influence of the presence of others on a persons willingness to help someone in need. ...
... G. Andocs,1 N. Meggyeshazi,2 Y. Okamoto,1 L. Balogh,3 and O. Szasz4 ... W. F. Morgan and M. B. Sowa, "Non-targeted bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation," Mutation Research, vol. 616, no. 1 ... S. C. Formenti and S. Demaria, "Systemic effects of local radiotherapy," The Lancet Oncology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 718-726, 2009 ...
... of the bystander effect reported that "The bystander effect was attenuated when situations were perceived as dangerous ( ... The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological theory that states that individuals are less likely to ... The bystander effect is not a generic consequence of increasing group size. When bystanders share group-level psychological ... "bystander effect" can be studied and analyzed in a much broader fashion. The broader view includes not just a) what bystanders ...
Data from 29 US cities show that the type of neighborhood in which someone has a cardiac arrest affects their chances of ... And although a few studies have looked at the effect of neighborhood on bystander CPR, these were conducted within small ... Cite this: Location of Cardiac Arrest Affects Likelihood of Bystander CPR - Medscape - Oct 25, 2012. ... The variation can be explained, in part, by different rates of bystander-initiated CPR. On average, bystanders administer CPR ...
Note that the bystander effect is not the same as the abscopal effect. The abscopal effect is a phenomenon where the response ... The radiation-induced bystander effect (bystander effect) is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells exhibit irradiated ... This is also attributed to the bystander effect. The demonstration of a bystander effect in 3D human tissues and, more recently ... Mitchell SA, Marino SA, Brenner DJ, Hall EJ (July 2004). "Bystander effect and adaptive response in C3H 10T(1/2) cells". Int. J ...
The bystander effect is typically induced by the more-damaging α-particles, whereas the adaptive response is typically induced ... Low-dose radiation: Thresholds, bystander effects, and adaptive responses Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Yet another model is the bystander-effect model, which postulates that low-dose radiation may be even more damaging than that ... The adaptive response and the bystander effect can occur in the same experimental system. When cultures of C3H10T½ cells were ...
A senescent cell bystander effect: senescence-induced senescence.. Nelson G1, Wordsworth J, Wang C, Jurk D, Lawless C, Martin- ... Thus, senescent cells can induce a bystander effect, spreading senescence towards their neighbours in vitro and, possibly, in ... and a stimulatory effect on tumour cell growth and invasiveness has been documented. However, it was unknown what effect, if ... Note nuclear foci in the central bystander cell. (E) 53BP1 foci formation rates in bystander MRC5-AcGFP-53BP1 cells. Co-culture ...
... bystander) plants. In animals, it is shown that the microRNAome is largely affected in the bystander cells in a three- ... Effect of radiation on ; Animals -- Effect of radiation on ; RNA -- Effect of radiation on ... naïve bystanders). While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the ... ... The bystander effect : animal and plant models. Zemp, Franz Joseph; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science ...
... bystander effect in humans is present in these long-tailed rodents. ... "bystander effect" in humans is present in these long-tailed rodents.. The study, titled "The Bystander Effect in Rats," also ... Counter to the prediction of the bystander effect, duos and trios of rats actually were more likely to help than solo rats. ... The team found that rats tested with confederates were less likely to help than those tested alone -- a bystander effect in ...
Transcript of ATOD Bystander Effect Pres. The Bystander Effect: An Anti-Leadership Phenomenon. Bystander Intervention Training ... Bystander Effect. Greater the number of people doing nothing = less likely an individual is to help (or be a bystander). Looi, ... bystander effect -- often ends where. their defined role ends. 2. Leaders use bystander intervention model. and skills to ... The Bystander Effect: An Anti-Leadership Phenomenon Improve student leaders ability to step-up & take on leadership roles in ...
The bystander effect is the somewhat controversial name given to a social psychological phenomenon in cases where individuals ... The bystander effect is the somewhat controversial name given to a social psychological phenomenon in cases where individuals ... First, the prototype of the bystander effect. Jesus tells a story to a lawyer, who, in all other ways, is blameless and upright ... The most infamous example of the bystander effect took place on March 13, 1964, in Kew Gardens, Queens, NY, when Catherine ...
This is the type III bystander effect. The researchers attributed this effect to intercellular communication, in which cells ... Cell survival offers IMRT insight on bystander effect. By Tami Freeman, Medicalphysicsweb editor. November 23, 2007 -- ... Previous research has identified the existence of a classical (type I) bystander effect, in which a cells survival is reduced ... "We are the first to identify the types II and III bystander effects because the specific conditions of experiments isolated ...
The model describes the bystander component as a sequence of two distinct processes: triggering of signal emission from ... propose a mechanistic model for radiation cell killing and carcinogenesis-related end points that combines direct and bystander ... Triggering-response model for radiation-induced bystander effects Radiat Res. 2009 Mar;171(3):320-31. doi: 10.1667/RR1293.1. ... The model emphasizes the dependence of bystander effects on dose, which is important for the assessment of low-dose cancer ...
HomeBusinessLibya And The Bystander Effect. Libya And The Bystander Effect March 11, 2011 Larry M. Elkin ... The antidotes for the bystander effect are initiative and leadership. If someone steps up to help, the bystander effect is ... But the bystander effect is still with us. I fear we are seeing it in the slow response of America and its allies to the events ... The bystander effect was not in evidence on United Flight 93 on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001. Having learned of the earlier ...
... "bystander effect." Distressingly, a pair of doctors affiliated with the Yale University School of Medicine said a similar ... Stavert said the articles intent isnt to point fingers, but to call attention to the larger "bystander" issue. ... ...
... expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in esophageal cancer (EC) cells. Materials and Methods: Western ... Positive transfection, RNAi, micronucleus (MN), and γ-H2AX focus formation assay were used to investigate the effects of SKP2 ... Increased or decreased expression levels of SKP2 had effects on Rad51 expression under the conditions of RIBE. Conclusions: ... To investigate the effects of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) ... expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in ...
TNF-α Mediates Macrophage-Induced Bystander Effects through Netrin-1. Yonghong Yang, Xingmin Wang, Danny R. Moore, Stanley A. ... TNF-α Mediates Macrophage-Induced Bystander Effects through Netrin-1. Yonghong Yang, Xingmin Wang, Danny R. Moore, Stanley A. ... TNF-α Mediates Macrophage-Induced Bystander Effects through Netrin-1. Yonghong Yang, Xingmin Wang, Danny R. Moore, Stanley A. ... Bystander effects occur in vivo as has been confirmed in experiments using syngenic mice (40, 41). Finally, both radiation- ...
... and a stimulatory effect on tumour cell growth and i … ... Thus, senescent cells can induce a bystander effect, spreading ... A senescent cell bystander effect: senescence-induced senescence Aging Cell. 2012 Apr;11(2):345-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1474- ... and a stimulatory effect on tumour cell growth and invasiveness has been documented. However, it was unknown what effect, if ... Continuous exposure to senescent cells induced cell senescence in intact bystander fibroblasts. Hepatocytes bearing senescence ...
bystander effect answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... bystander effect is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Bystander Effect." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, ... view/Tabers-Dictionary/773106/all/bystander_effect. Bystander effect. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis ...
PNNL scientists found that radiation induced bystander responses are not a universal phenomenon and are dependent on the type ... Bystander effects have been described in numerous in vitro cell culture systems. There is also evidence that they can occur in ... Are Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects a Universal Phenomenon?. Studies on human cells fail to find low-LET radiation-induced ... If bystander effects are detrimental, they would increase the target volume for radiation and, presumably, increase the risk to ...
This suggests that bystanders behaviors in bullying situations moderate the effects of individual and interpersonal risk ... Vulnerable Children in Varying Classroom Contexts: Bystanders Behaviors Moderate the Effects of Risk Factors on Victimization ... We examined whether the bystanders behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students risk for victimization. The ...
Importance of cyclophosphamide-induced bystander effect on T cells for a successful tumor eradication in response to adoptive ... Altogether, these results indicate that CTX acts via bystander effects, possibly through production of T cell growth factors ... Thus, our findings indicate the need for reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of CTX and adoptive ...
The Bystander Effect and why people dont call for help when they see violent crimes. While we dont talk about the events at ... Dinah, ClinkShrink, & Roy produce Shrink Rap: a blog by Psychiatrists for Psychiatrists, interested bystanders are also welcome ...
Although the bystander effect of ionizing radiation has been well described ( 18), there are few reports of such effect with ... for the bystander cell killing activity and showed significant bystander effect in most concentrations tested ( Fig. 3B). In ... This toxic bystander effect was enhanced by CuZnSOD that converts O2− to H2O2 and was abolished by a catalase that eliminates H ... the released ROS might also affect the proliferative capacity of the bystander cells. To test this possibility, the bystander ...
... has spurred questions about the role bystanders should play when caught in similar situations. ... Bear witness, record, de-escalate: How race may affect what bystanders are called to do in cases like George Floyds. ... This article originally appeared on USA TODAY: George Floyd: How race may affect what bystanders can do for detainees ... Bystanders can play a role in stopping police brutality, combating racism. Whether bystanders should bear the burden of ...
Everyones been talking about the "bystander effect" after 79-year old Yusuf Hizel was mugged and assaulted on a busy subway ... Morning Brew: Anne Mroczkowski lands at Global, anti-scalping by-laws challenged, the bystander effect and the yellow emergency ...
Bystanders who heard her screams did nothing. Did. Nothing. Sound familiar? Her death coined the phrase, the bystander effect ... Kitty Genovese and the Bystander Effect Circa 2018 Part 2 Note: We ran this two part post by Adriana in April of 2011. For ... Its fine if bystanders are informed that parents of effected children struggle. Its okay if theyre made to understand some ... Watching Del Bigtrees High Wire show this week on the book HPV on Trial: an example of the the bystander effect in regards to ...
THE EFFECTS OF CHILDRENS LITERATURE ON BYSTANDER BEHAVIOR AND OUTCOMES: THE BULLYING LITERATURE PROJECT. ... Main results revealed the Bullying Literature Project increased positive bystander behavior (small effect size) and teacher- ... Bystanders are uniquely situated to either deter or facilitate the social power play that can underlie bullying behavior. ... However, bystander-based bullying interventions for elementary students pose a unique set of challenges in terms of fostering ...
The bystander effect is defined as the induction of cellular damage in unirradiated cells, induced by irradiated cells in the ... Whiteside, James R. and Allinson, Sarah L. and McMillan, Trevor J. (2011) Timeframes of UVA-induced bystander effects in human ... We have also found that the recipient cells only require at most 24 h of exposure to these signals for induction of the effect ... Here we report on our investigations into the periods over which the bystander signals are released by the irradiated cells and ...
  • Radiation-induced bystander effect: the important part of ionizing radiation response. (
  • Bystander effects are traditionally known as a phenomenon whereby unexposed cells exhibit the molecular symptoms of stress exposure when adjacent or nearby cells are traversed by ionizing radiation. (
  • Another plant model shows that a bystander-like plant-plant signal can be induced upon ionizing radiation to increase the genome instability of neighbouring unexposed (bystander) plants. (
  • Ionizing radiation-induced bystander responses are effects occurring in cells that did not directly receive radiation doses but were induced by signals from nearby or neighboring irradiated cells. (
  • In recent research on the effects of ionizing radiation on human cells, scientists have found that radiation induced bystander responses are not a universal phenomenon and they are dependent on the type of radiation used. (
  • However, several papers have recently appeared that question the universality of bystander responses for other types of ionizing radiation. (
  • The observation of non-targeted effects has implications for any individual who may be exposed to ionizing radiation because they suggest that the radiation response target might be greater than the volume actually irradiated. (
  • And describes an effect in which cells that are not directly exposed to ionizing radiation behave as if they have been exposed by exhibiting effects of direct exposure such as apoptosis or genomic instability. (
  • 1996. Adaptive response to ionizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in rabbit lymphocytes: effect of pre-exposure to zinc, and copper salts. (
  • A growing body of data irrefutably demonstrates that exposing tissues to ionizing radiation affects not only the irradiated cells but also neighboring cells outside the field, the so-called bystander effect. (
  • Evidence of bystander effect by non-ionizing radiation-study. (
  • Although NTEs of ionizing radiation are well documented, there are scarcely any studies on non- targeted responses such as bystander effect (BE) after exposure to non-ionizing radiation. (
  • The bystander effect became a subject of significant interest following the brutal murder of American woman Kitty Genovese in 1964. (
  • None of the 38 witnesses called the police during the attack, and only one bystander contacted authorities after Kitty Genovese died. (
  • The theory was prompted by the murder of Kitty Genovese about which it was wrongly reported that 38 bystanders watched passively. (
  • The bystander effect was first demonstrated and popularized in the laboratory by social psychologists John M. Darley and Bibb Latané in 1968 after they became interested in the topic following the murder of Kitty Genovese in 1964. (
  • The roots of the classic bystander effect date back to 1964, when Catherine "Kitty" Genovese was murdered in a crowded residential neighborhood in Queens, New York. (
  • The bystander effect is also sometimes called the Genovese syndrome after Kitty Genovese, whose 1964 murder in Queens, New York, sparked social psychologists to study the bystander effect. (
  • Social psychologists studied the bystander effect after the murder of Kitty Genovese. (
  • Tragically, one of the best-known cases of the bystander effect is that of Kitty Genovese. (
  • The cause for social psychologist to begin to study how bystanders react during emergency situations, was due to Kitty Genovese being attacked and murdered in front of her Queens, New York apartment in 1964 (Aronson et al. (
  • The most frequently cited real-life example of the bystander effect regards a young woman called Kitty Genovese , who was murdered in Queens, New York, in 1964, while several of her neighbors looked on. (
  • Afterward pundits reflected back on a similar iconic bystander event, 1964 Kitty Genovese slaying in New York and were once again confounded that the numerous bystanders reported having witnessed the Sutherland attack, did nothing to intervene. (
  • According to reflection from the original report of the Kitty Genovese slaying, several of the bystanders thought other witnesses would take the responsibility to call the police or had already done so and, therefore, reasoned they did not need to respond. (
  • Hence, social influence and diffusion of responsibility are fundamental processes underlying the bystander effect during the early steps of the decision-making process. (
  • First proposed in 1964, much research, mostly in the lab, has focused on increasingly varied factors, such as the number of bystanders, ambiguity, group cohesiveness, and diffusion of responsibility that reinforces mutual denial. (
  • The mechanism for the classic bystander effect is thought to be a diffusion of responsibility whereby people reason that they need not act because others in a group will. (
  • Many factors contribute to the bystander effect, but two major components are social influence and diffusion of responsibility. (
  • The Bystander Effect is a result of a diffusion of responsibility when many present to witness an event and therefore, assume that someone else will act. (
  • Diffusion of Responsibility and Pluralistic Ignorance One of the main reasons why the bystander effect occurs is due to a social influence being present known as diffusion of responsibility (Heroic Imagination Project, 2013). (
  • 2013). Diffusion of responsibility simple implies that bystanders do not react because they feel that other bystanders will respond to the emergency situation and render appropriate assistance (Schwartz, & Gottlieb, 1976). (
  • Diffusion of responsibility refers to the tendency to subjectively divide the personal responsibility to help by the number of bystanders present. (
  • According to Psychology Today , "Latané and Darley attributed the bystander effect to the perceived diffusion of responsibility (onlookers are more likely to intervene if there are few or no other witnesses) and social influence (individuals in a group monitor the behavior of those around them to determine how to act). (
  • This lesson explains the social phenomenon known as the bystander effect, which helps to explain why Genovese's neighbors didn't help her. (
  • However, not everyone does so in real life, especially when there are other people around, a phenomenon known as the bystander effect. (
  • The phenomenon is known as the bystander effect or Genovese syndrome , where groups of people do not respond in desperate situations because they assume someone else will. (
  • Several pointed to a problematic social phenomenon known as the bystander effect. (
  • The radiation-induced bystander effect (bystander effect) is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells exhibit irradiated effects as a result of signals received from nearby irradiated cells. (
  • The abscopal effect is a phenomenon where the response to radiation is seen in an organ/site distant to the irradiated organ/area, that is, the responding cells are not juxtaposed with the irradiated cells. (
  • This phenomenon, referred to as the bystander effect, is now a pillar in psychology, included in every introductory textbook and class. (
  • The bystander effect is the somewhat controversial name given to a social psychological phenomenon in cases where individuals do not offer help in an emergency situation when other people are present. (
  • The phenomenon of standing idly by in the face of tragedy while assuming someone else will take action is often called the "bystander effect. (
  • PNNL: Are Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects a Universal Phenomenon? (
  • This phenomenon had been referred to as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • Blocking of this effect by 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid indicates that gap junctions between endothelial and tumor cells are largely responsible for this phenomenon. (
  • This phenomenon only requires one bystander and increases in larger groups and decreases in smaller groups. (
  • Some social psychologist believe the phenomenon of the bystander has little impact and will lead to the same affects regardless of the culture. (
  • Through a series of experiments beginning the 1960s and 1970s, the bystander effect phenomenon has become more widely understood. (
  • What do experts say about the psychological phenomenon you researched?Altruism, Bystander Effect Or Conformity Nursing Assignment. (
  • The 1964 event, sparked a furor and transformative effect on the nation, spurring psychologists to study the phenomenon, dubbing it the "Genovese's or "Bystanders effect. (
  • The Bystanders phenomenon was later studied and established as a concept by two social psychologists, Bibb Latane and John Darley in 1968. (
  • In the past decade, evidence has mounted for a novel biological phenomenon termed as "bystander effect" (BE), wherein directly irradiated cells transmit damaging signals to non-irradiated cells thereby inducing a response similar to that of irradiated cells. (
  • Latané and Darley performed three experiments to test bystander behavior in non-emergency situations. (
  • Mason and her team then wanted to know how the presence of untreated rats affected the helping behavior. (
  • Bystanders are uniquely situated to either deter or facilitate the social power play that can underlie bullying behavior. (
  • Bystander-based bullying interventions are able to exploit this by directly targeting social components that reward and maintain bullying behavior, such as peer support of bullying, thereby disrupting the social feedback cycle involved in perpetration. (
  • This study sought to add to the theoretical research base of bystander behavior using a majority-Hispanic sample to investigate the relationships between several theoretically-linked bystander-related variables and determine predictors of positive bystander behavior. (
  • Secondly, this study investigated the effectiveness of a literature-based, bystander-targeted, bullying intervention (the Bullying Literature Project) on children's bystander behavior, attitudes towards bullying, prosocial behaviors, peer friendships, and victimization. (
  • Finally, potential moderators of the intervention on bystander behavior were investigated. (
  • Results revealed differences across grade and gender for select variables of interest, identified anti-bullying attitudes and victimization as significant predictors of positive bystander behavior, and identified a small, negative correlation between peer friendship and victimization, among other significant correlations. (
  • Main results revealed the Bullying Literature Project increased positive bystander behavior (small effect size) and teacher-rated prosocial behavior (large effect size), compared to the wait-list-control group, in a subset of the dataset. (
  • The bystander effect contains different components related to the assistance of the bystanders helping behavior, as well as different social and cultural manifestations and their relevant causes. (
  • Pluralistic Ignorance relates to helping behavior, as well as to pluralistic ignorance being present when bystanders think that others are interpreting the incident in a certain way, when indeed they are not (Aronson et al. (
  • Purpose: The purpose was to explore the underlying mechanisms that drive relationships between knowledge, attitudes and intervening bystander behavior to improve bystander violence prevention program effectiveness. (
  • The survey covered demographics, previous bystander training, self-efficacy to engage in bystander behavior, social desirability of bystander intervention training programs, and perceived effects on self and others. (
  • Similarly, when cells are irradiated, and the medium is transferred to unirradiated cells, these unirradiated cells show bystander responses when assayed for clonogenic survival and oncogenic transformation. (
  • This thesis encompasses three independent experiments looking at bystander and bystander-like responses in both plant and animal models. (
  • We propose a mechanistic model for radiation cell killing and carcinogenesis-related end points that combines direct and bystander responses. (
  • However, the discovery of non-targeted responses to radiation, such as the bystander response, has called this paradigm into question. (
  • In addition, there are likely many confounding factors influencing bystander responses reported in the literature. (
  • According to PNNL scientist Dr. Marianne Sowa, the lead author of the study, 'Bystander responses undoubtedly occur following exposure to alpha particles (those found in radionuclides). (
  • This makes it difficult to separate the direct effects of the exposure from potential non-targeted responses. (
  • Non-targeted effects (NTEs) are responses which do not need a direct exposure to be expressed and. (
  • 2013). This thought comes into notion as bystanders witness a situation, then base their reaction to the incident by gaging other onlookers responses to the incident. (
  • As per the rule of social impact, bystanders screen the responses of other individuals in a crisis circumstance to check whether others feel that it is important to mediate. (
  • The time dependence of bystander responses induced by iron-ion radiation in normal human skin fibroblasts. (
  • When bystander cells were present in sufficient amounts, they dampened those inflammatory responses. (
  • This project tested the degree to which the vaccine promotes "bystander" IgE responses to vaccine antigens which theoretically may interfere with vaccine performance, and whether these bystander responses also affect responses to food allergens. (
  • To do this we have re-evaluated the impact of DTaP-only versus mixed DTwP/DTaP vaccination on Th2-dependent "bystander" IgE responses in three cohorts of children, using stored serum samples collected during immunization. (
  • We confirmed the generalised IgE-stimulatory activity of the DTaP vaccine on responses to vaccine-specific antigens in pre-schoolers, and demonstrated similar effects in infants on food allergen-specific IgE which were mild/transient and unlikely to be clinically significant. (
  • We conclude that followup studies may be warranted to ascertain whether IgE responses against Pertussis antigens have any effects on the effectiveness of DTaP-mediated protection against Pertussis infection. (
  • Therefore, efforts to understand and modulate the bystander responses will provide new approaches to cancer therapy and prevention. (
  • Non- emergency situations LATA and Dearly performed three experiments to test bystander conduct in non-crisis circumstances their results showed that the out in which the subjects were requested help mattered. (
  • In 2016, following the death of the attacker, Winston Moseley, The New York Times published an article stating that the number of witnesses and what they saw or heard had been exaggerated, that there had been just two attacks, that two bystanders had called the police, and that another bystander tried to comfort the dying woman. (
  • It seems clear that, in this case, the presence of another bystander did have an effect on the outcome of the experiment. (
  • 2013). For example, if somebody collapses and a bystander does not know CPR, but decides to assist, they should probably assist by calling for emergency services and trying to find another bystander that can provide CPR after receiving the Best CPR training . (
  • Increased bystander presence can increase the likelihood that someone would intervene, even if the chance of each individual bystander responding is reduced. (
  • An account published in the New York Times reported that 38 bystanders saw the murder but did not intervene. (
  • The most effective measure for bystanders may be to appeal to the other officers on the scene, Fernandez said, because "they are the ones who have the strongest ability to intervene" when detainee rights are violated. (
  • Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the bystander decision-making process as a mechanism by which men's adherence to various dimensions of traditional masculinity is associated with their confidence to intervene in sexually aggressive events. (
  • Does the bystander know how to intervene? (
  • Bystanders are less likely to intervene in emergency situations as the size of the group increases, as they feel less personal responsibility. (
  • Perceptual effects theory was used to understand third-person and first-person perceptions (TPP and FPP) as related to bystander intervention programs and to what extent perceptual gaps influence one's intention to intervene. (
  • In another condition, the students asked bystanders for a dime. (
  • The seminal research on bystander intervention was conducted by American social psychologists Bibb Latané and John Darley, who found that bystanders do care about those in need of assistance but nevertheless often do not offer help. (
  • According to Latané and Darley, before helping another, a bystander progresses through a five-step decision-making process. (
  • In 1969, after the five years of murder, the social psychologists John Darley and Bibb Latane published 'Bystander Apathy' in America Scientist. (
  • In 1969, John Darley and Bibb Latane coin the fact of Bystander Effect which determines the effect of specific social pressure on the people in the situation of an emergency act. (
  • Latané & Darley (1970) formulated a five-stage model to explain why bystanders at emergencies sometimes do and sometimes do not offer help. (
  • The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological theory that states that individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when there are other people present. (
  • The bystander effect is also known as bystander apathy. (
  • The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological theory that states that an individual's likelihood of helping decreases when passive bystanders are present in an emergency situation. (
  • In research published last year, an analysis of surveillance videos revealed that groups of bystanders helped in more than 90% of violent encounters. (
  • 2013). Kitty's death, along with social psychologists research established not only the bystander effect, but other elements that are related to the reasons why the bystander effect occurs in groups of bystanders. (
  • Cell survival is also influenced by the fate of neighboring cells -- the so-called bystander effect. (
  • Previous research has identified the existence of a classical (type I) bystander effect, in which a cell's survival is reduced when communicating with irradiated cells. (
  • In this latest work, the researchers, from Sydney's Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and the University of Sydney, as well as the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital in Perth, have identified two new types of bystander effects (dubbed types II and III), which increase cell survival when nearby cells are irradiated. (
  • These results imply the existence of an effect in which cells receiving a low scattered radiation dose exhibit increased survival when neighboring cells receive a lethal dose: the type II bystander effect. (
  • Altogether, these results indicate that CTX acts via bystander effects, possibly through production of T cell growth factors occurring during the rebound events after drug administration, which may sustain the proliferation, survival, and activity of the transferred immune T lymphocytes. (
  • Our laboratory has previously identified that an environmentally relevant dose of UVA is able to induce the effect in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, seen as reduced clonogenic survival. (
  • However, bystander CPR is not always adequate, resulting in no distinct effect of CPR on survival rate. (
  • The CM-inhibitory effect on T24 clonogenic survival was blocked by apyrase, or mimicked by ATP. (
  • 3, 4 When a defibrillator is not immediately available, bystander initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before the arrival of paramedics increases survival rates further. (
  • c) The effect of B-CPR on survival. (
  • The Milwaukee County Dispatcher Assisted Bystander CPR program is dedicated to increasing the overall cardiac arrest survival rate within the County. (
  • When CPR is started by bystanders, the odds of survival double, however, bystander CPR is attempted on only 19% of cardiac arrest victims in this County. (
  • With the implementation of dispatcher assisted CPR instructions in Seattle, Washington, the rate of bystander CPR doubled and survival rates for the entire County increased. (
  • The effect of GCV on survival rate and bystander effect of ME and ME/TK cells was observed by cell culture and MTT test. (
  • These researchers launched a series of experiments that resulted in one of the strongest and most replicable effects in social psychology. (
  • Havlik, now a student at the Yale School of Medicine, spearheaded experiments to examine whether rats, which lack complex reasoning skills, would show a classical bystander effect. (
  • We are the first to identify the types II and III bystander effects because the specific conditions of experiments isolated these effects," explained lead author Elizabeth Claridge Mackonis, a medical physics registrar at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. (
  • The results obtained show adequate agreement with different in vitro bystander experiments involving ultrasoft X rays and alpha particles and correctly reflect the main features observed for several end points. (
  • We suggest that for many such experiments, a moderate increase in medium volume should have about the same effect as a moderate decrease in the fraction of irradiated cells. (
  • In this study, the researchers used medium-transfer experiments and targeted electron radiation to examine radiation-induced bystander effects in primary human fibroblast (skin) and human colon carcinoma cells. (
  • The 'bystander effect' considered incorrect, since it determined during the experiments which conducted to genuine concern, although they do not act. (
  • That idea that Tregs are the dedicated inflammation fighters is so entrenched in the field that the group performed experiments proving that protection conferred by bystanders had nothing to do with expanding Treg populations. (
  • Their initial experiments confirmed that exosomal miR-1246 levels increased after a 2 Gy-irradiation treatment, and that this increase affected cell proliferation and colony formation. (
  • Moreover, the tragedy led to new research on prosocial behaviour, namely bystander intervention, in which people do and do not extend help. (
  • Several decision models of bystander intervention have been developed. (
  • They found that intervention was the norm, and in over 90% of conflicts one or more bystanders intervened to provide help. (
  • This effect was mediated by greater perceived positive consequences for intervention among men high, but not low, in masculine gender role stress. (
  • We have many different programs, initiatives and workshops that infuse bystander intervention Elon we recognize that there are many. (
  • 2013). A study by Peter Fischer and Tobias Greitmeyer (2013) showed that in some circumstances, an additional bystander can increase individual intervention in situations where the person helping might expect negative consequences, but does not have the same effect when bystanders do not have a positive effect in situations involving low negative consequences (Fischer & Greitmeyer, 2013). (
  • Abstract Introduction The rapid rise in global concerns about the adverse health effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated by common devices such as mobile phones has prompted scientists to further investigate the biological effects of these environmental exposures. (
  • Paper basics: (NO abstract page is necessary)Altruism, Bystander Effect Or Conformity Nursing Assignment. (
  • Psychologists now call this the " bystander effect ," or sometimes the "Genovese syndrome" in memory of the victim of that 1964 street crime. (
  • The bystander effect was initially showed in the laboratory by John Dearly and Bibb LATA in 1968 after they got to be intrigued by the subject after the homicide Of Kitty Geneses in 1964. (
  • This review overviews the emerging role of BE of low and high LET radiations on the genomic instability of bystander cells and its possible implications for carcinogenesis. (
  • The model emphasizes the dependence of bystander effects on dose, which is important for the assessment of low-dose cancer induction by extrapolations of risk from high-dose exposures. (
  • AURORA, Colorado - US researchers say much more work is needed to improve rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, as their new data show that the likelihood of a person receiving CPR depends on the median income and the racial composition of their neighborhood [1]. (
  • Effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Sweden. (
  • BACKGROUND: Information from the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry was used to investigate: (a) The proportion of patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were given bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (B-CPR). (
  • In suicide gene therapy, the "bystander effect" is the ability of the transfected cells to transfer death signals to neighboring tumor cells. (
  • Thus, it has been proposed that senescent cells can damage their local environment, and a stimulatory effect on tumour cell growth and invasiveness has been documented. (
  • Continuous exposure to senescent cells induced cell senescence in intact bystander fibroblasts. (
  • Thus, senescent cells can induce a bystander effect, spreading senescence towards their neighbours in vitro and, possibly, in vivo. (
  • Senescent founder cells induce a senescence-like DDR in bystander cells. (
  • D) Representative image of co-cultured senescent founder cells (marked by cytoplasmic RFP staining) and bystander MRC5-AcGFP-53BP1 cells (green nuclear fluorescence). (
  • E) 53BP1 foci formation rates in bystander MRC5-AcGFP-53BP1 cells. (
  • In animals, it is shown that the microRNAome is largely affected in the bystander cells in a three-dimensional human tissue model. (
  • Irradiated cells can signal damage and distress to both close and distant neighbors that have not been directly exposed to the radiation (naïve bystanders). (
  • The researchers attributed this effect to intercellular communication, in which cells report their DNA integrity to their neighbors. (
  • Background: To investigate the effects of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in esophageal cancer (EC) cells. (
  • Positive transfection, RNAi, micronucleus (MN), and γ-H2AX focus formation assay were used to investigate the effects of SKP2 on RIBE induced by irradiated cells. (
  • TNF-α-mediated bystander assays used a murine coculture system of primary colonic epithelial cells and E. faecalis -infected macrophages ( in vitro ), with an interleukin 10 (IL-10)-deficient mouse model of colon cancer that involves long-term colonization with E. faecalis ( in vivo ). (
  • This image shows the spatial extent of the low-LET radiation induced bystander effect on human cells exposed to 50 Grays of electron radiation. (
  • Importance of cyclophosphamide-induced bystander effect on T cells for a successful tumor eradication in response to adoptive immunotherapy in mice. (
  • Importantly, the increase in extracellular ROS caused lethal damage to the bystander cancer cells not exposed to paclitaxel, as shown by two different methods using coculture systems where the bystander cells were differentiated from the paclitaxel-treated cells by fluorescent or radioactive labeling. (
  • Furthermore, paclitaxel was able to induce an almost complete inhibition of proliferation of the bystander cells in the coculture system. (
  • The bystander effect is defined as the induction of cellular damage in unirradiated cells, induced by irradiated cells in the surrounding area. (
  • Here we report on our investigations into the periods over which the bystander signals are released by the irradiated cells and for how long unirradiated cells need to be exposed to them for the effect to be induced. (
  • Using a coincubation system we have identified that irradiated cells do not release the signals immediately following irradiation but have a time lag of over 24 h before levels are sufficient to induce the effect, with the signals being released for a minimum of 3 days following irradiation. (
  • We have also found that the recipient cells only require at most 24 h of exposure to these signals for induction of the effect. (
  • This model was tested to demonstrate the double strand break induced mutations and these strand breaks can also produce DNA strand break associated bystander effect (DSB-ABE) as measured by increased mutation frequency in naïve cells. (
  • Mutation fraction assay was employed to measure direct mutation fraction (DMF) or accompanied by conditioned medium transfer to naïve cells for measuring bystander mutation fraction (BMF) as an end-point of targeting E18 with an exogenous I-Sce1 expression via pAdTrackCMV I-Sce1 to induce DNA damage and quantify DMF and BMF. (
  • Using precision micro beams, low-dose internal radiation β-particles and hadron radiations, various investigators were able to find out several end-points and effects of bystander signaling in naïve mammalian cells. (
  • This marked effect has been postulated to result primarily from the death of cancer cells by hypoxia following the targeted disruption of tumor blood vessels. (
  • We show that there is a heterotypic "bystander" effect between endothelial cells expressing the HSVtk suicide gene and tumor cells. (
  • This "bystander effect" may potentially overcome the requirement for all malignant cells to be transduced to achieve meaningful tumor regression ( 2 , 5 ). (
  • Indeed, a small number of transduced cells that are accessible to the circulation could in theory mediate a much more pronounced effect that is relatively independent of gene transfer efficiency. (
  • Enterococcus faecalis , a human intestinal commensal, can polarise macrophages to produce a bystander effect that causes double-stranded DNA breaks, tetraploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) in target cells and induces inflammation and CRC in interleukin (IL) 10 knockout mice. (
  • It also suggests that being in contact with tadpoles that were previously exposed to 3.0 × 10 4 Bq/L tritium (bystander effect) contributes to an increased resistance to a high dose of radiation in liver cells. (
  • In vitro exposures were also conducted using primary cultures of liver cells obtained from an unexposed-non-bystander tadpole. (
  • In these control cells, it was observed that exposure to 100 mGy of 60 Co gamma radiation (delivered at a dose rate of 5 mGy/min) did not affect the micronucleus frequency whereas exposure to 4 Gy (delivered at a dose rate of about 10.2 Gy/min) increased the micronucleus frequency. (
  • Typically, the observed outcome is negative i.e., one where-in the unirradiated cells are adversely affected. (
  • But the relationship between dose and effect is not linear: at low doses radiation kills relatively fewer cells. (
  • And though that sounds like good news, it could mean that low radiation is having subtle effects that go unnoticed because cells are not dying, says Mothersill. (
  • We aimed to investigate the impact of radiation-induced bystander signaling on normal/cancer urothelial cells. (
  • Nitric oxide-mediated bystander effect induced by heavy-ions in human salivary gland tumour cells. (
  • To investigate the signal factor and its function in the medium-mediated bystander effect during heavy-ion irradiation of human salivary gland (HSG) neoplastic cells.Unirradiated recipient HSG cells were co-cultivated with HSG donor cells irradiated with 290 MeV/u carbon beams having different LET values. (
  • As a direct control, the effects of a nitric oxide (NO) generator (sper/NO) on cell proliferation and MN induction were also examined.Increases in cell proliferation and MN induction were found in the recipient HSG cells as a result of co-culturing and cell proliferation was obviously enhanced during a further subculture. (
  • The treatment of cells by PTIO resulted in elimination of such effects, which supports a role for NO in the medium-mediated bystander effect. (
  • When the HSG cells were treated by sper/NO with a concentration of less than 20 microM cell proliferation was enhanced, whereas MN increased along with sper/NO concentration.NO participated in the medium-mediated bystander effects on cell proliferation and MN induction, depending on the LET of irradiation. (
  • Bystander effect on cell growth stimulation in neoplastic HSGc cells induced by heavy-ion irradiation. (
  • Molecular biology The secondary effects on adjacent cells and tissues triggered by treatment of a primary target with a therapeutic agent. (
  • In this study we proposed and tried to quantify the presence of a physical signal in the form of electromagnetic radiation that can trigger a biological response in the bystander cells. (
  • In bystander effect studies where the cells are exposed to very low fluence of charged particles there could be several regions that can produce electromagnetic radiation due to the process of atomic/molecular excitations and relaxations. (
  • The choice of UV photons was made due to the reason that its effects on living cells are very well documented. (
  • RFR has both targeted and non-targeted effects on cells. (
  • The image shows the infiltration of islet-specific CD8+ T cells (in red) and non-islet-specific CD8+ T cells ('bystanders' in green) in an islet of Langerhans in a mouse pancreas. (
  • These cells have been dubbed bystanders, since researchers didn't know what they did. (
  • One possibility is that their influx limits access to beta cells by the cell-killing CTLs, in effect crowding them out. (
  • Another is that bystanders interfere with signals sent to cell-killing CTLs by other cells that assist in ramping up inflammation. (
  • We are currently looking into whether there are ways to safely induce a bystander population of T cells to work in our favor as treatment for type 1 diabetes," says Christoffersson, now a researcher at Uppsala University in Sweden. (
  • Bystander cytotoxicity studies were conducted with GFP-tagged PC-3 cells as the reporter cell line. (
  • Bystander studies showed statistically greater PC-3-GFP growth inhibition by LY2334737 when cells were cocultured with CES2 and not mock transfectants. (
  • In the microenvironment, NK cells encounter not only target cells but also other cell types including non-target bystander cells. (
  • The impact of bystander cells on NK killing efficiency is, however, still elusive. (
  • In this study we show that the presence of bystander cells, such as P815, monocytes or HUVEC, enhances NK killing efficiency. (
  • With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. (
  • Using mathematical diffusion models, we confirm that local acceleration of NK cells in the vicinity of bystander cells reduces their search time to locate target cells. (
  • In addition, we found that integrin β chains (β1, β2 and β7) on NK cells are required for bystander-enhanced NK migration persistence. (
  • In conclusion, we show that acceleration of NK cell migration in the vicinity of H 2 O 2 -producing bystander cells reduces target cell search time and enhances NK killing efficiency. (
  • Upon IS formation, LG are accumulated and released exclusively at the IS to avoid damage of surrounding non-target bystander cells 6 . (
  • These bystander cells pose a challenge to NK cells to efficiently identify their targets in a complex microenvironment. (
  • Whether and how the presence of bystander cells can affect the efficiency for NK cells to find and kill their targets has not yet been investigated. (
  • In this study we show that the presence of non-target bystander cells unexpectedly enhanced the killing efficiency as well as NK cell migration. (
  • The presence of bystander cells accelerates NK cell migration via H 2 O 2 . (
  • We establish three mathematical diffusion models and confirmed that local acceleration of NK cells in the presence of bystander cells can decrease search time, and thus increase killing efficiency. (
  • We also show that the surface molecule β-integrin on NK cells is involved in mediating bystander-enhanced NK persistence. (
  • However, on the other hand, non-targeted cells experience radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs). (
  • Here, they state, "A significant bystander effect of decreased NHEJ efficiency was present in cells transfected with miR-1246 mimic. (
  • TNTs mediated cell death as a form of direct cell-to-cell transfer following viral thymidine kinase mediated activation of ganciclovir, inducing a unique long-range form of the bystander effect through transmission of activated ganciclovir to nonvirus-infected cells. (
  • The conceptual advance of this work is that TNTs can be harnessed for delivery of oncolytic viruses and of viral thymidine kinase activated drugs to amplify the bystander effect between cancer cells over long distances in stroma-rich tumor microenvironments. (
  • Infected cells may also be affected by the immune attack. (
  • It implied that TK/GCV system could kill not only tk+ cells but also untransduced tk cells in mixed cells, thus verifying the presence of bystander effect. (
  • Bystander effect mediated by herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir approach on prostatic cancer cells and its regulation]. (
  • Characterization of bystander killing mechanisms in transfected tumor cells. (
  • Furthermore, our rapidly expanding knowledge of low dose-rate effects, different types of cell death, autosensitization and the increasingly likely existence of cancer stem cells suggests to us that even more efficient approaches in targeting might be possible in the future. (
  • However, bystander-based bullying interventions for elementary students pose a unique set of challenges in terms of fostering the awareness of bullying, social thinking, and cognitive-emotional skills that are necessary for positive bystander action. (
  • Previously we confirmed early reports that partial shielding of an irradiated lens reduces cataract development in the exposed portion, a rare example of a positive bystander effect. (
  • A positive bystander effect for cataract development occurs in the mammalian lens even at very low radiation doses. (
  • Because the overall cataractogenicity of a given radiation dose is reduced it appears that the positive bystander influence outweighs the converse negative bystander expression at the tissue level. (
  • Moreover, the number of others is important, such that more bystanders leads to less assistance, although the impact of each additional bystander has a diminishing impact on helping. (
  • And even in high-income black neighborhoods, patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest "were approximately 23% less likely to receive bystander-initiated CPR than were patients in high-income nonblack neighborhoods. (
  • As compared with patients who had a cardiac arrest in high-income white neighborhoods, those in low-income black neighborhoods were around 50% less likely to receive CPR from a bystander (odds ratio 0.49). (
  • Investigations of the bystander effect in the 1960s and '70s sparked a wealth of research on helping behaviour, which has expanded beyond emergency situations to include everyday forms of helping. (
  • By illuminating the power of situations to affect individuals' perceptions, decisions, and behaviour, study of the bystander effect continues to influence the course of social psychological theory and research. (
  • We examined whether the bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations influence vulnerable students' risk for victimization. (
  • This suggests that bystanders' behaviors in bullying situations moderate the effects of individual and interpersonal risk factors for victimization. (
  • As people in Minneapolis and across the U.S. continue to protest the killing , Floyd's death has provoked even more questions about the role bystanders should play when caught in similar situations. (
  • in situations where a large group of people witness an emergency where someone needs help, it often happens that nobody offers assistance to those affected. (
  • The Bystander Effect lies in a place in social psychology to explain the cumulative effect of social tendencies during the occurrence of emergency situations. (
  • The Bystander Effect is the act of a person in sudden or emergency situations. (
  • However, some studies have analyzed that culture can play a significant role in determining if a bystander will or will not assist during certain situations. (
  • This differs from non-individualist societies, because non-individualist societies have been shown to contain a closer community bond, thus causing an increase in bystanders and their wiliness to help during a certain situations (Pozzoli et al. (
  • Macrophage-induced bystander effects have been implicated as an important mediator of chromosomal instability and colon cancer triggered by Enterococcus faecalis , a human intestinal commensal bacteria. (
  • E18 can be targeted with I-Sce1 restriction endonuclease to induce double strand breaks at the I-Sce1 site to measure radiation independent DNA damage and the associated bystander effect. (
  • Nobody has taken a hard look at the combined effect of both, says Alexandra Miller, a radiobiologist with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. (
  • Given its low radioactivity and our current understanding of radiobiology, DU cannot trigger such health effects, the British and American governments maintain. (
  • Emergencies oblige prompt activity Because Of these five attributes, bystanders experience cognitive and behavioral techniques 1. (
  • 2017. "Overexpression of SKP2 Inhibits the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects of Esophageal Carcinoma. (
  • 2017. (
  • One possible explanation is the bystander effect , which is the social psychology term for when people do not help in an emergency situation if there are other witnesses present. (
  • in their paper "Exosome-packaged miR-1246 contributes to bystander DNA damage by targeting LIG4" , published in July 2018 by the British Journal of Cancer . (
  • Data and statistics are as in (D). (G,H) Average foci frequencies per nucleus in bystander MRC5-AcGFP-53BP1 (G) and BJ-AcGFP-53BP1 (H) fibroblasts. (
  • Our study revealed a novel mechanism by which paclitaxel induces toxic bystander effect through generation of extracellular H 2 O 2 from the membrane-associated NOX. (
  • However the actual mechanism involved in producing the effects is still not clear. (
  • Social influence occurs because the bystanders consider one another and do what everyone else is doing: nothing. (
  • Sometimes it's the "bystander effect," a phenomena that occurs when individuals fail to respond to an emergency because they assume others present will act, said social psychologists. (
  • The phrase bystander effect was coined in the 1960s after people watched or heard a serial killer stalk and stab a woman in two separate attacks in the Queens neighborhood of New York. (
  • 150 mSv, a range known as high-dose radiation, have measurable and often serious immediate effects on humans ( 4 ). (
  • Research into the biological effects of low-dose radiation exposure is hindered by a lack of assays sensitive enough to measure the relevant cellular alterations. (
  • Rothkamm and Löbrich ( 9 ) used amounts of γ radiation as low as 1 mGy, a dose that generates on average one track of clustered reactive oxygen species per nucleus and thus is considered the lowest dose that can affect a whole cell culture or animal. (
  • In particular, the use of spatially modulated beams, such as those created during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), may result in differing communicated-dose effects to those seen in traditional treatments based on uniform fields. (
  • We speculated that using appropriate dose regimes, with more extensive follow-up, a concomitant, negative effect might be discernible. (
  • The same types of studies are used to provide estimates of the effects of dose fractionation and dose protraction (NCRP, 2001). (
  • Nitric oxide-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by heavy-ion microbeam irradiation. (
  • And although a few studies have looked at the effect of neighborhood on bystander CPR, these were conducted within small geographic areas and therefore may not be generalizable to other settings, say the researchers. (
  • But some researchers are beginning to suspect that in combination, the two effects could do significant harm. (
  • Simultaneously, the researchers transferred various ratios of CTLs into mice--including both the cell-killing variety and the non-specific bystanders. (
  • Summary: While the effects of sleep deprivation are well known, researchers discover sleeping too much could have a detrimental effect on your brain. (
  • However, there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest that the bystander effect promotes carcinogenesis in humans at low doses. (
  • The study, titled "The Bystander Effect in Rats," also demonstrated that in the presence of other potential helper rats, rats are more, rather than less, likely to help. (
  • The objectives of the present study were to determine the source or subcellular location of the ROS production induced by paclitaxel and to evaluate the possible contribution of ROS in mediating its cytotoxic effect. (
  • Dispatcher guidance did not significantly influence whether on-scene bystander first aid was performed correctly or attempted in this study setting, with a remarkably high willingness to perform first-aid. (
  • The correlation between EMCC-guidance and bystander first aid should be investigated in study settings with lower spontaneous first-aid rates. (
  • Bakke HK, Steinvik T, Eidissen S-I, Gilbert M, Wisborg T. Bystander first aid in trauma - prevalence and quality: a prospective observational study. (
  • For example, a 2008 study found that, if bystanders were friends, increasing their numbers resulted in a greater likelihood of them intervening in a scene of street violence. (
  • One of the key factors in this study was the direct testing of the effect of just flavoring at levels likely to be reached inside the body. (
  • Definition of neurology: a science involved in the study of the nervous systems, especially of the diseases and disorders affecting them. (
  • Some had thought bystanders passively add to damage done by specific CTLs but we found the opposite," says first author Gustaf Christoffersson, PhD, a former postdoc in the von Herrath lab. (
  • Using the adaptive response (determined using micronucleus assay) as a biomarker, the data obtained suggest that bystander effects do play a role in wild populations since bullfrog tadpoles that were not exposed to tritium responded like the tadpoles that were directly exposed to tritium after being placed in contact with them. (
  • nevertheless there is great interest in its long-term biological effects, which may include cancer in exposed individuals and genetic defects in their progeny. (
  • The biological effects of RFR are possibly mediated by oxidative stress. (
  • However, the biological effects of low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations are considerably more complex than previously thought. (
  • The title of this book "Targeted Radionuclide Tumour Therapy - Biological Aspects" was selected to reinforce the concept that a major focus of this volume was devoted to understanding the biological effects of targeting and radiation. (
  • Now they are hoping to effect change by going out into the community and educating people about how to perform hands-only CPR and, in turn, getting those people to educate their family and friends. (
  • The pair tested human subjects alone and in the presence of "confederate" bystanders -- people who were part of the research team and were instructed not to help -- as they confronted a variety of experimental scenarios with someone (an actor) in distress. (
  • The Bystander Effect and why people don't call for help when they see violent crimes. (
  • Her death coined the phrase, 'the bystander effect,' whereby good people. (
  • Brooke meets Dr Lasana T Harris, experimental psychologist from UCL, who has set up a demonstration to show how people in a crowd can be influenced by the so-called bystander effect. (
  • So what we have here is a demonstration we set up with an actor to illustrate the Bystander Effect, which is a scenario where if no one stops to help other people will fail to stop to help as well. (
  • I think now that I'm aware of the Bystander Effect and if other people become aware of the Bystander Effect then you can fight against that instinct to just walk on by. (
  • Factors like the weather, the location, the types of people passing and how the person in trouble is dressed can affect the situation. (
  • Furthermore, rather than being the callous people we imagine bystanders to be, some test subjects in one experiment experienced physical symptoms of anxiety such as shaking and sweating. (
  • In the novel Night and the poem "The Hangman", the bystander effect took place because people were afraid to bring attention to themselves. (
  • This feeling of fear for yourself rather than others is what separates the bystanders from the morally courageous people of the world. (
  • mandatory budgets cuts going into effect on March 1, a vast range of government services and millions of people, are going to feel these effects. (
  • Under the bystander effect, experts say that the larger the number of people involved in a situation, the less will get done. (
  • Thus, our findings indicate the need for reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of CTX and adoptive immunotherapy, and may provide new insights into the definition of new and more effective strategies with chemotherapy and adoptive immunotherapy for cancer patients. (
  • Radiation therapy (RT) delivers tumour kill, directly and often via bystander mechanisms. (
  • Bystander effects have been described in numerous in vitro cell culture systems. (
  • A rat is less likely to help a trapped companion if it is with other rats that aren't helping, according to new research from the University of Chicago that showed the social psychological theory of the "bystander effect" in humans is present in these long-tailed rodents. (
  • Here, we investigate the ability of TNTs to mediate a viral thymidine kinase based bystander effect after oncolytic viral infection and administration of the nucleoside analog ganciclovir. (
  • All-trans retinoic acid augments the bystander effect of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system in the treatment of tongue carcinoma cell line]. (
  • But without radiobiological models to predict the results of irradiation with modulated fields, these effects can't be quantified and incorporated into radiotherapy treatment planning. (
  • In comparison with 13keV/microm, 100keV/microm carbon-ion irradiation was found to be a more efficient inducer of the medium-mediated bystander effect. (
  • There is little understanding about how inflammatory cytokines mediate bystander effects, but questions in this area are important because of the pivotal contributions made by inflammatory processes to cancer initiation and progression. (
  • Bystander cell-derived H 2 O 2 was found to mediate the acceleration of NK cell migration. (
  • Moreover, the observed bystander killing is mediated by connexins 43 and 26, which are expressed in endothelial and tumor cell types. (
  • Finally, this heterotypic bystander effect is accompanied by a suppression of tumor growth in vivo that is independent of primary gene transfer into host-derived tumor vascular endothelium. (
  • This cytotoxic bystander effect was also observed with other microtubule-targeted agents vincristine and taxotere but not with 5-fluorouracil or doxorubicin. (
  • On the other hand, radiation is a known cytotoxic with a potential DNA damaging and carcinogenic effects. (
  • What is the role of direct cytotoxic effects of viral replication in the pathogenesis of HIV infection? (
  • This effect may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. (
  • These data indicate that a single exposure to UVA can exert an effect for several days postirradiation, thus amplifying the deleterious effects of exposure. (
  • The statement of task from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to the committee requests that we assess the most recent scientific information related to radiation exposure and associated cancers to determine whether there is new information that could affect the magnitude of radiation cancer-risk estimates. (
  • Short-term exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from mobile phones may cause genotoxic effects. (
  • Extensive epidemiological and toxicological research over several decades has focused on the health effects of radiation to understand the risk of exposure to both public and workforce. (
  • Why bystanders exert an immunosuppressive effect is unclear. (
  • Conversely, anti-inflammatory activities known to be associated with HCMV infection could also exert protective effects on the course of autoimmune diseases. (
  • On the other hand, inflammation of tissues due to AID may generate an environment preventing the reactivation and growth of HCMV, or, depending on the prevailing factors, exert proviral effects and support productive infection. (
  • There are various causes of the Bystander Effect in the field of psychology. (
  • The bystander effect is an element of social psychology that implies that when the number of bystanders is increased in an emergency situation, the less likely any of the bystanders will aid, or assist in the situation (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2013). (
  • The bystander effect is one of the most significant well established social psychology findings, which manifested in the late 1960's (Levine & Crowther, 2013). (
  • For example, your introduction paragraph could define social psychology and including a required resource).Altruism, Bystander Effect Or Conformity Nursing Assignment. (
  • Define social psychology (great place to use an in-text citation)Altruism, Bystander Effect Or Conformity Nursing Assignment. (
  • A senescent cell bystander effect: senescence-induced senescence. (
  • Note nuclear foci in the central bystander cell. (
  • Here, we report that the central proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α acts as a diffusible mediator of the bystander effects induced by macrophages, an effect caused by a proliferation of macrophages that trigger epithelial cell production of Netrin-1, a neuronal guidance molecule. (
  • PD-ECGF/TP is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorolysis of thymidine and converts 5' DFUR and tegafur to 5-FU.The tranfection of PD-ECGF gene to lung cancer cell line (PC-9) enhances the sensitivity to 5' DFUR,tegafur, and 5-FU.Besides this enhancement is promoted by non-contact type bystander effect (Br J Cancer, 1997). (
  • We conclude that radiation-induced bystander signaling enhances urothelial cancer cell killing via activation of purinergic pro-apoptotic pathways. (
  • In it a team led by La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI) diabetes researcher Matthias von Herrath, M.D., reveals that bystander cell accumulation antagonizes rather than abets cell-killing by specific CTLs, curbing inflammation. (
  • Mice infused with low numbers of bystanders relative to specific CTLs showed beta cell destruction and diabetes symptoms, such a hyperglycemia. (
  • To investigate the bystander effect of HSV-tk/GCV system-retroviral vector mediated on human cervical carcinoma cell line ME180 (ME). (
  • The above results demonstrate that HSV-tK/GCV system has obvious killing and bystander effect on cervical carcinoma cell line ME180. (
  • The story of Genovese's murder became a modern parable for the powerful psychological effects of the presence of others. (
  • If a bystander is physically in a position to notice a victim, factors such as the bystander's emotional state, the nature of the emergency, and the presence of others can influence his or her ability to realize that something is wrong and that assistance is required. (
  • No moderation effects involving gender, peer friendship, or anti-bullying attitudes were found. (
  • If bystander effects are detrimental, they would increase the target volume for radiation and, presumably, increase the risk to human health. (
  • In fact, viral infections appear to have both detrimental and protective effects on type 1 diabetes development, which might be contingent upon the nature of the virus, but also the immune status of the host and thus the timing of infection. (
  • Ultimately, the clinical implications of these bystander effects need to be determined. (
  • Clearly, challenges remain for investigators to determine the robustness of medium-borne bystander effects, rigorously test whether changes in radiation quality can elicit the same changes in non-targeted bystander populations and determine if these effects have relevance to human health. (
  • Epidemiologic studies of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs and of other populations exposed to radiation medically, occupationally, or accidentally have characterized the long-term health effects of radiation (see Chapter 3 ). (
  • Never mind that parsing up varying degrees of "innocence" between categories of victims is a giveaway that dangerous discrimination is afoot, the fact that Genovese's attacker was unknown to her might have mattered just enough to bystanders to have driven-if just barely- one more call to police. (
  • The causes are significant to the explanation of the bystander effect and implore different elements in their explanation and relativity. (