Bystander Effect: The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Aniline Mustard: Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Cytosine Deaminase: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Nitroreductases: Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Genes, Transgenic, Suicide: Genes that are used transgenically, i.e., via GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES to induce CELL DEATH.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Glycyrrhetinic Acid: An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Phleomycins: Water-soluble, copper-containing low molecular weight polypeptides obtained from the culture medium of Streptomyces verticillus. They are specific inhibitors of DNA synthesis in bacteria and have been found to act as antitumor agents. They have also been used against rust fungi of plants.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Deuteroporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective: Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.Micronucleus Tests: Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Idoxuridine: An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Mice, Inbred BALB CFibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.

Bystander effects caused by nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I. (1/402)

A three-dimensional tissue culture model was used to investigate the biological effects of nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster V79 cells were labeled with (125)I-iododeoxyuridine, mixed with unlabeled cells, and multicellular clusters ( approximately 1.7 mm in diameter) were formed by gentle centrifugation. The highly localized energy deposition caused by (125)I decays results in very high equivalent doses delivered to the labeled cells and low equivalent doses delivered to the unlabeled cells. The clusters were assembled and then maintained at 10.5 degrees C for 72 h to allow (125)I decays to accumulate, dismantled, and the cells were plated for colony formation. When 100% of the cells were labeled, the survival fraction was exponentially dependent on the mean radioactivity per labeled cell. A two-component exponential response was observed when either 50 or 10% of the cells were labeled. These experimental data, coupled with theoretical dosimetry calculations, indicate that bystander effects play an important role in the killing of unlabeled cells when nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I are present.  (+info)

Neonatal exposure to antigen primes the immune system to develop responses in various lymphoid organs and promotes bystander regulation of diverse T cell specificities. (2/402)

Neonatal exposure to Ag has always been considered suppressive for immunity. Recent investigations, however, indicated that the neonatal immune system could be guided to develop immunity. For instance, delivery of a proteolipid protein (PLP) peptide on Ig boosts the neonatal immune system to develop responses upon challenge with the PLP peptide later. Accordingly, mice given Ig-PLP at birth and challenged with the PLP peptide as adults developed proliferative T cells in the lymph node that produced IL-4 instead of the usual Th1 cytokines. However, the spleen was unresponsive unless IL-12 was provided. Herein, we wished to determine whether such a neonatal response is intrinsic to the PLP peptide or could develop with an unrelated myelin peptide as well as whether the T cell deviation is able to confer resistance to autoimmunity involving diverse T cell specificities. Accordingly, the amino acid sequence 87-99 of myelin basic protein was expressed on the same Ig backbone, and the resulting Ig-myelin basic protein chimera was tested for induction of neonatal immunity and protection against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Surprisingly, the results indicated that immunity developed in the lymph node and spleen, with deviation of T cells occurring in both organs. More striking, the splenic T cells produced IL-10 in addition to IL-4, providing an environment that facilitated bystander deviation of responses to unrelated epitopes and promoted protection against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis involving diverse T cell specificities. Thus, neonatal exposure to Ag can prime responses in various organs and sustain regulatory functions effective against diverse autoreactive T cells.  (+info)

In vivo gene therapy for colon cancer using adenovirus-mediated, transfer of the fusion gene cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. (3/402)

Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) utilising cytosine deaminase (CD) converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and has entered into a clinical trial for metastatic colon cancer. To improve this system, a replication-deficient adenovirus, containing a bifunctional fusion gene, CD:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), was constructed (AdCDUPRT). UPRT enhances the conversion of 5-FU into its active metabolites, which inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis. In vitro, AdCDUPRT infection of colon cancer cells resulted in a marked increase in sensitisation to 5-FU, compared with AdCD-infected or uninfected cells. The corollary is a approximately 100-fold and approximately 10 000-fold increase in sensitisation to 5-FC in AdCDUPRT-infected cells, compared to AdCD-infected and uninfected cells, respectively. There was a strong bystander effect in vitro, 70% of tumour cells were killed by 5-FC when only 10% of cells expressed CDUPRT. In vivo, athymic mice with colon cancer xenografts treated with intratumoral AdCDUPRT and intraperitoneal 5-FC, significantly reduced tumour growth rates compared with untreated controls (P = 0.02), whereas AdCD/5-FC treated mice did not. At higher AdCDUPRT virus doses, 5-FC and 5-FU were equally effective at delaying tumour growth compared with controls. In summary, VDEPT for colon cancer utilising AdCDUPRT is more effective than AdCD and the bifunctional CDUPRT gene enables the use of either 5-FC or 5-FU as prodrugs.  (+info)

Inflammatory-type responses after exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo: a mechanism for radiation-induced bystander effects? (4/402)

Haemopoietic tissues exposed to ionizing radiation are shown to exhibit increased macrophage activation, defined by ultrastructural characteristics and increased lysosomal and nitric oxide synthase enzyme activities. Macrophage activation post-irradiation was also associated with enhanced respiratory burst activities and an unexpected neutrophil infiltration. Examination of p53-null mice demonstrated that macrophage activation and neutrophil infiltration were not direct effects of irradiation, but were a consequence of the recognition and clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells. Increased phagocytic cell activity was maintained after apoptotic bodies had been removed. These findings demonstrate that, contrary to expectation, recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells after exposure to radiation produces both a persistent macrophage activation and an inflammatory-type response. We also demonstrate a complexity of macrophage activation following radiation that is genotype dependent, indicating that the in vivo macrophage responses to radiation damage are genetically modified processes. These short-term responses of macrophages to radiation-induced apoptosis and their genetic modification are likely to be important determinants of the longer-term consequences of radiation exposure. Furthermore, in addition to any effects attributable to immediate radiation-induced damage, our findings provide a mechanism for the production of damage via a 'bystander' effect which may contribute to radiation-induced genomic instability and leukaemogenesis.  (+info)

Local inflammation and devascularization--in vivo mechanisms of the "bystander effect" in VPC-mediated HSV-Tk/GCV gene therapy for human malignant glioma. (5/402)

Somatic gene therapy with the herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir (HSV-Tk/GCV) system and murine retroviral vector producer cells (VPCs) was introduced as a new adjuvant treatment modality to treat tumor bulk and to prevent tumor recurrence in patients harboring malignant glioma. The single-center experience after treatment of 27 patients undergoing tumor resection followed by intracerebral VPC injection for HSV-Tk suicide gene therapy will be presented focused on findings of systematic and close MRI follow-up and a few histological specimens. The data indicate that hemorrhagic necrosis due to endothelial cell transfection mediated vessel necrosis and that local inflammatory immune response occurs frequently after gene therapy. These phenomena seem to be specific because none of the patients of a control group showed any similar features. The prognosis (time to progression, survival) of the patients with "bystander effects" after gene therapy was better, but compared to those patients without bystander effects, they were also privileged by a favorable constellation of prognostic factors. Therefore, the appearance of these neuroradiologic features cannot serve as an indicator for treatment effectiveness and outcome.  (+info)

Indirect IL-4 pathway in type 1 immunity. (6/402)

Recall Ag-specific IL-4 was detected in the spleen and in the blood, but not in lymph nodes of mice in which polarized type 1 immunity was induced. This IL-4 was not produced by T cells, but soluble factors secreted by the recall Ag-activated T cells, including IL-3, triggered cells of the innate immune system, primarily mast cells, to secrete IL-4. This notion has profound implications for immunodiagnostics: the detection of apparently recall Ag-specific IL-4 does not necessarily reflect the presence of Th2 or Th0 memory T cells with long-term cytokine commitment as is of interest for assessing adoptive immunity. We found that in vivo the indirect IL-4 pathway did not suffice to trigger IgE isotype switching, but promoted IgG1 production and inhibited type 1 T cell differentiation. Therefore, the indirect IL-4 pathway can explain partial type 2 immune response phenotypes in vivo in face of unipolar Th1 T cell immunity. The representation of mast cells in different tissues may explain why immune responses in certain organs are more type 2 biased. Therefore, the indirect pathway of IL-4 production represents a novel type of interaction between the innate and the adoptive immune system that can contribute to the outcome of host defense and immune pathology.  (+info)

Characteristics of ovarian cancer cells transduced by the bicistronic retroviral vector containing GM-CSF and HSV-TK genes. (7/402)

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) genes could be linked by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in one retroviral vector and expressed by ovarian cancer cells following transfection, and to observe the characteristics of the transduced cells. METHODS: Retroviral vector pLGM-I-TK was constructed by linking the HSV-TK gene and GM-CSF gene with the IRES sequence. By using the "ping-pong" technique, pLGM-I-TK was transfected into the packaging cell line, PA317, to produce a PA317/TK-GM cell line. Using the resulting viral supernatant to infect the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, PCR and RT-PCR were used to explore the integration and transcription of HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes. The cytotoxicity of GCV (gancyclovir) on SKOV3/TK-GM was determined by MTT assay and the bystander effect of the HSV-TK/GCV system was also assessed. ELISA was used to measure the expression of GM-CSF by the transgene cells. RESULTS: The bicistronic retroviral vector constructed could be successfully transduced into PA317 and the titer of the retroviral vector was about 8.6 x 10(5) cfu/ml. PCR and RT-PCR demonstrated the successful integration and transcription of HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes transduced into the SKOV3 cell. SKOV3/TK-GM cells could be killed by GCV, and the IC50 was 0.7 microgram/ml. The bystander effect was demonstrated. The expression level of GM-CSF in SKOV3/TK-GM was 60.4 ng.ml-1 x 10(6) cells-1 x 2 days-1. CONCLUSION: The IRES sequence can be used to construct retroviral vectors to facilitate co-transfection of two genes. SKOV3/TK-GM cells can simultaneously express the HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes with biological activities which could be useful for enhancing the function of immune cells on the basis of suicide gene therapy.  (+info)

Sensitization of prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine induced by adenoviral vector carrying a CD transcription unit. (8/402)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of the cytosine deaminase adenoviral/5-fluorocytosine system on prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS: We used cell culture, infectivity and sensitivity tests, to observe bystander effect by animal tests. RESULTS: Established prostate cancer cell lines are eventually infectible by adenoviral vector. The ratio of vector/cell at which infection occurs depends on the specific cell line. The peak of expression of the transferred cytosine deaminase gene occurred in cells at different time, but persisted beyond 11 days. These prostate cell lines are sensitized to 5-fluorocytosine by infection with adenoviral vector carrying the cytosine deaminase gene. Only 5% of the LNCap and 10% of the RM-1 cells were infected and produced 100% cell death. In the animal test, there was significant inhibition of tumor growth at a ratio of 400 vector particles/cell with the systematic treatment of 5-fluorocytosine. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral vector carrying a cytosine deaminase transcription unit can sensitize prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine. The system can significantly inhibit the growth of prostatic tumors in mice.  (+info)

p,Radiation induced bystander effects have given the cancer risk analysis a whole new paradigm. However the actual mechanism involved in producing the effects is still not clear. The basic bystander signal is assumed to be a biological signal. In this study we proposed and tried to quantify the presence of a physical signal in the form of electromagnetic radiation that can trigger a biological response in the bystander cells. In bystander effect studies where the cells are exposed to very low fluence of charged particles there could be several regions that can produce electromagnetic radiation due to the process of atomic/molecular excitations and relaxations. We focused on quantifying the number of ultraviolet photons emitted when charged particles pass through different media that have relevance to radiation biology experiments. The choice of UV photons was made due to the reason that its effects on living cells are very well documented. For this purpose we developed a system which employed ...
Best stories, art and poetry about bystander effect. Authors who write about bystander effect. Other Red Fez members intersted in bystander effect.
Tumor vascular endothelium has certain properties that render it an attractive target for cancer gene therapy, such as accessibility to circulating vectors, expression of endothelial surface receptors distinct from those of normal quiescent vasculature, and a potential amplifying effect caused by hypoxia. Ligand-directed adeno-associated virus/phage can mediate targeted HSVtk suicide gene transfer to tumor vascular endothelium in several experimental models (20, 21). However, the precise cytotoxic mechanism of such profound antitumor effects after vascular-targeted suicide gene transfer has not as yet been entirely understood. Here, we show that vascular targeted HSVtk suicide gene delivery results in efficient cell killing mediated by a heterotypic bystander effect between endothelial and parenchymal tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.. The bystander effect has initially been described as a phenomenon in homotypic cultures, in which neighboring (bystander) HSVtk-nonexpressing tumor cells were ...
EMS providers recorded bystander assistance 11% of the time. The logistic regression model correctly predicted bystander intervention occurrence 71.4% of the time. Bystanders were more likely to intervene when the patient was male (aOR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.12-1.3) and if the patient was older (progressive aOR = 1.10, 1.46 age group 20-29 through age group 60-99). Bystanders were less likely to intervene in rural areas compared to urban areas (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.58-0.59). The highest likelihood of bystander intervention occurred in a residential institution (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.85-1.86) and the lowest occurred on a street or a highway (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95-0.96). Using death as a reference group, bystanders were most likely to intervene when the patient had cardiac distress/chest pain (aOR = 11.38, 95% CI = 10.93-11.86), followed by allergic reaction (aOR = 7.63, 95% CI = 7.30-7.99), smoke inhalation (aOR = 6.65, 95% CI = 5.98-7.39), and respiration arrest/distress (aOR = 6.43, 95% CI = ...
Despite many years of potent antiretroviral therapy, latently infected cells and low levels of plasma virus have been found to persist in HIV-infected patients. The factors influencing this persistence and their relative contributions have not been fully elucidated and remain controversial. Here, we address these issues by developing and employing a simple, but mechanistic viral dynamics model. The model has two novel features. First, it assumes that latently infected T cells can undergo bystander proliferation without transitioning into active viral production. Second, it assumes that the rate of latent cell activation decreases with time on antiretroviral therapy due to the activation and subsequent loss of latently infected cells specific for common antigens, leaving behind cells that are successively less frequently activated. Using the model, we examined the quantitative contributions of T cell bystander proliferation, latent cell activation, and ongoing viral replication to the stability ...
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To date, acalabrutinib has been used in trials studying the treatment of B-All, Myelofibrosis, Ovarian Cancer, Multiple Myeloma, and Hodgkin Lymphoma, among others. As of October 31, 2017 the FDA approved Astra Zenecas orally administered Calquence (acalabrutinib) medication as a Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) inhibitor indicated for the treatment of adult patients with Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) who have already received at least one prior therapy, marking the companys first entry into the treatment of blood cancers. Also known as ACP-196, acalabrutinib is also considered a second generation BTK inhibitor because it was rationally designed to be more potent and selective than ibrutinib, theoretically expected to demonstrate fewer adverse effects owing to minimized bystander effects on targets other than BTK. Nevertheless, acalabrutinib was approved under the FDAs accelerated approval pathway, which is based upon overall response rate and faciliates earlier approval of medicines that treat serious
Kystdirektoratet Gr Nr.3 Location of pilot study area Ribe Dike length ca. 18,4 km protected area ha year of construction reinforcement reinforcement (flattening of outer slope) sluices (Ribe Å and Konge Å) and 2 smaller outlets
Chronic allograft rejection is in part mediated by host T cells that recognize allogeneic antigens on transplanted tissue. One factor that determines the outcome of a T cell response is clonal size, while another is the effector quality. Studies of alloimmune predictors of transplant graft survival have most commonly focused on only one measure of the alloimmune response. Because differing qualities and frequencies of the allospecific T cell response may provide distinctly different information we analyzed the relationship between frequency of soluble antigen and allo-antigen specific memory IFN-g secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells, their ability to secrete IL-2, and their proliferative capacity, while accounting for cognate and bystander proliferation. The results show proliferative responses primarily reflect on IL-2 production by antigen-specific T cells, and that proliferating cells in such assays entail a considerable fraction of bystander cells. On the other hand, proliferation (and IL-2 production)
Family lore has it that from ages one to four, hed tied my right hand behind my back so Id grow up to be left-handed, right-brained, and well-centered. I was eight when my father wanted to test the "bystander effect" as it applies to the "black community." He replicated the infamous Kitty Genovese case with a prepubescent me standing in for the ill-fated Ms. Genovese, who, in 1964, was robbed, raped, and stabbed to death in the apathetic streets of New York, her plaintive Psychology 101 textbook cries for help ignored by dozens of onlookers and neighborhood residents. Hence, the "bystander effect": the more people around to provide help, the less likely one is to receive help. Dad hypothesized that this didnt apply to black people, a loving race whose very survival has been dependent on helping one another in times of need. So he made me stand on the busiest intersection in the neighborhood, dollar bills bursting from my pockets, the latest and shiniest electronic gadgetry jammed into my ear ...
Workplace bullying has reached epidemic proportions, but often workers dont see it. Why not? Here are some reasons and some solutions to stop bullying at work.
Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide that is particularly refractory to chemotherapy. Several studies have proposed combination chemotherapy regimen...
Women are less likely than men to get CPR from a bystander and more likely to die, a new study suggests, and researchers think reluctance to touch a womans chest might be one reason.
Matthew 26 - A little later the bystanders came up and said to Peter, Surely you too are [one] of them; for even the way you talk *gives you away.
In anticipation of a phase I clinical trial in GBM patients using an immunotherapeutic approach that combines Ad-Flt3L with Ad-TK+GCV, it was critical to determine the optimal cytotoxic agent to use in this approach. Therefore, we compared the efficacy and neurotoxicity of Ad-TK+GCV with Ad vectors encoding the proapoptotic cytokines TNF-α, TRAIL, and FasL. Our hypothesis was that Ad-TK+GCV would exhibit superior efficacy and safety when compared with Ads expressing proapoptotic cytokines. Because Ad-TK kills proliferating cells in the presence of GCV (37), we expected this agent to have a powerful antitumor effect due to the presence of mitotic tumor cells within GBM. Also, the bystander effect of phosphorylated GCV would amplify the cytotoxic effect of this approach (37). The highest therapeutic efficacy was indeed achieved when using Ad-TK+GCV by itself for small tumors, and in combination with Ad-Flt3L for large tumors. Although all the proapoptotic Ads certainly induced apoptosis in vitro ...
In January JNM: PET/MRI biomarkers in breast cancer … bystander effects of 223Ra … Mitochondria and synaptic PET biomarkers … The AQARA Principle … A discussion between Martin Pomper and Peter Choyke … PSMA-guided surgery … hybrid tracers and surgical guidance … and much more!
LOKARDE S POVRCEM IZ PECNICE Ako vas muci przenje,pecenje ribe u stanu,ako mrzite sto vam od plave ribe/koja je zdrava,ukusna i jeftina/cije ...
LOKARDE S POVRCEM IZ PECNICE Ako vas muci przenje,pecenje ribe u stanu,ako mrzite sto vam od plave ribe/koja je zdrava,ukusna i jeftina/cije ...
I think the permit idea is interesting, in a sense. Its interesting in the sense of not being able to turn away, like when you see a bad car accident. Its not that the permit idea is grotesque - its grotesque that society has reached a point where thats a compromise.. It seems to me weve got a pretty good compromise already. Concerned Bystander has to make a choice - and really, its no choice at all. If you really think a child is dying in that car, you break the window, knowing two things: first, that no sane court will convict you on vandalism, etc. charges, second, that even if you would face those charges, youd do it anyway. If you dont really think a child is in danger - if youre trying to feel superior, engage in virtue-flash, etc., its pretty obvious - you dont break the window. Any Concerned Bystander who doesnt actually break into the car, but instead stands around, complaining, pesters the parents when they come back, etc. - either didnt really think the kid was in danger, ...
A clip plays. In the clip, a man in his twenties gropes a woman in her twenties at a party, as another man in his twenties films. The woman looks hazy and drunk. Both men turn to the camera ...
We show here that CD8 T cells undergo apoptosis and decline in number in response to IFN and that non-virus-specific bystander CD8 T cells are driven to apoptosis during the T-cell response to virus infections. Apoptosis and cell loss in each of these systems were most pronounced in CD8 T cells of the memory phenotype (CD44hi). IFN-induced attrition and apoptosis of memory cells were confirmed using MHC tetramer analysis of a well-defined LCMV memory population from poly(I:C)-injected LCMV-immune mice (Fig. 4 and Table 3). An early virus-induced peak in T-cell apoptosis and attrition correlated with the peak in virus-induced IFN-α/β, and the IFN-α/β inducer poly(I:C) dramatically induced apoptosis and attrition in the memory CD8 T-cell compartment. Poly(I:C) is a very potent IFN-α/β inducer, but it also induces potentially cytotoxic cytokines like TNF alpha (44). IFN-α/β, in turn, can stimulate the synthesis of a number of other cytokines, such as IL-15 (20, 54), which is known to act on ...
In comparison to last year, Ribe has moved upwards in terms of its place among the best restaurants in Estonia. Better still, the restaurant has regained the position that was clearly theirs. Ribe has been one of the best restaurants in Estonia for years and earned that position in every way possible.. The interpretations of Estonian cuisine delivered by the Slovakian head chef are fresh and surprising for the locals. His culinary skills are definitely among the best in Estonia. This is confirmed by his previous work experience in some of the top restaurants in the world.. Its food is just as good of a reason to visit Ribe as its wine selection. Ribe has unquestionably earned its title as the best beverage provider in Estonia. In the vestibule of the restaurant, you will find an open wine bar with a selection that always includes some beverages unavailable anywhere else in Tallinn.. body { background-color: transparent!important; }. ...
The modern concepts of sustainable cities and smart grids have caused an increase in the installation of solar systems in urban and suburban areas, where, due to the presence of many obstacles or design constraints, photovoltaic (PV) modules can operate in operating conditions that are very different from the optimal ones (e.g., standard test conditions, STC). Shading and reflection are the main phenomena that cause uneven distribution of irradiance on PV cells; in turn, they create a nonuniform distribution of PV cell temperatures. The latter problem can also be caused by different ventilation regimes in various parts of the PV array. On the other hand, due to the need to exploit different solar technologies (solar thermal and photovoltaic), problems related to the availability of a useful surface can arise. In this context, there is a technology that produces heat end electrical energy at the same time, such a technology is referred to as a solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T). Here, the ...
T cell proliferation in vivo is presumed to reflect a T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated polyclonal response directed to various environmental antigens. However, the massive proliferation of T cells seen in viral infections is suggestive of a bystander reaction driven by cytokines instead of the TCR. In mice, T cell proliferation in viral infections preferentially affected the CD44hi subset of CD8+ cells and was mimicked by injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], an inducer of type I interferon (IFN I), and also by purified IFN I; such proliferation was not associated with up-regulation of CD69 or CD25 expression, which implies that TCR signaling was not involved. IFN I [poly(I:C)]-stimulated CD8+ cells survived for prolonged periods in vivo and displayed the same phenotype as did long-lived antigen-specific CD8+ cells. IFN I also potentiated the clonal expansion and survival of CD8+ cells responding to specific antigen. Production of IFN I may thus play an important role in the ...
Increases in cell proliferation are widely viewed as being of importance in carcinogenesis. We report that exposure of normal human lung fibroblasts to a low dose of alpha particles like those emitted by radon/radon progeny stimulates their prolifera
The effect of gamma radiation delivered over 24 h on the induction of bystander signals of three earthworm species exposed in vivo was investigated: A. chlorotica, A. caliginosa, and E. tetraedra. Worms were exposed to external gamma irradiation (Co-60 source) for 24 h and samples of head, body, and clitellum were dissected from exposed and control worms and placed in culture medium for 24 h at 19 ...
A GM-CSF and CD40L bystander vaccine is effective in a murine breast cancer model Hatem Soliman,1 Melanie Mediavilla-Varela,2 Scott J Antonia,3 1Department of Women's Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2Department of Immunology, 3Department of Thoracic Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA Background: There is increasing interest in using cancer vaccines to treat breast cancer patients in the adjuvant setting to prevent recurrence in high risk situations or in combination with other immunomodulators in the advanced setting. Current peptide vaccines are limited by immunologic compatibility issues, and engineered autologous cellular vaccines are difficult to produce on a large scale. Using standardized bystander cell lines modified to secrete immune stimulating adjuvant substances can greatly enhance the ability to produce immunogenic cellular vaccines using unmodified autologous cells or allogeneic medical grade tumor cell lines as targets. We investigated the efficacy of a cellular
In HIV-1-infected patients, increased numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells are linked to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Here, we identified a bystander mechanism that promotes CD8 T cell activation and expansion in untreated HIV-1-infected patients. Compared with healthy controls, untreated HIV-1-infected patients have an increased population of proliferating, granzyme B+, CD8+ T cells in circulation. Vβ expression and deep sequencing of CDR3 revealed that in untreated HIV-1 infection, cycling memory CD8 T cells possess a broad T cell repertoire that reflects the repertoire of the resting population. This suggests that cycling is driven by bystander activation, rather than specific antigen exposure. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IL-15 induced a cycling, granzyme B+ phenotype in CD8+ T cells. Moreover, elevated IL-15 expression in the lymph nodes of untreated HIV-1-infected patients correlated with circulating CD8+ T cell counts and was normalized in these ...
In HIV-1-infected patients, increased numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells are linked to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Here, we identified a bystander mechanism that promotes CD8 T cell activation and expansion in untreated HIV-1-infected patients. Compared with healthy controls, untreated HIV-1-infected patients have an increased population of proliferating, granzyme B+, CD8+ T cells in circulation. Vβ expression and deep sequencing of CDR3 revealed that in untreated HIV-1 infection, cycling memory CD8 T cells possess a broad T cell repertoire that reflects the repertoire of the resting population. This suggests that cycling is driven by bystander activation, rather than specific antigen exposure. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IL-15 induced a cycling, granzyme B+ phenotype in CD8+ T cells. Moreover, elevated IL-15 expression in the lymph nodes of untreated HIV-1-infected patients correlated with circulating CD8+ T cell counts and was normalized in these ...
Multiple viral and host factors determine the variability in HIV-1 disease progression [17, 23-26]. Cellular tropism and receptor/co-receptor usage for viral entry are major factors influencing HIV pathogenesis. Despite extensive research, the exact mechanism of how those factors contribute to the gradual loss of CD4 T cells is still enigmatic. Bystander CD4 T cell death plays a major contribution towards AIDS progression. A recent report has revealed a mechanism for HIV-induced CD4 T cell depletion, which involves abortive non-productive HIV infection in resting CD4 T cells, followed by IFI16 activation and caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis [27-29]. Besides the abortive RT products in non-productively infected resting cells, several HIV-1 proteins have also been reported to contribute to the depletion of bystander (uninfected and non-productively infected) CD4 T cells, including the Env [4, 5, 17, 19], Vpr [30], Nef [31, 32] and Tat [33]. The Env protein is of specific interest in mediating AIDS ...
Commentary No. 24 - Health Effects of Low Doses of Radiation: Perspectives on Integrating Radiation Biology and Epidemiology (2015 ...
Transplant recipients can be sensitized against allo-HLA antigens by previous transplantation, blood transfusion, or pregnancy. While there is growing awareness that multiple components of the immune system can act as effectors of the alloresponse, the role of infectious pathogen exposure in triggering sensitization and allograft rejection has remained a matter of much debate. Here, we describe that exposure to pathogens may enhance the immune response to allogeneic HLA antigens via different pathways. The potential role of allo-HLA cross-reactivity of virus-specific memory T cells, activation of innate immunity leading to a more efficient induction of the adaptive alloimmune response by antigen-presenting cells, and bystander activation of existing memory B cell activation will be discussed in this review ...
Van Braeckel-Budimir, N., Martin, M. D., Hartwig, S. M., Legge, K. L., Badovinac, V. P. & Harty, J. T. (2017). Antigen Exposure History Defines CD8 T Cell Dynamics and Protection during Localized Pulmonary Infections. Frontiers in immunology, 8, 40. PMID: 28191007.. Shan, Q., Zeng, Z., Xing, S., Li, F., Hartwig, S. M., Gullicksrud, J. A., Kurup, S. P., Van Braeckel-Budimir, N., Su, Y., Martin, M. D., Varga, S. M., Taniuchi, I., Harty, J. T., Peng, W., Badovinac, V. P. & Xue, H. H. (2017). The transcription factor Runx3 guards cytotoxic CD8,sup,+,/sup, effector T cells against deviation towards follicular helper T cell lineage. Nature immunology. PMID: 28604718.. Martin, M. D., Shan, Q., Xue, H. H. & Badovinac, V. P. (2017). Time and Antigen-Stimulation History Influence Memory CD8 T Cell Bystander Responses. Frontiers in immunology, 8, 634. PMID: 28642758.. Gullicksrud, J. A., Li, F., Xing, S., Zeng, Z., Peng, W., Badovinac, V. P., Harty, J. T. & Xue, H. H. (2017). Differential Requirements for ...
Q: What is the chest compression rate for adult CPR? A. 50/min B. 100/min C. 100-120/min D. As many as you can The basics of CPR has changed since 2010. Major changes for all rescuers, all of which are intended to simplify CPR for rescuers and improve bystander response,... Read More ...
The distinction between pathogen mediated and autoaggressive inflammation is becoming increasingly blurred. Current thoughts on the mechanisms of autoimmune disease broadly fall into two camps, not necessarily mutually exclusive. The molecular mimicry theory holds that tolerant self reactive T cells which have escaped deletion in the thymus generally ignore self antigens mostly as a result of factors such as low affinity of their receptors for antigen, and it is not until they are exposed to antigens from micro-organisms which have homology to self antigens that they receive a sufficiently strong stimulus to be activated. The alternative theory of bystander activation suggests that tissue damage induced by micro-organisms releases a variety of cytokines, not always the same set, which under appropriate circumstances activate self reactive T cells which happen to be in the vicinity as they travel through the tissues. Recently, evidence in support of the latter theory has been reported in a model ...
Unfortunately, despite its beautiful aroma, Smugglers Soul isnt very long-lasting. After massaging it into my wrists and neck, I found that I couldnt detect the perfume a mere fifteen minutes after it has been applied. I thought that perhaps it was one of those perfumes thats subtle on the wearer but leaves an impression on bystanders. However, neither of my flatmates were able to pick up the scent on me, even when I applied multiple helpings to my skin. ...
As soon as Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) are isolated from whole blood, some cells begin dying. The rate of apoptotic cell death is increased when PBMC are shipped, cryopreserved, or stored under suboptimal conditions. Apoptotic cells secrete cytokines that suppress inflammation while promoting phagocytosis. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells in PBMC may modulate T cell functions in antigen-triggered T cell assays. We assessed the effect of apoptotic bystander cells on a T cell ELISPOT assay by selectively inducing B cell apoptosis using α-CD20 mAbs. The presence of large numbers of apoptotic B cells did not affect T cell functionality. In contrast, when PBMC were stored under unfavorable conditions, leading to damage and apoptosis in the T cells as well as bystander cells, T cell functionality was greatly impaired. We observed that measuring the number of apoptotic cells before plating the PBMC into an ELISPOT assay did not reflect the extent of PBMC injury, but measuring apoptotic cell
Jedi v počasnem štedilniku pomagajo določiti nizko kalorični meni.. Vzorčni meni za teden v tabeli:. Prigrizek: naribana korenček.. Kosilo: kuhan riž s paro.. Prigrizek: rezina sadja.. Večerja: jed iz piščanca in mešana zelenjava.. Prigrizek: jogurt in pol grenivke.. Kosilo: postrežemo parne ribe in juho.. Prigrizek: rezina črnega kruha s trdim sirom.. Večerja: postrežena z zelenjavo omleto narezano.. Prigrizek: kuhani beluši.. Kosilo: postreženo zelenjavno juho z zelenim grahom.. Čaj: mlečni smoothie.. Prigrizek: kuhana teletina.. Kosilo: juha-pire.. Prigrizek: toast s paradižnikom in sirom.. Večerja: pari zelenjava s piščančjim mesom.. Prigrizek: narezan korenček in jabolko.. Kosilo: juha z ajdo in mesne kroglice.. Čaj: pijte pomarančni sok.. Večerja: parjene ribe, narezana zelenjava.. Prigrizek: kozarec kefirja z nizko vsebnostjo maščob.. Kosilo: kuhano goveje meso z rezanjem ajde in zelenjave.. Kosilo: mlečno-banani smoothie.. Večerja: parne ribe, šparglji in ...
A new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests that CPR given by ordinary bystanders is linked to higher survival rates among sudden cardiac arrest victims.
DALLAS, TX--Concerns about inappropriate contact or causing injury may help explain why bystanders are less likely to perform CPR on women - even
Researchers have found that those who suffer cardiac arrests in upper income are nearly twice as likely to get cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than people who collapse in low-income.
Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit einem neuartigen proteinbasierten, suizidgentherapeutischen Ansatz zur sicheren und effektiven Behandlung von soliden Tumoren. Verwendet wurden zellpermeable Fusionsproteine auf der Grundlage des bakteriellen Enzyms Cytosin Desaminase, welches spezifisch die Umsetzung der inaktive, nichttoxische Substanz (Prodroge) 5-Fluorcytosin in den hochwirksamen, stark toxischen Wirkstoff 5-Fluoruracil katalysiert. Dieser bewirkt die selektive Zerstörung von Tumorzellen. Durch die Fusion der bakteriellen Cytosin Desaminase (bCD) mit der Sequenz des Zellpermeabilität vermittelnden Peptides HBV-Translokationsmotiv (TLM) des Hepatits B-Virus (HBV) wurden zunächst zellpermeable E.coli Cytosin Desaminase Suizidfusionskonstrukte generiert. Für die bakteriell synthetisierten HBV-TLM-Fusionsproteine konnten eine Hexamerisierung sowie eine spezifische enzymatische Aktivität bei der Umsetzung von Cytosin zu Uracil als strukturelle und funktionelle Voraussetzungen für ...
The Step Up!© Program is an amazing resource for information on ways to change your thinking, change your behavior, and step up to the challenge of being an empowered bystander. Read additional Sample Scenarios and answer the question, what would you do? Check out a variety of Strategies for Effective Helping, including sample approaches and scripts to help you Step Up. View the entire Bystander Intervention Video Series. Humanities Troupe Videos:
Mike Brady, a surprise participant in ABCs undercover investigation show, "What Would You Do?" In this past Fridays episode, the network set up a camera to capture what would happen when three teens surrounded and taunted a fourth teen for being gay. They report that most people passed by without taking any action - one man claiming, "It wasnt at a point where I thought I should jump in." Brady, however, did step in despite having only one functioning hand due to an old hit-and-run accident. (ABC / What Would You Do?). ...
The opposite of a hero is not a villain: its a bystander." (Matt Langdon) Should not our politicians aspire to be the heroes of our nation? Yet how many are content to be bystanders when it comes to the matter of asylum seekers in detention? What a poor example they are setting for their constituents. Surely it is time for them to rebel against cruel and illegal party policies and govern from the heart. (Matt Langdon is the founder and chair of the Hero Construction Company, and creator of the Hero Round Table conferences. He is also my grandson ...
WHEN a foul-mouthed bystander decided to sabotage a live TV broadcast, he hadnt counted on this presenters UNBELIEVABLE reply.
Not being reported by the media is the rebel activity-taking place in Libya concerning blacks. It is being reported that Gaddafi is using black mercenaries to fight the rebels. Publicintelligence.org reports bystanders, including women and children...
When a woman falls to the ground, bystanders rush to help her to her feet, but how can a simple wardrobe change affect peoples willingness to lend a hand?. ...
Supermans disguise is fueled by Refuge in Audacity Basically, to bystanders, Clark Kent is such a transparent disguise that people think its more likely …
p53 Promotes Radiation-Induced Lymphomagenesis: Explaining Henry Kaplans Non-Targeted Effort of Radiation Carcinogenesis. David Kirsch, MD, PhD. Professor & Vice Chair for Basic & Translational ...
Gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) of cancer aims to improve the selectivity of chemotherapy by gene transfer, thus enabling target cells to convert nontoxic prodrugs to cytotoxic drugs. A zone of cell kill around gene-modified cells due to transfer of toxic metabolites, known as the bystander effect, leads to tumour regression. Here we discuss the implications of either striving for a strong bystander effect to overcome poor gene transfer, or avoiding the bystander effect to reduce potential systemic effects, with the aid of three successful GDEPT systems. This review concentrates on bystander effects and drug development with regard to these enzyme prodrug combinations, namely herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) with ganciclovir (GCV), cytosine deaminase (CD) from bacteria or yeast with 5-fluorocytodine (5-FC), and bacterial nitroreductase (NfsB) with 5-(azaridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB1954), and their respective derivatives.
Political marches are one of the most public and vocal means of engaging in collective action and can potentially build social movements by increasing the likelihood that bystanders become engaged with the social movement. Here, we conduct a trend study to test the impacts of two back-to-back highly visible large-scale climate change related marches on bystanders, targeting psychological drivers of collective action: efficacy beliefs, perceptions of others climate change activism and concerns, impressions of marchers, and behavioral intentions. Participants either completed a survey the day before the March for Science (n = 302) or several days after the Peoples Climate March, which occurred a week after the first march (n = 285). Results suggest that the marches were at least partially effective: bystanders (a) collective efficacy beliefs and (b) impressions of marchers improved after the march. In contrast, marches were ineffective in increasing perceptions of others engagement with concern about
Reference: Radiography, 18 (1), p.28-33, Feb 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.radi.2011.07.003. Keywords: Cancer; Epidemiology; Radiobiology; Non-targeted effects; Hypersensitivity; Radiation protection. Abstract: …radiation induced breast cancer beyond the age of 50…the variation in breast cancer risk with age suggests…occurs. 41 Radiogenic thyroid cancer ERR decreases strongly with age in the LSS and Chernobyl data 10,43 though the…. URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1078817411000691. ...
Ciklidi (Cichlidae) su jedna od najvećih porodica zrakoperki (Actinopterygii) iz reda grgečki (Perciformes) sa ukupno 221 rodom i 1 656 vrsta priznatih 2013. godine. Zbog velikog broja neotkrivenih vrsta, pretpostavlja se da će konačan broj vrsta ove porodice doseći 1,900. [1] Ciklidi su ribe koje se značajno razlikuju u obliku, boji, veličini, načinu života i ponašanju.. Veličina predstavnika ove porodice se kreće od 2,5 centimetra do 1 metra, dok oblici tijela variraju od snažno bočno spljoštenih do valjkastih. Oblik tijela ovisi od okruženja u kojem se nalaze: bočno spljoštene ribe poput onih iz roda Pterophyllum prilagođene su skrivanju među gustim vodenim biljem, dok je oblik tijela riba iz roda Julidochromis specijaliziran za uvlačenje u uske rupe među kamenjem. Mužjaci su veći i intenzivnije obojeni, veoma teritorijalni i često agresivni prema ribama svoje i druge vrste. Živopisno obojene vrste postaju sve popularnije akvarijske ribe, dok su rjeđe one neuglednih ...
Developing Acute Stroke Services Diagnosing Screening Acute Care pathways Thrombolysis Dr C. Roffe Clinical Lead Shropshire and Staffordshire Heart and Stroke Network . Patient or bystander recognizes stroke. Dial 999. Ambulance response Blue-light FAST positive potential strokes to...
Rashighi, Medhi; and Harris, John E., "Melanocytes in psoriasis: convicted culprit or bullied bystander" (2016). UMass Metabolic Network Publications. 47 ...
There is an urgent need for an effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PC). Prostate tumors invariably overexpress prostate surface membrane antigen (PSMA). We designed a nonviral vector, PEI-PEG-DUPA (PPD), comprising polyethylenimine-polyethyleneglycol (PEI-PEG) tethered to the PSMA ligand, 2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)ureido] pentanedioic acid (DUPA), to treat PC. The purpose of PEI is to bind polyinosinic/polycytosinic acid (polyIC) and allow endosomal release, while DUPA targets PC cells. PolyIC activates multiple pathways that lead to tumor cell death and to the activation of bystander effects that harness the immune system against the tumor, attacking nontargeted neighboring tumor cells and reducing the probability of acquired resistance and disease recurrence ...
We have asked here how the remarkable variation in maize haplotype structure affects recombination. We compared recombination across a genetic interval of 9S in 2 highly dissimilar heterozygotes that shared 1 parent. The genetic interval in the common haplotype is approximately 100 kb long and contains 6 genes interspersed with gene-fragment-bearing Helitrons and retrotransposons that, together, comprise 70% of its length. In one heterozygote, most intergenic insertions are homozygous, although polymorphic, enabling us to determine whether any recombination junctions fall within them. In the other, most intergenic insertions are hemizygous and, thus, incapable of homologous recombination. Our analysis of the frequency and distribution of recombination in the interval revealed that: (i) Most junctions were circumscribed to the gene space, where they showed a highly nonuniform distribution. In both heterozygotes, more than half of the junctions fell in the stc1 gene, making it a clear ...
All eukaryotic cells use vesicular trafficking to transport proteins and lipids (for reviews see Rothman and Wieland, 1996; Schekman and Orci, 1996; Barlowe, 2000). Vesicles bud from one compartment, taking along both soluble and membrane proteins as well as lipids, and fuse with another compartment. Transport in the anterograde direction must be counterbalanced by retrograde traffic to keep the size of compartments constant and reuse components of the transport machinery. The bidirectional traffic would tend to equalize the composition of the compartments, yet most proteins and some lipids are concentrated in one organelle and define its identity. How can such nonuniform distributions be achieved?. Vesicular transport involves budding and fusion. Budding is mediated by coats, which are cytosolic proteins that bind to a membrane, induce curvature, and eventually pinch off a vesicle (for review see Schekman and Orci, 1996). Coats also bind proteins to be packaged into vesicles. The COPI and COPII ...
MEMs microbeams consist of many thin material layers. This thin layered structure is very similar to that of laminated composite plates in which thin layers of fiber reinforced plastic are stacked and cured. Both the MEMs layered structure and the composites layered structure will have layers with different properties including modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion. Even an actuating layer in a MEMs structure can be modeled as part of a laminated plate. Researchers in composite materials have developed an approach, referred to as laminated plate theory, to solve mechanics problems in these layered structures. In laminated plate theory the mechanical response of the layered structure to imposed forces, strains or thermal loads can be predicted through series of matrix calculations. This approach can be extended to characterizing MEMs mechanical behavior. For example, laminated plate theory can be used to evaluate displacement of MEMs microbeams that are actuated by PZT. This approach can also be
PubMed 19689206 Publications 2008. Tietje KR, Anderson DJ, Bitner RS, Blomme EA, Brackemeyer PJ, Briggs CA, Browman KE, Bury D, Curzon P, Drescher KU, Frost JM, Fryer RM, Fox GB, Gronlien JH, Håkerud M, Gubbins EJ, Halm S, Harris R, Helfrich RJ, Kohlhaas KL, Law D, Malysz J, Marsh KC, Martin RL, Meyer MD et al. (2008) ...
Only 39 percent of women suffering one in a public location were given CPR versus 45 percent of men, and men were 23 percent more likely to survive.
This epidemiology study uses registry data to investigate the prevalence of bystander- and first responder-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation in North Caro
Harlan Ellison used to do a stunt where he would write a story while sitting in a bookstore display window. As he finished a page, he would tape it to the glass and bystanders would read it. In a sense, you are performing a similar task and I am really digging being one of the bystanders. Thanks. ...
Elon University is a mid-sized private university in North Carolina that is nationally recognized as the premier student-centered environment for experiential learning.
I have been suffering with a toothache this week; a horrible, awful toothache. It seems that a root canal I had when I was in my 20s has now come back to haunt me.A year ago, my current dentist thrust my X-rays in front of my face and made a dire prediction: You know, youre…
Copyright Get Revising 2018 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. 806 8067 22 Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE ...
Kannikegården is in Ribe, Denmark’s best preserved medieval city, located on the main square, just across the city cathedral. The simple brick clad volume hovers above the city floor to expose an open ground floor with a 1000-year-old ...
Cardiac arrest happens for a reason, and even though its the most time-sensitive, treat-the-ABCs syndrome that exists, there are still times when youll never fix the problem without understanding the cause.. In a perfect world, youd show up, compress, apply AED, shock, get a pulse, the patient sits up and hugs you, you transport and alls well. In a realistic world (depending on your area), usually ALS shows up at some point and things take a more technical direction. But if youre working the arrest for more than a couple minutes, have adequate manpower, but are still BLS-only, then your extra providers shouldnt be sitting around twiddling their thumbs; they should be gathering information, planning the next step, and preparing for transport.. Ideally, one person is running the code. Either that person or somebody competent he delegates to should communicate with family or bystanders, examine available records, dig through the meds, whatever - try to determine both the history of the ...
ANAHEIM, Calif. - Women are less likely than men to get CPR from a bystander and more likely to die, a new study suggests, and researchers think reluctance to touch a womans chest might be one reason.. Only 39 per cent of women suffering cardiac arrest in a public place were given CPR versus 45 per cent of men, and men were 23 per cent more likely to survive, the study found. ...
A bystander is being thanked for helping a deputy arrest a bloody and sweaty DUI driver after the suspect was involved in a head-on collision.
Maajid Nawaz speaks about the recent racist attack he suffered, saying the reaction of bystanders to what happened has given him heart.
Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) expressed in tumors converts relatively nontoxic prodrugs into membrane-permeant cytotoxic: compounds with high bystander activity. In the present study, we examined tumor regressions resulting from treatment with E. coli PNP and fludarabine phosphate (F-araAMP), a clinically approved compound used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. We tested bystander killing with an adenoviral construct expressing E. coli PNP and then more formally examined thresholds for the bystander effect, using both MuLv and lentiviral vectoring. Because of the importance of understanding the mechanism of bystander action and the limits to this anticancer strategy, we also evaluated in vivo variables related to the expression of E. coli PNP (level of E. coli PNP activity in tumors, ectopic expression in liver, percentage of tumor cells transduced in situ, and accumulation of active metabolites in tumors). Our results indicate that F-araAMP confers excellent ...
TUESDAY, March 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Cardiac arrest outside of a hospital setting is a leading cause of disease-related health loss in the United States, a new study says.. But bystander use of CPR and automated external defibrillators reduces the risk of death and disability.. "Cardiac arrest is unique because survival is dependent on the timely response of bystanders, medical dispatch, EMS personnel, physicians and hospital staff," said lead author Dr. Ryan Coute, a resident in emergency medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Coute said people need to know that "cardiac arrest" and "heart attack" are not the same. Cardiac arrest, an abrupt loss of the hearts ability to pump, leads to death within minutes if not treated. A heart attack happens when blood flow to the heart is blocked.. Researchers analyzed nearly 60,000 cardiac arrest cases that occurred outside a hospital setting in 2016. Their aim was to find out the years of life lost prematurely along with years lived ...
TUESDAY, March 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Cardiac arrest outside of a hospital setting is a leading cause of disease-related health loss in the United States, a new study says.. But bystander use of CPR and automated external defibrillators reduces the risk of death and disability.. "Cardiac arrest is unique because survival is dependent on the timely response of bystanders, medical dispatch, EMS personnel, physicians and hospital staff," said lead author Dr. Ryan Coute, a resident in emergency medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Coute said people need to know that "cardiac arrest" and "heart attack" are not the same. Cardiac arrest, an abrupt loss of the hearts ability to pump, leads to death within minutes if not treated. A heart attack happens when blood flow to the heart is blocked.. Researchers analyzed nearly 60,000 cardiac arrest cases that occurred outside a hospital setting in 2016. Their aim was to find out the years of life lost prematurely along with years lived ...
In the present study, we have determined that: 1) GAD65-specific peptide immunotherapy is effective in inducing regulatory Th2 cells that can prevent progression to overt IDDM at a late preclinical stage of disease; 2) GAD65-specific peptides differ in their efficacy to induce sufficient Th2 cell reactivity required to suppress established Th1 effector cell function; and 3) there is a correlation between the capacity of GAD65-specific peptides to induce adequate Th2 effector cell function and hyporesponsiveness of GAD65-specific Th1 cells.. Our results demonstrate that under the conditions used, peptide-specific Th2 cells that secrete IL-4 have a critical role mediating protection. First, spleen cell cultures established from animals remaining diabetes-free exhibited intra- and intermolecular determinant spreading of the Th2 cell response which is indicative of bystander suppression. Second, adoptive transfer of diabetes to neonate recipients was effectively suppressed by CD4+ T cells purified ...
Bystander Noah Nathan captured the moment shots rang out as a gunman fired on Republicans at an early-morning baseball practice for a charity baseball game in Alexandria, Virginia.
Palestinian shot dead after stabbing soldier, bystander - AP News: JERUSALEM (AP) - A knife-wielding Palestinian woman attacked an Israeli .01/18/2018 3:24:41AM EST.
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Norways world bronze medalist Peter Ribe has been banned from the Games after failing a drug test, team officials said.Ribe tested positive for the stimulant ephedrine at a competition in Germany
Anyway, I remember that for example when an antigen-presenting cell bearing MHC II molecules presents an MHC II:peptide complex to a T cell, it gathers a number MHC molecules on a single area on the cell surface, and the T cell does likewise with its CD4 receptors. This way there can be a lot stronger signal than there would be if the corresponding molecules were equally distributed along the cell membrane (which I think is normally the case). Also, the cells can secrete cytokines more specifically by this method, and bystander cells do not get activated unnecessarily. This phenomenon is called an immunological synapse. Somewhat similar synapse is also formed by cytotoxic (CD8) lymphocytes and MHC I-expressing cells ...
1) Calculate the number of cells. 2) Centrifuge cell suspension at 300×g for 10 minutes. Aspirate supernatant completely. 3) Resuspend cells in 80 µL of buffer per 107 total cells. Note: Aliquot an appropriate amount of cells for antibody-R-PE labeling and detection.. 4) Add 20 µL of Anti-cell surface antigen Magnetic beads per 107 total cells. 5) Mix well and incubate for 15 minutes at 2−8 oC. 6) Wash cells by adding 1-2 mL of buffer per 107 cells and centrifuge at 300×g for 10 min. 7) Aspirate supernatant completely. 8) Resuspend up to 107 cells in 500 µL of buffer. Note: For higher cell numbers, scale up buffer volume accordingly. 9) Proceed to magnetic separation.. 3. Depletion of targeted cells. 1) Place Column in the magnetic field of a suitable Separator.. 2) Prepare column by rinsing with 2 mL of buffer.. 3) Apply cell suspension onto the column.. 4) Collect unlabeled cells which pass through and wash column with 2 × 1 mL of buffer. 5) Perform washing steps by adding buffer ...
You at that point proceed to deal from the top of the deck eight playing cards and also present that the bystanders card is no longer at position 8. Since you put at card from the base of the deck to the top you have certainly displaced the bystanders card by one position. You following breather the spread at the face up card and beginning the count with this card you spell out the observers name utilizing one card for each letter. After you have actually spelled out the noticeS in our example, turn over the following card to confess the card that the spectator is assuming of ...
Directed by Aaron Stengel & Steve Hester Produced by Ben Hamper, Jerry Humphrey and Steve Hester. This show was made possible by volunteers (including the...
Abstract The extent to which bystanders are exposed to pesticide applications is unknown. Systematic monitoring around spray areas is not routine. Quantifying exposures is extremely difficult. Persons inadvertently exposed to pesticides often do not know the chemical or quantity, and persons living
Although these answers may go some way to placating the public, they fail to address some trickier questions. What happens if a new gene is introduced into the wrong section of the plants own DNA, leading to subtle changes in its chemistry? What if a new gene moves from a modified plant to an unmodified bystander? If something goes wrong, how can it be put right? The truth is, nobody knows. There have been isolated reports of such "what if" cases arising in practice, but scientists have made no systematic assessment of their frequency or significance. Trials to date have been too short or too small to shed much light. And like some drug complications, ecological side-effects may take years to appear. It proves little that there is no evidence of harm so far.. Those in favour of plant modification often argue that the new techniques are really no different from traditional plant-breeding. Why all the fuss now?, they ask, puzzled. They are right-but they also miss the point, which is the need to ...
Times staffNEW PORT RICHEY - A bystander stopped him from beating and choking his pregnant girlfriend Sunday, police said, so the 47-year-old man walked away.But he came back with a gun.Accordi
(2008) Van Der Werf et al. Metabolomics is an emerging, powerful, functional genomics technology that involves the comparative non-targeted analysis of the complete set of metabolites in an organism. We have set-up a robust ...
Dosimetry for targeted radionuclide therapy is necessary for treatment planning and radiation protection. Currently, there are no standard methods either for performing dosimetry or to evaluate the uncertainties inherent in the dosimetric calculations. In this paper, we present an experimental method using polymer gel dosimeters, whereby absorbed-dose distributions resulting from nonuniform distributions of activity may be determined directly from T(2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as from scintigraphic images. A phantom containing a nonuniform distribution of I-131 was prepared by mixing 58 MBq of activity within the gel as it was solidifying. The resulting absorbed-dose distribution was determined directly from the MRI and from sequential single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. The MRI data were quantified using 12 calibration vials uniformly irradiated by 0-12 MBq of I-131. The agreement between the two ...
Ionizing radiation (IR) is used to treat more than half of human cancer patients. The therapeutic effect of IR is due to its ability to induce apoptosis. Success of radiation therapy relies not only on apoptosis induction but also on whether surviving cancer cells proliferate and regenerate a tumor. Drosophila melanogaster is a premier genetic model and, relevant to radiation biology of cancer, Drosophila larvae display an amazing capacity to regenerate. IR doses that kill more than half of the cells in larval tissues still allow complete regeneration to produce an adult fly of normal size and pattern. It is by understanding not only the initial effects of IR such as DNA damage and cell death but also longer-term regenerative responses that we may manipulate and improve radiation therapy of cancer. In this regard, Drosophila offers an unparalleled model to study both types of responses ...
The police killing of Mark Duggan resulted in four nights of rioting across England. The immediate trigger was the killing itself, and the disrespect shown by the police to Marks family and friends. But the riots rapidly broadened to expressions of a more general anger and alienation; an anger that was all too often unfocused and striking out at the nearest target of opportunity. This resulted in widespread destruction of resources in already deprived neighborhoods and some anti-social attacks on bystanders. Despite this, the roots of the riots lie in the economic and political conditions of these districts, and not in poor parenting or mindless criminality. These conditions were created by the very politicians and business elite who now call for a return to normality and repression. (Image: By SkyFireXII via Flickr Creative Commons 2.0) Anarkismo.net is an anarchist publishing project composed of groups who agree with the Anarkismo statement Anarkismo.net is a international anarchist-communist
This is a rate-coding model of the neocortical spatial working memory circuit incorporating multiple dendritic branches of the individual pyramidal cell in order to examine how nonlinear dendritic integration, combined with the nonuniform distribution of the external input, affects the behavior of the whole circuit ...
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches provide low-cost, high-density genotype information. However, GBS has unique technical considerations, including a substantial amount of missing data and a nonuniform distribution of sequence reads. The goal of this study was to characterize technical variation using this method and to develop methods to optimize read depth to obtain desired marker coverage. To empirically assess the distribution of fragments produced using GBS, ∼8.69 Gb of GBS data were generated on the Zea mays reference inbred B73, utilizing ApeKI for genome reduction and single-end reads between 75 and 81 bp in length. We observed wide variation in sequence coverage across sites. Approximately 76% of potentially observable cut site-adjacent sequence fragments had no sequencing reads whereas a portion had substantially greater read depth than expected, up to 2369 times the expected mean. The methods described in this article facilitate determination of sequencing depth in the ...
MONDAY, May 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Women who suffer a cardiac arrest in public are less likely than men to get resuscitation help from bystanders, and more likely to die, new research shows.. For the study, scientists analyzed data on more than 5,700 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred in a province of the Netherlands between 2006 and 2012. Women accounted for 28% of those cases.. Men were more likely than women to receive resuscitation attempts by bystanders, even when a bystander saw the person collapse (about 74% versus 69%, respectively).. Men were also more likely than women to survive until hospital admission (37% versus 34%, respectively) and more likely to survive from hospital admission to discharge (55% versus 37%, respectively).. Overall, womens chances of surviving to be discharged from hospital were about half that of men (12.5% versus 20%), according to the study, which was published May 22 in the European Heart Journal.. An important factor in the gender ...
MONDAY, May 28, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Women who suffer a cardiac arrest in public are less likely than men to get resuscitation help from bystanders, and more likely to die, new research shows.. For the study, scientists analyzed data on more than 5,700 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred in a province of the Netherlands between 2006 and 2012. Women accounted for 28% of those cases.. Men were more likely than women to receive resuscitation attempts by bystanders, even when a bystander saw the person collapse (about 74% versus 69%, respectively).. Men were also more likely than women to survive until hospital admission (37% versus 34%, respectively) and more likely to survive from hospital admission to discharge (55% versus 37%, respectively).. Overall, womens chances of surviving to be discharged from hospital were about half that of men (12.5% versus 20%), according to the study, which was published May 22 in the European Heart Journal.. An important factor in the gender ...
Novel mechanism of HIV brain disease. Abstract:. Eliseo A. Eugenin1,2,*. Public Health Research Institute (PHRI) and 2Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.. HIV entry into the central nervous system (CNS) is an early event after infection, resulting in neurological dysfunction in a significant number of individuals. As people with AIDS live longer, the prevalence of cognitive impairment is increasing, despite antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms that mediate CNS dysfunction are still not well understood, but are postulated to be a combination of inflammation, and viral infection and/or replication. In addition to those mechanisms, we recently demonstrated that HIV infection of astrocytes mediated survival of HIV infected cells and bystander killing of surrounding uninfected cells by a mechanism that is gap junction and hemichannel dependent. We now characterize the mechanisms of HIV mediated protection of infected astrocytes with an emphasis on ...
Non-targeted HIV rapid test screening among emergency department patients in metropolitan Paris resulted in identifying only a few new HIV diagnoses, often at late stages and mostly among patients who are in a high-risk group, ...
LOS ANGELES - A California jury returned an $8,666,000 verdict for the widow of a mesothelioma sufferer, finding Crown Cork & Seal Co. Inc. liable on Dec. 13 in a case that originally produced a defense verdict in 2007 (Donna Saller, et al. v. Bondex...
Raže (Batoidea) su rušljoribe, ribe sa hrskavičavim skeletom, koje se odlikuju jako spljoštenim telom u leđno-trbušnom pravcu i proširenim grudnim perajima koja leže sasvim sa strana tela čime doprinose da telo izgleda još šire. Imaju oblik lista ili ploče u obliku romba pa se često popularno nazivaju morski listovi. Kreću se talasastim pokretima grudnih peraja i slabo su pokretne tako da veći deo vremena provode zarivene u pesak na morskom dnu. Rep im je jako sužen tako da kod većine vrsta liči na bič, a leđno peraje je postavljeno sasvim unazad.[1] Gornja površina tela je tamnije pigmentisana i prilagođena boji okoline, dok je donja strana svetlija jer ne sadrži pigmente. Na gornjoj, leđnoj strani nalaze se oči i spirakulum, a na trbušnoj su usni otvor, nosni otvori i škržni prorezi. Neke vrste raža na leđima ili na repu imaju otrovnu bodlju koja služi za odbranu. Druge vrste poseduju električni organ koji može izazvati prilično snažan električni udar na ...
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... "bystander effect"[edit]. Cell death[edit]. The "bystander effect" with its connotations of the innocent bystander being killed ... This can cause the otherwise unaffected healthy bystander cells to also die.[64] The bystander effect is, therefore, important ... "bystander effect": association of U-87 cell death with ganciclovir-mediated apoptosis of nearby cells and lack of effect in ... Ripps, Harris (March 2002). "Cell death in retinitis pigmentosa: gap junctions and the 'bystander' effect". Exp. Eye Res. 74 (3 ...
Bystander effectEdit. Main article: Bystander effect. The bystander effect is demonstrated in a series of famous experiments by ... Zimbardo, P.G. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House. ... Asch SE (1951). "Effects of group pressure on the modification and distortion of judgments". In Guetzkow H. Groups, Leadership ... This effect has been shown to promote the diffusion of responsibility by concluding that, when surrounded by others, the ...
Also known as the bystander effect, bystander apathy occurs when, during an emergency, those standing by do nothing to help but ... "Latane and Darley: Bystander Apathy". Faculty.babson.edu. Retrieved 25 February 2014. "Bystander Effect". Psychology Today. ... The bystander effect grows to an apathetic level as people lose interest in caring for others who are not in their "circle," ... Sometimes this can be caused by one bystander observing other bystanders and imitating their behavior. If other people are not ...
McCormack AP, Damon SK, Eisenberg MS (March 1989). "Disagreeable physical characteristics affecting bystander CPR". Annals of ... Other side effects[edit]. The most common side effect is vomiting, which necessitates clearing the mouth so patients do not ... CPR where an AED Was Used by Bystander* All Witnessed Arrests with CPR, with or without Bystander AED Unwitnessed Arrest with ... July 2001). "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed by bystanders does not increase adverse effects as assessed by chest ...
"Recycling of vitamin C by a bystander effect". J Biol Chem. 278 (12): 10128-33. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210686200. PMID 12435736.. ... The literature contains many reports on the antiviral effects of vitamin C,[13] and one study suggests dehydroascorbic acid has ... "Antiviral effects of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids in vitro". International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 22 (4): 541- ... stronger antiviral effects and a different mechanism of action than ascorbic acid.[14] Solutions in water containing ascorbic ...
So-called bystander or non-targeted effects may have enormous consequences for space exploration. Non-targeted effects may lead ... Seymour, Colin B.; Mothersill, Carmel (2004). "Radiation-induced bystander effects - implications for cancer". Nature Reviews ... Tissue effects that are independent of DNA damage and that have been associated with cancer initiation or progression include ... These effects also suggest important targets for biological countermeasures that are likely to be more effective than are ...
His research interests are micro-RNA responses to radiation exposure, radiation-induced bystander effect, cell cycle ... Chaudhry, M.A.(2006). Bystander effect: Biological endpoints and microarray analysis. Mutation Research 597:98-112. Chaudhry, M ...
Levy, P.; Lundgren, D.; Ansel, M. Fell; Fink, B.; McGrath, J. E.; J. E., Mcgrath (1972). "Bystander effect in a demand-without- ... doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1983.tb00186.x. Kelly, J. R.; McGrath, J. E. (1985). "Effects of time limits and task types on task ... O'Connor, K. M.; Gruenfeld, D. H.; McGrath, J. E. (1993). "The Experience and Effects of Conflict in Continuing Work Groups". ... Arrow, H.; McGrath, J. E. (1993). "Membership Matters: How Member Change and Continuity Affect Small Group Structure, Process, ...
Buck passing Bystander effect Externality First they came ... Global issue Inattentional blindness NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) ...
They do this by explaining the Bystander effect. The U of M also has a TXT-U emergency notification text messaging system that ...
... the Bystander effect). Greater numbers of bystanders decrease individual feelings of responsibility.[23][29] However, a witness ... Hudson, James M.; Bruckman, Amy S. (2004). "The Bystander Effect: A Lens for Understanding Patterns of Participation". Journal ... Research also suggests that the number of bystanders witnessing distress or suffering affects the likelihood of helping ( ... They tend to help less if they see non-cooperativeness by others and this effect tend to be stronger than the opposite effect ...
Group size and bystander effects in virtual knowledge sharing". Human Relations. 61 (2): 273-297. doi:10.1177/0018726707087787 ...
... may help to explain the bystander effect. If no-one acts, onlookers may believe others believe action is ... The false consensus effect considers that in predicting an outcome, people will assume that the masses agree with their opinion ... Ross, Lee; Greene, David; House, Pamela (May 1977). "The "false consensus effect": An egocentric bias in social perception and ... Pluralistic ignorance can be contrasted with the false consensus effect. In pluralistic ignorance, people privately disdain but ...
Another effect of lightning on bystanders is to their hearing. The resulting shock wave of thunder can damage the ears. Also, ... This effect might explain cases where cardiac arrest or seizures followed a lightning strike that produced no external injuries ... Lightning can affect the brainstem, which controls breathing. Several studies conducted in South Asia and Africa suggest that ... Hence, conductors of such currents exhibit marked skin effect, causing most of the currents to flow through the outer surface ...
Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects Clastogenic Factors and Transgenerational Effects". Radiation ... Health effects of nuclear testing[edit]. The earliest concerns raised about the health effects of exposure to nuclear fallout ... Effects of radiation on female downwinders[edit]. The primary long-term health hazard associated with exposure to ionizing ... 3 Effects of radiation on female downwinders *3.1 Pregnancy and birth outcomes ...
... demonstrating the bystander effect. The bystander effect is a specific type of diffusion of responsibility - when people's ... Bickman, L. (1971). The effect of another bystander's ability to help on bystander intervention in an emergency. Journal of ... 54-57 Fischer, Peter (2011). "The Bystander-Effect: A Meta-Analytic Review on Bystander Intervention in Dangerous and Non- ... The bystander effect occurs when multiple individuals are watching a situation unfold but do not intervene (or delay or ...
Blyth, Benjamin J.; Sykes, Pamela J. (2011). "Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects: What Are They, and How Relevant Are They to ... II: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Annex G: Biological effects at low radiation doses. page 160, paragraph 541. ... Aurengo (2005-03-30). "Dose-effect relationships and estimation of the carcinogenic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation ... "Induction of a bystander mutagenic effect of alpha particles in mammalian cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Several studies might find an effect of the number of bystanders on helping behaviour, whereas a few do not. To make sense out ... A treatment can have a positive effect on some subgroups but a negative effect on others. The effects shown in the treatment ... Pre-test effects: If cause-effect relationships can only be found when pre-tests are carried out, then this also limits the ... Post-test effects: If cause-effect relationships can only be found when post-tests are carried out, then this also limits the ...
These images of a blood-red sea can have a shocking effect on bystanders. ... As the attenders of a grindadráp usually are men, women do usually not actively take part in it, but are bystanders or ... The dull blowhole hook, adopted in response to concerns over cruelty, had the additional effect of further increasing the ... but the advice from the Joensen and Weihe had an effect, it has resulted in reduced consumption, according to a senior Faroese ...
Researchers have documented the bystander effect: they found that powerful people are three times as likely to first offer help ... This effect is called Disruptive contagion or ripple effect and it is strongly manifested when reprimanded member has a high ... EffectsEdit. Power changes those in the position of power and those who are targets of that power.[53] ... A must draw on the 'base' or combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome. ...
The effect on bystanders would likely be much less harmful than traditional cigarettes. 2014 WHO report stated passive exposure ... A 2014 review found it is safe to infer that their effects on bystanders are minimal in comparison to traditional cigarettes. A ... the only clinical study currently published evaluating the respiratory effects of passive vaping found no adverse effects were ... Bystanders are exposed to these particles from exhaled e-cigarette vapor. There is a concern that some of the mainstream vapor ...
... "bystander effect." This approach has been used to treat cancer in animal models, and is advantageous in that the tumor may be ... superior killing efficiency and bystander effect". Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). 89 (11): 1113-24. doi: ... Zhang TY, Huang B, Wu HB, Wu JH, Li LM, Li YX, Hu YL, Han M, Shen YQ, Tabata Y, Gao JQ (2015). "Synergistic effects of co- ... Zhu C, Harlow LS, Berenstein D, Munch-Petersen S, Munch-Petersen B (2006). "Effect of C-terminal of human cytosolic thymidine ...
The incident has been studied as an online version of the bystander effect. Schaler, who wrote the original foreword for the ...
Alas, his interventions often affect innocent, or seemingly innocent, bystanders; some might also, if executed with ... and the relation between cause and effect." The book is rated as "[e]ntertaining fare with definite Y[oung] A[dult] appeal." ...
... active thermal bystander effect". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 130 (1): 86-92. doi:10.1038/jid.2009.205. PMID ... "Adverse Effects Fraxel Repair". realself.com. RealSelf, Inc. Retrieved 17 February 2014. Ortiz, A. E.; Goldman, M. P.; ... Thermal rejuvenation using a radio-frequency device to induce a thermal effect in the skin. Chemical rejuvenation with chemical ... GRABER, EMMY M.; TANZI, ELIZABETH L.; ALSTER, TINA S. (March 2008). "Side Effects and Complications of Fractional Laser ...
My thoughts and prayers with everyone affected.. *^ Sadiq Khan (4 June 2017). "Tweet Number 871163762102947844". Twitter. ... An unidentified bystander received an accidental gunshot wound as a result of the police gunfire, which was "not critical".[60] ... the attackers went back up the steps to Borough High Street and attacked three bystanders. Police tried to fight the attackers ... Democrat leader Tim Farron and the Mayor of London Sadiq Khan all wrote on Twitter that their thoughts were with those affected ...
... Holmberg, M ... c) The effect of B-CPR on survival. METHOD: a prospective, observational study of cardiac arrests reported to the Swedish ... the bystanders were lay persons and in 25% they were medical personnel. Most of the arrests took place at home (69%) and only ... The proportion of patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were given bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( ...
... or avoiding the bystander effect to reduce potential systemic effects, with the aid of three successful GDEPT systems. This ... A zone of cell kill around gene-modified cells due to transfer of toxic metabolites, known as the bystander effect, leads to ... Here we discuss the implications of either striving for a strong bystander effect to overcome poor gene transfer, ... review concentrates on bystander effects and drug development with regard to these enzyme prodrug combinations, namely herpes ...
Bystander effect, the inhibiting influence of the presence of others on a persons willingness to help someone in need. ... Research has shown that, even in an emergency, a bystander is less likely to extend help when he or she is in the real or ... Bystander intervention. The bystander effect became a subject of significant interest following the brutal murder of American ... Bystander effect, the inhibiting influence of the presence of others on a persons willingness to help someone in need. ...
... G. Andocs,1 N. Meggyeshazi,2 Y. Okamoto,1 L. Balogh,3 and O. Szasz4 ... W. F. Morgan and M. B. Sowa, "Non-targeted bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation," Mutation Research, vol. 616, no. 1 ... S. C. Formenti and S. Demaria, "Systemic effects of local radiotherapy," The Lancet Oncology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 718-726, 2009 ...
... of the bystander effect reported that "The bystander effect was attenuated when situations were perceived as dangerous ( ... The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological phenomenon in which individuals are less likely to offer ... The bystander effect is not a generic consequence of increasing group size. When bystanders share group-level psychological ... "The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies". ...
The bystander effect is typically induced by the more-damaging α-particles, whereas the adaptive response is typically induced ... Low-dose radiation: Thresholds, bystander effects, and adaptive responses Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Yet another model is the bystander-effect model, which postulates that low-dose radiation may be even more damaging than that ... The adaptive response and the bystander effect can occur in the same experimental system. When cultures of C3H10T½ cells were ...
A senescent cell bystander effect: senescence-induced senescence.. Nelson G1, Wordsworth J, Wang C, Jurk D, Lawless C, Martin- ... Thus, senescent cells can induce a bystander effect, spreading senescence towards their neighbours in vitro and, possibly, in ... and a stimulatory effect on tumour cell growth and invasiveness has been documented. However, it was unknown what effect, if ... Note nuclear foci in the central bystander cell. (E) 53BP1 foci formation rates in bystander MRC5-AcGFP-53BP1 cells. Co-culture ...
Note that the bystander effect is not the same as the abscopal effect. The abscopal effect is a phenomenon where the response ... The radiation-induced bystander effect (bystander effect) is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells exhibit irradiated ... This is also attributed to the bystander effect. The demonstration of a bystander effect in 3D human tissues and, more recently ... Mitchell SA, Marino SA, Brenner DJ, Hall EJ (July 2004). "Bystander effect and adaptive response in C3H 10T(1/2) cells". Int. J ...
... bystander) plants. In animals, it is shown that the microRNAome is largely affected in the bystander cells in a three- ... Effect of radiation on ; Animals -- Effect of radiation on ; RNA -- Effect of radiation on ... naïve bystanders). While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the ... ... The bystander effect : animal and plant models. Zemp, Franz Joseph; University of Lethbridge. Faculty of Arts and Science ...
... bystander effect in humans is present in these long-tailed rodents. ... "bystander effect" in humans is present in these long-tailed rodents.. The study, titled "The Bystander Effect in Rats," also ... Counter to the prediction of the bystander effect, duos and trios of rats actually were more likely to help than solo rats. ... The team found that rats tested with confederates were less likely to help than those tested alone -- a bystander effect in ...
Transcript of ATOD Bystander Effect Pres. The Bystander Effect: An Anti-Leadership Phenomenon. Bystander Intervention Training ... Bystander Effect. Greater the number of people doing nothing = less likely an individual is to help (or be a bystander). Looi, ... bystander effect -- often ends where. their defined role ends. 2. Leaders use bystander intervention model. and skills to ... The Bystander Effect: An Anti-Leadership Phenomenon Improve student leaders ability to step-up & take on leadership roles in ...
The bystander effect is the somewhat controversial name given to a social psychological phenomenon in cases where individuals ... The bystander effect is the somewhat controversial name given to a social psychological phenomenon in cases where individuals ... First, the prototype of the bystander effect. Jesus tells a story to a lawyer, who, in all other ways, is blameless and upright ... The most infamous example of the bystander effect took place on March 13, 1964, in Kew Gardens, Queens, NY, when Catherine ...
... "bystander effect." Distressingly, a pair of doctors affiliated with the Yale University School of Medicine said a similar ... Stavert said the articles intent isnt to point fingers, but to call attention to the larger "bystander" issue. ... http://www.ctpost.com/local/article/Researchers-Hospitals-vulnerable-to-bystander-4171399.php ...
... and a stimulatory effect on tumour cell growth and i … ... Thus, senescent cells can induce a bystander effect, spreading ... A senescent cell bystander effect: senescence-induced senescence Aging Cell. 2012 Apr;11(2):345-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1474- ... and a stimulatory effect on tumour cell growth and invasiveness has been documented. However, it was unknown what effect, if ... Continuous exposure to senescent cells induced cell senescence in intact bystander fibroblasts. Hepatocytes bearing senescence ...
... expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in esophageal cancer (EC) cells. Materials and Methods: Western ... Positive transfection, RNAi, micronucleus (MN), and γ-H2AX focus formation assay were used to investigate the effects of SKP2 ... Increased or decreased expression levels of SKP2 had effects on Rad51 expression under the conditions of RIBE. Conclusions: ... To investigate the effects of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) ... expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in ...
TNF-α Mediates Macrophage-Induced Bystander Effects through Netrin-1. Yonghong Yang, Xingmin Wang, Danny R. Moore, Stanley A. ... TNF-α Mediates Macrophage-Induced Bystander Effects through Netrin-1. Yonghong Yang, Xingmin Wang, Danny R. Moore, Stanley A. ... TNF-α Mediates Macrophage-Induced Bystander Effects through Netrin-1. Yonghong Yang, Xingmin Wang, Danny R. Moore, Stanley A. ... Bystander effects occur in vivo as has been confirmed in experiments using syngenic mice (40, 41). Finally, both radiation- ...
bystander effect answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... bystander effect is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Bystander Effect." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/ ... view/Tabers-Dictionary/773106/all/bystander_effect. Bystander effect. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis ...
PNNL scientists found that radiation induced bystander responses are not a universal phenomenon and are dependent on the type ... Bystander effects have been described in numerous in vitro cell culture systems. There is also evidence that they can occur in ... Are Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects a Universal Phenomenon?. Studies on human cells fail to find low-LET radiation-induced ... If bystander effects are detrimental, they would increase the target volume for radiation and, presumably, increase the risk to ...
Importance of cyclophosphamide-induced bystander effect on T cells for a successful tumor eradication in response to adoptive ... Altogether, these results indicate that CTX acts via bystander effects, possibly through production of T cell growth factors ... Thus, our findings indicate the need for reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of CTX and adoptive ...
The Bystander Effect and why people dont call for help when they see violent crimes. While we dont talk about the events at ... Dinah, ClinkShrink, & Roy produce Shrink Rap: a blog by Psychiatrists for Psychiatrists, interested bystanders are also welcome ...
Although the bystander effect of ionizing radiation has been well described ( 18), there are few reports of such effect with ... for the bystander cell killing activity and showed significant bystander effect in most concentrations tested ( Fig. 3B). In ... This toxic bystander effect was enhanced by CuZnSOD that converts O2− to H2O2 and was abolished by a catalase that eliminates H ... the released ROS might also affect the proliferative capacity of the bystander cells. To test this possibility, the bystander ...
Bystanders who heard her screams did nothing. Did. Nothing. Sound familiar? Her death coined the phrase, the bystander effect ... Kitty Genovese and the Bystander Effect Circa 2018 Part 2 Note: We ran this two part post by Adriana in April of 2011. For ... Its fine if bystanders are informed that parents of effected children struggle. Its okay if theyre made to understand some ... Watching Del Bigtrees High Wire show this week on the book HPV on Trial: an example of the the bystander effect in regards to ...
The bystander effect is defined as the induction of cellular damage in unirradiated cells, induced by irradiated cells in the ... Whiteside, James R. and Allinson, Sarah L. and McMillan, Trevor J. (2011) Timeframes of UVA-induced bystander effects in human ... We have also found that the recipient cells only require at most 24 h of exposure to these signals for induction of the effect ... Here we report on our investigations into the periods over which the bystander signals are released by the irradiated cells and ...
... of bystander effect it is necessary to investigate if radiation independent DNA damage would also produce bystander effect. To ... that for bystander effect DNA damage is not essential and that cytoplasmic targets could also produce the same effect. In this ... This phenomenon had been referred to as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) [7,8]. And describes an effect in which cells ... For over two decades, since bystander effect was first reported by Nagasawa et al. [6] it has been associated with low dose ...
  • Enterococcus faecalis , a human intestinal commensal, can polarise macrophages to produce a bystander effect that causes double-stranded DNA breaks, tetraploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) in target cells and induces inflammation and CRC in interleukin (IL) 10 knockout mice. (bmj.com)
  • We suggest that serum batch variability may underlie much of the observed interlaboratory variation in the ability to produce bystander effects and further suggest that serum batches should be protected from light and prescreened for their ability to produce a bystander effect using a positive control cell line. (nih.gov)
  • With the implementation of dispatcher assisted CPR instructions in Seattle, Washington, the rate of bystander CPR doubled and survival rates for the entire County increased. (mcw.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that antiapoptotic factors, such as p35, can be used in a novel manner to enhance prodrug activation gene therapy by delaying tumor cell death, thereby increasing the net production of bystander cytotoxic metabolites and, hence, the overall effectiveness of the anticancer strategy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These researchers launched a series of experiments that resulted in one of the strongest and most replicable effects in social psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Havlik, now a student at the Yale School of Medicine, spearheaded experiments to examine whether rats, which lack complex reasoning skills, would show a classical bystander effect. (eurekalert.org)
  • The 'bystander effect' considered incorrect, since it determined during the experiments which conducted to genuine concern, although they do not act. (ibiologia.com)
  • Their initial experiments confirmed that exosomal miR-1246 levels increased after a 2 Gy-irradiation treatment, and that this increase affected cell proliferation and colony formation. (bioplicityediting.org)
  • That idea that Tregs are the dedicated inflammation fighters is so entrenched in the field that the group performed experiments proving that protection conferred by bystanders had nothing to do with expanding Treg populations. (eurekalert.org)
  • Co-culture experiments suggest a gap junction-mediated bystander signal. (allenpress.com)
  • Experiments performed at microbeam facilities have since shown the existence of a bystander effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data and statistics are as in (D). (G,H) Average foci frequencies per nucleus in bystander MRC5-AcGFP-53BP1 (G) and BJ-AcGFP-53BP1 (H) fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • There is little understanding about how inflammatory cytokines mediate bystander effects, but questions in this area are important because of the pivotal contributions made by inflammatory processes to cancer initiation and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Simultaneously, the researchers transferred various ratios of CTLs into mice--including both the cell-killing variety and the non-specific bystanders. (eurekalert.org)
  • A renewed understanding of the critical role of innate immunity in influencing the development of an adaptive immune response has led researchers to a better under- standing of "the adjuvant effect" (16). (cdc.gov)
  • Using the adaptive response (determined using micronucleus assay) as a biomarker, the data obtained suggest that bystander effects do play a role in wild populations since bullfrog tadpoles that were not exposed to tritium responded like the tadpoles that were directly exposed to tritium after being placed in contact with them. (radioprotection.org)
  • Some adverse effects occur only when starting, increasing or discontinuing a treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen-absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli) filling with fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The underlying mechanisms for that impairment, however, are unclear, and distinguishing these so-called "bystander" effects on priming the immune system to fight future assaults versus development of immunological memory has been challenging. (eurekalert.org)
  • PNNL study evaluated 'tunable' lighting and its effects on sleep at study in a California nursing home. (pnnl.gov)
  • A study co-led by PNNL and reviewed in Science investigates how nanomaterials-both ancient and modern-cycle through the Earth's air, water, and land, and calls for a better understanding of how they affect the environment and human health. (pnnl.gov)
  • The pair tested human subjects alone and in the presence of "confederate" bystanders -- people who were part of the research team and were instructed not to help -- as they confronted a variety of experimental scenarios with someone (an actor) in distress. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Bystander Effect and why people don't call for help when they see violent crimes. (blogspot.com)
  • Her death coined the phrase, 'the bystander effect,' whereby good people. (ageofautism.com)
  • in situations where a large group of people witness an emergency where someone needs help, it often happens that nobody offers assistance to those affected. (berkeley.edu)
  • mandatory budgets cuts going into effect on March 1, a vast range of government services and millions of people, are going to feel these effects. (majortests.com)
  • The backfire effect is related to this in that in both concepts, people choose to not listen to reasoning that is contrary to their beliefs. (ostatic.com)
  • Relatedly, how people believe that the public will respond, also can have a large effect. (khanacademy.org)
  • In this article, we investigate how processing information within a social context affects the extent to which people fact-check ambiguous claims. (pnas.org)
  • The bystander effect grows to an apathetic level as people lose interest in caring for others who are not in their "circle," even going so far as to join in the torment as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • It causes people to underestimate both the likelihood of a disaster and its possible effects, because people believe that things will always function the way things normally have functioned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, normalcy bias can cause people to drastically underestimate the effects of the disaster and assume that everything will be all right. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syncope affects about three to six out of every thousand people each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Kelman's 1958 paper, the satisfaction derived from compliance is due to the social effect of the accepting influence (i.e., people comply for an expected reward or punishment-aversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Her murder is witnessed by several people, none of whom call the police or try to help, as each denies responsibility, an example of the bystander effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multiple source effect occurs when people give more credence to ideas that are stated by multiple sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fireworks in the Netherlands are known to cause various negative effects to users, bystanders and people living nearby, especially around New Year's Eve, when extra police, firefighters and paramedics are deployed to control the situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Documented cardiovascular risks in people affected by perioperative PION include high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, high levels of cholesterol in the blood, tobacco use, abnormal heart rhythms, stroke, and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The observation of non-targeted effects has implications for any individual who may be exposed to ionizing radiation because they suggest that the radiation response target might be greater than the volume actually irradiated. (pnnl.gov)
  • The video alternates with shots of the group's members reciting their verses and the two characters struggling in agony as witnesses take part in a bizarre bystander effect, not only avoiding to help the two, but taking every valuable object they can find in the car in a scene reminiscent of the 2005 Andrew Niccol drama, Lord of War, meant to portray the absurde implications that poverty casts upon society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clearly, challenges remain for investigators to determine the robustness of medium-borne bystander effects, rigorously test whether changes in radiation quality can elicit the same changes in non-targeted bystander populations and determine if these effects have relevance to human health. (pnnl.gov)
  • Lynch has argued that it is almost never possible to generalize to meaningful populations except as a snapshot of history, but it is possible to test the degree to which the effect of some cause on some dependent variable generalizes across subpopulations that vary in some background factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigations of the bystander effect in the 1960s and '70s sparked a wealth of research on helping behaviour, which has expanded beyond emergency situations to include everyday forms of helping. (britannica.com)
  • By illuminating the power of situations to affect individuals' perceptions, decisions, and behaviour, study of the bystander effect continues to influence the course of social psychological theory and research. (britannica.com)
  • The Bystander Effect lies in a place in social psychology to explain the cumulative effect of social tendencies during the occurrence of emergency situations. (ibiologia.com)
  • The Bystander Effect is the act of a person in sudden or emergency situations. (ibiologia.com)
  • Reactivity (placebo, novelty, and Hawthorne effects): If cause-effect relationships are found they might not be generalizable to other settings or situations if the effects found only occurred as an effect of studying the situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Gilovich has been quoted in the media on subjects ranging from the effect of purchases on happiness to perception of judgment in social situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the first social scientists to notice the negative effects of information overload was the sociologist Georg Simmel (1858-1918), who hypothesized that the overload of sensations in the modern urban world caused city dwellers to become jaded and interfered with their ability to react to new situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • E18 can be targeted with I-Sce1 restriction endonuclease to induce double strand breaks at the I-Sce1 site to measure radiation independent DNA damage and the associated bystander effect. (omicsonline.org)
  • This benefit is accompanied by normal urothelial damage indicating RT bladder toxicity is also bystander-mediated. (qub.ac.uk)
  • These effects can stimulate the reoccurrence of new tumors due to the damage inflicted on their DNA and the subsequent DNA damage response (DDR). (bioplicityediting.org)
  • Some had thought bystanders passively add to damage done by specific CTLs but we found the opposite," says first author Gustaf Christoffersson, PhD, a former postdoc in the von Herrath lab. (eurekalert.org)
  • EMPs - the discharge process produces an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) which may damage an artificial pacemaker, or otherwise affect normal biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • during New Year's Eve 2016/17, 61% of victims were bystanders, 39% were the igniters themselves) Vandalism and accidents by (illegal) fireworks causing damage and destruction to infrastructure and property Disruption of public order by, amongst other things, violence against public servants (police, firefighters and paramedics) using fireworks Play media The original Vuurwerkbesluit was adopted in 1993, and was primarily concerned with environmental issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In silico and bioinfomatic analysis of this data provide us with clues as to the nature of bystander signalling in this human 'in vivo' model. (uleth.ca)
  • Finally, this heterotypic bystander effect is accompanied by a suppression of tumor growth in vivo that is independent of primary gene transfer into host-derived tumor vascular endothelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also evaluated administration of 486/STOP partially purified recombinant protein in vitro and in vivo and compared actual bystander effects between these two strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Worth Ryder Art Gallery is pleased to present "The Bystander Effect", an exhibition featuring the work of Divya Balakrishnan, Spurthi Bhatt, and Alisha Johnson, three student artists who have chosen to use the medium of painting to create work that serves a social purpose. (berkeley.edu)
  • This research tests how perceiving the presence of others (as on social media platforms) affects the way that individuals evaluate information-in particular, the extent to which they verify ambiguous claims. (pnas.org)
  • Bystander effect Civil courage Death of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic (Italy) Death of Wang Yue (China) Mamihlapinatapai Prisoner's dilemma Social loafing Tragedy of the Commons Poundstone, William (1993). (wikipedia.org)
  • Having learnt from the devastating effects of corporate social irresponsibility, companies are focusing on the impacts of their operations not only on profits but the society and environment at large. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an era of lightning-fast comedy shared over social media, "The editors of Bystander think of the quarterly as the comedy equivalent of 'slow food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social influence occurs when a person's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of social influence can be seen in the tendency of large groups to conform to choices which are either correct or mistaken. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect can be clearly seen when social proof occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, the intravenous anesthetic that is used in the injections of botox in everyday life in the clinical world is realized to have a negative effect on the human body. (majortests.com)
  • In many countries, adverse effects are required by law to be reported, researched in clinical trials and included into the patient information accompanying medical devices and drugs for sale to the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bystander effect Throughout the story, the narrator mentions how he is disgusted physically by the events he witnesses, but he continues to view them. (wikipedia.org)
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