Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)ValeratesColonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Clobetasol: A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Mucin-3: A membrane-bound mucin subtype that is primarily found in INTESTINAL MUCOSA. Two closely-related subtypes of this protein have been identified in humans.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Riboflavin Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, utilizing a four-carbon fragment from one molecule which is transferred to the second molecule. EC 2.5.1.9.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Solanum melongena: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Skin Cream: A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Bromobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more bromine atoms.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Ubiquitin Thiolesterase: A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases: Members of the peptidase C19 family which regulate signal transduction by removing UBIQUITIN from specific protein substrates via a process known as deubiquitination or deubiquitylation.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.

Effect of sodium butyrate on lymphocyte activation. (1/1990)

Butyrate, in relatively low concentrations, has been shown to induce synthesis of enzymes, cause changes in cell morphology, and inhibit growth of a variety of mammalian cells in tissue culture (reviewed in [1]). In this communication, we report our observations on the effect of butyrate on lymphocyte activation. Butyrate completely and reversibly inhibits mitogen-induced blast formation. We present evidence that it does not interfere with the binding of mitogens, that it does not inhibit a number of the "early" reactions involved in activation, and that it does not affect ongoing DNA synthesis for an extended period of time. However, butyrate rapidly inhibits any increase in the rate of DNA synthesis.  (+info)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (2/1990)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Sustained induction of fetal hemoglobin by pulse butyrate therapy in sickle cell disease. (3/1990)

High levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) protect from many of the complications of sickle cell disease and lead to improved survival. Butyrate and other short chain fatty acids were previously shown to increase Hb F production in erythroid cells in vitro and in animal models in vivo. However, butyrates are also known to inhibit the proliferation of many cell types, including erythroid cells. Experience with the use of butyrate in animal models and in early clinical trials demonstrated that the Hb F response may be lost after prolonged administration of high doses of butyrate. We hypothesized that this loss of response may be a result of the antiproliferative effects of butyrate. We designed a regimen consisting of intermittent or pulse therapy in which butyrate was administered for 4 days followed by 10 to 24 days with no drug exposure. This pulse regimen induced fetal globin gene expression in 9 of 11 patients. The mean Hb F in this group increased from 7.2% to 21.0% (P <.002) after intermittent butyrate therapy for a mean duration of 29.9 weeks. This was associated with a parallel increase in the number of F cells and F reticulocytes. The total hemoglobin levels also increased from a mean of 7.8 g/dL to a mean of 8.8 g/dL (P <.006). The increased levels of Hb F were sustained in all responders, including 1 patient who has been on pulse butyrate therapy for more than 28 months. This regimen, which resulted in a marked and sustained increase in Hb F levels in more than two thirds of the adult sickle cell patients enrolled in this study, was well tolerated without adverse side effects. These encouraging results require confirmation along with an appropriate evaluation of clinical outcomes in a larger number of patients with sickle cell disease.  (+info)

Effects of praeruptorine C on the intracellular free calcium in normal and hypertrophied rat ventricular myocytes. (4/1990)

AIM: To study the intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in normal and hypertrophic left ventricular myocytes isolated from adult rat hearts and the effects of praeruptorine C (Pra-C) on them. METHODS: [Ca2+]i of single myocyte was measured with Fura 2-AM. RESULTS: The resting [Ca2+]i was 87 +/- 4 nmol.L-1 in normal left ventricular myocytes, 123 +/- 7 nmol.L-1 in hypertrophied myocytes. After exposure to KCl (20, 40, and 60 mmol.L-1), the [Ca2+]i were increased by 66%, 141%, and 268% in normal myocytes, and 77%, 185%, and 243% in hypertrophic myocytes, respectively. Pra-C (1, 10, and 100 mumol.L-1) concentration-dependently inhibited the [Ca2+]i elevation caused by KCl (35 mmol.L-1) or norepinephrine (20 mumol.L-1) in both normal and hypertrophied myocytes. All of the effects of Pra-C were similar to that of nifedipine. CONCLUSION: [Ca2+]i of hypertrophied myocytes was higher than that of normal ones and Pra-C decrease the [Ca2+]i elevation in left ventricular myocytes resulted from its calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Effect of ornithine and lactate on urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes. (5/1990)

1. In hepatocytes isolated from 24 h-starved rats, urea production from ammonia was stimulated by addition of lactate, in both the presence and the absence of ornithine. The relationship of lactate concentration to the rate of urea synthesis was hyperbolic. 2. Other glucose precursors also stimulated urea production to varying degrees, but none more than lactate. Added oleate and butyrate did not stimulate urea synthesis. 3. Citrulline accumulation was largely dependent on ornithine concentration. As ornithine was increased from 0 to 40 mM, the rate of citrulline accumulation increased hyperbolically, and was half-maximal when ornithine was 8-12 mM. 4. The rate of citrulline accumulation was independent of the presence of lactate, but with pyruvate the rate increased. 5. The rate of urea production continued to increase as ornithine was varied from 0 to 40 mM. 6. It was concluded that intermediates provided by both ornithine and lactate are limiting for urea production from ammonia in isolated liver cells. It was suggested that the stimulatory effect of lactate lies in increased availability of cytosolic aspartate for condensation with citrulline.  (+info)

Butyrate augments interferon-alpha-induced S phase accumulation and persistent tyrosine phosphorylation of cdc2 in K562 cells. (6/1990)

Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a clinically useful cytokine for treatment of a variety of cancers, including chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML). Most CML cells are sensitive to IFN-alpha; however, its biological effects on leukaemic cells are incompletely characterized. Here, we provide evidence that IFN-alpha induces a significant increase in the S phase population in human CML leukaemic cell line, K562, and that the S phase accumulation was augmented by sodium butyrate. In contrast, neither sodium butyrate alone, nor sodium butyrate plus IFN-gamma, affected the cell cycle in K562 cells. These data suggest that the effect of sodium butyrate depended upon IFN-alpha-mediated signalling. The ability of leukaemic cells to exhibit the S phase accumulation after stimulation by IFN-alpha plus sodium butyrate correlated well with persistent tyrosine phosphorylation of cdc2, whereas treatment with IFN-gamma plus sodium butyrate did not affect its phosphorylation levels. Considering that dephosphorylation of cdc2 leads to entry to the M phase, the persistent tyrosine phosphorylation of cdc2 may be associated with the S phase accumulation induced by IFN-alpha and sodium butyrate. In addition, another human CML leukaemic cell line, MEG-01, also showed the S phase accumulation after stimulation with IFN-alpha plus sodium butyrate. Taken together, our studies reveal a novel effect of sodium butyrate on the S phase accumulation and suggest its clinical application for a combination therapy with IFN-alpha, leading to a great improvement of clinical effects of IFN-alpha against CML cells.  (+info)

Demonstration of a new mammalian isoleucine catabolic pathway yielding an Rseries of metabolites. (7/1990)

1. Normal human urine contains small amounts (less than 4 mg/g of creatinine) of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid, formed, we believe, by a previously undisclosed endogenous catabolic pathway for the oxidation of a newly described series of R metabolites of isoleucine. 2. Urinary excretion of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid is variably increased in defects of isoleucine oxidation at distal steps in the catabolic pathway (3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase deficiency and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency) and is diminished when proximal steps of the oxidative pathway are blocked as in branched-chain oxo acid decarboxylase deficiency ('maple-syrup-urine' disease). 3. Precursors of R-pathway metabolites [R(-)-2-methylbutyrate and 2-ethylacrylate ] lead to increased 2-ethylhydracrylate excretion in the mammal(rat, rabbit and dog); the corresponding S metabolites [S(+)-2-methylbutyric acid and tiglic acid ], when given in equimolar amounts, have little effect on its excretion, suggesting that little or no interconversion between S and R metabolites occurs in vivo. 4. Studies with 2H-labelled precursors indicate that conversion of R 2-methylbutyrate into 2-ethylhydracrylic acid occurs by a direct pathway (apparently via 2-ethylacrylic acid). 5. The further oxidation of 2-ethylhydracrylic acid to ethylmalonic acid was demonstrated, and may be analogous to S-metabolite oxidation via methyl malonate. 6. Valine metabolites do not interact with the R=isoleucine pathway under the conditions of these experiments in vivo.  (+info)

Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. (8/1990)

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors for fatty acids (FAs) that regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. We report the crystal structure of the PPAR delta ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound to either the FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or the synthetic fibrate GW2433. The carboxylic acids of EPA and GW2433 interact directly with the activation function 2 (AF-2) helix. The hydrophobic tail of EPA adopts two distinct conformations within the large hydrophobic cavity. GW2433 occupies essentially the same space as EPA bound in both conformations. These structures provide molecular insight into the propensity for PPARs to interact with a variety of synthetic and natural compounds, including FAs that vary in both chain length and degree of saturation.  (+info)

*Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases

Sodium Butyrate. Sodium butyrate treatment slowed neuronal degeneration in Drosophila models.[18] Sodium butyrate treatment ... Sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate is a class I and II HDACi and has been shown to recover learning and memory after 4 weeks,[13] ... Sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate was the first HDAC inhibitor tested in SMA mouse models. It prolonged SMA mouse life span by ... Sodium butyrate. Several studies using different animal models have demonstrated that sodium butyrate may be effective in ...

*Combined injectable birth control

Estradiol benzoate butyrate / • Algestone acetophenide. 10 mg EBB. 150 mg DHPA. Oil solution?. Redimen, Soluna, Unijab, Unimens ... Estradiol benzoate butyratea. Oil solution. Redimen, Soluna, Unijab. ?. 10 mg. 10 mg ≈ 21 days ... estradiol benzoate butyrate, and estradiol, while progestins that are used include norethisterone enantate, medroxyprogesterone ...

*Schedule H

CLOBETASONE 17-BUTYRATE 123. CLOFAZIMINE 124. CLOFIBRATE 125. CLONAZEPAM 126. CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE ...

*Template:性激素 - 维基百科,自由的百科全书

Hydroxyprogesterone butyrate. *Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate)(英语:Hydroxyprogesterone caproate). * ...

*Clobetasone

In ophthalmology, clobetasone butyrate 0.1% eye drops have been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of dry eyes in ... Topical clobetasone butyrate has shown minimal suppression of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It is available as ... Eilon, L. A.; Walker, S. R. (1981). "Clinical evaluation of clobetasone butyrate eye drops in the treatment of anterior uveitis ... Ramsell, T. G.; Bartholomew, R. S.; Walker, S. R. (1980). "Clinical evaluation of clobetasone butyrate: A comparative study of ...

*Methamphetamine

"Substrate/Product". butyrate-CoA ligase. BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. Retrieved 7 May 2014. "Substrate/Product ... CYP2D6, dopamine β-hydroxylase, flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, butyrate-CoA ligase, and glycine N-acyltransferase are the ...

*Acidogenesis

... butyrate + acetate); Enterobacteria (acetate + lactate); and Hetero-fermentative bacteria (acetate, propionate, butyrate, ... butyrate, and lactate), neutral compounds (ethanol, methanol), ammonia, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Acetogenesis is one of the ...

*Calcium diglutamate

Calcium bis[(2S)- 2-amino-4-carboxy-butyrate]. Other names Calcium glutamate, L-Glutamic acid calcium salt ...

*Streptomyces cinnamonensis

Reynolds, Kevin A.; O'Hagan, David; Gani, David; Robinson, John A. (1988). "Butyrate metabolism in streptomycetes. ... Pospisil, S. (1 September 1991). "Resistance of Streptomyces cinnamonensis to butyrate and isobutyrate: production and ... Characterization of an intramolecular vicinal interchange rearrangement linking isobutyrate and butyrate in Streptomyces ... "Resistance of Streptomyces cinnamonensis to butyrate and isobutyrate: production and properties of a new anti-isobutyrate (AIB ...

*Isobutyrate

Sucrose acetate isobutyrate Butyrate. ...

*Functional group

Ethyl butyrate. (Ethyl butanoate) Methoxy. Methoxy ROCH3. methoxy- Anisole. (Methoxybenzene) Hydroperoxide Hydroperoxy ROOH ...

*Ester

... and butyrate, as opposed to the IUPAC nomenclature methanoate, ethanoate, propanoate and butanoate. Esters derived from more ...

*Congenital chloride diarrhea

Canani RB, Terrin G, Cirillo P, Castaldo G, Salvatore F, Cardillo G, Coruzzo A, Troncone R (August 2004). "Butyrate as an ... A potential treatment is butyrate. Observations leading to the characterization of the SLC26 family were based on research on ...

*Aircraft dope

Typical doping agents include nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate. Liquid dopes are highly ...

*Resistant starch

The fermentation of resistant starch produces more butyrate than other types of dietary fibers. Modest amounts of gases such as ... The fermentation of resistant starch produces short-chain fatty acids, including acetate, propionate, and butyrate and ... ISBN 0-309-08525-X. Brouns, Fred; Kettitz, Bernd; Arrigoni, Eva (2002). "Resistant starch and "the butyrate revolution"". ... "The microbiology of butyrate formation in the human colon" (PDF). FEMS Microbiology Letters. 217 (2): 133-139. doi:10.1111/j. ...

*Ulcerative colitis

The amount of butyrate available decreases toward the rectum. Inadequate butyrate levels in the lower intestine have been ... Short chain fatty acid (butyrate) enema. The epithelial cells in the colon uses butyrate from the contents of the intestine as ... It has been shown that N-butyrate helps supply nutrients to this epithelial barrier. Studies have proposed that hydrogen ... This might be addressed through butyrate enemas. The results however are not conclusive.[citation needed] Herbal medications ...

*Management of ulcerative colitis

Pilot studies have introduced greater plant fibers in a diet, which has had an impact in increasing butyrate levels in the ... "Increasing fecal butyrate in ulcerative colitis patients by diet: controlled pilot study". Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 9 (2): ... which is toxic to the colonocyte and inhibits butyrate. ...

*Dietary fiber

The major SCFAs in humans are butyrate, propionate, and acetate, where butyrate is the major energy source for colonocytes, ... provide nourishment of colonocytes, particularly by the SCFA butyrate. *suppress cholesterol synthesis by the liver and reduce ... Bedford, Andrea; Gong, Joshua (13 September 2017). "Implications of butyrate and its derivatives for gut health and animal ...

*Pseudobutyrivibrio

nov., butyrate-producing bacteria from the rumen". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (Pt 1 ...

*Microbial metabolism

The best studied example of this process is the oxidation of fermentative end products (such as acetate, ethanol and butyrate) ... Alone, the oxidation of butyrate to acetate and hydrogen gas is energetically unfavorable. However, when a hydrogenotrophic ( ... Examples include ethanol, acetate, lactate, and butyrate. Fermentative organisms are very important industrially and are used ... for butyrate oxidation: ΔGº'= +48.2 kJ/mol, but ΔG' = -8.9 kJ/mol at 10−5 atm hydrogen and even lower if also the initially ...

*Butanol fuel

A combination of succinate and ethanol can be fermented to produce butyrate (a precursor to butanol fuel) by utilizing the ... Crotonyl-CoA is then converted to butyrate. The genes corresponding to these butanol production pathways from Clostridium were ...

*Butyrivibrio hungatei

nov., butyrate-producing bacteria from the rumen". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (1): ... Butyrivibrio hungatei is a species of Gram-negative, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, butyrate-producing bacteria. It is curved ... "Diet-dependent shifts in ruminal butyrate-producing bacteria."Folia microbiologica 51.4 (2006): 294-298. Stack, ROBERT J. " ...

*Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans

nov., butyrate-producing bacteria from the rumen". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (1): ... Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans is a species of butyrate-producing bacteria from the rumen. It is Gram-negative, anaerobic, non ...

*Anaerostipes rhamnosivorans

... is a Gram-variable, strictly anaerobic, spore-forming, butyrate-producing and curly rod-shaped ... nov., a human intestinal, butyrate-forming bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 64 ( ...

*Parmigiano-Reggiano

Parmigiano has many aroma-active compounds, including various aldehydes and butyrates. Butyric acid and isovaleric acid ...
PROTOCOL OUTLINE: This is a randomized, multicenter study. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms. Arm I: Patients receive arginine butyrate IV over 6-9 hours at night 5 days a week for 12 weeks, plus concurrent standard local therapy consisting of cleaning, saline irrigation, and dressing changes as prescribed by each patients physician. Patients who experience progressive healing receive arginine butyrate 3-4 times a week. Arginine butyrate treatment may be discontinued and reinstated following a single 2 week medical complication.. Arm II: Patients receive standard local therapy alone for 12 weeks. Patients randomized to arm II may cross over to receive arginine butyrate if no or less than 25% healing is observed after 12 weeks.. Patients whose ulcers have closed by at least 15% per cycle may receive 2 additional 8-week cycles of arginine butyrate therapy and are followed for 2 months after healing is completed. ...
As the colonic epithelium is physiologically exposed to butyrate and to activators of protein kinase C, we examined the effect of the protein kinase C signalling pathway on butyrate-induced expression of markers of differentiation. Activators and inhibitors of protein kinase C were used in combination with butyrate and effects on the expression of markers of differentiation examined in colon cancer cell lines. When the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (100 nM) was added for 24 h prior to the addition of 2 mM butyrate, there was a synergistic increase in alkaline phosphatase activity (154 ± 11% above that for butyrate alone, P = 0.003) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Butyrate-induced expression of carcinoembryonic antigen and interleukin-8, dome formation and cell turnover were also markedly augmented by pre-treatment with phorbol myristate acetate. A similar effect was observed with propionate or acetate (but not other differentiating agents), when phorbol ...
We have reported recently that sodium butyrate suppressed IFN-γ, but not the LPS-mediated induction of nitric oxide and TNF-α in microglia via the specific inhibition of NF-κB. In order to further determine the upstream signaling mechanism involved in the IFN-γ-specific down-regulation of iNOS by sodium butyrate in microglia, this study investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on the MAP kinase activities. Sodium butyrate significantly repressed the phosphorylation of ERK induced by IFN-γ, but had little effect on that induced by LPS. This suggests that sodium butyrate suppresses the IFN-γ-induced iNOS expression by inhibiting the ERK to NF-κB pathway. In addition, it was found that sodium butyrate suppressed the IFN-γ-induced interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) expression via the inhibition of ERK. Therefore, the ERK signaling pathway appears to play a key role in the sodium butyrate-mediated down-regulation of iNOS in the IFN-γ-stimulated microglia. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All ...
What I should have asked would be something more like this. Even though Because sodium butyrateinhibits and also hyperacetylates, doesboth, have you considered it or tried it?. As to substances which blow hot and cold -- i.e., de-acetylate and hyper-acetylate -- perhaps an analogy would be vitamin C, which can be a pro-oxidant or an anti-oxidant. It alldepends on the circumstances. - - - - - - - - - -. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7 Suppl):2485S-2493S. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by butyrate. Davie JR.. This article reviews the effects of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Sodium butyrate has multiple effects on cultured mammalian cells that include inhibition of proliferation, induction of differentiation and induction or repression of gene expression. The observation that butyrate treatment of cells results in histone hyperacetylation initiated a flurry of activity that led to the discovery that butyrate inhibits HDAC activity. Butyrate has been ...
What I should have asked would be something more like this. Even though Because sodium butyrateinhibits and also hyperacetylates, doesboth, have you considered it or tried it?. As to substances which blow hot and cold -- i.e., de-acetylate and hyper-acetylate -- perhaps an analogy would be vitamin C, which can be a pro-oxidant or an anti-oxidant. It alldepends on the circumstances. - - - - - - - - - -. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7 Suppl):2485S-2493S. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by butyrate. Davie JR.. This article reviews the effects of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Sodium butyrate has multiple effects on cultured mammalian cells that include inhibition of proliferation, induction of differentiation and induction or repression of gene expression. The observation that butyrate treatment of cells results in histone hyperacetylation initiated a flurry of activity that led to the discovery that butyrate inhibits HDAC activity. Butyrate has been ...
Butyrates are important as food for cells lining the mammalian colon (colonocytes). Without butyrates for energy, colon cells undergo autophagy (self digestion) and die.[1] Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which include butyrate, are produced by beneficial colonic bacteria (probiotics) that feed on, or ferment prebiotics, which are plant products that contain adequate amounts of dietary fiber. These SCFAs benefit the colonocytes (cells of the colon) by increasing energy production and cell proliferation, and may protect against colon cancer.[2]. Butyrate is a major metabolite in colonic lumen arising from bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and has been shown to be a critical mediator of the colonic inflammatory response. In fact, butyrate is responsible for about 70% of energy from the colonocytes, being a critical SCFA in the colon homeostasis[3]. Butyrate possesses both preventive and therapeutic potential to counteract inflammation-mediated ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer. ...
Of this time point, samples were analyzed in microarray experiments. A significance test with FDR control (α=0.05) was carried out for the four technical replicates (including two dye-swaps) of the microarray. For analysis, the following filtering settings were chosen to identify differentially expressed genes: adjusted p-value ≤ 0.05, log-ratio , -1 or , 1 (equals fold change , -2 or , 2) and log-intensity ≥ 6 (equals ≥ 64 raw intensity). From a total of 1461 genes found to be differentially expressed under NaBu treatment, 771 genes were upregulated and 690 genes were downregulated (derived from EC numbers in KEGG pathways, Figure 1B). Many differentially expressed genes from pathways involved in carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and glycan metabolism are upregulated which is most likely linked to higher productivity. A large portion of genes from pathways associated with cell growth and death are downregulated and most of these genes originate from cell cycle processes. This correlates ...
The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of humans has been studied extensively because of the role played by gut bacteria both in disease and in the maintenance of gut health (7, 17, 27). One important activity of the large intestinal microbiota is to break down substrates, such as resistant starch and plant cell wall polysaccharides. The main fermentation products are the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Of these, butyrate is known to play an important role in the metabolic welfare of colonocytes (19, 20) and is also implicated in providing protection against cancer and ulcerative colitis (3-5). Despite this prominent role, the taxonomy, population structure, and dynamics of predominant butyrate-producing bacteria in the human intestinal tract are poorly understood.. There is no simple way to selectively isolate butyrate-producing bacteria, and the majority of those recovered from nonselective isolation have proved to be highly oxygen sensitive (2). The purpose of ...
Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared
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We have demonstrated for the first time that butyrate inhibits inflammatory responses in CD by inhibition of NFκB activation in immune cells.. High levels of circulating and mucosal proinflammatory cytokines are a characteristic feature of CD.1 2 We confirmed that intestinal biopsies as well as isolated LPMC obtained from inflamed mucosa of CD patients secrete significantly more IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF than normal controls.7 34 35 Our main finding was that butyrate had a dose dependent effect in decreasing TNF secretion in both inflamed and non-inflamed tissues. Interestingly, with 10 mM butyrate, TNF levels returned to control values. Similar results were observed for IL-6 and, although less consistently, for IL-1β (data not shown). Although intestinal epithelial cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines, we focussed on immune cells which are the main effectors of the inflammatory response in CD. We then determined that butyrate decreased proinflammatory cytokine production by downregulating ...
Links between effects of butyrate on histone hyperacetylation and regulation of interferon synthesis in Namalva and FS-4 cell lines.: The human Namalva lymphoma
Metabolic activities of butyric acid were examined in this study in diet-induced obese mice. The most important observation is that butyrate supplementation at 5% wt/wt in high-fat diet prevented development of dietary obesity and insulin resistance. It also reduced obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice. In butyrate-treated mice, the plasma butyrate concentration was increased, and blood lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, and total fatty acids) were decreased (Fig. 6H-I and Supplement 1). The change in insulin sensitivity may be a consequence of a reduction in adiposity in our model. The increase in energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation may be responsible for the antiobesity effect of butyrate. Butyrate supplementation did not reduce food intake, fat absorption, or locomotor activity, suggesting that there was no toxicity from butyrate. Butyrate was tested at 5 and 2.5% wt/wt in the high-fat diet in this study. At the lower (2.5% wt/wt) dosage, similar metabolic activity was ...
BioAssay record AID 418701 submitted by ChEMBL: Antidiabetic activity in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rat assessed as increase in 3-butyrate level at 1 mg, po after 28 days.
We have to address the issue that there are bad bacteria all around as well. The more they proliferate, the sicker we become. The challenge we face it to consistently keep lots of the good bacteria around but at the same time get rid of the bad or pathogenic bacteria. The way our good flora tell our immune system that theyre helpful and beneficial bacteria, and not bad bacteria, is by butyrate signals. Clinical rsearch has shown us how butyrate is able to suppresses inflammatory reaction and how butyrate instructs our immune system to calms down.. When butyrate levels are low, our immune system doesnt know this and is therefore unable to stop their attack on bacteria.. When we dont fuel the growth of good bacteria with enough fiber, we dont produce enough butyrate. Hypothetically, we could have lots of good bacteria, however, if we fail to feed them with fiber, they dont make butyrate.. Unfortunately when our body senses low levels of butyrate, it mistakenly thinks that our gut is filled ...
The short‐chain fatty acid butyrate, which is mainly produced in the lumen of the large intestine by the fermentation of dietary fibers, plays a major role in ...
Whether dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer is controversial because of conflicting results from human epidemiologic studies. However, these studies and mouse models of colorectal cancer have not controlled the composition of gut microbiota, which ferment fiber into short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Butyrate is noteworthy because it has energetic and epigenetic functions in colonocytes and tumor-suppressive properties in colorectal cancer cell lines. We used gnotobiotic mouse models colonized with wild-type or mutant strains of a butyrate-producing bacterium to demonstrate that fiber does have a potent tumor-suppressive effect but in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner. Furthermore, due to the Warburg effect, butyrate was metabolized less in tumors where it accumulated and functioned as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to stimulate histone acetylation and affect apoptosis and cell proliferation. To support the relevance of this mechanism in human cancer, we ...
Sodium butyrate causes HeLa cells to assume an elongated and jagged shape. Ultrastructurally this change is associated with the formation of bundles of microfilaments. Desmosomes were present between adjacent cells. No increase in microtubules was ob
Does anyone have information on butyrate and cancer? Specifically gliomas? I have not added this to the artemether I have given Jeremy, but professor Singh strongly recommends butyrate be taken with artemisinin and its analogs ...
OUTLINE: Patients receive ganciclovir IV over 1 hour twice a day on days -1 to 21 for the first course (days 0-21 for all subsequent courses) and escalating doses of arginine butyrate IV continuously on days 0-21. Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 3 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. Patients are followed for a minimum of 42 days.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: Approximately 20 patients will be accrued for this study within 2 years. ...
Sodium butyrate is the sodium salt of butyric acid, which is a short-chain fatty acid. Its a natural byproduct of the fermentation of dietary fibers...
This recipe was inspired by Dave Asprey If you do not know Dave, you should. Visit his website at https://blog.bulletproof.com/.. I cant count how many times I hear "what the hell - where did you get all the energy and endurance". My answer - I start my day with a cup or two of my version of Bullet Proof Coffee and so should you. Heres why: Bullet Proof Coffee is high in omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (which reduces body fat) and is a good source of vitamin K, both of which according to a studies reduce the risk of heart disease. additionally, t t provides healthy fats for your brain and body to create cell walls (membranes) and hormones. The short-chain fatty acid Butyrate, once thought to be bad for you, has been linked to preventing neurodegenerative diseases, increased energy expenditure, and is also anti-inflammatory, further preventing heart disease.When you drink it first thing in the morning it puts your body in the routine to burn fat all day, helping you trim down overall. CLA ...
(2018) Wu et al. PLoS ONE. This study investigated the effects of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation, provided as a specially coated product, on growth performance, intestinal development, morphological structure and function in broilers. In total, 720 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broil...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Hydrocortisone butyrate (JP15/USP), 13609-67-1, Hydrocortisone butyrate [USAN:BAN:JAN].
Hydrocortisone butyrate CAS 13609-67-1 Hydrocortisone butyrate is a corticosteroid that comes in one of the following forms:
Anisyl butyrate can be used sparingly as an ingredient in condensed milk and cream flavors. Its unique sweetness would find good application in confection, oral care products and as a bitterness modifier.
Sodium; 4-[(1R,3S)-1-hydroxy-3-((E)-3-hydroxy-oct-1-enyl)-cyclohexyl]-butyrate | C18H31O4- | CID 91934480 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Get your BodyBio Cal Mag Butyrate, 100 count for just $27.05 and other BodyBio products at Healthy Goods. Same day shipping and price guarantee! Click here!
Locoid C Cream (Hydrocortisone Butyrate) is a topical treatment effective in relieving the swelling, itchiness and redness caused by skin conditions such as dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis, and also skin conditions which are complicated by bacterial or fungal infections.
Cranford, NJ (PRWEB) October 21, 2009 -- Triax Pharmaceuticals, LLC announced today the approval of new labeling for Locoid Lipocream (hydrocortisone butyrate,
Duking Biotech Co.,Ltd,We are the main feed additives production factory in Chinese Sichuan province, also has strong scientific research, production, marketing in one of the joint-stock enterprises
Duking Biotech Co.,Ltd,We are the main feed additives production factory in Chinese Sichuan province, also has strong scientific research, production, marketing in one of the joint-stock enterprises
We have used microarray technology for analysis of the reprogramming that takes place when the SCFA butyrate, a physiological regulator of cell maturation in the colon, stimulates pathways of cell cycle arrest, lineage-specific differentiation, and apoptosis of colonic cells in culture (2, 3, 4) . We have compared this to response of the cells to: TSA, like butyrate an inhibitor of HDAC (13, 14, 15 ,, 30) ; sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug undergoing clinical trials to confirm and extend its utility as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer (31, 32, 33, 34, 35) ; and curcumin, a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent found in mustard and curry (36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41) .. The response of the cells to butyrate, which stimulates a G0-G1 cell cycle arrest, differentiation along the absorptive cell lineage, and an apoptotic cascade, is complex. There is a progressive recruitment of genes into the reprogramming as a function of time, which is similar to an expansion seen in the ...
Recreational use of GHB has become popular among clubbers and as a dietary supplement by bodybuilders, it has also been cited more recently as a date-rape drug. In the UK GHB is controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act from July 2003, previously ...
Spanish feed additive and ingredients company Norel, carried out a trial in Thailand to evaluate the effect of Gustor Liquid (combination of free organic acids and salts with sodium butyrate) on performance in piglets with liquid feeding.
Adult White Leghorn chickens were rendered anemic by injection with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine and then treated with parenteral 5-azacytidine, and levels of embryonic globin RNA in circulating reticulocytes were measured. A very small but detectable amount of correctly initiated embryonic p-type globin RNA was detected in reticulocytes from birds treated with 5-azacytidine, while none was detected in reticulocytes from those receiving only phenylhydrazine or phenylhydrazine plus 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (cytosine arabinonucleoside). An attempt to increase embryonic globin RNA induction by treatment with parenteral sodium butyrate after 7 days of 5-azacytidine administration resulted in a 5- to 10-fold increase in the level of embryonic globin RNA. However, sodium butyrate did not induce embryonic gene expression when given alone or after treatment with cytosine arabinonucleoside. Sodium butyrate treatment also caused a DNase I-hypersensitive site to be exposed at the 5 end of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of spinal muscular atrophy by sodium butyrate. AU - Chang, Jan Gowth. AU - Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei. AU - Jong, Yuh Jyh. AU - Wang, Nancy M.. AU - Tsai, Chang Hai. AU - Li, Hung. PY - 2001/8/14. Y1 - 2001/8/14. N2 - Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular paralysis with muscular atrophy. No effective treatment of this disorder is presently available. Studies of the correlation between disease severity and the amount of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein have shown an inverse relationship. We report that sodium butyrate effectively increases the amount of exon 7-containing SMN protein in SMA lymphoid cell lines by changing the alternative splicing pattern of exon 7 in the SMN2 gene. In vivo, sodium butyrate treatment of SMA-like mice resulted in increased expression of SMN protein in motor neurons of the spinal cord and resulted in significant improvement ...
In the present work, we studied the molecular mechanisms by which sodium butyrate sensitizes cancer cells towards cisplatin. HeLa cells were treated with 5 mM butyrate, with 8 μM cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin), or with both. Cells treated with both agents showed approximately two-fold increase of the mortality rate in comparison with cells treated with cisplatin only. Accordingly, the life span of albino mice transfected with Ehrlich ascites tumor was prolonged almost two-fold by treatment with cisplatin and butyrate in comparison with cisplatin alone. This showed that the observed synergism of cisplatin and butyrate was not limited to specific cell lines or in vitro protocols, but was also expressed in vivo during the process of tumor development. DNA labeling and fluorescence activated cell sorting experiments showed that cisplatin treatment inhibited DNA synthesis and arrested HeLa cells at the G1/S transition and early S phase of the cell cycle. Western blotting and chromatin ...
The use of short chain fatty acids to modulate gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis has produced encouraging results either in animal models or also in clinical trials. Identifying the key cellular and molecular targets of this activity will contribute to establish the appropriate combinations/targeting strategies to maximize the efficacy of anti-inflammatory interventions. In the present work, we evaluated in vitro the interaction of lactate, acetate, propionate and butyrate on cells relevant for innate immune response of the gastrointestinal tract. All molecules tested regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines by TLR-4 and TLR-5 activated intestinal epithelial cells in a dose response manner. Furthermore SCFAs and lactate modulate cytokine secretion of TLR-activated bone marrow derived macrophages and also TLR-dependent CD40 upregulation in bone marrow derived dendritic in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate and propionate have been effective at concentrations
(2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride 69320-90-7 NMR spectrum, (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride H-NMR spectral analysis, (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoate hydrochloride C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Effect of Butyric Acid on Performance, Gastrointestinal Tract Health and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Butyric Acid;Performance;GI Tract Health;Carcass Characteristics;Broiler Chickens; An experiment was conducted to study the effect of graded levels of butyric acid (butyrate) on performance, gastrointestinal tract health and carcass characteristics in young broiler chickens. Control starter (0-3 wk) and finisher (4-5 wk) diets were formulated to contain 2,900 kcal ME/kg and 22% CP, and 3,000 kcal ME/kg and 20% CP, respectively. Subsequently, four other experimental diets were formulated to contain 0.05% antibiotic (furazolidone) or 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% butyric acid. Each diet was fed at random to 8 replicates of 6 chicks each throughout the experimental period (0-5 wk). The results showed that 0.4% butyrate in the diet was similar to antibiotic in maintaining body weight gain and reducing E. coli numbers but superior for feed conversion ratio. No added advantage on these parameters was
BACKGROUND: The predominant colonic short chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are oxidised into CO2 in colonocytes from rat and humans in the preferred order of butyrate (C4) , propionate (C3) , acetate (C2)- hence butyrate is considered to be the principal oxidative substrate for colonocytes. AIMS: To compare colonocyte oxidation of valerate (C5), hexanoate (C6), and octanoate (C8) with that of butyrate. METHODS: Isolated rat colonocytes were incubated in the presence of a concentration range of 1-14C labelled C2-C8 fatty acids. Oxidation rates were obtained by quantifying the production of 14CO2, and Vmax (maximum velocity) and K(m) (Michaelis-Menten constant) were calculated by computer fitting of the data to a Michaelis-Menten plot. RESULTS: The K(m) value of acetate (0.56 (SEM 0.02) mmol/l) was about fourfold higher than the K(m) of butyrate (0.13 (0.01) mmol/l), whereas the K(m) values of valerate (0.19 (0.01) mmol/l), hexanoate (0.19 (0.01) mmol/l), and octanoate (0.16 ...
Despite questions regarding the role of microbiota in regulation of host immune responses within the intestines, evidence suggests that in the context of disease and autoimmunity bacterial metabolites might impact the systemic immune response. Otherwise indigestible carbohydrates are metabolized into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by gut bacteria. SCFAs have been shown to inhibit intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis through regulation of mucosal T cells and macrophages. Recently, neutrophils have been shown to regulate intestinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of IBD, however, how SCFAs may regulate neutrophil function is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that SCFA differentially regulate neutrophil cytokine production. Of the three major SCFAs butyrate, acetate, and propionate, only butyrate down-regulated neutrophil IL-10 production. We further showed that butyrate-inhibition of neutrophil IL-10 is independent of GPR43, in that butyrate also inhibited IL-10 production in ...
Intra peritoneal administration of the short chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate, in amounts calculated to reach 20 mM in total body water were given to fed and 48 hour starved male Wi
One of the ways your gut microbes contribute to overall health is through byproducts created by their fermentation of specific fibers in the GI tract. These fibers, known as prebiotics, resist decomposition and absorption in the upper GI tract but are utilized by bacteria in the colon for energy. These colonic bacteria use specific enzymes to break these fibers down into short chain fatty acids (SCFA), among other products. Acetate, propionate and butyrate are the predominate SFCAs created. These fatty acids provide energy to bacteria and also appear to also benefit their human host. (thats us!) Short chain fatty acids lower the pH of the colon, thus inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacterial species and promoting thriving populations of bifidiobacteria and lactobacilli species, also known as the good guys (Slavin, 2013). SCFA also appear to play a role in the association between fiber intake and reduced risk of developing gastrointestinal disorders, cancer, as well as cardiovascular ...
Transcriptional factor NF-κB was first found to be involved in activating genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Subsequently NF-κB was found to be important for regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and survival. Consistent with its role in regulating cell proliferation, we found that NF-κB regulates expression of the mouse TERT gene (telomerase reverse transcriptase). NF-κB-dependent TERT expression might serve to maintain telomere length in the conditions like inflammation and infection. ^ Colon epithelial cells are an interesting system to study NF-κB regulation, since they can be subjected to multiple inflammatory and growth regulatory signals. Published data demonstrates that the luminal provision of butyrate can improve symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases. We found that colon epithelial cells alter their NF-κB activity in presence of butyrate. Our data showed that butyrate blocks translocation of p65 subunit into nucleus following TNF-α
https://www.hexaresearch.com/research-report/cellulose-acetate-butyrate-cab-market. Paints & coatings made with cellulose acetate butyrate are used in various applications including automotive plastics, leather, plastic, wood, aviation, medical & healthcare, and architecture. The global CAB market for paints & coatings market is expected to reach USD 532 million by 2025.. Increasing infrastructure spending coupled with increasing automobile production in Asia Pacific is projected to drive the demand for paints & coatings, which in turn is expected to influence the demand for CAB positively. The market is anticipated to grow at a volume CAGR of 3.8% over the next eight years.. Printing inks are expected to be another lucrative segment for the CAB market, with the introduction and implementation of mandatory labelling regulations by various regulatory authorities including FDA. Reducing the weight of a packaging coupled with stringent regulations to print all the information regarding the packed ...
https://www.hexaresearch.com/research-report/cellulose-acetate-butyrate-cab-market. Paints & coatings made with cellulose acetate butyrate are used in various applications including automotive plastics, leather, plastic, wood, aviation, medical & healthcare, and architecture. The global CAB market for paints & coatings market is expected to reach USD 532 million by 2025.. Increasing infrastructure spending coupled with increasing automobile production in Asia Pacific is projected to drive the demand for paints & coatings, which in turn is expected to influence the demand for CAB positively. The market is anticipated to grow at a volume CAGR of 3.8% over the next eight years.. Printing inks are expected to be another lucrative segment for the CAB market, with the introduction and implementation of mandatory labelling regulations by various regulatory authorities including FDA. Reducing the weight of a packaging coupled with stringent regulations to print all the information regarding the packed ...
To test the mechanism for inactivation of the p57 gene in gastric cancer cells, eight gastric cancer cell lines were treated with either the HDAC inhibitors, n-butyric acid or TSA, or the demethylation agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. RNA was isolated from the cells and RNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. RNA expression of the p57 gene was activated by HDAC inhibitors, either n-butyric acid or TSA in all of the eight gastric cancer cells. SNU1 was an exception in that TSA activated the p57 gene, but n-butyric acid did not. An appropriate explanation for this is not currently available except that it may be a clonal variation. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine also activated the p57 gene in five of eight gastric cancer cell lines (Fig. 2⇓ ). The result suggests that the p57 gene seems to be inactivated by the formation of an inactive chromatin complex containing HDAC. Methylation of the promoter of the p57 gene is also involved in inactivation of the p57 gene. The presence of ...
Riboflavin Butyrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Riboflavin Butyrate is available on the Drugs.com website.
Hydrocortisone Butyrate Taro is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Hydrocortisone Butyrate Taro is available on the Drugs.com website.
The effect of supplementing the standard piglet diet containing sodium butyrate with glutamine and/or glucose on the structure of the piglet digestive tract and the small intestine epithelium, acidity and volatile fatty acid content of its digesta was investigated. The free amino acids level, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration in the blood were also analysed. The experiment was performed on 156 piglets (15 litters) allocated to 5 experimental groups, 3 litters in each. Group I (C, negative control) received a basal mixture with no supplement. Group II (SB, positive control) was fed the same basal diet containing additionally 3 g of sodium butyrate per kg. Group III and IV, besides sodium butyrate, received additionally 10 g of glutamine (GT) or glucose (GC), respectively. The last group V received all these supplements, i.e. SB+GT+GC (3, 10, 10 g per kg, respectively). At 60 days of age, the piglets (6 animals from each group) were slaughtered and their intestines ...
Adding the right prebiotic to the diets of pediatric patients with intestinal failure could replace intravenous feeding, says a new University of Illinois study.. "When we fed the carbohydrate fructooligosacharide (FOS) as a prebiotic, the gut grew and increased in function," said Kelly A. Tappenden, a U of I professor of nutrition and gastrointestinal physiology. "The study showed that using the correct pre- and probiotic in combination could enhance these results even more.". When FOS enters the intestines, bacteria convert it into butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid that increases the size of the gut and its ability to digest and absorb nutrients, she said.. But todays IV solutions dont contain butyrate and adding it would entail drug development trials and regulatory red tape. She wanted to see if adding this carbohydrate to the diet while continuing to provide most nutrients intravenously would cause the gut to start producing butyrate on its own. It worked.. According to Tappenden, at ...
The mice eating the normal HFD preceeded to gain 40% of thier weight over 4 weeks, while the mice eating the HFD + butyrate gained........ nothing! Now, although they did reduce thier food intake slightly, this was only initially. Also, look at the acetate group, they ate the most calories but were still only half as fat as the control mice ...
Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors ...
Locoid Crelo (Hydrocortisone Butyrate) is a topical corticosteroid used to treat inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis..
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Butyric acid Ñ also called butyrate Ñ is a fatty acid that comes from two dietary sources: 1) unabsorbed dietary fiber that has been bacterially fermented in the gut, and 2) cowÕs milk or butter. By metabolizing fiber in the colon, butyrate helps produce the energy necessary for the health of the large intestine.*
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CAS NO:60096-23-3; Chemical name:indole-3-butyric acid potassium ; physical and chemical property of 60096-23-3, indole-3-butyric acid potassium is provided by ChemNet.com
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n-Butyrate derivatives designed to possess G1 blocker activity both in vitro and in vivo were synthesized. The ester (MEB) and ester/amide (BEB) derivatives of butyrate were found to suppress IL-2-stimulated proliferation of Th1 cells in vitro. Unlike MEB and BEB, the amide analog of butyrate, MEBA, did not suppress Th1 cell proliferation in vitro. The lack of activity of MEBA may be related to the slower metabolic hydrolysis of the amide bond in MEBA compared with the ester bond in MEB and BEB. When tested in vivo, both MEB and BEB, but not MEBA, were shown to significantly suppress a primary antibody response to a thymus-dependent antigen. Suppression of antibody production could reflect inhibition of T and/or B cell function. However, subsequent in vivo experiments to more specifically examine the effect of MEB on T cell activity revealed that MEB induced antigen-specific unresponsiveness in CD4+ T cells. The T cell unresponsiveness induced in mice immunized with ovalbumin and treated with ...
Induction of apoptosis in human gastric cancer by sodium butyrate.: NaBT triggers growth arrest and apoptosis in the human gastric cancer SIIA potentially throu
Scott J. Bultman, Ph.D, Assistant Professor, Department of Genetics, will present Dietary Fiber Protects Against Colorectal Tumorigenesis in a Microbiota-and Butyrate-dependent Manner.
Greenmedinfo.com - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
[70 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Butyric Acid Market 2016-2020 report by Technavio. Butyric acid is a 4-carbon oxychemical. It is a...
Huang HM, Ou HC, Chen HL, et al. Protective effect of alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid on BV-2 microglia under hypoxia or oxidative stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 May;1042:272-8. PMID: 15965072.. Huang HM, Zhang H, Ou HC, et al. alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid diminishes reactive oxygen species and alters endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Dec 1;37(11):1779-89. PMID: 15528037.. Midtvedt AC, Midtvedt T. Production of short chain fatty acids by the intestinal microflora during the first 2 years of human life. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1992 Nov;15(4):395-403. PMID: 1469519. ...
D-3-Amino-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-butyric acid hydrochloride/ACM331763703 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Short-chain fatty acid derivatives stimulate cell proliferation and induce STAT-5 activation. AU - Boosalis, Michael S.. AU - Bandyopadhyay, Ram. AU - Bresnick, Emery H.. AU - Pace, Betty Sue. AU - Van Demark, Karyn. AU - Zhang, Baohua. AU - Faller, Douglas V.. AU - Perrine, Susan P.. PY - 2001/5/15. Y1 - 2001/5/15. N2 - Current chemotherapeutic and butyrate therapeutics that induce fetal hemoglobin expression generally also suppress erythropoiesis, limiting the production of cells containing fetal hemoglobin (F cells). Recently, selected short-chain fatty acid derivatives (SCFADs) were identified that induce endogenous γ-globin expression in K562 cells and human burst-forming units-erythroid and that increase proliferation of human erythroid progenitors and a multilineage interleukin-3-dependent hematopoietic cell line. In this report, γ-globin inducibility by these SCFADs was further demonstrated in mice transgenic for the locus control region and the entire β-globin gene ...
Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), sodium butyrate (SB), has been shown to be neuroprotective in adult brain injury models. Potential explanation for the inhibitor action involves among others reduced inflammation. We therefore anticipated that SB will provide a suitable option for brain injury in immature animals. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by SB after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is associated with anti-inflammatory action. We examined the effect of SB on the production of inflammatory factors including analysis of the microglial and astrocytic cell response. We also examined the effect of SB on molecular mediators that are crucial for inducing cerebral damage after ischemia (transcription factors, HSP70, as well as pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins). Seven-day-old rat pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 60 min of hypoxia (7.6% O2). SB (300 mg/kg) was administered in a 5-day regime with the first
Title: Role of Dietary Fiber and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Akira Andoh, Tomoyuki Tsujikawa and Yoshihide Fujiyama. Affiliation:Division of Gastroenterology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tukinowa, Otsu 520-2192,Japan. Keywords:ibd, complement, decay-accelerating factor, fermentation, colon cancer. Abstract: Luminal nutrition is important for maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosal structure and function. In particular, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and resistant starch, are particularly important as the preferred respiratory fuel of the colonocytes. A variety of biological effects of SCFAs have been reported, and there is now increasing number of experimental works showing new aspects of these molecules. For example, as the mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory effects of SCFAs, several investigators identified the inhibitory effect of butyrate on proinflammatory ...
Sanitizing concentrate and use compositions comprising aliphatic, short chain fatty acid (i.e., C6 -C14 fatty acid), hydrotrope or solubilizer for the fatty acid, hydrotrope-compatible acid so that the concentrate, when diluted with a major amount of water provides a use solution having a pH in the range of 2.0 to 5.0. Sanitizing of substantially fixed, in-place processing lines in dairies, breweries and other food processing operations is a particular utility of this invention.
Sanitizing concentrate and "use" compositions comprising aliphatic, short chain fatty acid (i.e., C.sub.6 -C.sub.14 fatty acid), hydrotrope or solubilizer for the fatty acid, hydrotrope-compatible acid so that the concentrate, when diluted with a major amount of water provides a use solution having ...
Questale published a new in-depth industry research that focuses on United States Cellulose Acetate Butyrate market, delivers detailed analysis of market and future prospects of United States Cellulose Acetate Butyrate market. The critical and significant data in the study makes the research a very important tool for experts, analysts and managers to get ready-to-access analysis by the industry professionals. The research is attached with substantial information in the form of graphs and tables to understand important market trends, drivers and challenges. The study is segmented by Application/ end users (Automotive, Electronics, Metal and Machining, Plastic and Polymers, Food and Beverages & Others), products type (Upto 5kg, 5~10 kg & Above 10kg) and various important geographies like China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, India, Southeast Asia & Australia.. Get Access to the FREE sample report:: https://questale.com/report/united-states-cellulose-acetate-butyrate-market-report-2017/185985. The ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAS 9004-36-8) Industry Market Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Industry, 2011-2021...
The butyrate or the cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) lacquer is a special lacquer that is developed to answer the yellowing problem in the nitrocellulose system finish
source of butyric acid from the salts of calcium and magnesium, in an enterically-coated tablet designed to release in the small intestine. This short chain fatty acid is produced by certain probiotic bacteria and appears to support intestinal integrity. Suggested use: As a dietary supplement, 1 or 2 tablets three times daily with meals, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. Supplement Facts: Serving Size 2 tablets Servings per container 50 Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Calcium (as Calcium Magnesium Butyrate and Calcium Phosphate) 250 mg Magnesium (as Calcium Magnesium Butyrate and Magnesium Oxide) 200 mg Butyric Acid (as Calcium Magnesium Butyrate) 200 mg Other ingredients: Cellulose, povidone, magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide. These nutrients are of the highest quality and purity obtainable, free of all common allergens (antigens), and do not contain preservatives, diluents, or artificial additives. These statements have not been evaluated by the U.S
Despite some blockbuster G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drugs, only a small fraction (∼15%) of the more than 390 nonodorant GPCRs have been successfully targeted by the pharmaceutical industry. One way that this issue might be addressed is via translation of recent deorphanization programs that have opened the prospect of extending the reach of new medicine design to novel receptor types with potential therapeutic value. Prominent among these receptors are those that respond to short-chain free fatty acids of carbon chain length 2-6. These receptors, FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41), are each predominantly activated by the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate, ligands that originate largely as fermentation by-products of anaerobic bacteria in the gut. However, the presence of FFA2 and FFA3 on pancreatic β-cells, FFA3 on neurons, and FFA2 on leukocytes and adipocytes means that the biologic role of these receptors likely extends beyond the widely accepted role of ...
GPR41 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by short chain fatty acids. site located in the intergenic region of a bicistronic mRNA. This novel sequence business may be utilized to enable coordinated rules of the fatty acid receptors GPR40 and GPR41. and flanking the GPR40 ORF indicate 5- and 3UTRs. upstream of the GPR40 … Studies from our laboratory have shown that selective manifestation of GPR40 in beta cells is definitely controlled by transcriptional mechanisms (21). Of particular importance is definitely HR2, a beta cell-specific transcriptional enhancer located 1.1 kb upstream of the gene (Fig. 1method, relative to control (22). 5-Quick 14919-77-8 supplier Amplification of cDNA Ends (5-RACE) 5-RACE was performed as explained previously (21) with the following modifications. Method A, 1st strand cDNA was synthesized from 5 g of DNase-treated TC1 RNA, using reverse transcriptase (SuperScript II; Invitrogen) according to 14919-77-8 supplier the manufacturers instructions. The reaction ...
Cellulose acetate butyrate is a thermoplastic thats used in making everything from pens to blister packages. Its main properties...
Global cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) market size was estimated to be USD 672.8 million in 2016 and is expected to grow over the forecast period
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the main products of dietary fiber fermentation, induce a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-dependent switch from lipid synthesis to lipid utilization, according to new research.
Import Data And Price Of Phenyl Butyric Acid , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of Phenyl Butyric Acid Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this Phenyl Butyric Acid import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for Phenyl Butyric Acid import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not ...
Butyrate and cell fate determination: Butyrate is of particular interest as it is described as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases - (although we disagree with this: Corfe, 2012) is in clinical trials or clinical use, yet it is also a fermentation product of the gut microbiome present at pharmacologically active concentrations in the normal healthy colon lumen. It has been implicated as a mechanism for cancer prevention by fibre. A growing literature recognises protein acetylation as a regulatory mechanism comparable with phosphorylation. My group studies the transcription factor Sp1 (Chirakkal et al., 2006; Waby et al., 2010, Yu et al., 2010) and the cytoskeletal proteins keratin 8, 18 and 19 (Leech et al., 2008; Corfe et al., 2015; Evans et al., 2015) all of whose functions are controlled, inter alia, by acetylation.. Computational and Mathematical Modelling of the Colon: We have noted changes in the composition of cell types in the colon crypt in response to butyrate and to neoplasia (Yu et ...
The aim of the project is to investigate how gut metabolites formed from colonic fermentation of indigestible components in vegetable food items affect metabolic risk parameters in blood associated to the metabolic syndrome. Special focus will be on short-chain fatty acids and their effect on metabolic risk markers, bile acid metabolism, levels of LPS (lipopolysaccharides) in blood and gene expression for lipopolysaccharide signalling.. Low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes type 2, and is caused by LPS, present in the outer cell-walls of gram-negative bacteria. The term LPS is often used interchangeably with endotoxin, but it is the lipid component in the LPS that is held responsible for the toxicity.. An impaired nutritional condition of the colonic mucosa may increase the permeability of the intestinal wall and the influx of proinflammatory substances such as LPS. However, components in the diet may stimulate the mucosal proliferation and reduce the ...
Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid, is a major energy source for colonocytes. It occurs in small quantities in some foods, and in the human body, it is produced in the large intestine by intestinalkacteria. This production can be reduced in some cases, for which butyric acid supplementation...
Butyrate is naturally formed in the colon and is tremendously beneficial in promoting gut health. It is also, however, rapidly metabolized in the colon. Therefore, it is difficult to maintain therapeutically effective concentrations of the compound in the body. Tributyrin, a prodrug of natural butyrate, is much more chemically stable but it bears an unpleasant odor and flavor.. This invention provides a dehydrated inclusion complex of tributyrin with ë_-cyclodextrin that masks the unpleasant odor and flavor of tributyrin. This material may be easily incorporated into food or taken as a supplement. ...
The enzyme can also transfer the acetaldehyde from pyruvate to 2-oxobutanoate, forming 2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxobutanoate, also known as 2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate, a reaction in the biosynthesis of isoleucine ...
STEPHEN, A (1994) PROPIONATE - SOURCES AND EFFECT ON LIPID-METABOLISM In: 73rd Falk Symposium on Short Chain Fatty Acids, 1993-09-08 - 1993-09-10, MED COLL WISCONSIN, MILWAUKEE, WI. Full text not available from this repository ...
By stabilizing blood sugar levels, Balance allows the body to turn free fatty acids and triglycerides into energy through the process of lipolysis.*. Fermentation of fiber in the intestines produces short chain fatty acids, inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol.. ...
A number of compounds actually render the aroma that we find in the food products- lactones, aldehydes, ketones, esters, short chain fatty acids, phenolic compounds, diacetyls and many more.
Buy Discount ButyrAid, with Butyric Acid, 100 Tablets, NutriCology at VitaSprings. Find more product information on ButyrAid and shop online.
Fmoc-(S)-3-amino-4-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-butyric acid/ACM270065818 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Diets, Starch, Wheat, Pigs, Cellulose, Glucose, Absorption, Barley, Concentrations, Diet, Insulin, Butyrate, Intestine, Blood, Acids, Crossover Design, Fatty Acids, Grain, Plasma, Polysaccharides
The Medicines Company of Parsippany, N.J., has received approval for its IV-administered Cleviprex (clevidipine butyrate) injectable emulsion.
We demonstrated recently that expression of the UDP-N-acetyl-α-d-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltrans-ferase-3 (GalNAc-T3) gene is restricted to epithelial glands [Nomoto, Izumi, Ise, Kato, Takano, Nagatani, Shibao, Ohta, Imamura, Kuwano, Matsuo, Yamada, Itoh and Kohno (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 6214-6222]. In the present study, we show that sodium butyrate treatment of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells transcriptionally activates the GalNAc-T3 gene. Transient transfection of plasmids containing a reporter gene under the control of GalNAc-T3 indicated that several transcriptional elements are involved in response to sodium butyrate, with the nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1)-binding motif located between −88 and −77nt being the most important. Incubation of a labelled probe encompassing the NRF-1-binding motif with a nuclear extract of sodium butyrate-treated MCF-7 cells yielded a higher level of specific DNA-protein complex versus controls. Flag-tagged NRF-1 expressed in ...
G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a major product of dietary fiber digestion, the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and that plays a role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and in intestinal immunity. In omnivorous mammals, the short chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate are produced primarily by the gut microbiome that metabolizes dietary fibers. SCFAs serve as a source of energy but also act as signaling molecules. That G protein-coupled receptor is probably coupled to the pertussis toxin-sensitive, G(i/o)-alpha family of G proteins but also to the Gq family (PubMed:12496283, PubMed:12711604, PubMed:23589301). Its activation results in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the mobilization of intracellular calcium, the phosphorylation of the MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2 kinases and the inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation. May play a role in glucose homeostasis by regulating the secretion of GLP-1, in response to short-chain fatty acids ...
Production and application of bio-based industrial products are increasingly important to the nations economic development. The goal of this work was to develop a novel bioprocess to economically produce butyric acid from low-value agricultural commodities. Butyric acid has many important applications in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Conventional fermentation technologies for butyric acid production are limited by low reactor productivity, product concentration, and yield. In this study, novel metabolic engineering approaches, at both molecular biology and process engineering levels, were developed for enhanced butyric acid production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. First, a novel fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) was developed for fermentation of glucose and xylose to produce butyrate with high reactor productivity (>2.5 g/L/h), high butyrate concentration (58 g/L), and a butyrate yield of 0.47 g/g. Cells in the FBB were able to grow into high density (>70 g/L) and tolerate high ...
Due to the paucity of oceanic resources utilized in the preparation of diets for cultured fish, commercial feed producers have been trying to replace fishmeal (FM) using alternative protein sources such as vegetable protein meals (VMs). One of the main drawbacks of using VMs in fish feed is related to the presence of a variety of anti-nutritional factors, which could trigger an inflammation process in the distal intestine. This reduces the capacity of the enterocytes to absorb nutrients leading to reduced fish growth performances. We evaluated the mitigating effects of butyrate and taurine used as feed additives on the morphological abnormalities caused by a soybean meal (SBM)-based diet in the distal intestine of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). We used three experimental diets, containing the same low percentage of FM and high percentage of SBM; two diets were supplemented with either 0.2% sodium butyrate or taurine. Histological changes in the intestine of fish were determined by light and
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32017R0054&from=EN (*). 17/01/2017 - Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/53 of 14 December 2016 concerning the authorisation of butan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, nonan-1-ol, dodecan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol, decan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal, decanal, dodecanal, nonanal, heptanal, undecanal, 1,1-diethoxyethane, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, valeric acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, heptanoic acid, nonanoic acid, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, nonyl acetate, decyl acetate, dodecyl acetate, heptyl acetate, methyl acetate, methyl butyrate, butyl butyrate, pentyl butyrate, hexyl butyrate, octyl butyrate, ethyl decanoate, ethyl hexanoate, propyl hexanoate, pentyl hexanoate, hexyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, ethyl formate, ethyl ...
Since the great majority of patients possess immune response to herpes simplex virus (HSV), the influence of a topical anti-inflammatory corticosteroid (0.1% clobetasone butyrate) on ulcerative herpetic keratitis was studied in rabbits with a previous HSV skin infection (immunised) and compared with that in normal rabbits. Corticosteroid treatment had a much greater ulceration-exacerbating effect in immunised than in normal animals. On day 7 the mean area of ulceration in immunised rabbits were 3 times greater in treated eyes. 0.01% clobetasone butyrate treatment had less effect on immunised rabbits; 0.001% had no effect. It is concluded that the immunised rabbit provides a useful experimental model for studying the relationship between concentration of topical anti-inflammatory agents and enhancement of herpetic ulceration. ...

ethyl butyrate (CHEBI:88764)ethyl butyrate (CHEBI:88764)

... has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) ethyl butyrate (CHEBI:88764) is a butyrate ester (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:88764 - ethyl butyrate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... A butyrate ester resulting from the formal condensation of the hydroxy group of ethanol with the carboxy group of butyric acid. ... ethyl butyrate (CHEBI:88764) has functional parent ethanol (CHEBI:16236) ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=88764

Riboflavin Butyrate - Drugs.comRiboflavin Butyrate - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Riboflavin Butyrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Riboflavin Butyrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Riboflavin Butyrate. Riboflavin. Riboflavin Butyrate (JAN) is known as Riboflavin in the US. ... Riboflavin Butyrate. Riboflavin Butyrate may be available in the countries listed below. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/riboflavin-butyrate.html

Glycidyl butyrateGlycidyl butyrate

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C7H12O3/c1-2-3-7

Farnesyl butyrateFarnesyl butyrate

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=U374099

Hydrocortisone Butyrate Taro - Drugs.comHydrocortisone Butyrate Taro - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Hydrocortisone Butyrate Taro is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Hydrocortisone Butyrate Taro is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Hydrocortisone Butyrate Taro. Ingredient matches for Hydrocortisone Butyrate Taro. Hydrocortisone. Hydrocortisone 17α-butyrate ... a derivative of Hydrocortisone) is reported as an ingredient of Hydrocortisone Butyrate Taro in the following countries:. * ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/hydrocortisone-butyrate-taro.html

Locoid cream/ointment (hydrocortisone butyrate)Locoid cream/ointment (hydrocortisone butyrate)

Locoid cream and ointment both contain the active ingredient hydrocortisone butyrate, which is a type of medicine called a ... Hydrocortisone butyrate is classed as a potent corticosteroid. (It is not the same as hydrocortisone that can be bought without ... Locoid cream and ointment both contain the active ingredient hydrocortisone butyrate, which is a type of medicine called a ... Locoid cream and ointment both contain the active ingredient hydrocortisone butyrate, which is a type of medicine called a ...
more infohttps://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/skin-hair/a7842/locoid-cream-ointment-hydrocortisone-butyrate/

LOCOID (hydrocortisone butyrate solution) | Healthgrades.comLOCOID (hydrocortisone butyrate solution) | Healthgrades.com

... hydrocortisone butyrate solution), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and products ...
more infohttps://www.healthgrades.com/drugs/locoid-hydrocortisone-butyrate-solution

Butyrate - WikipediaButyrate - Wikipedia

Butyrate. Butyrate (also known as butanoate) is the traditional name for the conjugate base of butyric acid (also known as ... Butyrates are important as food for cells lining the mammalian colon (colonocytes). Without butyrates for energy, colon cells ... which leads to butyrate not being properly metabolized. This phenomenon leads to the accumulation of butyrate in the nucleus, ... The reason why butyrate is an energy source for normal colonocytes and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells, is due to the ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butyrate

What Is Cellulose Acetate Butyrate?What Is Cellulose Acetate Butyrate?

Cellulose acetate butyrate is a thermoplastic thats used in making everything from pens to blister packages. Its main ... Other common names for cellulose acetate butyrate are CAB or just butyrate. It is a plastic that is vulnerable to damage from ... Cellulose acetate butyrate is a thermoplastic with many common uses from trim for automobiles to tool handles, pens, blister ... Though alkalis, acetones in paint remover, and alcohols can break down the chemical structure of cellulose acetate butyrate, it ...
more infohttp://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cellulose-acetate-butyrate.htm

Trichostatin A, sodium butyrate, ... preview & related info | MendeleyTrichostatin A, sodium butyrate, ... preview & related info | Mendeley

Trichostatin A, sodium butyrate, and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine alter the expression of glucocorticoid receptor α and β isoforms in ... Piotrowska, H., & Jagodzinski, P. P. (2007). Trichostatin A, sodium butyrate, and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine alter the expression ... sodium butyrate (NaBu) and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-dAzaC) on GRα and GRβ expression in Hut-78 T- and Raji B-lymphoma cell ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/papers/trichostatin-sodium-butyrate-5aza2deoxycytidine-alter-expression-glucocorticoid-receptor-%CE%B1-%CE%B2-isoform/

Dietary sodium butyrate improves ... preview & related info | MendeleyDietary sodium butyrate improves ... preview & related info | Mendeley

This study investigated the effects of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation, provided as a specially coated product, on ... Dietary sodium butyrate improves intestinal development and function by modulating the microbial community in broilers. *Wu W ... Wu, W., Xiao, Z., An, W., Dong, Y., & Zhang, B. (2018). Dietary sodium butyrate improves intestinal development and function by ... This study investigated the effects of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation, provided as a specially coated product, on ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/catalogue/0edeec21-aaf6-327d-9e08-231ea5e41793/

Benefits of Sodium Butyrate | LIVESTRONG.COMBenefits of Sodium Butyrate | LIVESTRONG.COM

Sodium butyrate is the sodium salt of butyric acid, which is a short-chain fatty acid. Its a natural byproduct of the ... Sodium Butyrate. Butyrate is a fatty acid thats produced by anaerobic bacteria fermentation of dietary fiber, such as ... It can combine with sodium to form a salt thats called sodium butyrate. The natural function of butyrate in your colon is not ... Sodium butyrate is the sodium salt of butyric acid, which is a short-chain fatty acid. Its a natural byproduct of the ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/557578-benefits-of-sodium-butyrate/

CMC of of para-nitrophenyl butyrateCMC of of para-nitrophenyl butyrate

does anybody know about the Critical Micellar Concentration of p-nitrophenyl , butyrate in tris buffer? Do you have any way to ... CMC of of para-nitrophenyl butyrate. Bernard Heymann heymann at mamba.mih.unibas.ch Wed Aug 20 11:33:14 EST 1997 *Previous ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1997-August/060306.html

Potential Application for Anisyl Butyrate | Sigma-AldrichPotential Application for Anisyl Butyrate | Sigma-Aldrich

Anisyl butyrate can be used sparingly as an ingredient in condensed milk and cream flavors. Its unique sweetness would find ... Anisyl butyrate can be used sparingly as an ingredient in condensed milk and cream flavors. Its unique sweetness would find ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/chemistry/application-for-anisyl-butyrate.html

Butyrate - WikipediaButyrate - Wikipedia

Examples include Cellulose acetate butyrate, an aircraft dope Methyl butyrate Ethyl butyrate Butyl butyrate Pentyl butyrate ... which leads to butyrate not being properly metabolized. This phenomenon leads to the accumulation of butyrate in the nucleus, ... The reason why butyrate is an energy source for normal colonocytes and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells, is due to the ... Butyrate is a major metabolite in colonic lumen arising from bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and has been shown to be a ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butyrate

Ethyl butyrate - Substance Information - ECHAEthyl butyrate - Substance Information - ECHA

About this substance This section provides an overview of the volume in which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from REACH registered dossiers provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance dossier.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/de/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.003.007

Genetic networks responsive to sodium butyrate in colonic epithelial cells.  - PubMed - NCBIGenetic networks responsive to sodium butyrate in colonic epithelial cells. - PubMed - NCBI

Genetic networks responsive to sodium butyrate in colonic epithelial cells.. Tabuchi Y1, Takasaki I, Doi T, Ishii Y, Sakai H, ... We performed microarray and computational gene network analyses to identify the detailed mechanisms by which sodium butyrate ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16678170?dopt=Abstract

Butyrate kinase - WikipediaButyrate kinase - Wikipedia

Butyryl-phosphate is then converted into butyrate by using butyrate kinase and in the process, releases ATP. Butyrate plays an ... Butyrate kinase is active within the human colon. To form butyrate, two molecules of acetyl-CoA are combined and reduced to ... Because of the significant roles that butyrate plays within cells, it is essential that butyrate kinase is functioning ... butyrate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ADP and butyryl-phosphate, whereas its two products are ATP and butyrate. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butyrate_kinase

Hydrocortisone butyrate (JP15/USP) | C25H36O6 | ChemSpiderHydrocortisone butyrate (JP15/USP) | C25H36O6 | ChemSpider

Hydrocortisone butyrate (JP15/USP), 13609-67-1, Hydrocortisone butyrate [USAN:BAN:JAN]. ... Butyrate de (11β)-1. 1,21-dihydroxy-3,20. -dioxoprégn-4-én-17. -yle [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name] ... Hydrocortisone butyrate (JP15/. USP) *Molecular FormulaC25H36O6 ... 4-en-17-yl butyrate [ACD/IUPAC Name] (11β)-11,21-Dihydro. xy-3, ... Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate is an adrenocortico hormone MedChem Express http://www.medchemexpress.com/Fendiline-hydrochloride. ...
more infohttp://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.24344.html

Sheet Extrusion Of Cellulose Acetate Butyrate by Peter Riitho | 9783639289237 | Paperback | Barnes & Noble®Sheet Extrusion Of Cellulose Acetate Butyrate by Peter Riitho | 9783639289237 | Paperback | Barnes & Noble®

Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB) is a transparent plastics material with a huge potential in various optical applications. In ... Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB) is a transparent plastics material with a huge potential in various optical applications. In ... this book, a research was carried out to determine and optimize the quality of extruded sheets of Cellulose Acetate Butyrate, ...
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Butyrates | definition of Butyrates by Medical dictionaryButyrates | definition of Butyrates by Medical dictionary

Butyrates explanation free. What is Butyrates? Meaning of Butyrates medical term. What does Butyrates mean? ... Looking for online definition of Butyrates in the Medical Dictionary? ... butyrate. (redirected from Butyrates). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. butyrate. [bu´tĭ-rāt] a salt of butyric acid. ... Butyrates , definition of Butyrates by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Butyrates ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Butyrates

Frontiers | Perioperative acute hypertension-role of Clevidipine butyrate | PharmacologyFrontiers | Perioperative acute hypertension-role of Clevidipine butyrate | Pharmacology

Compared to the existing medications, Clevidipine butyrate has obvious advantages and can be safely used for perioperative ... Clevidipine butyrate is a Ca2+-channel antagonist that acts on the L-type Ca2+ channels regulating the influx of Ca2+ ions into ... 2011). Cleviprex® (Clevidipine Butyrate) Injectable Emulsion for Intravenous Use: US Prescribing Information [online]. ... Perioperative acute hypertension-role of Clevidipine butyrate. Lakshmi N. Kurnutala1*, Suren Soghomonyan2 and Sergio D. Bergese ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2014.00197/full

Indol-3-yl butyrate - Substance Information - ECHAIndol-3-yl butyrate - Substance Information - ECHA

Indol-3-yl butyrate. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] IUPAC names [2] ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.022.187

Hydrocortisone 17-Butyrate, TCI America™Hydrocortisone 17-Butyrate, TCI America™

11beta,17,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione 17-Butyrate, Cortisol 17-Butyrate. ... 11beta,17,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione 17-Butyrate, Cortisol 17-Butyrate. ... 11beta,17,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione 17-Butyrate, Cortisol 17-Butyrate. ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/hydrocortisone-17-butyrate-tci-america-2/p-7131078
  • This phenomenon leads to the accumulation of butyrate in the nucleus, acting as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that Butyrate inhibits activity of HDAC1 that is bound to the Fas gene promoter in T cells, resulting in hyperacetylation of the Fas promoter and upregulation of Fas receptor on the T cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we suggest that these mechanisms also apply to the majority of butyrate producers from the human colon. (nih.gov)
  • 1.1 Gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) usually appears as an odorless, colorless, tasteless liquid - in proprietary form as a 20% solution , but can also be found as a powder, or capsule . (idmu.co.uk)
  • In fact, butyrate is responsible for about 70% of energy from the colonocytes, being a critical SCFA in the colon homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereby butyrate synthesis can result in energy generation via both substrate-level phosphorylation and proton gradients. (nih.gov)
  • During this double blind, placebo controlled, randomised cross over study, healthy volunteers received an enema once daily for one week containing either placebo (saline), 50mM butyrate or 100mM of butyrate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As stated in the previous section, butyrate is involved with multiple cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)