Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Rats, Inbred F344Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Frozen FoodsNitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced rat bladder carcinogenesis. (1/87)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are proteins implicated in tumor-associated microvascular angiogenesis. Expressions of VEGF and bFGF in various stages of chemical-induced rat bladder carcinogenesis were immunohistochemically investigated. Thirty-two male 6-week-old Wistar rats were given drinking water containing 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) for 20 weeks. VEGF and bFGF were not detected in the normal bladder epithelium. In simple hyperplasia, intensive expression of VEGF was observed in a few epithelial cells, and the expression of epithelial VEGF became more pronounced in papillary or nodular (PN) hyperplasia and papilloma. In carcinoma, heterogeneous expression of VEGF was observed in focal tumor cells, intensely expressed in the invading tumor cells. Ultrastructurally, carcinoma cells showed VEGF immunoreactivity in the cytoplasmic matrix and some rough endoplasmic reticulum, and VEGF-positive and -negative carcinoma cells were also clearly defined. High levels of VEGF mRNA were observed in the carcinoma. However, bFGF was not detected in the epithelium throughout the carcinogenesis. Increased microvessel counts appeared at simple hyperplasia and became more pronounced in PN hyperplasia, papilloma, and carcinoma (F-test; P < 0.05). In the carcinoma, the microvessel counts of the VEGF-expressing tumor areas were significantly higher than that of the non-VEGF-expressing tumor areas (U-test; P < 0.05). The present study suggests that upregulation of epithelial VEGF may begin at a quite early stage in BBN-induced rat bladder carcinogenesis, but bFGF may not be involved.  (+info)

LOH and mutational analysis of p53 alleles in mouse urinary bladder carcinomas induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine. (2/87)

In human urinary bladder carcinogenesis, alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are common events. We have previously reported that they are also frequent in invasive urinary bladder carcinomas induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in NON/Shi mice. To further investigate the significance of the p53 gene status for mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis, we examined both allele loss and mutational alterations in urinary bladder cancers of (NON/Shi x C3H/He/Shi) F1 hybrid mice exposed to the carcinogen for 12 weeks and then maintained for a further 9 weeks without treatment. An intragenic silent polymorphism within exon 7 of the p53 gene between NON/Shi and C3H/He/Shi mice allows assessment of allele loss of the p53 gene and determination of the parental origin of mutated and/or lost alleles. A tissue microdissection method was employed to obtain carcinoma samples without excessive contamination with normal tissue. Allele losses were detected in one of 14 tumors (7.1%) and nine mutations in eight of 14 (57%) tumors were found in exons 5-8 by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism followed by DNA direct sequencing analysis. All mutations involved one base substitution with an amino acid change, although the types of base substitution were random. In conclusion, the high incidence of p53 alterations suggests a significant role in the genesis of invasive urinary bladder tumors in BBN-treated mice.  (+info)

Elevation of urinary enzyme levels in rat bladder carcinogenesis. (3/87)

Urinary enzyme levels were investigated in rats administered different promoters in their diet for 32 weeks after being initiated by treatment with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in their drinking water for 4 weeks. All groups were composed of 10 rats each. Group 1: females treated with 3% uracil (100% carcinoma incidence). Group 2: control females kept on basal diet only (0% carcinoma incidence). Group 3: males treated with 5% sodium L-ascorbate (100% carcinoma incidence). Group 4: control males (0% carcinoma incidence). Urine was collected at the end of weeks 12, 24 and 36 and tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminase and aspartate aminotransferase activity. To facilitate comparison, data were related to the corresponding excreted creatinine levels. All measurements were made using a centrifugal automatic analyzer. The urine of rats with cancer lesions (groups 1 and 3) showed significant elevation in all enzyme activities at weeks 24 and/or 36 except for LDH in females (group 1). The M/H ratio of the LDH isozymes was reversed (1.10 +/- 0.10) in the tested rats with carcinomas at week 36. This study thus provides evidence of a correlation between high urinary enzyme levels and cancer development in the rat bladder. Measurement of the tested enzymes might thus provide a method to detect malignant changes in bladder epithelium by direct urine analysis.  (+info)

Metallothionein modulates the carcinogenicity of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in mice. (4/87)

We examined the carcinogenicity of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) in transgenic mice deficient in the metallothionein (MT) I and II genes and in control (129/Sv) mice. Both strains of mice were given BBN for 8 weeks with or without Zn treatment. All mice were killed at 12 weeks after the cessation of BBN administration. BBN induced bladder tumors in 75% of MT null mice and in 43% of 129/Sv mice. The average number of bladder tumors per mouse was significantly higher in MT null mice (1. 18 +/- 0.27) than in 129/Sv mice (0.43 +/- 0.20). Zn treatment suppressed the carcinogenicity of BBN in 129/Sv mice but not in MT null mice. Histopathological examination of the tumors revealed that the malignant potential of bladder tumors in 129/Sv mice was greater than that in MT null mice. These results indicate that MT is an important modulator of carcinogenicity of BBN in the bladder of mice.  (+info)

Reduced expression of the CDK inhibitor p27(KIP1) in rat two-stage bladder carcinogenesis and its association with expression profiles of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53. (5/87)

The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(KIP1) exerts its growth suppressive effects by targeting the cyclin-CDK complexes. Reduced protein levels of p27(KIP1) have been reported in numerous human cancers and this has been attributed to increased degradation. However, few reports have addressed the significance of p27(KIP1) expression in chemical carcinogenesis of rodents. In a rat two-stage urinary bladder carcinogenesis model, with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) initiation followed by promotion with sodium L-ascorbate (Na-AsA), we evaluated the expression of p27(KIP1) protein using immunohistochemistry during various stages of urinary bladder carcinogenesis. In addition, we evaluated the mRNA expression profiles for p27(KIP1), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 in tumors. Fisher 344 rats were initiated with 0.05% BBN in the drinking water for 4 weeks and then administered 5% Na-AsA in the diet. Immunohistochemical examination revealed p27(KIP1) protein to be constitutively expressed in normal urothelium, simple hyperplasia and in most papillary and nodular (PN) hyperplasias and small papillomas, but diminished or absent in large papillomas and in transitional cell carcinomas. An inverse correlation between expression of p27(KIP1) and cell proliferation was generally observed. Quantitation of mRNA by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR showed a significant downregulaton of p27(KIP1), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 mRNA in tumors. More than 50% reduction in p27(KIP1) mRNA expression was observed in 42 and 47% of tumors at weeks 18 and 24, respectively; similar reduction in p21(WAF1/Cip1) mRNA expression was observed in 58 and 73% of tumors at weeks 18 and 24, and in p53 mRNA expression in 50 and 73% of tumors at weeks 18 and 24, respectively. None of the 25 tumors we examined by PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis had p53 mutations. These data imply that abnormal down-regulation of p27(KIP1), p21(WAF1/Cip1) and/or p53 in tumor cells may contribute to the malignant progression of tumors during rat two-stage bladder carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Comparison of uroplakin expression during urothelial carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine in rats and mice. (6/87)

The expression of uroplakins, the tissue-specific and differentiation-dependent membrane proteins of the urothelium, was analyzed immunohistochemically in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN)-treated rats and mice during bladder carcinogenesis. Male Fischer 344 rats were treated with 0.05% BBN in the drinking water for 10 wk and were euthanatized at week 20 of the experiment. BBN was administered to male B6D2F, mice; it was either provided at a rate of 0.05% in the drinking water (for 26 wk) or 5 mg BBN was administered by intragastric gavage twice weekly for 10 wk, followed by 20 wk without treatment. In rats, BBN-induced, noninvasive, low-grade, papillary, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) showed decreased uroplakin-staining of cells lining the lumen but showed increased expression in some nonluminal cells. In mice, nonpapillary, high-grade dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma were induced. There was a marked decrease in the number of uroplakin-positive cells lining the lumen and in nonluminal cells. This occurred in normal-appearing urothelium in BBN-treated mice and in dysplasic urothelium, in carcinoma in situ, and in invasive TCC. The percentage of uroplakin-positive nonluminal cells was higher in control mice than in rats, but it was lower in the mouse than in the rat after BBN treatment. Uroplakin expression was disorderly and focal in BBN-treated urothelium in both species. These results indicate that BBN treatment changed the expression of uroplakins during bladder carcinogenesis, with differences in rats and mice being related to degree of tumor differentiation.  (+info)

Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein in rat urinary bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine. (7/87)

The anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and piroxicam, are known to possess chemopreventive potential against rat superficial urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN). Recently, we found similar inhibitory effects with a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, nimesulide. In order to clarify the inhibitory mechanisms, we have further studied the expression of COX-2 protein in urinary bladder tumors induced by BBN in Fischer 344 male rats. For comparison, papillomatosis caused by uracil-induced urolithiasis, and normal epithelial cells, were also investigated. Western blot analysis revealed COX-2 protein to be barely expressed in the normal epithelial cells, whereas it was increased 13-22-fold in varying sizes of urinary bladder tumors and 7-fold in papillomatosis. Immunohistochemically, COX-2 protein was diffusely expressed in transitional cell carcinomas and nodulo-papillary hyperplasia but weakly expressed only in basal cells in simple hyperplasia and normal-looking surrounding epithelia. In papillomatosis, it was moderately expressed only in endothelial cells in stroma. These results indicate that COX-2 plays important roles in the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the rat urinary bladder, and therefore could be a good target for chemoprevention of superficial lesions.  (+info)

Aberrant expression of p27(Kip1) is associated with malignant transformation of the rat urinary bladder epithelium. (8/87)

Alteration in cell cycle regulators is considered to play an important role in carcinogenesis. In order to cast light on changes in reversible hyperplastic and irreversible tumorigenic lesions in the rat urinary bladder, expression of p27(Kip1), cyclin D1 and cyclin E proteins was sequentially compared. In the first study, 3% uracil was fed for 4 weeks to cause urinary calculi and consequent hyperplasia and papillomatosis, both regressing after withdrawal of the insult. Compared with normal bladder epithelium, in papillomatosis at week 4, the BrdU index and immunohistochemical positivities for cyclin D1 and cyclin E were significantly elevated, whereas values for p27(Kip1) tended to be reduced. One week after withdrawal of uracil, the BrdU index and positivities for cyclin D1 and cyclin E were decreased to below the control levels, while positivity for p27(Kip1) was dramatically increased, with a strong staining intensity. In a second study, rats were initiated with a bladder carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine for 4 weeks, then fed 3% uracil for 8 weeks. During this latter period, expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E and p27(Kip1) in hyperplastic urothelium were comparable with those in the first study. One week after withdrawal of uracil, most urothelial lesions regressed, showing high p27(Kip1) and low cyclin D1 and cyclin E staining. Two weeks after uracil withdrawal, transitional cell carcinomas, with a low p27(Kip1) and high cyclin D1 and cyclin E staining pattern, could be easily distinguished from surrounding regressing epithelium. These data indicate that during regression of papillomatosis after cessation of a proliferative stimulus, expression of p27(Kip1)is elevated, accompanied by a lowering of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. In irreversible tumorous bladder lesions, on the other hand, persistent low expression of p27(Kip1) and elevated cyclin D1 and cyclin E are characteristic.  (+info)

To investigate the anti-carcinogenic effects of Atorvastatin (Atorva) on a rat bladder carcinogenesis model with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxibutil)nitrosamine (BBN), four male Wistar rat groups were studied: (1) Control: vehicle; (2) Atorva: 3 mg/kg bw/day; (3) Carcinogen: BBN (0.05%); (4) Preventive Atorva: 3 mg/kg bw/day Atorva + BBN. A two phase protocol was used, in which the drug and the carcinogen were given between week 1 and 8 and tumor development or chemoprevention were expressed between week 9 and 20, when the bladders were collected for macroscopic, histological and immunohistochemical (p53, ki67, CD31) evaluation. Serum was assessed for markers of inflammation, proliferation and redox status. The incidence of bladder carcinoma was: control 0/8 (0%); Atorva 0/8 (0%); BBN 13/20 (65%) and Atorva + BBN 1/8 (12.5%). The number and volume of tumors were significantly lower in the Atorva + BBN group, with a marked reduction in hyperplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ lesions. An anti-proliferative,
Bladder cancer represents a major public health burden. The cost per bladder cancer patient from diagnosis to death is the highest among all cancers ($96,000 to...
N-Nitrosodibutylamine and its θ-hydroxylated metabolite N-nitrosobutyl(4-hydroxybutyl)amine (NB4HBA) induce tumors in the urinary bladder of different animal species through their common urinary metabolite N-nitrosobutyl(3-carboxypropyl)amine (NB3CPA), resulting from the oxidation of the alcoholic group of NB4HBA to a carboxylic group.. NB4HBA disappearance from blood, the formation of its main metabolites, NB3CPA and NB4HBA-glucuronide (NB4HBA-G), and their urinary excretion, were investigated in rats after an i.v. dose of 1 mg/kg (5.7 µmol/kg).. NB3CPA and NB4HBA-G formation was readily detectable 2 min after treatment and levels were still measurable at 120 and 30 min, respectively. The parent compound disappeared from blood 90 min after injection. The NB4HBA blood concentration-time profile was adequately described by a one-compartmental linear model. NB4HBA half-life was 8 min, total body clearance and renal clearance were 86.1 and 0.22 ml/min/kg, respectively. The 0-96-h urinary ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas NA JWH-073 3-HYDROXYBUTYL METABOLITE (INDOLE-D5, 98%) 100 UG/ML IN METHANOL. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
The up-regulation of cellular defense genes, such as phase II detoxifying and stress response genes, is believed to play an important biological function in the protection against carcinogenesis and in the attenuation of cancer development (1, 2). For example, the potent natural chemopreventive compound sulforaphane can strongly induce phase II gene expression in vivo and in vitro (3-6), and the chemopreventive efficacy of oltipraz against urinary bladder carcinogenesis was shown to be correlated with phase II gene regulation (7). The role of phase II conjugation in the metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics, and carcinogens in the human body has been long studied. The mechanism by which induction of phase II genes occurs, however, remains unclear until recently (8). These recent findings suggest a key role for the antioxidant response element (ARE)/electrophile response element in the regulation of some phase II and stress-responsive antioxidant genes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-[(3s)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl]-l-glutamic acid (C9H16N2O6) from the PQR.
A [4Fe-4S] enzyme that modifies a histidine residue of the translation elongation factor 2 (EF2) via a 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl radical. The enzyme is present in archae an
American comedian Stephen Colbert just cant seem to get off the back of Windsor, Ont., and now he has dragged Winnipeg and the CBC into his attack routine. On his satirical Comedy Central late-night ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-[[(2R)-2-carboxypropyl]amino]benzoic acid (C11H13NO4) from the PQR.
These cells were thought to be "stablished from the malignant urinary bladder carcinoma of a 66-year-old Caucasian man (stage pTa G3) in 1989"; same donor as for cell line BT-A; however, DNA fingerprinting and cytogenetic analysis at the Creative Bioarray established unequivocally that this cell line must be considered de facto a subclone of ...
:) I cant wait to start playin it! i got it with no shipping or taxes, either! this should be great. its my first bass and id like to thank all you...
Currently computed tomography (CT) represents the most widely used standard imaging modality in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. Visualization of local tumor or depth of invasion as well as lymph node staging, however, is often impaired. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted sequences, determination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values or utilization of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles potentially exhibits advantages in the assessment of local tumor or lymph node involvement and therefore might play a role in routine staging of urinary bladder cancer in the future. Likewise, positron emission tomography (PET) with the currently utilized tracers 18F-FDG, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate is investigated in bladder cancer patients-mostly in combination with diagnostic CT. Although promising results could be obtained for these PET/CT examinations in smaller series, their true value cannot be determined at present.
The chemopreventive efficacy of cranberry juice concentrate in an experimental model of urinary bladder cancer was evaluated using female Fischer-344 rats. The animals received N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for a period of eight weeks. Cranberry juice concentrate was administered at doses of 1.0 or 0.5 ml/rat/day beginning one week after the final OH-BBN treatment and continuing until the end of the study. The urinary bladders of all the rats were weighed and examined grossly for lesions, and all masses were submitted for pathological evaluation ...
B83 The purpose of this research project was to determine the efficacy of the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors, alone or in combination, to prevent OH-BBN-induced urinary bladder cancers in female Fischer-344 rats. In this OH-BBN-induced rat model, the bladder cancers are primarily transitional cell carcinomas which are mostly papillary and slowly growing. The rats were treated for 8 weeks with OH-BBN beginning at 49 days of age, then treated with chemopreventive agents and followed for an additional 6-7 months for the appearance of urinary bladder cancers. Beginning one week following the last OH-BBN administration and continuing until the end of the study, celecoxib (a COX2 inhibitor) was administered at 500 mg/kg diet, zileuton (a LOX inhibitor) at 1200 mg/kg diet, naproxen (a nonspecific COX inhibitor) at 200 or 400 mg/kg diet, aspirin (a COX1 inhibitor) at 300 and 3000 mg/kg diet, and caffeic acid (a LOX inhibitor) at 8 and 16 grams/kg diet. At the end of the study ...
A novel FTIR spectroscopic test for urinary bladder cancer developed by scientists in Germany has been improved to give a more accurate diagnosis, distinguishing patients from those with urinary tract infections. Writing in Journal of Biophotonics , Klaus Gewert and colleagues illustrated that a larger patient set and adjusted data measurement and...
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Established from the transitional cell carcinoma (histological grade G2) excised from a woman (age unknown) with untreated primary urinary bladder carcinoma in 1973; described to form tumors in nude mice. Cytokeratine (4),5,(6), 7, 8, 13, 17, 18, 19, Desmoplakin; DNA-index=2,1 ...
2-oxoglutarate + 7-[(3S)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl]wyosine(37) in tRNA(Phe) + O2 = 7-(2-hydroxy-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)wyosine(37) in tRNA(Phe) + CO2 + succinate ...
Urinary bladder cancer in cats is characterized by an abnormal growth of cells within the urinary bladder. The most common type urinary bladder cancer seen in cats is rooted from a tumor called transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
Background/Aim. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and the fifth most common primary malignancy with worldwide increasing incidence. The current study aims to investigate the anticancer activities novel isosteviol derivatives towards human HepG2 hepatocellular cancer cells and in an animal model of Hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods. Twelve isosteviol derivatives were screened for their anti-proliferative activities against HepG2 and IC50 was calculated for all designed derivatives. The impact of the potent isosteviol derivative 10C on HepG2 cells was further studied by MTT assay, Annexin V/ PI staining, flow cytometry and western blotting. In vivo studies were performed to assess the anticancer effect of isosteviol derivative 10C on Diethyl Nitrosamine-induced liver cancer in female rats by evaluating the physiological processes. Results. isosteviol derivative 10C induced growth inhibition with IC50 of 2 µM mainly through induction of apoptosis ...
Bladder cancer is a type of urinary tract cancer, which can be diagnosed and treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy by the expert urologist Dr N Anandan in Chennai, India
Nucleus Medical Media is a U.S. business that creates and licenses medical illustrations and animations. For a free proposal on your next medical project of any size, contact the company with the largest staff of graduate-degreed medical animators in the world.
1. Dyrskjøt L, Ostenfeld MS, Bramsen JB, Silahtaroglu AN, Lamy P, Ramanathan R, Fristrup N, Jensen JL, Andersen CL, Zieger K, Kauppinen S, Ulhøi BP, Kjems J, Borre M, Orntoft TF. Genomic profiling of microRNAs in bladder cancer: miR-129 is associated with poor outcome and promotes cell death in vitro.Cancer Res. 2009 Jun 1;69(11):4851-60.. 2. Zieger K, Marcussen N, Borre M, Orntoft TF, Dyrskjøt L. Consistent genomic alterations in carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder confirms the presence of two major pathways in bladder cancer development. Int J Cancer. 2009 Nov 1;125(9):2095-103.. 3. Ostenfeld MS, Bramsen JB, Lamy P, Villadsen SB, Fristrup N, Sørensen KD, Ulhøi B, Borre M, Kjems J, Dyrskjøt L, Orntoft TF. miR-145 induces caspase-dependent and -independent cell death in urothelial cancer cell lines with targeting of an expression signature present in Ta bladder tumors. Oncogene. Published on line, 2009 Nov 16.. 4. Rodríguez-Santiago B, Malats N*, Rothman N*, Armengol L, ...
Nitrosamine: …aromatic) to N-nitroso compounds (nitrosamines): R2NH + HNO2 → R2N−NO. Some nitrosamines are potent cancer-inducing substances, and their possible formation is a serious consideration when nitrites, which are salts of nitrous acid, are present in foods or pharmaceutical preparations. Tertiary amines give rise to nitrosamines more slowly; an alkyl…
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Radiation therapy for PCa is associated with a greater likelihood of bladder cancer development compared with radical prostatectomy (RP).
Male B6D2F1 (C57BL/6 × DBA/2F1) mice and female Fisher-344 rats were obtained from Harlan Sprague Dawley, Inc. (Indianapolis, IN; virus-free colony 202) at 28 days of age and housed in polycarbonate cages (5/cage). The animals were kept in a room lighted 12 h each day and maintained at 22 ± 0.5°C. Teklad (4%) diet (Harlan Teklad, Madison, WI) and tap water were provided ad libitum. Celecoxib (SC-635) was provided by Monsanto/Searle (St. Louis, MO).. In the mouse study, celecoxib was administered at 200, 500, and 1250 mg/kg of diet when the animals were 49 days of age and was continued throughout the study. At 56 days of age, carcinogen-treated mice received the first of 12 weekly intragastric doses of OH-BBN (TCI America, Portland, OR). Each 7.5-mg dose was dissolved in 0.1 ml ethanol:water (20:80). The mice were weighed weekly and checked daily. Some animals were lost during the first two weeks of the study due to gavage errors. These mice were excluded from the final analysis. After the ...
An increase in urinary bladder tumors was observed in mice given topiramate 20, 75, and 300 mg/kg in the diet for. The 100 mg TOPAMAX® dose produced
The protective effect of polyphenol-rich haskap berry extracts against tobacco-specific nitrosamine ketone (NNK)-induced DNA damage was studied in vitro. Normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to NNK, and to its precursor, 4-[(acetoxymethyl) nitrosamino]-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc), to induce DNA damage. Polyphenols present in haskap berries were extracted using ethanol and water, separately. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) were used as the reference compounds. BEAS-2B cells were pre-incubated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of haskap extracts, Q3G, and C3G separately, and investigated for their protective effects against NNK- and NNKOAc-induced DNA damage. Pre-incubation of BEAS-2B cells with haskap extracts, Q3G, and C3G, significantly suppressed the NNK- and NNKOAc-induced DNA strand breaks, and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. The protective effect of haskap extracts could be related to their polyphenol content and high ...
Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, that is, a nitroso group bonded to an amine. Most nitrosamines are carcinogenic. Nitrosamines are used in the manufacture of some cosmetics, pesticides, and in most rubber products.[citation needed] Nitrosamines occur in latex products such as balloons, and in many foods and other consumables. Nitrosamines from condoms are not thought to be of toxicological significance. In foods, nitrosamines are produced from nitrites and secondary amines, which often occur in the form of proteins. Their formation can occur only under certain conditions, including strongly acidic conditions such as that of the human stomach. High temperatures, as in frying, can also enhance the formation of nitrosamines. The presence of nitrosamines may be identified by the Liebermann nitroso reaction (not to be confused with the Liebermann reagent which reacts red or blue in the presence of phenols). Under acidic conditions the nitrite forms nitrous ...
Its relatively OLD NEWS regarding the dangers of nitrosamines in the processed foods we eat. Exposing foods, particularly those with higher nitrite contents, to high temperatures (such as in grilling and frying) cause the nitrites and amines in those foods to transform into nitrosamines. Bacon, hot dogs, other cured meats and certain cheeses that are…
BS 7115-1 : Determination of Volatile Nitrosamines in Rubber Teats for Feeding Bottles and Babies Dummies Part 1: Dichloromethane Extraction Method
Orthotopic neo- bladder in women Manlio Schettini Summary Introduction: Radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment madality for high grade urinary bladder carcinoma and orthotopic reconstruction is the better urinary diversion modality also in women. Material and methods: From 2002 to 2007 we performed 14 radical cystectomies followed by orthotopic reconstruction in women aged between 47 and 68 years (mean age 56) affected by urinary bladder carcinoma. Our reconstructive technique requires the preparation of two strips of the recti muscles fascia, the sectioning of the bladder neck and, when the uterus is present, hysteroannessiectomy and cystectomy en block leaving intact the lateral and inferior vaginal walls. The pelvic floor is stabilized by a colposacropexis with a prosthesis and placing an omental flap over the prosthesis The orthotopic reconstruction is achieved via a neobladder according to the Padovana technique. The ureters are anastomized to the neobladder and splinted with ...
L-Ascorbate (the reduced form of vitamin C) participates in diverse biological processes including pathogen defence mechanisms, and the modulation of plant growth and morphology, and also acts as an enzyme cofactor and redox status indicator. One of its chief biological functions is as an antioxidant. L-Ascorbate intake has been implicated in the prevention/alleviation of varied human ailments and diseases including cancer. To study the regulation of accumulation of this important nutraceutical in fruit, the expression of 24 tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) genes involved in the biosynthesis, oxidation, and recycling of L-ascorbate during the development and ripening of fruit have been characterized. Taken together with L-ascorbate abundance data, the results show distinct changes in the expression profiles for these genes, implicating them in nodal regulatory roles during the process of L-ascorbate accumulation in tomato fruit. The expression of these genes was further studied in the context of ...
Alden Prcic, Edin Begic Abstract Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent early and late complications in different types of ileal urinary diversions. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in a five-year period, on 106 patients who were diagnosed with invasive urinary bladder [...] ...
Kayne Anderson Energy Development (NYSE: KED) and Blackrock Taxable Municipal Bond Trust (NYSE:BBN) are both small-cap financials companies, but which is the better investment? We will compare the two companies based on the strength of their profitability, earnings, risk, analyst recommendations, institutional ownership, dividends and valuation. Analyst Recommendations This is a summary of recent ratings […]
Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 x 10(-11). SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the ...
Subjective assessment of flat urothelial lesions has often resulted in an under- or overdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma in situ. To identify reproducible morphologic objective criteria, the authors used an image analysis system to measure several nuclear features (area, diameter, roundness, ellipticity, and optical density) in 20 cases each of CIS, urothelial dysplasia, and normal urothelium with adjacent lymphocyte controls. They did not analyze reactive urothelial lesions and umbrella cells. The most useful, statistically significant morphologic parameter was mean nuclear area of the largest 25 percent of nuclei. The mean upper quartile nuclear area relative to lymphocytes was 2.2 times (range, 1.4 to 2.8 times) in normal urothelium, 2.9 times (range, 1.8 to 3.6 times) in urothelial dysplasia, and 4.9 times (range, 4.0 to 7.6 times) in CIS. The nuclear size measurements for urothelial dysplasia and normal urothelium overlapped, but the separation between CIS and urothelial dysplasia was ...
1)   Haemangioma ,  2)  Rhabdomysarcoma ,  3)  Transitional cell carcinoma ,  4)  Squamous cell carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is an extremely rare but aggressive tumour constituting less than 0.7% of all urinary bladder tumours.
Fludarabine is used in the treatment of ovarian cancer,head and neck cancer,cervical cancer,testicular cancer.,breast cancer,non-hodgkin lymphoma (nhl),blood cancer,lung cancer,bone cancer,urinary bladder cancer.get complete information about fludarabine including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with fludarabine at 1mg.com
This review document consists of two parts. The first is a review of the published information about the formation of nitrosamines in vulcanisates and also legislative and environmental considerations. The second part is a summary of the collaborative study carried out at Rapra.
Bladder cancer is the fourth and eighth most common malignancy among men and women, respectively. About 75% of bladder cancers are diagnosed as non muscle-invasive and according to specific tumor-stage and grade characteristics, intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used to prevent recurrence and/or progression. However, BCG immunotherapy is associated with significant adverse events and treatment failure may occur in 30-40% of cases, hence the necessity for alternative therapies. In an orthotopic MB49 mouse bladder cancer model, another bacterial vaccine (Ty21a/Vivotif) turned out to be more effective than BCG for inducing tumor regression and mice survival upon intravesical instillation; and potentially safer because Ty21a bacteria did not infect/persist in any mice tissues nor in human bladder explants or cell lines, in contrast to BCG. Ty21a/Vivotif has been used in the last 30 years in millions of individuals as an oral typhoid vaccine with a high safety record. ...
(C5Me5)2Y(η3-C3H5) reacts with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, 9-BBN, to form single crystals containing both a borane-substituted allyl complex, (C5Me5)2Y[η3-C3H4(BC8H14)], and a borohydride, (C5Me5)2Y(μ-H)2BC8H14, that can be synthesized directly from 9-BBN and the yttrium hydride, [(C5Me5)2YH]x.
Polylactide-siloxane triblock copolymers with pendent carboxylic acid functional groups have been designed and synthesized for study as magnetite nanoparticle dispersion stabilizers. Magnetic nanoparticles are of interest in a variety of biomedical applications, including magnetic field-directed drug delivery and magnetic cell separations. Small magnetite nanoparticles are desirable due to their established biocompatibility and superparamagnetic (lack of magnetic hysteresis) behavior. For in-vivo applications it is important that the magnetic material be coated with biocompatible organic materials to afford dispersion characteristics or to further modify the surfaces of the complexes with biospecific moieties. The synthesis of the triblock copolymers is comprised of three reactions. Difunctional, controlled molecular weight polymethylvinylsiloxane oligomers with either aminopropyl or hydroxybutyl endgroups were prepared in ring-opening redistribution reactions. These oligomers were utilized as ...
Structure of L-xylulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase (UlaE) from the anaerobic L-ascorbate utilization pathway of Escherichia coli: identification of a novel phosphate binding motif within a TIM barrel fold
We have recently shown that EGFR inhibitors were highly effective in preventing OH-BBN-induced rat bladder cancer (12). Efficacy was observed either when Iressa treatment was initiated early in tumor progression (early hyperplasia) or when invasive microcarcinomas already existed (12). This indicates that Iressa is effective during the later stages of tumor progression. The traditional concept of prevention would test the agents before cancer development. In our study the animals in the Iressa treatment group were given Iressa after they developed a small palpable tumor (150-300 mg). The reasons of such design are as follows: (i) Human phase III clinical trials in prevention are relatively late: The prime example of a "prevention trial" in bladder is to inhibit the recurrence of bladder cancer by the cancer chemopreventive retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) within a period of 18 months. This is not an early intervention similar to the study with OH-BBN proposed. Recently, we have ...
This review document consists of two parts. The first is a review of the published information about the formation of nitrosamines in vulcanisates and also legislative and environmental considerations. The second part is a summary of the collaborative study carried out at Rapra.
Meat cancer prevention is at the top of our menu today. This is a follow-up to last weeks post (Bacon Cancer) which discussed the cancer hazards of eating meat. This blog is focused specifically on how we can minimize our … Continue reading →. ...
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Mutation of ras oncogenes is frequently observed in human tumours and occurs in approximately 30% of all cancer types. Frequent mutation hot spots occur in codon 12 (glycine to valine), codon 13 (glycine to cysteine) and codon 61 (glutamine to arginine, lysine and leucine) (Bonner et al. 1993, Levesque et al. 1993). Point mutations in ras genes result in blockade of intrinsic GTPase activity, the physiological mechanism that switches off ras GTPases. The consequence is persistent up-regulation of the signal pathway and increased cell proliferation. The first HRAS mutation in association with bladder cancer was described during establishment of the human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line T24. In further studies, a research group led by Fitzgerald was able to demonstrate that HRAS gene mutations were present in the urine sediment of up to 44% of patients with urinary bladder cancer (Fitzgerald et al. 1995).. Viola et al. subsequently investigated whether an increased mutation rate is ...
E. coli is able to utilize L-ascorbate (vitamin C) as the sole source of carbon under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Ascorbic acid in the cytoplasm is processed through a spontaneous reaction with a hydrogen ion and hydrogen peroxide, producing water, dehydroascorbic acid and ascorbic acid. Dehydroascorbic acid reacts with water spontaneously producing an isomer, dehydroascorbate (bicyclic form). The compound then loses a hydrogen ion resulting in a 2,3-Diketo-L-gulonate. This compound is then reduced through a NADH dependent 2,3 diketo-L-gulonate reductase, releasing a NAD and 3-Dehydro-L-gulonate.This compound is phosphorylated through an ATP mediated L-xylulose/3-keto-L-gulonate kinase resulting in an ADP, hydrogen ion and a 3-Keto-L-gulonate 6 phosphate. L-ascorbate can also be imported and converted to L-ascorbate-6-phosphate by the L-ascorbate PTS transporter. L-ascorbate-6-phosphate reacts with a probable L-ascorbate-6-phosphate lactonase ulaG, resulting in a 3-keto-L-gulonate ...
Immunohistochemical expression of P-glycoprotein in the rat urinary bladder and the effect of verapamil on intravesical chemotherapy (2001 ...
My principal research interest is the optimisation of acetylcysteine treatment regimens for paracetamol poisoning to reduce adverse reactions without compromising efficacy. I am the Principal Investigator in Newcastle for the Scottish and Newcastle Anti-Emetic Pre-Treatment in Paracetamol Poisoning (SNAP) clinical trial. This showed that a shorter 12h regimen of acetylcysteine reduced the incidence of vomiting and anaphylactoid reactions (published in Lancet 2013). ...
The exact genetic events leading to the development of bladder cancer are unknown, but they are likely to be multiple and may involve the activation of oncogenes and inactivation or loss of tumor suppressor genes (Olumi et al, 1990). Loss of genetic material on chromosome 9 appears to be a consistent finding in patients with both low-grade, low-stage and high-grade, high-stage disease (Miyao et al, 1993; Tsai et al, 1990), which suggests that this may be an early event in bladder cancer development. Loss of chromosome 9 in multiple tumors from an individual patient supports the concept that genetic changes in bladder cancer represent a "field defect" that may occur throughout the urothelium. More recent studies examining p53 tumor suppressor gene mutations in primary, recurrent, and upper-tract tumors suggest that these tumors can have a single clonal origin (Dalbagni et al, 2001; Sidransky et al, 1991). Additional genetic changes have been described that are specific for invasive bladder ...
Choriocarcinomas can be divided into two types: gestational and non-gestational. Gestational choriocarcinomas mostly occur in woman of reproductive age, usually within one year following a molar or non-molar pregnancy. Non-gestational choriocarcinomas can arise from germ cell or trophoblastic differentiation within endometrial carcinomas. Extraovarian germ cell tumors, including choriocarcinomas may arise from germ cells that failed to complete their migration to the gonads [8]. However, germ cell choriocarcinomas arising from the female genital tract in postmenopausal woman with normal ovaries on CT scan and sonography are extremely rare [3, 9].. When choriocarcinoma occurs in postmenopausal woman, it is difficult to rule out the possibility of trophoblastic differentiation within an endometrial carcinoma. Choriocarcinoma has been reported in association with endometrial carcinoma as well as liver, lung and urinary bladder carcinomas [10]. These types of choriocarcinomas can be diagnosed based ...
This standard is formulated for the purposes of enforcing the Environment Protection Law of the Peoples Republic of China and Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the Peoples Republic of China, protecting the environment, safeguarding the public health, and setting standards for the determination of nitrosamine compounds in waters. This standard specifies the gas chromatography used to determine nitrosamine compounds in surface water, groundwater, industrial sewage, and municipal wastewater. This standard is the original version.. ...

Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization | The Chopra LibrarySpectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization | The Chopra Library

The chemopreventive efficacy of cranberry juice concentrate in an experimental model of urinary bladder cancer was evaluated using female Fischer-344 rats. The animals received N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for a period of eight weeks. Cranberry juice concentrate was administered at doses of 1.0 or 0.5 ml/rat/day beginning one week after the final OH-BBN treatment and continuing until the end of the study. The urinary bladders of all the rats were weighed and examined grossly for lesions, and all masses were submitted for pathological evaluation ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/spectrometry-mass-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization

TNO Repository search for: subject:Urine levelTNO Repository search for: subject:'Urine level'

Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine · Carcinogens · Hydrogen-Ion Concentration · Hyperplasia · Male · Nitrosamines · Papilloma · ... Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine, 3817-11-6; Carcinogens; Nitrosamines; Potassium, 7440-09-7; Sodium Bicarbonate, 144-55-8; Sodium ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject:%22Urine%20level%22

TNO Repository search for: subject:Rats, Inbred StrainsTNO Repository search for: subject:'Rats, Inbred Strains'

Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine · Carcinogens · Hydrogen-Ion Concentration · Hyperplasia · Male · Nitrosamines · Papilloma · ... Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine, 3817-11-6; Carcinogens; Nitrosamines; Potassium, 7440-09-7; Sodium Bicarbonate, 144-55-8; Sodium ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject%3A%22Rats%2C%20Inbred%20Strains%22

List of MeSH codes (D02) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D02) - Wikipedia

... butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine MeSH D02.654.442.200 --- diethylnitrosamine MeSH D02.654.442.225 --- dimethylnitrosamine MeSH ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D02)

Frontiers | ToxiM: A Toxicity Prediction Tool for Small Molecules Developed Using Machine Learning and Chemoinformatics...Frontiers | ToxiM: A Toxicity Prediction Tool for Small Molecules Developed Using Machine Learning and Chemoinformatics...

Molecules such as Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine (Parkinson and Lotzová, 1989) and Sodium tetradecanesulfonate, which are present ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2017.00880/full

Hepatomegaly - Diseases | CTDHepatomegaly - Diseases | CTD

Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine , Cadmium Chloride , Carbamazepine , Carbon Tetrachloride , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, Dietary , ... Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine , Cadmium Chloride , Carbon Tetrachloride , Curcumin , Dactinomycin , Dichloroacetic Acid , ... Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine , Cadmium Chloride , Carbon Tetrachloride , Cholesterol , Curcumin , Cyclophosphamide , ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=disease&acc=MESH%3AD006529&view=phenotype

Animal Diseases - Diseases | CTDAnimal Diseases - Diseases | CTD

tetrahydropyridine , Acetaminophen , Acetic Acid , Aluminum Chloride , bisphenol A , Bleomycin , Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine ... leucine aldehyde , bisphenol A , Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine , Calcium Chloride , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chlorpyrifos , ... Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine , Butyric Acid , Calcium Chloride , Carbamazepine , Carbon Tetrachloride , Carvedilol , Ceruletide ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=disease&acc=MESH%3AD000820&view=phenotype

Welcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resourceWelcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resource

Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine/toxicity *Endometrial Neoplasms/chemically induced/metabolism *Estradiol/toxicity *Female * ...
more infohttp://la.ageing-map.org/entries/tags/657/

Welcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resourceWelcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resource

Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine/toxicity *Endometrial Neoplasms/chemically induced/metabolism *Estradiol/toxicity *Female * ...
more infohttp://libage.ageing-map.org/entries/tags/4050/

Chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis by cacao liquor proanthocyanidins in a male rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model<...Chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis by cacao liquor proanthocyanidins in a male rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis by cacao liquor proanthocyanidins in a male rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model. AU - Yamagishi, Megumi. AU - Natsume, Midori. AU - Osakabe, Naomi. AU - Okazaki, Kazushi. AU - Furukawa, Fumio. AU - Imazawa, Takayoshi. AU - Nishikawa, Akiyoshi. AU - Hirose, Masao. PY - 2003/2/28. Y1 - 2003/2/28. N2 - The effects of cacao liquor proanthocyanidins (CLPr) on tumorigenesis were investigated using a multi-organ carcinogenesis model in male F344 rats receiving combined treatment with a single i.p. injection of diethylnitrosamine (100 mg/kg body wt), four i.p. injections of N-methylnitrosourea (20 mg/kg body wt), four s.c. injections of dimethylhydrazine (40 mg/kg body wt), along with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine and then 0.1% 2,2′-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine, both in the drinking water, for 2 weeks each, during the initial 4-week period (DMBDD treatment). Starting 1 week thereafter, rats were administered CLPr at a dose of ...
more infohttps://shibaura.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/chemoprevention-of-lung-carcinogenesis-by-cacao-liquor-proanthocy

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

The medium-term multiorgan initiation-promotion chemical bioassay (diethylnitrosamine, methyl-nitrosourea, butyl-hydroxybutylnitrosamine ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Solano,%20Carla

butylene - Definitionbutylene - Definition

... butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine. Bookmark with: word visualiser. Go and visit our forums ...
more infohttp://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?butylene

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