The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
Genes that are used transgenically, i.e., via GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES to induce CELL DEATH.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Water-soluble, copper-containing low molecular weight polypeptides obtained from the culture medium of Streptomyces verticillus. They are specific inhibitors of DNA synthesis in bacteria and have been found to act as antitumor agents. They have also been used against rust fungi of plants.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.

Bystander effects caused by nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I. (1/402)

A three-dimensional tissue culture model was used to investigate the biological effects of nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster V79 cells were labeled with (125)I-iododeoxyuridine, mixed with unlabeled cells, and multicellular clusters ( approximately 1.7 mm in diameter) were formed by gentle centrifugation. The highly localized energy deposition caused by (125)I decays results in very high equivalent doses delivered to the labeled cells and low equivalent doses delivered to the unlabeled cells. The clusters were assembled and then maintained at 10.5 degrees C for 72 h to allow (125)I decays to accumulate, dismantled, and the cells were plated for colony formation. When 100% of the cells were labeled, the survival fraction was exponentially dependent on the mean radioactivity per labeled cell. A two-component exponential response was observed when either 50 or 10% of the cells were labeled. These experimental data, coupled with theoretical dosimetry calculations, indicate that bystander effects play an important role in the killing of unlabeled cells when nonuniform distributions of DNA-incorporated (125)I are present.  (+info)

Neonatal exposure to antigen primes the immune system to develop responses in various lymphoid organs and promotes bystander regulation of diverse T cell specificities. (2/402)

Neonatal exposure to Ag has always been considered suppressive for immunity. Recent investigations, however, indicated that the neonatal immune system could be guided to develop immunity. For instance, delivery of a proteolipid protein (PLP) peptide on Ig boosts the neonatal immune system to develop responses upon challenge with the PLP peptide later. Accordingly, mice given Ig-PLP at birth and challenged with the PLP peptide as adults developed proliferative T cells in the lymph node that produced IL-4 instead of the usual Th1 cytokines. However, the spleen was unresponsive unless IL-12 was provided. Herein, we wished to determine whether such a neonatal response is intrinsic to the PLP peptide or could develop with an unrelated myelin peptide as well as whether the T cell deviation is able to confer resistance to autoimmunity involving diverse T cell specificities. Accordingly, the amino acid sequence 87-99 of myelin basic protein was expressed on the same Ig backbone, and the resulting Ig-myelin basic protein chimera was tested for induction of neonatal immunity and protection against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Surprisingly, the results indicated that immunity developed in the lymph node and spleen, with deviation of T cells occurring in both organs. More striking, the splenic T cells produced IL-10 in addition to IL-4, providing an environment that facilitated bystander deviation of responses to unrelated epitopes and promoted protection against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis involving diverse T cell specificities. Thus, neonatal exposure to Ag can prime responses in various organs and sustain regulatory functions effective against diverse autoreactive T cells.  (+info)

In vivo gene therapy for colon cancer using adenovirus-mediated, transfer of the fusion gene cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. (3/402)

Virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) utilising cytosine deaminase (CD) converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and has entered into a clinical trial for metastatic colon cancer. To improve this system, a replication-deficient adenovirus, containing a bifunctional fusion gene, CD:uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), was constructed (AdCDUPRT). UPRT enhances the conversion of 5-FU into its active metabolites, which inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis. In vitro, AdCDUPRT infection of colon cancer cells resulted in a marked increase in sensitisation to 5-FU, compared with AdCD-infected or uninfected cells. The corollary is a approximately 100-fold and approximately 10 000-fold increase in sensitisation to 5-FC in AdCDUPRT-infected cells, compared to AdCD-infected and uninfected cells, respectively. There was a strong bystander effect in vitro, 70% of tumour cells were killed by 5-FC when only 10% of cells expressed CDUPRT. In vivo, athymic mice with colon cancer xenografts treated with intratumoral AdCDUPRT and intraperitoneal 5-FC, significantly reduced tumour growth rates compared with untreated controls (P = 0.02), whereas AdCD/5-FC treated mice did not. At higher AdCDUPRT virus doses, 5-FC and 5-FU were equally effective at delaying tumour growth compared with controls. In summary, VDEPT for colon cancer utilising AdCDUPRT is more effective than AdCD and the bifunctional CDUPRT gene enables the use of either 5-FC or 5-FU as prodrugs.  (+info)

Inflammatory-type responses after exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo: a mechanism for radiation-induced bystander effects? (4/402)

Haemopoietic tissues exposed to ionizing radiation are shown to exhibit increased macrophage activation, defined by ultrastructural characteristics and increased lysosomal and nitric oxide synthase enzyme activities. Macrophage activation post-irradiation was also associated with enhanced respiratory burst activities and an unexpected neutrophil infiltration. Examination of p53-null mice demonstrated that macrophage activation and neutrophil infiltration were not direct effects of irradiation, but were a consequence of the recognition and clearance of radiation-induced apoptotic cells. Increased phagocytic cell activity was maintained after apoptotic bodies had been removed. These findings demonstrate that, contrary to expectation, recognition and clearance of apoptotic cells after exposure to radiation produces both a persistent macrophage activation and an inflammatory-type response. We also demonstrate a complexity of macrophage activation following radiation that is genotype dependent, indicating that the in vivo macrophage responses to radiation damage are genetically modified processes. These short-term responses of macrophages to radiation-induced apoptosis and their genetic modification are likely to be important determinants of the longer-term consequences of radiation exposure. Furthermore, in addition to any effects attributable to immediate radiation-induced damage, our findings provide a mechanism for the production of damage via a 'bystander' effect which may contribute to radiation-induced genomic instability and leukaemogenesis.  (+info)

Local inflammation and devascularization--in vivo mechanisms of the "bystander effect" in VPC-mediated HSV-Tk/GCV gene therapy for human malignant glioma. (5/402)

Somatic gene therapy with the herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir (HSV-Tk/GCV) system and murine retroviral vector producer cells (VPCs) was introduced as a new adjuvant treatment modality to treat tumor bulk and to prevent tumor recurrence in patients harboring malignant glioma. The single-center experience after treatment of 27 patients undergoing tumor resection followed by intracerebral VPC injection for HSV-Tk suicide gene therapy will be presented focused on findings of systematic and close MRI follow-up and a few histological specimens. The data indicate that hemorrhagic necrosis due to endothelial cell transfection mediated vessel necrosis and that local inflammatory immune response occurs frequently after gene therapy. These phenomena seem to be specific because none of the patients of a control group showed any similar features. The prognosis (time to progression, survival) of the patients with "bystander effects" after gene therapy was better, but compared to those patients without bystander effects, they were also privileged by a favorable constellation of prognostic factors. Therefore, the appearance of these neuroradiologic features cannot serve as an indicator for treatment effectiveness and outcome.  (+info)

Indirect IL-4 pathway in type 1 immunity. (6/402)

Recall Ag-specific IL-4 was detected in the spleen and in the blood, but not in lymph nodes of mice in which polarized type 1 immunity was induced. This IL-4 was not produced by T cells, but soluble factors secreted by the recall Ag-activated T cells, including IL-3, triggered cells of the innate immune system, primarily mast cells, to secrete IL-4. This notion has profound implications for immunodiagnostics: the detection of apparently recall Ag-specific IL-4 does not necessarily reflect the presence of Th2 or Th0 memory T cells with long-term cytokine commitment as is of interest for assessing adoptive immunity. We found that in vivo the indirect IL-4 pathway did not suffice to trigger IgE isotype switching, but promoted IgG1 production and inhibited type 1 T cell differentiation. Therefore, the indirect IL-4 pathway can explain partial type 2 immune response phenotypes in vivo in face of unipolar Th1 T cell immunity. The representation of mast cells in different tissues may explain why immune responses in certain organs are more type 2 biased. Therefore, the indirect pathway of IL-4 production represents a novel type of interaction between the innate and the adoptive immune system that can contribute to the outcome of host defense and immune pathology.  (+info)

Characteristics of ovarian cancer cells transduced by the bicistronic retroviral vector containing GM-CSF and HSV-TK genes. (7/402)

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) genes could be linked by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in one retroviral vector and expressed by ovarian cancer cells following transfection, and to observe the characteristics of the transduced cells. METHODS: Retroviral vector pLGM-I-TK was constructed by linking the HSV-TK gene and GM-CSF gene with the IRES sequence. By using the "ping-pong" technique, pLGM-I-TK was transfected into the packaging cell line, PA317, to produce a PA317/TK-GM cell line. Using the resulting viral supernatant to infect the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, PCR and RT-PCR were used to explore the integration and transcription of HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes. The cytotoxicity of GCV (gancyclovir) on SKOV3/TK-GM was determined by MTT assay and the bystander effect of the HSV-TK/GCV system was also assessed. ELISA was used to measure the expression of GM-CSF by the transgene cells. RESULTS: The bicistronic retroviral vector constructed could be successfully transduced into PA317 and the titer of the retroviral vector was about 8.6 x 10(5) cfu/ml. PCR and RT-PCR demonstrated the successful integration and transcription of HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes transduced into the SKOV3 cell. SKOV3/TK-GM cells could be killed by GCV, and the IC50 was 0.7 microgram/ml. The bystander effect was demonstrated. The expression level of GM-CSF in SKOV3/TK-GM was 60.4 x 10(6) cells-1 x 2 days-1. CONCLUSION: The IRES sequence can be used to construct retroviral vectors to facilitate co-transfection of two genes. SKOV3/TK-GM cells can simultaneously express the HSV-TK and GM-CSF genes with biological activities which could be useful for enhancing the function of immune cells on the basis of suicide gene therapy.  (+info)

Sensitization of prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine induced by adenoviral vector carrying a CD transcription unit. (8/402)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of the cytosine deaminase adenoviral/5-fluorocytosine system on prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS: We used cell culture, infectivity and sensitivity tests, to observe bystander effect by animal tests. RESULTS: Established prostate cancer cell lines are eventually infectible by adenoviral vector. The ratio of vector/cell at which infection occurs depends on the specific cell line. The peak of expression of the transferred cytosine deaminase gene occurred in cells at different time, but persisted beyond 11 days. These prostate cell lines are sensitized to 5-fluorocytosine by infection with adenoviral vector carrying the cytosine deaminase gene. Only 5% of the LNCap and 10% of the RM-1 cells were infected and produced 100% cell death. In the animal test, there was significant inhibition of tumor growth at a ratio of 400 vector particles/cell with the systematic treatment of 5-fluorocytosine. CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral vector carrying a cytosine deaminase transcription unit can sensitize prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine. The system can significantly inhibit the growth of prostatic tumors in mice.  (+info)

The "bystander effect" is a social psychological phenomenon in which the presence of other people discourages an individual from intervening in an emergency situation. It is also known as bystander apathy or Genovese syndrome. This effect was named after the infamous murder of Kitty Genovese in 1964, where it was reported that dozens of witnesses heard her screams for help but did not call the police or intervene.

The bystander effect is thought to occur because individuals in a group may assume that someone else will take action, or they may feel uncertain about how to respond and hesitant to get involved. Additionally, the presence of other people can dilute an individual's sense of personal responsibility for taking action. The bystander effect has been demonstrated in numerous experiments and real-world situations, and it highlights the importance of encouraging individuals to take action and intervene in emergency situations, even when others are present.

Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to prevent and treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, particularly in individuals who have undergone organ transplants or have weakened immune systems due to conditions like HIV/AIDS. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, thereby reducing its ability to cause damage to the body's cells and tissues.

The medical definition of Ganciclovir is:

A synthetic nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity against herpesviruses, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). Ganciclovir is converted intracellularly to its active form, ganciclovir triphosphate, which inhibits viral DNA polymerase and subsequently prevents viral replication. It is primarily used for the prevention and treatment of CMV infections in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplants or have HIV/AIDS. Ganciclovir is available in various formulations, including oral capsules, intravenous solution, and ocular implants.

Thymidine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate (dTMP), a nucleotide required for DNA replication and repair. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidine monophosphate (dTMP) by transferring a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

There are two major isoforms of thymidine kinase in humans: TK1 and TK2. TK1 is primarily found in the cytoplasm of proliferating cells, such as those involved in the cell cycle, while TK2 is located mainly in the mitochondria and is responsible for maintaining the dNTP pool required for mtDNA replication and repair.

Thymidine kinase activity has been used as a marker for cell proliferation, particularly in cancer cells, which often exhibit elevated levels of TK1 due to their high turnover rates. Additionally, measuring TK1 levels can help monitor the effectiveness of certain anticancer therapies that target DNA replication.

A prodrug is a pharmacologically inactive substance that, once administered, is metabolized into a drug that is active. Prodrugs are designed to improve the bioavailability or delivery of a drug, to minimize adverse effects, or to target the drug to specific sites in the body. The conversion of a prodrug to its active form typically occurs through enzymatic reactions in the liver or other tissues.

Prodrugs can offer several advantages over traditional drugs, including:

* Improved absorption: Some drugs have poor bioavailability due to their chemical properties, which make them difficult to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract. Prodrugs can be designed with improved absorption characteristics, allowing for more efficient delivery of the active drug to the body.
* Reduced toxicity: By masking the active drug's chemical structure, prodrugs can reduce its interactions with sensitive tissues and organs, thereby minimizing adverse effects.
* Targeted delivery: Prodrugs can be designed to selectively release the active drug in specific areas of the body, such as tumors or sites of infection, allowing for more precise and effective therapy.

Examples of prodrugs include:

* Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is metabolized to salicylic acid in the liver.
* Enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat hypertension and heart failure, which is metabolized to enalaprilat in the liver.
* Codeine, an opioid analgesic, which is metabolized to morphine in the liver by the enzyme CYP2D6.

It's important to note that not all prodrugs are successful, and some may even have unintended consequences. For example, if a patient has a genetic variation that affects the activity of the enzyme responsible for converting the prodrug to its active form, the drug may not be effective or may produce adverse effects. Therefore, it's essential to consider individual genetic factors when prescribing prodrugs.

Alpha particles are a type of radiation that consist of two protons and two neutrons. They are essentially the nuclei of helium atoms and are produced during the decay of radioactive isotopes, such as uranium or radon. When an alpha particle is emitted from a radioactive atom, it carries away energy and causes the atom to transform into a different element with a lower atomic number and mass number.

Alpha particles have a positive charge and are relatively massive compared to other types of radiation, such as beta particles (which are high-energy electrons) or gamma rays (which are high-energy photons). Because of their charge and mass, alpha particles can cause significant ionization and damage to biological tissue. However, they have a limited range in air and cannot penetrate the outer layers of human skin, making them generally less hazardous than other forms of radiation if exposure is external.

Internal exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides, however, can be much more dangerous because alpha particles can cause significant damage to cells and DNA when they are emitted inside the body. This is why inhaling or ingesting radioactive materials that emit alpha particles can pose a serious health risk.

I'm not a medical expert, but I can try to provide you with some information about "aniline mustard" that might be helpful. However, it's essential to consult appropriate medical resources or professionals for accurate and reliable information.

The term "aniline mustard" is not typically used in the medical field. Instead, it seems like a combination of two different concepts: aniline (an organic compound) and mustard gas (a chemical warfare agent). I'll briefly explain both terms to help you understand any possible connection.

1. Aniline: It is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2, also known as phenylamine or aminobenzene. Aniline is used in manufacturing various chemical products, such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, and rubber processing chemicals. Exposure to aniline can cause harmful health effects, including skin irritation, respiratory issues, and damage to the liver and kidneys.

2. Mustard gas: It is a chemical warfare agent with the formula (ClCH2CH2)2S, also known as sulfur mustard or HS(CH2CH2Cl)2. Mustard gas can cause severe burns and blistering of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract upon exposure. It is a potent chemical weapon that has been banned by international treaties.

There might be some confusion regarding "aniline mustard" because aniline was used in the production of mustard gas during World War I. However, there isn't any specific medical definition or application associated with the term "aniline mustard." If you have more context or information about where this term is being used, I could try to provide a more accurate answer.

Radiobiology is the scientific study of the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms, including both normal tissue and tumors. It encompasses the investigation of the biological responses to various types and doses of radiation, as well as the mechanisms behind these reactions at molecular, cellular, tissue, and systemic levels. The knowledge gained from radiobiology is crucial for optimizing radiation therapy in cancer treatment, setting radiation safety standards, and understanding the biological consequences of radiation exposure in diagnostic and occupational settings.

Genetic therapy, also known as gene therapy, is a medical intervention that involves the use of genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, to treat or prevent diseases. It works by introducing functional genes into cells to replace missing or faulty ones caused by genetic disorders or mutations. The introduced gene is incorporated into the recipient's genome, allowing for the production of a therapeutic protein that can help manage the disease symptoms or even cure the condition.

There are several approaches to genetic therapy, including:

1. Replacing a faulty gene with a healthy one
2. Inactivating or "silencing" a dysfunctional gene causing a disease
3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight off a disease, such as cancer

Genetic therapy holds great promise for treating various genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, and certain types of cancer. However, it is still an evolving field with many challenges, such as efficient gene delivery, potential immune responses, and ensuring the safety and long-term effectiveness of the therapy.

Cytosine deaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine residues in DNA or deoxycytidine residues in RNA, converting them to uracil or uridine, respectively. This enzyme plays a role in the regulation of gene expression and is also involved in the defense against viral infections in some organisms. In humans, cytosine deamination in DNA can lead to mutations and has been implicated in the development of certain diseases, including cancer.

Gap junctions are specialized intercellular connections that allow for the direct exchange of ions, small molecules, and electrical signals between adjacent cells. They are composed of arrays of channels called connexons, which penetrate the cell membranes of two neighboring cells and create a continuous pathway for the passage of materials from one cytoplasm to the other. Each connexon is formed by the assembly of six proteins called connexins, which are encoded by different genes and vary in their biophysical properties. Gap junctions play crucial roles in many physiological processes, including the coordination of electrical activity in excitable tissues, the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Mutations or dysfunctions in gap junction channels have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurological disorders, skin disorders, and cancer.

Nitroreductases are a group of enzymes that can reduce nitro groups (-NO2) to nitroso groups (-NHOH) or amino groups (-NH2) in various organic compounds. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and found in many different types of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals.

In medicine, nitroreductases have been studied for their potential role in the activation of certain drugs or prodrugs. For example, some anticancer agents such as CB1954 (also known as 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) are relatively inert until they are reduced by nitroreductases to more reactive metabolites that can interact with DNA and other cellular components. This property has been exploited in the development of targeted cancer therapies that selectively deliver prodrugs to tumor cells, where they can be activated by endogenous nitroreductases to kill the cancer cells while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues.

Nitroreductases have also been implicated in the development of bacterial resistance to certain antibiotics, such as metronidazole and nitrofurantoin. These drugs are activated by nitroreductases in bacteria, but overexpression or mutation of the enzyme can lead to reduced drug activation and increased resistance.

Aziridines are a class of organic compounds that contain a three-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups, and the third carbon atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom or another organic group.

Aziridines are important intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other industrial chemicals. They can be prepared by the reaction of alkyl or aryl halides with nitrogen nucleophiles such as ammonia or primary amines, followed by intramolecular cyclization.

Aziridines are also useful building blocks in organic synthesis due to their high reactivity towards various nucleophilic reagents. They can undergo ring-opening reactions with a wide range of nucleophiles, including water, alcohols, amines, and carboxylic acids, leading to the formation of new carbon-heteroatom bonds.

It is important to note that aziridines themselves are toxic and should be handled with care. However, their derivatives have found significant applications in medicinal chemistry as antitumor agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, and enzyme inhibitors.

Flucytosine is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and life-threatening fungal infections, such as cryptococcal meningitis and candidiasis. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA in the fungal cells, which inhibits their growth and reproduction.

The medical definition of Flucytosine is:

A synthetic fluorinated pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that is converted to fluorouracil after uptake into susceptible fungal cells. It is used as an antifungal agent in the treatment of serious systemic fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans. Flucytosine has both fungistatic and fungicidal activity, depending on the concentration achieved at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the organism.

Flucytosine is available in oral form and is often used in combination with other antifungal agents to increase its effectiveness and prevent the development of resistance. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression. Regular monitoring of blood counts and liver function tests is necessary during treatment to detect any potential toxicity.

1. Genes: A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA, which contains the instructions for the development and function of all living organisms.

Linear Energy Transfer (LET) is a concept in radiation physics that describes the amount of energy that is transferred from an ionizing particle to a medium per unit length along its path. It is usually expressed in units of keV/μm (kiloelectron volts per micrometer). High-LET radiations, such as alpha particles and heavy ions, transfer more energy to the medium per unit length than low-LET radiations, such as X-rays and gamma rays. This results in a higher probability of producing dense ionizations and causing biological damage along the particle's path. Therefore, LET is an important factor in determining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of different types of radiation.

Connexin 43 is a protein that forms gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct communication and transport of small molecules between adjacent cells. Connexin 43 is widely expressed in many tissues, including the heart, brain, and various types of epithelial and connective tissues. In the heart, connexin 43 plays a crucial role in electrical conduction and coordination of contraction between cardiac muscle cells. Mutations in the gene that encodes connexin 43 have been associated with several human diseases, including certain types of cardiac arrhythmias and skin disorders.

Glycyrrhetinic acid is defined medically as a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from glycyrrhizin, which is found in the root of licorice plants. It has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties.

Glycyrrhetinic acid works by inhibiting the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which is responsible for converting cortisol to cortisone. This can lead to increased levels of cortisol in the body, which can have various effects, including lowering potassium levels and increasing sodium levels, leading to fluid retention and high blood pressure in some individuals.

In addition to its use in traditional medicine, glycyrrhetinic acid has been studied for its potential benefits in treating a variety of conditions, including cancer, HIV, and hepatitis. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to fully understand the risks and side effects associated with its use.

1-Octanol is a fatty alcohol with the chemical formula C8H17OH. It is a colorless oily liquid that is slightly soluble in water and miscible with most organic solvents. 1-Octanol is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fragrances.

In medical terminology, 1-octanol may be used as a reference standard for measuring the partition coefficient of drugs between octanol and water, which can help predict their distribution and elimination in the body. This value is known as the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and is an important parameter in pharmacokinetics and drug design.

Simplexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. This genus contains two species: Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (also known as HSV-1 or herpes simplex virus type 1) and Human alphaherpesvirus 2 (also known as HSV-2 or herpes simplex virus type 2). These viruses are responsible for causing various medical conditions, most commonly oral and genital herpes. They are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latency in the nervous system and reactivate periodically to cause recurrent symptoms.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Phleomycins are a group of antibiotics produced by the fungus Streptomyces verticillus. They are known for their ability to bind to DNA and cause breaks in the double helix, which makes them useful as antitumor agents. Phleomycin D1, also known as bleomycin, is a member of this family that is commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. It can cause damage to both cancerous and normal cells, but its therapeutic effect is due to its greater toxicity towards cancer cells. The main side effects of phleomycins include lung fibrosis, hair loss, and a decrease in the number of white blood cells.

Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with the normal metabolic processes of cells, particularly those involved in DNA replication and cell division. They are commonly used as chemotherapeutic agents to treat various types of cancer because many cancer cells divide more rapidly than normal cells. Antimetabolites work by mimicking natural substances needed for cell growth and division, such as nucleotides or amino acids, and getting incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or protein structures, which ultimately leads to the termination of cell division and death of the cancer cells. Examples of antimetabolites include methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and capecitabine.

Cell communication, also known as cell signaling, is the process by which cells exchange and transmit signals between each other and their environment. This complex system allows cells to coordinate their functions and maintain tissue homeostasis. Cell communication can occur through various mechanisms including:

1. Autocrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in its behavior or function.
2. Paracrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on nearby cells, influencing their behavior or function.
3. Endocrine signaling: When a cell releases a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells and binds to specific receptors, triggering a response.
4. Synaptic signaling: In neurons, communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters that cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, transmitting electrical or chemical signals.
5. Contact-dependent signaling: When cells physically interact with each other, allowing for the direct exchange of signals and information.

Cell communication is essential for various physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, metabolism, immune response, and tissue repair. Dysregulation in cell communication can contribute to diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A dose-response relationship in radiation refers to the correlation between the amount of radiation exposure (dose) and the biological response or adverse health effects observed in exposed individuals. As the level of radiation dose increases, the severity and frequency of the adverse health effects also tend to increase. This relationship is crucial in understanding the risks associated with various levels of radiation exposure and helps inform radiation protection standards and guidelines.

The effects of ionizing radiation can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which no effect is observed, and above this threshold, the severity of the effect increases with higher doses. Examples include radiation-induced cataracts or radiation dermatitis. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a clear threshold and are based on probability; as the dose increases, so does the likelihood of the adverse health effect occurring, such as an increased risk of cancer.

Understanding the dose-response relationship in radiation exposure is essential for setting limits on occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation, optimizing radiation protection practices, and developing effective medical countermeasures in case of radiation emergencies.

Nucleoside deaminases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the removal of an amino group (-NH2) from nucleosides, converting them to nucleosides with a modified base. This modification process is called deamination. Specifically, these enzymes convert cytidine and adenosine to uridine and inosine, respectively. Nucleoside deaminases play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the regulation of gene expression, immune response, and nucleic acid metabolism. Some nucleoside deaminases are also involved in the development of certain diseases and are considered as targets for drug design and discovery.

Deuteroporphyrins are porphyrin derivatives that contain two carboxylic acid side chains. They are intermediates in the biosynthesis of heme and chlorophyll, which are essential molecules for biological processes such as oxygen transport and photosynthesis, respectively.

Deuteroporphyrins can be further classified into isomers based on the position of the carboxylic acid side chains. The most common isomer is deuteroporphyrin IX, which has the carboxylic acid side chains located at positions 1 and 2 relative to the pyrrole nitrogen atoms.

Deuteroporphyrins have been studied in various medical contexts, including as potential markers of porphyria, a group of metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of porphyrin precursors. Additionally, deuteroporphyrins and their derivatives have been investigated for their potential use in photodynamic therapy, a treatment modality that uses light-activated drugs to destroy cancer cells.

Adenoviridae is a family of viruses that includes many species that can cause various types of illnesses in humans and animals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have an icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70-90 nanometers.

The genome of Adenoviridae is composed of double-stranded DNA, which contains linear chromosomes ranging from 26 to 45 kilobases in length. The family is divided into five genera: Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus, Siadenovirus, and Ichtadenovirus.

Human adenoviruses are classified under the genus Mastadenovirus and can cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Some serotypes have also been associated with more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis.

Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. They can also be spread through contaminated water sources. Infections caused by adenoviruses are usually self-limiting, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Ionizing radiation is a type of radiation that carries enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules, which means it can knock electrons out of their orbits and create ions. These charged particles can cause damage to living tissue and DNA, making ionizing radiation dangerous to human health. Examples of ionizing radiation include X-rays, gamma rays, and some forms of subatomic particles such as alpha and beta particles. The amount and duration of exposure to ionizing radiation are important factors in determining the potential health effects, which can range from mild skin irritation to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

Coculture techniques refer to a type of experimental setup in which two or more different types of cells or organisms are grown and studied together in a shared culture medium. This method allows researchers to examine the interactions between different cell types or species under controlled conditions, and to study how these interactions may influence various biological processes such as growth, gene expression, metabolism, and signal transduction.

Coculture techniques can be used to investigate a wide range of biological phenomena, including the effects of host-microbe interactions on human health and disease, the impact of different cell types on tissue development and homeostasis, and the role of microbial communities in shaping ecosystems. These techniques can also be used to test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapies by examining their effects on cells grown in coculture with other relevant cell types.

There are several different ways to establish cocultures, depending on the specific research question and experimental goals. Some common methods include:

1. Mixed cultures: In this approach, two or more cell types are simply mixed together in a culture dish or flask and allowed to grow and interact freely.
2. Cell-layer cultures: Here, one cell type is grown on a porous membrane or other support structure, while the second cell type is grown on top of it, forming a layered coculture.
3. Conditioned media cultures: In this case, one cell type is grown to confluence and its culture medium is collected and then used to grow a second cell type. This allows the second cell type to be exposed to any factors secreted by the first cell type into the medium.
4. Microfluidic cocultures: These involve growing cells in microfabricated channels or chambers, which allow for precise control over the spatial arrangement and flow of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules between different cell types.

Overall, coculture techniques provide a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and gaining insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological and pathological processes.

Micronuclei, chromosome-defective, refer to small additional nuclei that form during cell division when the genetic material is not properly divided between the two resulting daughter cells. These micronuclei can contain whole chromosomes or fragments of chromosomes that were not incorporated into either of the main nuclei during cell division. Chromosome-defective micronuclei are often associated with genomic instability, DNA damage, and chromosomal aberrations, which can lead to various health issues, including cancer and developmental defects. They can be used as a biomarker for genetic damage in cells and are commonly observed in response to exposure to mutagenic agents such as radiation or chemicals.

A micronucleus test is a type of genetic toxicology assay used to detect the presence of micronuclei in cells, which are small chromosomal fragments or whole chromosomes that have been missegregated during cell division. The test measures the frequency of micronuclei in cells exposed to a potential genotoxic agent, such as a chemical or radiation, and compares it to the frequency in untreated control cells.

The assay is typically performed on cultured mammalian cells, such as human lymphocytes or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and involves exposing the cells to the test agent for a specific period of time, followed by staining and examination of the cells under a microscope. The micronuclei are identified based on their size, shape, and staining characteristics, and the frequency of micronucleated cells is calculated as a measure of genotoxic potential.

Micronucleus tests are widely used in regulatory toxicology to assess the genetic safety of chemicals, drugs, and other substances, and can provide valuable information on potential risks to human health. The test is also used in basic research to study the mechanisms of genotoxicity and chromosomal instability.

X-rays, also known as radiographs, are a type of electromagnetic radiation with higher energy and shorter wavelength than visible light. In medical imaging, X-rays are used to produce images of the body's internal structures, such as bones and organs, by passing the X-rays through the body and capturing the resulting shadows or patterns on a specialized film or digital detector.

The amount of X-ray radiation used is carefully controlled to minimize exposure and ensure patient safety. Different parts of the body absorb X-rays at different rates, allowing for contrast between soft tissues and denser structures like bone. This property makes X-rays an essential tool in diagnosing and monitoring a wide range of medical conditions, including fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects within the body.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is a type of energy that is released and transferred through space in the form of waves. These waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency, and speed, all of which determine the amount of energy they carry. Elemagnetic radiation is classified into different types based on its wavelength and frequency, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays.

EMR is produced by the movement of charged particles, such as electrons, and can be both natural and artificial in origin. For example, the sun emits EMR in the form of visible light and ultraviolet radiation, while man-made sources of EMR include cell phones, WiFi routers, and medical imaging equipment.

In medicine, EMR is used for a variety of purposes, including diagnostic imaging, cancer treatment, and sterilization. For example, X-rays and CT scans use high-energy forms of EMR to produce images of the body's internal structures, while radiation therapy uses targeted beams of EMR to destroy cancer cells.

It is important to note that excessive exposure to certain types of EMR, particularly ionizing radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays, can be harmful to human health and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Therefore, it is essential to use appropriate safety measures when working with or around sources of EMR.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

Gene transfer techniques, also known as gene therapy, refer to medical procedures where genetic material is introduced into an individual's cells or tissues to treat or prevent diseases. This can be achieved through various methods:

1. **Viral Vectors**: The most common method uses modified viruses, such as adenoviruses, retroviruses, or lentiviruses, to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. The virus infects the cell and inserts the new gene into the cell's DNA.

2. **Non-Viral Vectors**: These include methods like electroporation (using electric fields to create pores in the cell membrane), gene guns (shooting gold particles coated with DNA into cells), or liposomes (tiny fatty bubbles that can enclose DNA).

3. **Direct Injection**: In some cases, the therapeutic gene can be directly injected into a specific tissue or organ.

The goal of gene transfer techniques is to supplement or replace a faulty gene with a healthy one, thereby correcting the genetic disorder. However, these techniques are still largely experimental and have their own set of challenges, including potential immune responses, issues with accurate targeting, and risks of mutations or cancer development.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

DNA damage refers to any alteration in the structure or composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the genetic material present in cells. DNA damage can result from various internal and external factors, including environmental exposures such as ultraviolet radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals, as well as normal cellular processes such as replication and oxidative metabolism.

Examples of DNA damage include base modifications, base deletions or insertions, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks between the two strands of the DNA helix. These types of damage can lead to mutations, genomic instability, and chromosomal aberrations, which can contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related conditions.

The body has several mechanisms for repairing DNA damage, including base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and double-strand break repair. However, if the damage is too extensive or the repair mechanisms are impaired, the cell may undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death) to prevent the propagation of potentially harmful mutations.

Idoxuridine is an antiviral medication used primarily for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the eye, such as keratitis or dendritic ulcers. It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus, thereby inhibiting its ability to multiply and spread.

Idoxuridine is available as an ophthalmic solution (eye drops) and is typically applied directly to the affected eye every 1-2 hours while awake, for up to 2 weeks. Common side effects include local irritation, stinging, or burning upon application. Prolonged use of idoxuridine may lead to bacterial resistance or corneal toxicity, so it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

It is essential to note that idoxuridine is not commonly used today due to the development of more effective and less toxic antiviral agents for HSV infections.

Pentosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a pentose (a sugar containing five carbon atoms) molecule from one compound to another. These enzymes play important roles in various biochemical pathways, including the biosynthesis of nucleotides, glycoproteins, and other complex carbohydrates.

One example of a pentosyltransferase is the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a ribose sugar to form a glycosidic bond with a purine or pyrimidine base during the biosynthesis of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Another example is the enzyme that adds xylose residues to proteins during the formation of glycoproteins, which are proteins that contain covalently attached carbohydrate chains. These enzymes are essential for many biological processes and have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 1, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 1 or HHV-1):

Herpesvirus 1, Human is a type of herpesvirus that primarily causes infection in humans. It is also commonly referred to as human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) or oral herpes. This virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected saliva, skin, or mucous membranes.

After initial infection, the virus typically remains dormant in the body's nerve cells and may reactivate later, causing recurrent symptoms. The most common manifestation of HHV-1 infection is oral herpes, characterized by cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth and lips. In some cases, HHV-1 can also cause other conditions such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and keratitis (inflammation of the eye's cornea).

There is no cure for HHV-1 infection, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the severity and frequency of recurrent outbreaks.

Neoplasm transplantation is not a recognized or established medical procedure in the field of oncology. The term "neoplasm" refers to an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). "Transplantation" typically refers to the surgical transfer of living cells, tissues, or organs from one part of the body to another or between individuals.

The concept of neoplasm transplantation may imply the transfer of cancerous cells or tissues from a donor to a recipient, which is not a standard practice due to ethical considerations and the potential harm it could cause to the recipient. In some rare instances, researchers might use laboratory animals to study the transmission and growth of human cancer cells, but this is done for scientific research purposes only and under strict regulatory guidelines.

In summary, there is no medical definition for 'Neoplasm Transplantation' as it does not represent a standard or ethical medical practice.

A glioma is a type of tumor that originates from the glial cells in the brain. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for nerve cells (neurons) within the central nervous system, including providing nutrients, maintaining homeostasis, and insulating neurons.

Gliomas can be classified into several types based on the specific type of glial cell from which they originate. The most common types include:

1. Astrocytoma: Arises from astrocytes, a type of star-shaped glial cells that provide structural support to neurons.
2. Oligodendroglioma: Develops from oligodendrocytes, which produce the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers.
3. Ependymoma: Originate from ependymal cells, which line the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) in the brain and spinal cord.
4. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): A highly aggressive and malignant type of astrocytoma that tends to spread quickly within the brain.

Gliomas can be further classified based on their grade, which indicates how aggressive and fast-growing they are. Lower-grade gliomas tend to grow more slowly and may be less aggressive, while higher-grade gliomas are more likely to be aggressive and rapidly growing.

Symptoms of gliomas depend on the location and size of the tumor but can include headaches, seizures, cognitive changes, and neurological deficits such as weakness or paralysis in certain parts of the body. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Gamma rays are a type of ionizing radiation that is released from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay. They are high-energy photons, with wavelengths shorter than 0.01 nanometers and frequencies greater than 3 x 10^19 Hz. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, similar to X-rays, but with higher energy levels and the ability to penetrate matter more deeply. They can cause damage to living tissue and are used in medical imaging and cancer treatment.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving procedure that is performed when someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. It involves a series of steps that are designed to manually pump blood through the body and maintain the flow of oxygen to the brain until advanced medical treatment can be provided.

CPR typically involves a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths, which are delivered in a specific rhythm and frequency. The goal is to maintain circulation and oxygenation of vital organs, particularly the brain, until advanced life support measures such as defibrillation or medication can be administered.

Chest compressions are used to manually pump blood through the heart and into the rest of the body. This is typically done by placing both hands on the lower half of the chest and pressing down with enough force to compress the chest by about 2 inches. The compressions should be delivered at a rate of at least 100-120 compressions per minute.

Rescue breaths are used to provide oxygen to the lungs and maintain oxygenation of the body's tissues. This is typically done by pinching the nose shut, creating a seal around the person's mouth with your own, and blowing in enough air to make the chest rise. The breath should be delivered over about one second, and this process should be repeated until the person begins to breathe on their own or advanced medical help arrives.

CPR can be performed by trained laypeople as well as healthcare professionals. It is an important skill that can help save lives in emergency situations where a person's breathing or heartbeat has stopped.

Connexins are a family of proteins that form the structural units of gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct exchange of small molecules and ions between adjacent cells. These channels play crucial roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis, coordinating cellular activities, and enabling communication between cells. In humans, there are 21 different connexin genes that encode for these proteins, with each isoform having unique properties and distributions within the body. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, including hearing loss, skin disorders, and heart conditions.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Retroviridae is a family of viruses that includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viruses that primarily use RNA as their genetic material. The name "retrovirus" comes from the fact that these viruses reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which then becomes integrated into the host cell's genome. This is a unique characteristic of retroviruses, as most other viruses use DNA as their genetic material.

Retroviruses can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including cancer, neurological disorders, and immunodeficiency syndromes like AIDS. They have a lipid membrane envelope that contains glycoprotein spikes, which allow them to attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is then integrated into the host genome by the enzyme integrase.

Retroviruses can remain dormant in the host genome for extended periods of time, and may be reactivated under certain conditions to produce new viral particles. This ability to integrate into the host genome has also made retroviruses useful tools in molecular biology, where they are used as vectors for gene therapy and other genetic manipulations.

Radiation tolerance, in the context of medicine and particularly radiation oncology, refers to the ability of tissues or organs to withstand and recover from exposure to ionizing radiation without experiencing significant damage or loss of function. It is often used to describe the maximum dose of radiation that can be safely delivered to a specific area of the body during radiotherapy treatments.

Radiation tolerance varies depending on the type and location of the tissue or organ. For example, some tissues such as the brain, spinal cord, and lungs have lower radiation tolerance than others like the skin or bone. Factors that can affect radiation tolerance include the total dose of radiation, the fractionation schedule (the number and size of radiation doses), the volume of tissue treated, and the individual patient's overall health and genetic factors.

Assessing radiation tolerance is critical in designing safe and effective radiotherapy plans for cancer patients, as excessive radiation exposure can lead to serious side effects such as radiation-induced injury, fibrosis, or even secondary malignancies.

Radiation-protective agents, also known as radioprotectors, are substances that help in providing protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. They can be used to prevent or reduce damage to biological tissues, including DNA, caused by exposure to radiation. These agents work through various mechanisms such as scavenging free radicals, modulating cellular responses to radiation-induced damage, and enhancing DNA repair processes.

Radiation-protective agents can be categorized into two main groups:

1. Radiosensitizers: These are substances that make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy, increasing their susceptibility to damage and potentially improving treatment outcomes. However, radiosensitizers do not provide protection to normal tissues against radiation exposure.

2. Radioprotectors: These agents protect both normal and cancerous cells from radiation-induced damage. They can be further divided into two categories: direct and indirect radioprotectors. Direct radioprotectors interact directly with radiation, absorbing or scattering it away from sensitive tissues. Indirect radioprotectors work by neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species generated during radiation exposure, which would otherwise cause damage to cellular structures and DNA.

Examples of radiation-protective agents include antioxidants like vitamins C and E, chemical compounds such as amifostine and cysteamine, and various natural substances found in plants and foods. It is important to note that while some radiation-protective agents have shown promise in preclinical studies, their efficacy and safety in humans require further investigation before they can be widely used in clinical settings.

Cell death is the process by which cells cease to function and eventually die. There are several ways that cells can die, but the two most well-known and well-studied forms of cell death are apoptosis and necrosis.

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that occurs as a normal and necessary process in the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. During apoptosis, the cell's DNA is broken down into small fragments, the cell shrinks, and the membrane around the cell becomes fragmented, allowing the cell to be easily removed by phagocytic cells without causing an inflammatory response.

Necrosis, on the other hand, is a form of cell death that occurs as a result of acute tissue injury or overwhelming stress. During necrosis, the cell's membrane becomes damaged and the contents of the cell are released into the surrounding tissue, causing an inflammatory response.

There are also other forms of cell death, such as autophagy, which is a process by which cells break down their own organelles and proteins to recycle nutrients and maintain energy homeostasis, and pyroptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in response to infection and involves the activation of inflammatory caspases.

Cell death is an important process in many physiological and pathological processes, including development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of cell death can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Whole-Body Irradiation (WBI) is a medical procedure that involves the exposure of the entire body to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation, typically used in the context of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The purpose of WBI is to destroy cancer cells or suppress the immune system prior to a bone marrow transplant. It can be delivered using various sources of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, or electrons, and is carefully planned and monitored to minimize harm to healthy tissues while maximizing the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. Potential side effects include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection due to decreased white blood cell counts.

... of the bystander effect reported that "The bystander effect was attenuated when situations were perceived as dangerous ( ... The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological theory that states that individuals are less likely to ... The bystander effect is not a generic consequence of increasing group size. When bystanders share group-level psychological ... "bystander effect" can be studied and analyzed in a much broader fashion. The broader view includes not just a) what bystanders ...
Note that the bystander effect is not the same as the abscopal effect. The abscopal effect is a phenomenon where the response ... The radiation-induced bystander effect (bystander effect) is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells exhibit irradiated ... This is also attributed to the bystander effect. The demonstration of a bystander effect in 3D human tissues and, more recently ... Mitchell SA, Marino SA, Brenner DJ, Hall EJ (July 2004). "Bystander effect and adaptive response in C3H 10T(1/2) cells". Int. J ...
Green Dot Bystander Intervention Bystander effect "Bystander Intervention". University of Michigan. Retrieved ... Bystander intervention may also be called "bystander education", because the model is based on a system of educating trainers ... A bystander is a person who is present at an event, party, or other setting who notices a problematic situation, such as a ... A study on bystander intervention by the University of New Hampshire showed that 38 percent of the men who participated in a ...
"Bystander Effect , Psychology Today". Retrieved 2023-02-28. "Bystander Effect , Psychology Today". www ... Among adults, being a bystander to workplace bullying was linked to depression. The Bystander effect can be detrimental to the ... "The act of others stepping in is what will stop bullying". To stop the Bystander effect, people should be confident and stand ... Negative effects are not limited to the targeted individuals, and may lead to a decline in employee morale and a change in ...
July 2001). "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed by bystanders does not increase adverse effects as assessed by chest ... McCormack AP, Damon SK, Eisenberg MS (March 1989). "Disagreeable physical characteristics affecting bystander CPR". Annals of ... Most bystanders are worried that they might do something wrong. On October 28, 2009, the American Heart Association and the Ad ... Bystanders more commonly administer CPR when in public than when at the person's home, although health care professionals are ...
Observing bystander effect in a naturalistic setting results in behavior that is consistent as per the classic bystander effect ... The case of the "bystander effect"". Polish Psychological Bulletin. 47 (2): 233-235. doi:10.1515/ppb-2016-0027. Fisher, Robert ... However, if the same effect were to be done with surveys, one will get a very different results. Reports of attitudes and ... So called "below conscious awareness" is much more likely to influence an initial impression than effect change. Value-action ...
So-called bystander or non-targeted effects may have enormous consequences for space exploration. Non-targeted effects may lead ... Seymour, Colin B.; Mothersill, Carmel (2004). "Radiation-induced bystander effects - implications for cancer". Nature Reviews ... Tissue effects that are independent of DNA damage and that have been associated with cancer initiation or progression include ... These effects also suggest important targets for biological countermeasures that are likely to be more effective than are ...
Bystander effect Burke, Minyvonne (October 19, 2021). "Riders held up cellphones as a woman was raped on Philadelphia train, ... Jeglic dismissed the notion of the bystander effect and noted that one of the two passengers who recorded the incident on video ... Several scholars and social workers cited this incident as an example of the bystander effect, with social worker Kelly ... She also stated that bystanders would usually act when a crime was more apparent, which may not have been the case. ...
Studies investigating bystander effects also support situationism. For example, in 1973, Darley and Batson conducted a study ... which is a view that both internal dispositions and external situational factors affect a person's behavior in a given ...
His research interests are micro-RNA responses to radiation exposure, radiation-induced bystander effect, cell cycle ... Chaudhry, M.A.(2006). Bystander effect: Biological endpoints and microarray analysis. Mutation Research 597:98-112. Chaudhry, M ...
Also bystanders were affected. Police initially claimed they had been pelted with bottles and furnishings, but later corrected ... Also bystanders got in the way of the police and were harmed. The Chairman of the Economic Council of BFC Dynamo Peter Meyer ...
Also bystanders were affected. The police claimed that they had been pelted with bottles and furniture, but later admitted that ... Also bystanders got in the way of the police and were harmed. The Chairman of the Economic Council Peter Meyer tried to mediate ... Coach Fijalek resigned with immediate effect on 8 September 2006. Bodo Rudwaleit initially took over the training on interim ...
Nualart F, Rivas C, Montecinos V, Godoy A, Guaiquil V, Golde D, Vera J (2003). "Recycling of vitamin C by a bystander effect". ... Furuya A, Uozaki M, Yamasaki H, Arakawa T, Arita M, Koyama AH (2008). "Antiviral effects of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids ... The literature contains many reports on the antiviral effects of vitamin C, and one study suggests dehydroascorbic acid has ... "Vitamin C antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of antineoplastic drugs". Cancer Research. 68 (19): 8031-8038. doi:10.1158/0008- ...
While there, he learns about the bystander effect. Ray Brinkman and Dorothy Cazaly begin dating, but Dorothy struggles with ... She is deeply affected when her father eventually commits suicide. Adam Appich - an inquisitive boy who is fascinated with ...
"A senescent cell bystander effect: senescence-induced senescence". Aging Cell. 11 (2): 345-349. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012. ... It has been found that stem cell rejuvenation can reverse some of the effects of aging at the organismal level. Different ... affecting their behavior. The profile of these molecules changes as we age. One of the most prominent changes in cell signaling ...
The "bystander effect" with its connotations of the innocent bystander being killed is also mediated by gap junctions. When ... This can cause the otherwise unaffected healthy bystander cells to also die. The bystander effect is, therefore, important to ... "bystander effect": association of U-87 cell death with ganciclovir-mediated apoptosis of nearby cells and lack of effect in ... Later the bystander effect was also researched with regard to cells damaged by radiation or mechanical injury and therefore ...
The effects of the bystander effect on compassion fade is heightened where the number of people in need of aid increases, the ... The bystander effect is the concept that people are less willing to help in the presence of other people than when they are ... Compassion fade is affected by situational factors such as the number of people available to help that in turn affects the ... Effects of compassion fade on the valuation of victim numbers is seen through the singularity effect. Research showed as more ...
John Darley and Bibb Latané demonstrate the bystander effect. Walter Mischel publishes Personality and Assessment. January - ... Darley, J. M. & Latané, B. (1968). "Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility". Journal of Personality ...
"Harold Takooshian on Kitty Genovese and the Bystander Effect". SoundCloud. "Armenian in New York City: A Fascinating History". ... "bystander effect" played therein. Takooshian graduated from City University of New York (CUNY) in 1979 with a PhD. At CUNY, ...
Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael (1 April 2015). "Young Children Show the Bystander Effect ...
Voelpel, Sven C.; Eckhoff, Robert A.; Förster, Jens (2008). "David against Goliath? Group size and bystander effects in virtual ...
"Recursive Mentalizing and Common Knowledge in the Bystander Effect". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 145 (5): 621-629. doi: ... "Recursive mentalizing and common knowledge in the bystander effect". Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 145 (5): 621- ... the researchers found that bystanders also consider what they know about other bystanders and the situation before getting ... The halo effect is a well-documented social psychology discovery. It is the concept that a person's overall evaluations (e.g., ...
Bystander effect Nanjing Massacre War rape Rape Narratives in Motion. Germany, Springer International Publishing, 2019. Editors ... Retrieved 24 January 2016.(in German) Jacob, Cecilia (October 2016). "Children Affected by Political Violence in India". In ...
Abilene paradox Buck passing Bystander effect Externality First they came ... Inattentional blindness NIMBY (Not In My Back ... where it is compared to other fictional effects such as the perception filter in Doctor Who, as well as cognitive biases such ...
The number of bystanders witnessing pain or suffering affects the likelihood of helping (the Bystander effect). More ... Hudson, James M.; Bruckman, Amy S. (2004). "The Bystander Effect: A Lens for Understanding Patterns of Participation". Journal ... They tend to help less if they see non-cooperativeness by others, and this effect tends to be stronger than the opposite effect ... A simple illustration of such cause and effect is the case of experiencing the effects of what one causes: if one causes ...
This is done, in part, by explaining the bystander effect. The U of M also has a TXT-U emergency notification text messaging ...
Philip Zimbardo on the bystander effect and the murder of Kitty Genovese". Bystander Revolution. Archived from the original on ... In his book, The Tipping Point (2000), Malcolm Gladwell refers to the case and the "bystander effect" as evidence of contextual ... The incident prompted inquiries into what became known as the bystander effect, or "Genovese syndrome", and the murder became a ... In his response, KSAN's Scoop Nisker mentioned the bystander effect and the Genovese story. The crime inspired singer Ruby Lynn ...
... demonstrating the bystander effect. The bystander effect is a specific type of diffusion of responsibility-when people's ... Fischer, Peter (2011). "The Bystander-Effect: A Meta-Analytic Review on Bystander Intervention in Dangerous and Non-dangerous ... doi:10.1016/0022-1031(72)90069-8. Bickman, L (1971). "The effect of another bystander's ability to help on bystander ... The bystander effect occurs when multiple individuals are watching a situation unfold but do not intervene (or delay or ...
Bystander effect Death of Wang Yue Minter, Adam (8 January 2012). "China's Infamous 'Good Samaritan' Case Gets a New Ending". ... though some have voiced concerns that the chilling effect of Peng's false narrative on bystander intervention still remains. On ... who agreed to the release of information on their case to rectify the initial chilling effect caused by Peng's false initial ...
THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER [affecting great distinction of speech] Thenk you, teacher. Haw haw! So long [he touches his hat with ... THE BYSTANDER. So it has. Why didn't you say so before? and us losing our time listening to your silliness. [He walks off ... Its appearance even had the effect of converting Mr Parish, who commented "I admit having said some harsh things about its ... towards the Strand]. THE SARCASTIC BYSTANDER. I can tell where you come from. You come from Anwell. Go back there. THE NOTE ...
... of the bystander effect reported that "The bystander effect was attenuated when situations were perceived as dangerous ( ... The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological theory that states that individuals are less likely to ... The bystander effect is not a generic consequence of increasing group size. When bystanders share group-level psychological ... "bystander effect" can be studied and analyzed in a much broader fashion. The broader view includes not just a) what bystanders ...
How to sidestep the bystander effect. Activists seeking to ban abortion have held the rhetorical cards for far too long, thanks ... Corporate DEI and the Bystander Effect in the Age of Court-Stacking. ...
... effect, according to a new study.. The bystander effect refers to the fact that people are more hesitant to identify problems ... Study finds that employees with autism are less likely to exhibit "bystander" effect ... Study finds that employees with autism are less likely to exhibit "bystander" effect. ... But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. ...
Such bystander effects may offset spatial heterogeneity in prodrug activation but the relative importance of this effect is not ... Such bystander effects may offset spatial heterogeneity in prodrug activation but the relative importance of this effect is not ... Such bystander effects may offset spatial heterogeneity in prodrug activation but the relative importance of this effect is not ... Such bystander effects may offset spatial heterogeneity in prodrug activation but the relative importance of this effect is not ...
The bystander effect. Whats the right thing to do when you see the signs of child abuse? ... Its a difficult question for any bystander to answer. Not everyone knows how specifically to go about making a report, and ...
But the version of events from that day that has been weaved into the cultural notion of the bystander effect have been ... Reversing the Bystander Effect. by Impact Inc. , Jan 3, 2018 , Blog Post ... This group inaction has come to be known as the "bystander effect," wherein the more witnesses present during a violent ... We can imagine that the bystanders physical response is similar to that of the perpetrators target; after all, the bystander ...
... activating bystanders, Andrew Cuomo, bystander, bystander effect, Harvey Weinstein, planning, planning to intervene, rescue, ... Archives for bystander effect. Having a Plan Turns Bystanders into Helpers. October 28, 2021. By David Griesing Leave a Comment ... One study I found had some of the study participants attend a lecture on the ethics around rescue and the bystander effect ( ... Enabling bystanders, the author writes, "is leveraging the people in the environment to set the tone for whats acceptable and ...
In addition to the directly mutagenic effects of energy deposition in DNA, ionizing radiation is associated with a variety of ... Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects. Radiat ... Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects: inter-related nontargeted effects of exposure to ionizing ... Similar effects, as well as responses that may be regarded as protective, have been attributed to bystander mechanisms (3, 4). ...
Surveillance Cameras Debunk the Bystander Effect A new study uses camera footage to track the frequency of bystander ...
Would you help someone in distress in a market square? Would you report a shoplifter in a crowded shopping center? Would you stop an assault on a busy train? Chances are, you wouldnt...The Case of...
Although the military personnel were considered normal people, how did the bystander effect influence them to commit heinous ... Discuss how the bystander effect played a role in the military personnel that were involved in Abu Ghraib. ... exacerbating the bystander effect. Its important to note however, that the bystander effect and individual morality are not ... The Bystander Effect in Abu Ghraib: Exploring the Influence on Normal Individuals to Commit Atrocities. You must be logged in ...
How to break the bystander effect with Julie Lalonde How to break the bystander effect with Julie Lalonde ... Julie is a womens rights advocate and public educator, and shes been teaching bystander intervention for over 10 years.. In ...
Induction of Autoimmunity Through Bystander Effects. Lessons from Immunological Disorders Induced by Heavy Metals. ... Induction of Autoimmunity Through Bystander Effects. Lessons from Immunological Disorders Induced by Heavy Metals2018-01-17T17: ...
The bystander effect is the phenomenon that people are less likely to help others when they are in a group than when they are ... This paper uses a dynamic game to experimentally test such strategic interactions as an explanation for the bystander effect. ... The theoretical literature typically explains the bystander effect with the volunteers dilemma: if providing help is ... then bystanders could be less likely to help in groups because they free ride on the other bystanders. ...
... the bystander effect still took hold. Thus, the bystander effect is a disturbing feature of collective human behavior that ... To acknowledge the bystander effects role in Morriss murder is not to dismiss the responsibility that each of those witnesses ... Rather than absolving the guilt and complicity of witnesses who fail to intervene in a crime, the bystander effect allows us to ... An avoidable murder of a student caught on tape: the sickening power of the bystander effect. ...
Does a local bystander effect necessitate a revision of TCP models that are based on observed clinical data? / Tomé, Wolfgang; ... Does a local bystander effect necessitate a revision of TCP models that are based on observed clinical data?. In: Acta ... Tomé W, Fenwick J, Bentzen S. Does a local bystander effect necessitate a revision of TCP models that are based on observed ... Does a local bystander effect necessitate a revision of TCP models that are based on observed clinical data?. ...
This exerts a bystander effect; that is, it induces senescence in neighboring cells. Cells can undergo senescence as a result ... Others observed that curcumin supplementation in mice and rats enhanced the effect of exercise, affected the time of exhaustion ... Huang, W.C.; Chiu, W.C.; Chuang, H.L.; Tang, D.W.; Lee, Z.M.; Li, W.; Chen, F.A.; Huang, C.C. Effect of curcumin ... Among many beneficial effects exerted by curcumin on age-related diseases are its anti-cancer properties. Curcumin was shown to ...
... "bystander effect" For decades, the "bystander effect" (previously) has been a bedrock of received psychological wisdom: " ...
Direct cytotoxic effects of viral replication likely are not the primary cause of CD4 T-cell loss; a significant bystander ... Metabolic effects of a growth hormone-releasing factor in patients with HIV. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 6. 357(23):2359-70. [QxMD ... The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of women. AIDS. 2011 Sep 24. 25( ... Effects of long-term seropositivity to human immunodeficiency virus in a cohort of homosexual men. AIDS. 1987 Jul. 1(2):77-82. ...
Effects of a Rape Awareness Program on College Women: Increasing Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene Date Published ... Effects of a Rape Awareness Program on College Women: Increasing Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene NCJ Number ... Buffering Effects of Racial Discrimination on School Engagement: The Role of Culturally Responsive Teachers and Caring School ... Buffering Effects of Racial Discrimination on School Engagement: The Role of Culturally Responsive Teachers and Caring School ...
The Bystander Effect: The science of empathy Lesson duration 05:36 ...
Psychologists say the "bystander effect" may be at play.. As Time Magazine reports, its a twist on the coping mechanism of ...
Overcoming the Bystander Effect: Tips, Tricks and Tools. Thursday, April 4, 7-8:30 p.m. ... The resistance to get involved in everyday injustice is described as the Bystander Effect. Join Northwest CASA in a ... Learn about the effects of fast fashion and misuse of plastics, then see how to mindfully mend worn clothing and spend time ...
The second aim was to test the mediating roles of affects between WB seen from the perspective of bystanders and two resulting ... burnout; bystanders; positive and negative affects; psychological health; work engagement; workplace bullying ... Workplace Bullying Seen from the Perspective of Bystanders: Effects on Engagement and Burnout, Mediating Role of Positive and ... Workplace Bullying Seen from the Perspective of Bystanders: Effects on Engagement and Burn ...
Letter: COVID-19 Pandemic-The Bystander Effect on Stroke Care in Michigan. Pandey AS, Daou BJ, Tsai JP, Zaidi SF, Salahuddin H ... First Pass Effect in Patients Treated With the Trevo Stent-Retriever: A TRACK Registry Study Analysis. Mokin M, Primiani CT, ... Effect of balloon guide catheter on clinical outcomes and reperfusion in Trevo thrombectomy. Nguyen TN, Castonguay AC, Nogueira ...
Video: The Bystander Effect. *Podcast: Stress Response. Posted on November 7, 2016. by Jerzell Black, Operation Coordinator, ...
Bystander effects of nucleoside analogs phosphorylated in the cytosol or mitochondria. Sanda A; Zhu C; Johansson M; Karlsson A ... Bystander effects of cancer cell lines transduced with the multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase of Drosophila melanogaster ... Potent antitumoral effects of targeted promoter-driven oncolytic adenovirus armed with Dm-dNK for breast cancer in vitro and in ... Tanshinone IIA enhances bystander cell killing of cancer cells expressing Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase in ...
... who is an expert on the bystander effect and the author of Response-Ability: A Complete Guide to Bystander Intervention. But ... Dont depend on others to be the active bystander, he says. Especially when you have tools in your bystander toolbox to step up ... "The key is to move from a bystander to an active bystander who chooses to challenge inappropriate behavior." ... A bystander can intervene by playing dumb and asking the men for directions. While the person is engaging the men, the woman ...
  • This "diffusion of responsibility" among large groups of witnesses that decreases the likelihood of intervention is known as the bystander effect. (
  • Nevertheless, what connects these two murders is the fact that they were enabled by large groups of witnesses who failed to intervene - in other words, by the bystander effect. (
  • To acknowledge the bystander effect's role in Morris's murder is not to dismiss the responsibility that each of those witnesses had to intervene. (
  • Rather than absolving the guilt and complicity of witnesses who fail to intervene in a crime, the bystander effect allows us to make sense of that complicity. (
  • The first and original aim of this study was to measure the impact of workplace bullying (WB) seen from the perspective of the witnesses (bystanders) on the work engagement and the burnout of these bystanders. (
  • The results indicated that positive and negative affects played mediating roles between WB as seen by witnesses and the two resulting variables, burnout and work engagement . (
  • In addition to prevention for victims, witnesses experiencing bullying as bystanders in Cameroon must be supported and accompanied by occupational health services , occupational and psychosocial risk prevention workers , psychologists , as well as human resources . (
  • Witnesses, bystanders and coworkers often suffer emotional and psychological trauma no less significant than that of the victim. (
  • Increased bystander presence can increase the likelihood that someone would intervene, even if the chance of each individual bystander responding is reduced. (
  • The bystander effect refers to the fact that people are more hesitant to identify problems and intervene to solve them if there are other people present. (
  • As a result of their research, Darley and Latane concluded that the greater the number of bystanders witnessing an emergency, the smaller the chance that anyone will intervene. (
  • Research shows most people want to intervene when needed, and being a good bystander takes practice. (
  • A bystander can intervene by playing dumb and asking the men for directions. (
  • Latané and Darley performed three experiments to test bystander behavior in non-emergency situations. (
  • Thus, the bystander effect is a disturbing feature of collective human behavior that continues to endure. (
  • The key is to move from a bystander to an 'active bystander' who chooses to challenge inappropriate behavior. (
  • Affected individual " is a staff member or collaborator towards whom the alleged conduct and/or retaliatory behavior is directed. (
  • They found that intervention was the norm, and in over 90% of conflicts one or more bystanders intervened to provide help. (
  • With that in mind, just as IMPACT students benefit from learning how to manage their adrenaline in threatening situations so they can defend themselves, so would potential bystanders benefit from training, which is one of the many reasons we offer a bystander intervention curriculum. (
  • This study offers new avenues for intervention on the issue of WB bystanders. (
  • These are all circumstances in which bystander intervention could impact the outcome. (
  • But the latest research on bystander intervention shows that most people feel compelled to help when they can. (
  • The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological theory that states that individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim in presence of other people. (
  • Bystander apathy and effect is an idea that people are cruel or not willing to react when they are in a situation where a person in severe problem is in need of their essence they are not willing to react in a helping manner. (
  • How exactly does this affect one's empathy? (
  • Finally, the stress and tension of the environment may have additionally impaired judgement or empathy, exacerbating the bystander effect. (
  • I wasn't expecting to write about bystander interventions today, but was jarred (as many were) by the longstanding accommodation of Cuomo's harassment. (
  • The majority of persons who experience an OHCA event, irrespective of etiology, do not receive bystander-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or other timely interventions that are known to improve the likelihood of survival to hospital discharge (e.g., defibrillation). (
  • Because nearly half of cardiac arrest events are witnessed, efforts to increase survival rates should focus on timely and effective delivery of interventions by bystanders and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. (
  • The bystander effect refers to a social psychological phenomenon in which individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when there are other people present. (
  • Mr. Charp explained the panel responded that the use of both of these are appropriate as used by ATSDR, each measurement defines a different "dose" (amount of exposure) above background and each refers to different kinds of health effects. (
  • That said, Berkowitz notes that it's often bystander events with negative outcomes that make the news, even though thousands of bystanders are positively impacting the outcomes of negative situations everyday. (
  • In situations where you feel uneasy, consider enlisting the 'Five D's" of an active bystander, says Thomas Vance, a certified counselor and faculty member at the New School. (
  • Mr. A. L. Brooks also states "However, there are situations under high LET radiation, such as alpha radiation, that a cell doesn't have to be hit by the radiation in order to have some effect, the bystander effect. (
  • This event is usually interpreted through the lens of power dynamics, conditioned obedience, and deindividuation, but the bystander effect provides another noteworthy dimension to this. (
  • In addition to the directly mutagenic effects of energy deposition in DNA, ionizing radiation is associated with a variety of untargeted and delayed effects that result in ongoing bone marrow damage. (
  • The dogma that genetic alterations are restricted to directly irradiated cells has been challenged by observations in which effects of ionizing radiation, characteristically associated with the consequences of energy deposition in the cell nucleus, arise in nonirradiated cells. (
  • Even though these two tragic murders occurred in vastly different circumstances and were sixty years apart, the bystander effect still took hold. (
  • A complainant may be an affected individual or a third party (e.g., a possible witness or bystander). (
  • Fewer researchers have studied how incivility affects those who witness the behaviour, which is what Kristoffer Holm addressed in his doctoral thesis. (
  • Our previous studies indicate that those who witness incivility find their own behaviour to be affected to an even higher degree than the person subjected to the impoliteness", says Holm. (
  • Participants answered questions designed to determine how likely they would be to speak out if they saw inefficient or dysfunctional processes in their company, and whether their decision would be affected by the number of other people present. (
  • But the version of events from that day that has been weaved into the cultural notion of the bystander effect have been disputed by several key people, many of whom claim the police were indeed called but did not respond. (
  • Although the military personnel were considered normal people, how did the bystander effect influence them to commit heinous acts? (
  • Grades 3-5-Bullying affects more people than many realize. (
  • It is not the person subjected to incivility whose behaviour is most strongly affected, but the people around them, argues Kristoffer Holm, who has published a doctoral thesis in psychology on workplace incivility. (
  • Workplace Bullying Seen from the Perspective of Bystanders: Effects on Engagement and Burnout, Mediating Role of Positive and Negative Affects. (
  • The second aim was to test the mediating roles of affects between WB seen from the perspective of bystanders and two resulting variables, bystanders' work engagement and bystanders' burnout . (
  • A lot of the bystander effects studies are not consistent with the many animal and human studies on internally deposited alpha emitting radioactive materials. (
  • Finally, it is important to realize that one does not need to be the direct target of a violent act to be affected by it. (
  • Serious, potentially fatal, side effects of ADCs can also occur when the manufactured molecules release their toxic payload too soon, or when the toxin diffuses not only in the tumor microenvironment but also in tissues outside the targeted region, causing what's called a bystander effect . (
  • In this paper, we suggest that there is a need to develop models of the specific health effects of interest (e.g., carcinogenesis in specific tissues), which embody as much of the mechanistic (i.e., biological) information as is deemed necessary. (
  • Such bystander effects may offset spatial heterogeneity in prodrug activation but the relative importance of this effect is not understood. (
  • Finally, the manner in which the quality of radiation affects these processes must be understood in the context of the mixed high- and low -LET radiations that are found in the space environment. (
  • More recent studies also show that this effect can generalize to workplace settings, where subordinates often refrain from informing managers regarding ideas, concerns, and opinions. (
  • In another condition, the students asked bystanders for a dime. (
  • In our bystander workshops, which usually last 2 hours, students will learn physical skills they can use to keep themselves safe against an attacker. (
  • These five activities for upper elementary and middle school students help develop Bystander Skills. (
  • Effects of grading leniency and low workload on students' evaluations of teaching: popular myth, bias, validity, or innocent bystanders? (
  • We suggest that recently identified processes, such as the "bystander effect", might affect initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion in different ways. (
  • Employees with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may contribute to businesses in a unique way because they are less likely than neurotypical individuals to exhibit the "bystander" effect, according to a new study. (
  • This study was conducted using self -administered questionnaires with WB bystanders (n = 222) from the Cameroonian health sector. (
  • It's important to note however, that the bystander effect and individual morality are not mutually exclusive. (
  • Discuss how the bystander effect played a role in the military personnel that were involved in Abu Ghraib. (
  • In the context of the Abu Ghraib military scandal where U.S. soldiers committed acts of abuse and torture against Iraqi prisoners, the bystander effect likely played a significant role. (
  • A renewed understanding of the critical role of innate immunity in influencing the development of an adaptive immune response has led researchers to a better under- standing of "the adjuvant effect" (16). (
  • Recent research has focused on "real world" events captured on security cameras, and the coherency and robustness of the effect has come under question. (
  • It's a difficult question for any bystander to answer. (
  • Autoimmune dis- raises the question of whether autoimmune diseases really eases can affect virtually every site in the body, including can be attributed to infections. (
  • First proposed in 1964 after the murder of Kitty Genovese, much research, mostly in psychology research laboratories, has focused on increasingly varied factors, such as the number of bystanders, ambiguity, group cohesiveness, and diffusion of responsibility that reinforces mutual denial. (
  • But more research is needed about how working from home affects us. (
  • after all, the bystander would invariably be adrenalized as well simply being in the presence of a dangerous situation. (
  • using data collected by EMS officials when responding to an emergency, indicated that the response of bystanders was correlated with the health severity of the situation. (
  • The data indicate that macrophage activation is not a direct effect of radiation but a tissue response, secondary to the initial radiation exposure, and have important implications for understanding genotype-dependent responses and the mechanisms of the hemotoxic and leukemogenic consequences of radiation exposure. (
  • Similar effects, as well as responses that may be regarded as protective, have been attributed to bystander mechanisms ( 3, 4 ). (
  • Autoimmune diseases affect approximately 8% of the eases tend to cluster in families and in individuals (a per- population, 78% of whom are women. (
  • they affect approximately 5%-8% of the autoimmune disease is difficult (Figure 2). (
  • Approximately 36.7% of OHCA events were witnessed by a bystander. (
  • Overall, our data suggest that bystander effects are important in PR-104 antitumor activity, although their reach may be limited by macroregional heterogeneity in hypoxia and reductase expression in tumors. (
  • Estimating effects of HIV sequencing data completeness on transmission network patterns and detection of growing HIV transmission clusters. (
  • We simulated the effect of lowered data completeness, defined by the percent of persons with diagnosed HIV with a reported sequence, on transmission patterns and detection of growing HIV transmission clusters. (
  • The majority of studies of nontargeted effects use in vitro model systems and it is far from clear whether such mechanisms operate in vivo . (
  • A subgroup analysis was performed among persons who experienced OHCA events that were not witnessed by EMS personnel to evaluate rates of bystander CPR for these persons. (
  • After exclusion of 3,400 OHCA events that occurred after the arrival of EMS providers, bystander CPR information was analyzed for 28,289 events. (
  • These researchers launched a series of experiments that resulted in one of the strongest and most replicable effects in social psychology. (
  • Given the growing number of patients receiving ADCs and the expanding indications for their use, understanding the toxicity profiles of these drugs, and developing strategies to mitigate and manage these side effects have become paramount, Paolo Tarantino, MD, of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, and colleagues explained in a recent review exploring ADC toxicities and efforts to improve patient safety. (
  • Tanshinone IIA enhances bystander cell killing of cancer cells expressing Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase in nuclei and mitochondria. (
  • Personally, prior to my own IMPACT training, I don't know what I would have done as a bystander if the situation arose. (
  • These so-called nontargeted effects ( 1, 2 ) are shown in cells that have received signals produced by irradiated cells (radiation-induced bystander effects) or that are the descendants of irradiated cells (radiation-induced genomic instability). (
  • Interplay Between Thiamine and p53/p21 Axes Affects Antiproliferative Action of Cisplatin in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells by Changing Metabolism of 2-Oxoglutarate/Glutamate. (
  • One inference is that radiation-induced initiation (i.e., the first cellular carcinogenic event(s) occurring in normal tissue after the passage of the radiation) may not be the driving factor in the risk, but more important may be the effects of the radiation on already-initiated cells in the tissue. (
  • Delayed effects are genotype dependent with CBA/Ca mice, but not C57BL/6 mice, susceptible to the induction of damage and also radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia. (
  • Long term expression of Drosophila melanogaster nucleoside kinase in thymidine kinase 2-deficient mice with no lethal effects caused by nucleotide pool imbalances. (
  • What caught my attention was the interview's focus on "activating bystanders" who already knew about the harassment so they could join in the fight against it. (
  • Here, we quantify the contribution of bystander effects to antitumor activity for the first time, by developing a spatially resolved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (SR-PK/PD) model for PR-104, a phosphate ester pre-prodrug that is converted systemically to the hypoxia-activated prodrug PR-104A. (
  • The SR-PK/PD model estimated that bystander effects contribute 30 and 50 of PR-104 activity in SiHa and HCT116 tumors, respectively. (
  • We show in a review of the application of this model to lung cancer incidence and mortality in two exposed populations that for both high- and low -LET radiation, there is evidence of an "inverse dose -rate" or protraction effect. (
  • Being a good bystander takes practice, but you can prepare yourself to be ready when the time comes. (