Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Ulnar Neuropathies: Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Polypharmacology: The design or use of pharmaceutical agents that act on multiple targets or disease pathways.Databases, Pharmaceutical: Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.Pharmacoepidemiology: The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Cosmetic Techniques: Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Callosities: Localized hyperplasia of the horny layer of the epidermis due to pressure or friction. (Dorland, 27th ed)Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Delirium: A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Diterpenes, Clerodane: A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 2-rings with a side-chain.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.FloridaMethane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.KynurenineMetabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Quinolinic Acid: A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Golf: A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into the SUBARACHNOID SPACE due to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Torsades de Pointes: A malignant form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by HEART RATE between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points. The term also describes the syndrome of tachycardia with prolonged ventricular repolarization, long QT intervals exceeding 500 milliseconds or BRADYCARDIA. Torsades de pointes may be self-limited or may progress to VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Undaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE, in the family Alariaceae, native to Japan, Korea, and China. The edible SEAWEED Undaria pinnatifida is also called wakame.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

Research and identification of tranquillizers - use of retention index. (1/98)

At the request of the Service des Haras, our laboratory works on the toxicological problems of the sport-horse. These studies have resulted in the setting up of an anti-doping control for equestrian competitions of various types, not only flat racing. During events, horses, must be calm and docile to the riders' order. Frequently, the latter use tranquillizers to try and win events. The analytical method for the research and identification of these compounds is described. The technique involves successively: 1. alkalinisation of the sample - saliva, blood or urine after enzymatic hydrolysis. 2. extraction with diethyl ether - the recovery is 70% to 90% depending upon the drug. 3. determination by gas-liquid chromatography with use of a retention index for qualitative analysis. We can detect up to fifteen tranquillizers in any one sample, even when present at such low concentrations as found in saliva. The use of the retention index is a reliable method for qualitative analysis. For example, the method has been used for three years, during which period the rentention index of acetylpromazine remained at 3240 +/- 7. The chromatographic analysis was performed on 3% OV-17 at 290 degrees. The chromatographic analysis has been performed by three columns of different polarity (OV-1; OV-17; SP-2250). If on the three columns, the retention index of one peak is the same as that of the tranquilizer, a further confirmation is made with the use of a thermionic detector specific for nitrogenous drugs. In conclusion, this method which is sufficiently precise and specific has been used for anti-doping control.  (+info)

Densitometric determination of impurities in pharmaceuticals. Part VI. Determination of 4,4-bis[4-(p-chlorophenyl)- 4-hydroxypiperidino]butyrophenone in haloperidol. (2/98)

A chromatographic and densitometic method for identification and quantitative determination of 4,4-bis[4-(p-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidino]butyrophenone as an impurity in haloperidol pharmaceutical has been developed. The HPTLC plates and chloroform-methanol-ammonium hydroxide 25% (90:9:1) were used for chromatographic separation as stationary and mobile phases respectively. Detection has been carried out in UV at lambda = 350 nm. The determination could be made directly without preliminary component separation by extraction. Based on the statistical analysis of obtained results, it was found that the new method is accurate and repeatable.  (+info)

Anaesthetic agents inhibit gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release from rat stomach ECL cells. (3/98)

By mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin, the ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa play a key role in the control of the parietal cells and hence of gastric acid secretion. General anaesthesia suppresses basal and gastrin- and histamine-stimulated acid secretion. The present study examines if the effect of anaesthesia on basal and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion is associated with suppressed ECL-cell histamine secretion. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the submucosa of the ventral aspect of the acid-producing part of the stomach (32 rats). Three days later, ECL-cell histamine mobilization was monitored 2 h before and 4 h after the start of intravenous infusion of gastrin (5 nmol kg(-1) h(-1)). The rats were either conscious or anaesthetized. Four commonly used anaesthetic agents were given 1 h before the start of the experiments by intraperitoneal injection: chloral hydrate (300 mg kg(-1)), pentobarbitone (40 mg kg(-1)), urethane (1.5 g kg(-1)) and a mixture of fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam (15/0.5/7.5 mg kg(-1)). In a parallel series of experiments, basal- and gastrin-induced acid secretion was monitored in six conscious and 25 anaesthetized (see above) chronic gastric fistula rats. All anaesthetic agents lowered gastrin-stimulated acid secretion; also the basal acid output was reduced (fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam was an exception). Anaesthesia reduced gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release by 55 - 80%. The reduction in gastrin-induced acid response (70 - 95%) was strongly correlated to the reduction in gastrin-induced histamine mobilization. The correlation is in line with the view that the reduced acid response to gastrin reflects impaired histamine mobilization. Rat stomach ECL cells were purified by counter-flow elutriation. Gastrin-evoked histamine mobilization from the isolated ECL cells was determined in the absence or presence of anaesthetic agents in the medium. With the exception of urethane, they inhibited gastrin-evoked histamine secretion dose-dependently, indicating a direct effect on the ECL cells. Anaesthetized rats are widely used to study acid secretion and ECL-cell histamine release. The present results illustrate the short-comings of such an approach in that a number of anaesthetic agents were found to impair not only acid secretion but also the secretion of ECL-cell histamine - some acting in a direct manner.  (+info)

Cardiovascular effects of endothelin-1 and endothelin antagonists in conscious, hypertensive ((mRen-2)27) rats. (4/98)

SB 209670 is a potent antagonist of the vasoconstrictor (ET(A)- and ET(B)-receptor-mediated) and vasodilator (ET(B)-receptor-mediated) effects of endothelin, whereas SB 234551 is relatively selective for the constrictor (ET(A)-receptor-mediated) effects. Since we had previously found SB 209670 exerted antihypertensive, vasodilator effects in conscious, heterozygous, transgenic ((mRen-2)27) (abbreviated to TG) rats, here we compared the two antagonists in that model, and assessed their chronic effects on responses to exogenous endothelin-1. We did this to test our global hypothesis, namely, that SB 209670, but not SB 234551, would cause inhibition of the depressor effects of exogenous endothelin-1 in vivo, and that this differential effect would be associated with a more marked antihypertensive action of SB 234551 in TG rats. SB 209670 and SB 234551 (infused for 50 h) exerted similar, sustained, antihypertensive effects in TG rats. The antihypertensive effects of the antagonists occurred at times when the pressor effects of exogenous endothelin-1 were not significantly inhibited. Furthermore, SB 234551 did not exert a greater antihypertensive effect than SB 209670 at a time (i.e., 2 - 4 h) when the depressor effects of endothelin-1 were abolished by the latter, but not by the former (although this differential action was lost after 24 h infusion). The results caused us to reject the hypothesis that selective antagonism of the vasoconstrictor effects of endothelin-1 would result in SB 234551 exerting a greater antihypertensive effect than SB 209670 in TG rats.  (+info)

A novel cytochrome P450 enzyme responsible for the metabolism of ebastine in monkey small intestine. (5/98)

Small intestinal microsomes of cynomolgus monkeys were found to catalyze hydroxylation and dealkylation of an H(1)-antihistamine prodrug, ebastine. To identify the main enzyme responsible for ebastine hydroxylation, which has been hitherto unknown, we purified two cytochrome P450 isoforms, named P450 MI-2 and P450 MI-3, from the intestinal microsomes on the basis of the hydroxylation activity. P450 MI-2 and P450 MI-3 showed the respective apparent molecular weights of 56,000 and 53,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The internal amino acid sequence of P450 MI-2 had high similarity with those of human CYP4F2, CYP4F3, and CYP4F8. The first 27 amino acid residues of P450 MI-3 were highly homologous with those of monkey CYP3A8 and human CYP3A4/5/7. Furthermore, P450 MI-2 and P450 MI-3 were recognized by anti-CYP4F and anti-CYP3A antibodies, respectively, in immunoblot analysis and catalyzed leukotriene B(4) omega-hydroxylation and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation, which are known to be mediated by CYP4F and CYP3A, respectively. Although both enzymes had ebastine hydroxylation activity, the V(max) value of P450 MI-2 was much higher than that of P450 MI-3 (37.0 versus 0.406 nmol/min/nmol of P450), and the former K(M) (5.1 microM) was smaller than the latter K(M) (10 microM). Anti-CYP4F antibody inhibited the hydroxylation in small intestinal microsomes strongly (70%), but anti-CYP3A antibody did not. These results indicate that P450 MI-2 belongs to the CYP4F subfamily and is mainly responsible for hydroxylation of ebastine in monkey small intestinal microsomes. This suggests that the small intestinal CYP4F enzyme, P450 MI-2, can play an important role in the metabolism of drugs given orally.  (+info)

Gene replacement analysis of the butyrolactone autoregulator receptor (FarA) reveals that FarA acts as a Novel regulator in secondary metabolism of Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5. (6/98)

IM-2 [(2R,3R,1'R)-2-1'-hydroxybutyl-3-hydroxymethyl gamma-butanolide] is a gamma-butyrolactone autoregulator which, in Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5, switches off the production of D-cycloserine but switches on the production of a blue pigment and several nucleoside antibiotics. To clarify the in vivo function of an IM-2-specific receptor (FarA) in the IM-2 signaling cascade of S. lavendulae FRI-5, a farA deletion mutant was constructed by means of homologous recombination. On several solid media, no significant difference in morphology was observed between the wild-type strain and the farA mutant (strain K104), which demonstrated that the IM-2-FarA system does not participate in the morphological control of S. lavendulae FRI-5. In liquid media, the farA mutant overproduced nucleoside antibiotics and produced blue pigment earlier than did the wild-type strain, suggesting that the FarA protein acts primarily as a negative regulator on the biosynthesis of these compounds in the absence of IM-2. However, contrary to the IM-2-dependent suppression of D-cycloserine production in the wild-type strain, overproduction of D-cycloserine was observed in the farA mutant, indicating for the first time that the presence of both IM-2 and intact FarA are necessary for the suppression of D-cycloserine biosynthesis.  (+info)

Effects of supratherapeutic doses of ebastine and terfenadine on the QT interval. (7/98)

AIMS: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of high doses of ebastine with terfenadine and placebo on QTc. METHODS: Thirty-two subjects were randomly assigned to four treatments (ebastine 60 mg x day(-1), ebastine 100 mg x day(-1), terfenadine 360 mg x day(-1), placebo) administered for 7 days. Serial ECGs were performed at baseline and day 7 of each period. QT interval was analysed using both Bazett (QTcB) and Fridericia (QTcF) corrections. RESULTS: Ebastine 60 mg (+ 3.7 ms) did not cause a statistically significant change in QTcB compared with placebo (+ 1.4 ms). The mean QTcB for ebastine 100 mg was increased by + 10.3 ms which was significantly greater than placebo but was significantly less (P < 0.05) than with terfenadine 360 mg (+ 18.0 ms). There were no statistically significant differences in QTcF between ebastine 60 mg (-3.2 ms) or ebastine 100 mg (1.5 ms) and placebo (-2.1 ms); although terfenadine caused a 14.1 ms increase which was significantly different from the other three treatments. The increase in QTcB with ebastine most likely resulted from overcorrection of the small drug-induced increase in heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: Ebastine at doses up to five times the recommended therapeutic dose did not cause clinically relevant changes in QTc interval.  (+info)

Transport characteristics of ebastine and its metabolites across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. (8/98)

The transport characteristics of a selective peripheral H1 receptor antagonist, ebastine, a substrate for cytochrome P450 3A4, and its three major metabolites, i.e., the hydroxy metabolite of ebastine (M-OH), the pharmacologically active metabolite carebastine (Car), and the desbutyrophenone metabolite (des-BP), were studied in cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells expressing a drug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), on the apical membrane. The polarized transport of [3H]cyclosporin A (CyA), mediated by P-gp in the basolateral to apical direction across the Caco-2 cell monolayers, was affected by the presence of ebastine in a concentration-dependent manner and significant inhibition was observed at high concentrations (>50 microM). M-OH (300 microM) also significantly inhibited whereas Car and des-BP did not. Although no marked polarized transport of [14C]ebastine in a secretory direction was observed in the Caco-2 systems, the flux in the basolateral to apical direction was slightly higher than that in the opposite direction at concentrations less than 30 microm. [14C]Ebastine (2 microM) uptake from the apical side was significantly increased in the presence of an excess of cold CyA, suggesting that the efflux process mediated by P-gp may be involved in the ebastine uptake by Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that ebastine (and presumably M-OH) is transported via P-gp in Caco-2 cells, however, the affinity for P-gp is very low. It is unlikely that the secretory transport of ebastine mediated by P-gp will dramatically affect overall intestinal absorption in vivo because efficient passive diffusion of this drug should occur due to its high lipophilicity. However, it may be advantageous for its efficient first-pass metabolism.  (+info)

*Butyrophenone

... is a chemical compound; some of its derivatives (called commonly butyrophenones) are used to treat various ... Examples of butyrophenones include: Haloperidol, the most widely used classical antipsychotic drug in this class Benperidol, ... Grogan, Charles H.; Rice, Leonard M. (1967). "Ω-Azabicyclic Butyrophenones". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (4): 621. doi: ...

*Leonard Jan Le Vann

Le Vann, L. J. (1968). A new butyrophenone: Trifluperidol. A psychiatric evaluation in a pediatric setting Canadian Psychiatric ...

*Moperone

... (Luvatren, since discontinued) is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone class. Gross, H; Kaltenbäck, E (1969 ... "The clinical position of moperone among the butyrophenones". Nordisk psykiatrisk tidsskrift. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 23 ( ...

*Valerophenone

Acetophenone Butyrophenone Propiophenone Klan P.; Janosek J.; Krz Z. (2000). "Photochemistry of valerophenone in solid ...

*List of fentanyl analogues

... haloperidol type butyrophenone. U.S. Patent 3,161,637 Fentranyl [102504-49-4] (Tranyl tanyl) Fentroline [1443-41-0] Same side- ...

*Bromperidol

... (marketed as Bromidol, Bromodol) is a butyrophenone derivative. It is a potent and long-acting neuroleptic, used as ... Poldinger W, Bures E, Haage H, Clinical study with bromperidol, a new butyrophenone derivative, Int Pharmacopsychiatry. 1977;12 ... 1):20-4. Dubinsky B, McGuire JL, Niemegeers CJ, Janssen PA, Weintraub HS, McKenzie BE, Bromperidol, a new butyrophenone ...

*Methamphetamine

... treatment with a benzodiazepine versus a butyrophenone". Eur. J. Emerg. Med. 4 (3): 130-135. doi:10.1097/00063110-199709000- ...

*Aceperone

... is a neuroleptic drug of the butyrophenone class. It is an α-noradrenergic blocking drug developed by Janssen ...

*Carpipramine

It is structurally related to both tricyclics like imipramine and butyrophenones like haloperidol. Clocapramine Mosapramine ...

*Substantia nigra

These antagonists include first generation (typical) antipsychotics such as butyrophenones, phenothiazines, and thioxanthenes. ...

*Neuroleptanalgesic

"Combined analgesic/neuroleptic activity in N-butyrophenone prodine-like compounds". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 30: 1906- ...

*Trifluperidol

Gallant DM, Bishop MP, Timmons E, Steele CA, Trifluperidol: a butyrophenone derivative, Am J Psychiatry. 1963 Nov;120:485-7.. ... Trifluperidol is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone chemical class. It has general properties similar to those of ...

*Benperidol

... is a drug which is a highly potent butyrophenone derivative. It is the most potent neuroleptic on the European ...

*Actinometer

Organic actinometers like butyrophenone or piperylene are analysed by gas chromatography. Other actinometers are more specific ...

*Typical antipsychotic

Another prominent grouping of antipsychotics are the butyrophenones, an example of which would be haloperidol. The newer, ...

*Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia

This observation was subsequently extended to other antipsychotic drug classes, such as butyrophenones including haloperidol. ...

*Lenperone

... (Elanone-V) is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone chemical class. Chemically related drugs containing the ...

*Fluanisone

... is a typical antipsychotic and sedative of the butyrophenone chemical class. It is used in the treatment of ...

*Domperidone

... is a benzimidazole derivative and is structurally related to butyrophenone neuroleptics like haloperidol. 1974 - ... Domperidone, a benzimidazole derivative, is structurally related to the butyrophenone tranquilizers (eg, haloperidol (Haldol, ...

*Pleurothotonus

K. Ekbom, H. Lindholm and L. Ljungerberg, New dystonic syndrome associated with butyrophenone therapy. Z Neurol, 202 (1972), pp ...

*Spiperone

... is a typical antipsychotic and research chemical belonging to the butyrophenone chemical class. It is licensed for clinical use ...

*Risperidone

Although not a butyrophenone, it was developed with the structures of benperidol and ketanserin as a basis. It has actions at ...

*History of general anesthesia

Janssen synthesized nearly all of the butyrophenone class of antipsychotic agents, beginning with haloperidol (1958) and ...

*Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Individuals using butyrophenones (such as haloperidol and droperidol) or phenothiazines (such as promethazine and ...

*Timiperone

... , sold under the brand name Tolopelon, is an antipsychotic of the butyrophenone class which is marketed in Japan. It ...
List of words make out of Butyrophenones. Anagrams and Words made out of Butyrophenones. Find Scrabble Point of Butyrophenones. Definition of Butyrophenones. Puzzle Solver.
Clinical Effects: BUTYROPHENONES USES: Butyrophenones include the typical antipsychotics, droperidol and haloperidol. They are primarily used for treatment of schizophrenia and mood disorders. They are also used as an adjunct in migraines, states of acute psychosis and agitation, and nausea and vomiting. PHARMACOLOGY: In therapeutic doses, butyrophenones are D2 receptor antagonists. Antagonizing D2 neurotransmission is…
Introduction: Butyrophenone drugs including haloperidol are being widely used in the field of psychiatry. The acute butyrophenone poisoning incidents sometimes take place; in such cases, the analysis of a butyrophenone becomes necessary in forensic toxicology or clinical toxicology. Their analysis is being made by GC [1-4], GC/MS [5-6], HPLC [7-15] and LC/MS [16,17]. Six butyrophenones are now available as ethical drugs in Japan ( Fig. 2.1); the most typical ones are haloperidol and bromperidol, which most frequently cause poisoning incidents among butyrophenones. ...
Butyrophenone is a chemical compound; some of its derivatives (called commonly butyrophenones) are used to treat various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, as well as acting as antiemetics. Examples of butyrophenones include: Haloperidol, the most widely used classical antipsychotic drug in this class Benperidol, the most potent commonly used antipsychotic ( 200 times more potent than chlorpromazine ...
patients with different neuroleptic medications 3.1. General features of schizophrenic patients Analysis of the saturation data was carried out using the non-linear least squares regression The mean ages of control, unmedicated, buty- analysis program, LIGAND. The results gathered rophenone-, phenothiazine-, benzisoxazole- and from this computer-assisted analysis were consis- thioxanthene-treated groups were 31.72.2, 24.8 tent with the presence of only one binding site on 2.3, 32.73.5, 33.73.6, 33.44.8 and 28.2 the platelets of control subjects and schizophrenic 2.9 years, respectively. The mean durations of patients. The present data were comparable to illness for the unmedicated, butyrophenone, our previous report ŽGovitrapong et al., phenothiazine, benzisoxazole and thioxanthene groups were 3.1 1.5, 9.92.8, 5.201.1, 9.9 ing to platelets of normal control subjects and 1.9 and 4.81.2 years, respectively. The mean durations of treatment on butyrophenones, patients are shown in Table ...
Haloperidol is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. It also exerts sedative and antiemetic activity. Haloperidol has actions at all levels of the central nervous system-primarily at subcortical levels-as well as on multiple organ systems. Haloperidol has strong antiadrenergic and weaker peripheral anticholinergic activity; ganglionic blocking action is relatively slight. It also possesses slight antihistaminic and antiserotonin activity ...
Even though Cataplex B and Cataplex G contain different factors and work for a specific purpose Helps lower blood pressure and blood vessels without tone. ototoxicity especially if given with aminoglycosides. How To Make Homemade Garlic Bread Recipe Roast Oven Garlic Cloves psychotropic: Benzodiazepines Amphetamines Barbiturates Opiates Tranquillizers (Phenothiazines - Butyrophenones - Thioxanthenes) Its side effect of significant hypertension limits its use to patients with cardiovascular disease.. Most people have no symptoms but the complications can be deadly. Adding more fruits vegetables fish whole grains nuts and low-fat dairy to your diet is vital as those with high blood pressure often learn. Dec 16th 2008 by Editor. www.lakecountyphysicians.com/ace.arb_medication_list.pdf. CURRENT Essentials of Nephrology & Hypertension is a practical state-of-the-art review of the clinical management of kidney disease and hypertension. Hypertension in Pregnancy Dr Lim Soon Hock MRCOG Sarawak General ...
Lhalopéridol est un agent psychotrope indiqué pour le traitement de la schizophrénie. Elle exerce également une activité sédative et anti-émétique. Lhalopéridol a des actions à tous les niveaux du système nerveux central du système avant au sous-corticales niveaux-ainsi que sur les systèmes dorganes multiples. Lhalopéridol a antiadrénergiques forts et faibles dactivité anticholinergique périphériques; ganglionnaires action de blocage est relativement légère. Il a également possède antihistaminique légère et de lactivité antisérotonine ...
Breast cancer surgery performed under general anesthesia is associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). A number of approaches are available for the management of PONV after breast cancer surgery. First, the risk factors related to patient characteristics, surgical procedure, anesthetic technique, and postoperative care can be reduced. More specifically, the use of propofol-based anesthesia can reduce the incidence of PONV. Secondly, a wide range of prophylactic antiemetics, including butyrophenones (droperidol), benzamides (metoclopramide), glucocorticoids (dexamethasone), clonidine, a small dose of propofol, and serotonin receptor (SR) antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, dolasetron, ramosetron, and palonosetron), are available for preventing PONV. Thirdly, antiemetic therapy combined with granisetron and droperidol or dexamethasone, and a multimodal management strategy which includes a package consisting of dexamethasone, total intravenous anesthesia
Pharmacological enhancement of neurorehabilitation is based on the concept of neuroplasticity. Agents with probably unfavourable effects on recovery (e.g. classical antiepileptic drugs, butyrophenones) should be avoided. The findings of experimental studies in animal models, investigations in healthy subjects and the findings of neurophysiological studies indicate that there is scope for benefit from pharmacological enhancement in stroke rehabilitation in the clinical setting - in addition to rehabilitative therapies. Randomized controlled clinical trials have shown benefit of pharmacological enhancement in stroke rehabilitation for some agents. Nevertheless, the clinical evidence regarding benefits of this treatment approach is still considered weak for the following reason: First, the beneficial findings of some studies were not confirmed by others. Second, several studies were limited by small patient populations and narrow inclusion criteria. Third, there were concerns regarding safety of ...
Almirall, S.A. (Ticker Bolsa de Madrid: ALM) is a pharmaceutical company, with headquarters in Barcelona, founded in 1943. In 2016, it generated total revenue of 859.3 million € and became the leading pharmaceutical company in R&D investment in Spain. With over 1,975 employees (2016), it has a presence, through its 13 affiliates in Europe and United States. 1943 Foundation of Laboratorios Almirall SA. 1979 Launch of the gastroprokinetic clebopride in Spain, the first product from the companys internal research to obtain a license in another country. 1984 Launch of the antacid almagate in Spain. 1985 Launch of the local anti-inflammatory piketoprofen in Spain. 1990 Launch of the antihistamine ebastine and the gastroprokinetic cinitapride in Spain. Opening of the affiliate in Belgium. 1992 Launch of the anti-inflammatory aceclofenac in Spain. 1993 Opening of the affiliate in Portugal. 1994 Opening of the new headquarters of Almirall in Barcelona. 1995 Inauguration of the extension and ...
Marcyrl has been established since 1998 as a simple private company "Marcyrl Import & Export Company". On Jan 17, 2002 and according to Law no. 491 /2002, Marcyrl .... ...
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Ebastine (trade names Evastin, Kestine, Ebastel, Aleva, Ebatrol) is a H1 antihistamine with low potential for causing drowsiness. It does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier to a significant amount and thus combines an effective block of the H1 receptor in peripheral tissue with a low incidence of central side effects, i.e. seldom causing sedation or drowsiness. The patent in which the structure of ebastine is first mentioned is EP 134124 in Europe and US 4550116 in the US. The substance is often provided in micronised form due to poor water solubility. Ebastine is a second-generation H1 receptor antagonist that is indicated mainly for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. It is available in 10 and 20 mg tablets and as fast-dissolving tablets, as well as in pediatric syrup. It has a recommended flexible daily dose of 10 or 20 mg, depending on disease severity. Ebastine is available in different formulations (tablets, fast dissolving tablets and syrup) and commercialized under ...
Ebastine, is a H1 antihistamine with low potential for causing drowsiness. It does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier to a significant amount and thus combines an effective block of the H1 receptor in peripheral tissue with a low incidence of central side effects, i.e. seldom causing sedation or drowsiness. After oral administration, ebastine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism by hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 into its active carboxylic acid metabolite, carebastine. This conversion is practically complete. Ebastine is a second-generation H1 receptor antagonist that is indicated mainly for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria.
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
The multiassembly comprar viagra problem: reconstructing multiple transcript isoforms from EST fragment mixtures. Ebastine and loratadine are 2 nonsedating second-generation H(1) antihistamines with once-daily dosing. These findings suggested some activation and/or denaturation during production and/or heating. Key foundational content was packaged ...
Posted by Rebo on 4:08 pm on Mar. 14, 2002. I am looking for Gamma-butryolactone, or butyrolactone!! This shit has become a real pain in the ass to track down since the ban (dont even get me started on that fucking ban)! The companies I have found will not ship to the states. Keep in mind, CO2 cartridges are LEGAL here, compared to other countries in which GBL is. Raise any ideas?. ...
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Filmul Leatherface: Ucigasul fara chip (2017) Filme online subtitrate incepe la resedinta Sawyer , capul familiei , Verna Sawyer (Lili Taylor) , organizeaza o petrecere ocazionata de ziua de nastere a celui mai nou membru al familiei , Jedidiah . Drept cadou si pentru a-l introduce pe acesta ...
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Vi har undersøgt antihistaminer og fokuseret på deres potentiale som anti-cancer stoffer i kemoresistente brystkræftceller. To brystkræft cellelinjer MDA-MB-231 og MCF-7 samt deres docetaxel-resistente udgaver blev brugt som modelsystem i dette studie. Det blev fundet, at opregulering af MDR1 udover at medføre docetaxel-resistens også gjorde cellerne krydsresistente overfor kemoterapien doxorubicin. Derudover viste vi, at de tre antihistaminer, astemizole, loratadine og ebastine, var i stand til at genskabe følsomheden overfor docetaxel og doxorubicin i resistente MDA-MB-231 celler og i svagere grad i resistente MCF-7 celler. Astemizole, loratadine og ebastine var i stand til at inhibere MDR1 aktivitet i resistente MDA-MB-231 celler i varierende grad, hvilket muligvis spiller en rolle for deres evne til at genskabe følsomheden overfor kemoterapi.. Konklusion og ...
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WOBIB_127 ] Neuroimaging of histamine H1-receptor occupancy in human brain by positron emission tomography (PET): a comparative study of ebastine, a second-generation antihistamine, and (+)-chlorpheniramine, a classical antihistamine ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning that ziprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent, has been linked to a rare but serious skin reaction called Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), which can progress to other parts of the body.
The reality is more complex since the receptor binding profile of clozapine and the newer atypical antipsychotic agents suggests that D2-receptor blockade is not essential for antipsychotic effect. The atypical drugs act on numerous receptors and modulate several interacting transmitter systems. Clozapine is a highly effective antipsychotic. It has little affinity for the D2-receptor compared with classical drugs but binds more avidly to other dopamine subtypes (e.g. D1, D3 and D4). It blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, as do certain classical agents (e.g. ...
Bifeprunox is a novel atypical antipsychotic agent which, along with SLV313, aripiprazole and SSR-181507 combines minimal D2 receptor agonism with 5-HT receptor agonism. [Wikipedia]
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This fits with the pseudonymous endorse lengthening of the CODAM subject from the basic ballistic prominence ideal of (Desimone and Duncan 1995) to embrace working memory buffer sites As mentioned over, JNK activity can be regulated by...
Testul se efectuează numai la laboratorul Central Synevo. **Testul se efectuează la laboratoarele Synevo cu excepţia laboratorului Central. ***Datorită specificului fazei preanalitice recoltarea probelor pentru aceste teste se face cu programare la sediile laboratorului din Bucureşti, Timişoara, Iaşi, Constanţa şi Cluj-Napoca.. ****Testul se efectuează numai la laboratorul Central Synevo, la Synevo Cluj şi Synevo Iaşi. Synevo Romania işi rezervă dreptul de a modifica tarifele testelor fara aviz prealabil ...
Nu putem sa discutam despre reparatii termopane fara sa stim care sunt compusii acestor materiale. In ceea ce priveste termopanele recomandarile noastre sunt sa nu va apucati de facut reparatii singuri pentru ca exista sansele sa distrugeti definitiv profielele si sa fie nevoie sa le schimbati complet, si implicit veti cheltui mult mai mult decat in cazul in care apelati de la bun inceput la un specialist in reparatii acreditat.. ...
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In cazul interventiilor chirurgicale, cu sau fara regim alimentar in preoperator, nutritia enterala pe baza de proteine hidrolizate (peptide) permite reluarea precoce a alimentatiei, reduce riscul complicatiilor post-operatorii, scade riscul de aparitie. Continue reading. ...
In cazul interventiilor chirurgicale, cu sau fara regim alimentar in preoperator, nutritia enterala pe baza de proteine hidrolizate (peptide) permite reluarea precoce a alimentatiei, reduce riscul complicatiilor post-operatorii, scade riscul de aparitie. Continue reading. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A double-blind, randomized, single-dose, crossover comparison of levocetirizine with ebastine, fexofenadine, loratadine, mizolastine, and placebo. T2 - Suppression of histamine-induced wheal-and-flare response during 24 hours in healthy male subjects. AU - Grant, Andrew J.. AU - Riethuisen, Jean Michel. AU - Moulaert, Béatrice. AU - DeVos, Christine. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Levocetirizine is the active enantiomer of cetirizine, a potent drug with little metabolism widely used for allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Objective: This study compares the potency, consistency, onset, and duration of action of levocetirizine with other popular antihistamines. Methods: Levocetirizine 5 mg, ebastine 10 mg, fexofenadine 180 mg, loratadine 10 mg, mizolastine 10 mg, or placebo in single doses were given to 18 healthy male volunteers in a double-blind, crossover, randomized fashion. Wheal-and-flare responses to epicutaneous histamine dihydrochloride (100 mg/mL) challenge were ...
Other products on the market containing loratadine are: Alavert, Claritin D, Claritin Reditab, Clear-Atadine, Dimetapp ND, ohm Allergy Relief, QlearQuil All Day & Night, Tavist ND, Wal-itin. -- …. Patients recorded morning and evening reflective scores (past 12 hours) as well as snapshot scores (at time of recording) for nasal discharge, congestion, sneezing, itching, and total eye symptoms. The study is created by eHealthMe and is updated continuously. Uses: Loratadine is approved for Allergy, Itching and Seasonal Allergies and is mostly mentioned together with these indications. Who is eHealthMe: we are a data analysis company who specializes in health care industry either ebastine 20 mg, ebastine 10 mg, loratadine 10 mg, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients rated Loratadine 3.9/5 over Cetirizine 3.6/5 in overall satisfaction Claritin (Loratadine) Claritin (Loratadine) is an antihistamine medication used to treat allergies. It is available for adults and children over 2 years old ...
Gamma Butyrolactone Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Product Name: Gamma Butyrolactone Key words: Gamma Butyrolactone, gamma -BLO, 1, 4-Butyrolactone, 4-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone, 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone 4-Butanolide 1. CAS: 96-48-0 2. Molecular...
Introduction: Patients with schizophrenia are widely reported to show impairments of attention and neuropsychological performance, but the extent to which this is attributable to medication and dopamine (DA) function remains largely unexplored. Methods: We describe here the putative influence of 1) the dose of antipsychotic medication (chlorpromazine equivalents, CPZ), 2) the antipsychotic serum concentration (neuroleptic units in terms of butyrophenone displacement from animal neostriatum) and 3) the approximated DA D2-receptor occupancy in the brain (based on regression curves from 11 studies published for 5 neuroleptics) - - on conditioned blocking (CB) measures of attention and performance on a neuropsycholog-ical battery. We studied 108 patients with schizophrenia with 62 healthy controls. Results: 1) Antipsychotic serum concentration and D2-occupancy were higher in patients with a paranoid vs. non-paranoid diagnosis, and in female vs. male patients (independent of symptom severity). 2) ...
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Haloperidol is a typical butyrophenone type antipsychotic that exhibits high affinity dopamine D 2 receptor antagonism and slow receptor dissociation kinetics. [42] It has effects similar to the phenothiazines . [17] The drug binds
Haloperidol is a typical butyrophenone type antipsychotic that exhibits high affinity dopamine D 2 receptor antagonism and slow receptor dissociation kinetics. [42] It has effects similar to the phenothiazines . [17] The drug binds
Aripiprazole lauroxil long-acting injectable (LAI) [Aristada®] is an intramuscularly administered, extended-release prodrug of aripiprazole, an established atypical antipsychotic agent that, in terms
Chlorpheniramine- యొక్క ఉపయోగాలు, మోతాదు, దుష్ప్రభావాలు, ప్రయోజనాలు, పరస్పర చర్యలు మరియు హెచ్చరికను కనుగొనండి
2 Answers - Posted in: lortab, zanaflex, pain, back pain - Answer: Zanaflex is a very short acting drug. It only has peak action for a couple ...
The problem of so-called designer drugs is running out of control in many regions of the world, the UN global drugs watchdog has said.
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Butyrophenone - WikipediaButyrophenone - Wikipedia

Butyrophenone is a chemical compound; some of its derivatives (called commonly butyrophenones) are used to treat various ... Examples of butyrophenones include: Haloperidol, the most widely used classical antipsychotic drug in this class Benperidol, ... Grogan, Charles H.; Rice, Leonard M. (1967). "Ω-Azabicyclic Butyrophenones". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (4): 621. doi: ...
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Ultrasonic Studies on Butyrophenones and Related Drugs with Iodin...: Ingenta ConnectUltrasonic Studies on Butyrophenones and Related Drugs with Iodin...: Ingenta Connect

Ultrasonic Studies on Butyrophenones and Related Drugs with Iodine in Benzene Solutions, Part I ... Butyrophenone und verwandte Stoffe wurden als Donoren gewählt, während als Akzeptor Jod verwendet wurde. Die ... Ultrasonic studies on donor-acceptor systems have been made in benzene solutions at 30 and 40°C. Butyrophenones and related ...
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Chemical Database: Butyrophenone, 4\-fluoro-4-(4-methylpiperidino)-, hydrochloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)Chemical Database: Butyrophenone, 4\'-fluoro-4-(4-methylpiperidino)-, hydrochloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)

This page contains information on the chemical Butyrophenone, 4\-fluoro-4-(4-methylpiperidino)-, hydrochloride including: 13 ... 4-Fluoro-4-(4-methylpiperidino) butyrophenone hydrochloride*Buronil*Butyrophenone, 4-fluoro-4-(4-methylpiperidino)-, ... Butyrophenone, 4-fluoro-4-(4-methylpiperidino)-, hydrochloride. Identifications. *CAS Number: 1622-79-3*Synonyms/Related:*1-(3 ... Chemical Database - Butyrophenone, 4\-fluoro-4-(4-methylpiperidino)-, hydrochloride. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 - 2018. ...
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Butyrophenones | definition of butyrophenones by Medical dictionaryButyrophenones | definition of butyrophenones by Medical dictionary

... butyrophenones explanation free. What is butyrophenones? Meaning of butyrophenones medical term. What does butyrophenones mean? ... Looking for online definition of butyrophenones in the Medical Dictionary? ... butyrophenones. Also found in: Dictionary.. Related to butyrophenones: haloperidol, Phenothiazines, Thioxanthenes. ... butyrophenones. A group of phenothiazine derivative drugs used in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA. The group includes ...
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5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor in rabbit aorta: characterization by butyrophenone analogs.. S Maayani, C W Wilkinson and J S ... 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor in rabbit aorta: characterization by butyrophenone analogs.. S Maayani, C W Wilkinson and J S ... 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor in rabbit aorta: characterization by butyrophenone analogs.. S Maayani, C W Wilkinson and J S ... 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor in rabbit aorta: characterization by butyrophenone analogs. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
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Uliolind
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Haloperidol is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. It also exerts sedative and antiemetic activity. Haloperidol has actions at all levels of the central nervous system-primarily at subcortical levels-as well as on multiple organ systems. Haloperidol has strong antiadrenergic and weaker peripheral anticholinergic activity; ganglionic blocking action is relatively slight. It also possesses slight antihistaminic and antiserotonin activity ...
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Haloperidol Intensol
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Lhalopéridol est un agent psychotrope indiqué pour le traitement de la schizophrénie. Elle exerce également une activité sédative et anti-émétique. Lhalopéridol a des actions à tous les niveaux du système nerveux central du système avant au sous-corticales niveaux-ainsi que sur les systèmes dorganes multiples. Lhalopéridol a antiadrénergiques forts et faibles dactivité anticholinergique périphériques; ganglionnaires action de blocage est relativement légère. Il a également possède antihistaminique légère et de lactivité antisérotonine ...
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N05AD Butyrophenone derivatives. N05AD01 Haloperidol N05AD02 Trifluperidol N05AD03 Melperone N05AD04 Moperone N05AD05 ...
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Haldol  - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWikiHaldol - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWiki

Haldol - Get up-to-date information on Haldol side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Haldol
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Drugs and Poisons in Humans - A Handbook of Practical Analysis | Osamu Suzuki | SpringerDrugs and Poisons in Humans - A Handbook of Practical Analysis | Osamu Suzuki | Springer

It was with great pleasure that I accepted the invitation to write the foreword for Drugs and Poisons in Humans. A Handbook of Practical Analysis. Dr. Osamu Suzuki and Dr. Mikio Yashiki, two outstanding Japanese scientists, f rst published the Handbook in Japanese in 2002. Specialists throughout
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Patent US7262158 - Cleansing compositions comprising a liquid silicone and ester mixture - Google PatentsPatent US7262158 - Cleansing compositions comprising a liquid silicone and ester mixture - Google Patents

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Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood.
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Molecules  | Free Full-Text | Current Concepts and Treatments of Schizophrenia | HTMLMolecules | Free Full-Text | Current Concepts and Treatments of Schizophrenia | HTML

Another group of typical antipsychotic drugs are butyrophenones (e.g., benperidol, droperidol, and haloperidol) whose ...
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Leonard Jan Le Vann - WikipediaLeonard Jan Le Vann - Wikipedia

Le Vann, L. J. (1968). A new butyrophenone: Trifluperidol. A psychiatric evaluation in a pediatric setting Canadian Psychiatric ...
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A Multicenter, Open-Label, Single-Arm Evaluation of Palonosetron for the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting...A Multicenter, Open-Label, Single-Arm Evaluation of Palonosetron for the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting...

Butyrophenones (haloperidol, droperidol). *Cannabinoides (tetrahydrocannabinol or nabilone). *Any systemic corticosteroid ( ...
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Tremors: Causes of Hand, Muscle & Body TremorsTremors: Causes of Hand, Muscle & Body Tremors

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  • some of its derivatives (called commonly butyrophenones) are used to treat various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, as well as acting as antiemetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • If psychiatry needs a good, immediate fix, it would be in the development and approval of new chemicals that are both better tolerated than the butyrophenones and more affordable than atypical antipsychotics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ultrasonic Studies on Butyrophenones and Related Drugs with Iodin. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Ultrasonic studies on donor-acceptor systems have been made in benzene solutions at 30 and 40°C. Butyrophenones and related drugs have been chosen as a donor, while iodine has been selected as an acceptor. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Droperidol, another antipsychotic in the butyrophenone class, is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for psychiatric conditions but has been used for sedating agitated patients in an emergency room setting. (giichinese.com.tw)