4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Butanones, also known as methyl ethyl ketone or MEK, are organic compounds consisting of a four-carbon chain with a ketone functional group located at the second carbon atom, classified as dimethyl ketones, and commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings as solvents and chemical intermediates.
A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.

Reduction of serum cholesterol and hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside isolated from flaxseed. (1/173)

BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed. Lignans are platelet-activating factor-receptor antagonists that would inhibit the production of oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. SDG is an antioxidant. Antioxidants studied thus far are known to reduce hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of SDG on various blood lipid and aortic tissue oxidative stress parameters and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rabbits were assigned to 4 groups: group 1, control; group 2, SDG control (15 mg. kg body wt-1. d-1 PO); group 3, 1% cholesterol diet; and group 4, same as group 3 but with added SDG (15 mg. kg body wt-1. d-1 PO). Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and after 4 and 8 weeks of experimental diets for measurement of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), and LDL, HDL, and VLDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C, and VLDL-C). The aorta was removed at the end of the protocol for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques; malondialdehyde, an aortic tissue lipid peroxidation product; and aortic tissue chemiluminescence, a marker for antioxidant reserve. Serum TC, LDL-C, and the ratios LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C increased in groups 3 and 4 compared with time 0, the increase being smaller in group 4 than in group 3. Serum HDL-C decreased in group 3 and increased in group 4 compared with time 0, but changes were lower in group 3 than in group 4. SDG reduced TC and LDL-C by 33% and 35%, respectively, at week 8 but increased HDL-C significantly, by>140%, as early as week 4. It also decreased TC/LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios by approximately 64%. There was an increase in aortic malondialdehyde and chemiluminescence in group 3, and they were lower in group 4 than in group 3. SDG reduced hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by 73%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that SDG reduced hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis and that this effect was associated with a decrease in serum cholesterol, LDL-C, and lipid peroxidation product and an increase in HDL-C and antioxidant reserve.  (+info)

A new carboxylesterase from Brevibacterium linens IFO 12171 responsible for the conversion of 1,4-butanediol diacrylate to 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate: purification, characterization, gene cloning, and gene expression in Escherichia coli. (2/173)

A carboxylesterase that is responsible for conversion of 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BDA) to 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (4HBA) was found in Brevibacterium lines IFO 12171, and purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme was active toward a variety of diesters of ethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol, and 1,6-hexanediol. The K(m) and kcat of the enzyme for BDA were 3.04 mM and 203,000 s-1, respectively. The reaction with the purified enzyme gave 98 mM 4HBA from 100 mM BDA for 60 min. The enzyme gene was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of the bacterium. The open reading frame encoding the enzyme was 1176 bp long, corresponding to a protein of 393 amino acid residues (molecular mass = 42,569 Da). The deduced amino acid sequence contained the tetra peptide motif sequence, STTK, and the serine residue was confirmed to be the catalytic center of BDA esterase by site-directed mutagenesis for several amino acid residues. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lac promoter, and the gene product (a fusion protein with 6 amino acid residues from beta-galactosidase) showed the same catalytic properties as the enzyme from the parent strain.  (+info)

Exposure to flaxseed or its lignan component during different developmental stages influences rat mammary gland structures. (3/173)

Reduction of the highly proliferative terminal end bud (TEB) structures in the developing mammary gland by differentiation to alveolar buds (ABs) and lobules has been suggested to be protective against mammary cancer. Flaxseed is high in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG). SDG is the precursor of mammalian lignans, which can affect mammary gland structures. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of lifetime, gestation and lactation or after-weaning exposure to 5 or 10% flaxseed or SDG and flaxseed oil components on the mammary gland structures of virgin female rat offspring at post-natal day 50. Lifetime or gestation and lactation exposure to flaxseed altered mammary gland structure development, whereas exposure to flaxseed after weaning had no effect. Lifetime or gestation and lactation exposure to 5% flaxseed caused endocrine changes, as suggested by delayed puberty onset and reduced number of estrous cycles. These changes reduced exposure to endogenous estrogens, leading to atrophy of mammary TEB structures. SDG, but not flaxseed oil, at the level found in 5% flaxseed produced similar effects as 5% flaxseed. This suggested that the lignans were the component in flaxseed responsible for the observed effects. Lifetime or gestation and lactation exposure to 10% flaxseed also caused endocrine changes, as suggested by early puberty onset and lengthened cycles due to prolonged estrus. This increased exposure to endogenous estrogens and stimulated mammary gland differentiation, as indicated by fewer TEBs and more ABs. Thus, lifetime or gestation and lactation exposure to 5 or 10% flaxseed induced structural changes in the mammary gland that may potentially reduce mammary cancer risk.  (+info)

Fermentative metabolism of Bacillus subtilis: physiology and regulation of gene expression. (4/173)

Bacillus subtilis grows in the absence of oxygen using nitrate ammonification and various fermentation processes. Lactate, acetate, and 2,3-butanediol were identified in the growth medium as the major anaerobic fermentation products by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactate formation was found to be dependent on the lctEP locus, encoding lactate dehydrogenase and a putative lactate permease. Mutation of lctE results in drastically reduced anaerobic growth independent of the presence of alternative electron acceptors, indicating the importance of NADH reoxidation by lactate dehydrogenase for the overall anaerobic energy metabolism. Anaerobic formation of 2,3-butanediol via acetoin involves acetolactate synthase and decarboxylase encoded by the alsSD operon. Mutation of alsSD has no significant effect on anaerobic growth. Anaerobic acetate synthesis from acetyl coenzyme A requires phosphotransacetylase encoded by pta. Similar to the case for lctEP, mutation of pta significantly reduces anaerobic fermentative and respiratory growth. The expression of both lctEP and alsSD is strongly induced under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic lctEP and alsSD induction was found to be partially dependent on the gene encoding the redox regulator Fnr. The observed fnr dependence might be the result of Fnr-induced arfM (ywiD) transcription and subsequent lctEP and alsSD activation by the regulator ArfM (YwiD). The two-component regulatory system encoded by resDE is also involved in anaerobic lctEP induction. No direct resDE influence on the redox regulation of alsSD was observed. The alternative electron acceptor nitrate represses anaerobic lctEP and alsSD transcription. Nitrate repression requires resDE- and fnr-dependent expression of narGHJI, encoding respiratory nitrate reductase. The gene alsR, encoding a regulator potentially responding to changes of the intracellular pH and to acetate, is essential for anaerobic lctEP and alsSD expression. In agreement with its known aerobic function, no obvious oxygen- or nitrate-dependent pta regulation was observed. A model for the regulation of the anaerobic fermentation genes in B. subtilis is proposed.  (+info)

Urinary composition and postprandial blood changes in H-secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) metabolites in rats do not differ between acute and chronic SDG treatments. (5/173)

Although chronic exposure to secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) was shown to alter (3)H-SDG metabolite disposition in rats, the proportion of measured radioactivity attributed to known or unknown SDG metabolites was not determined. Using HPLC and GC-MS, two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of acute (1 d) vs. chronic (10 d) SDG treatment on major urinary metabolites of (3)H-SDG in female, Sprague-Dawley rats (70-72-d-old) over a 48-h period and if new urinary metabolites were detectable in rats fed nonradioactive flaxseed or SDG. A third experiment was conducted to determine changes in postprandial blood levels of (3)H-SDG metabolites over a 24-h period with acute or chronic SDG treatment. Regardless of treatment, enterodiol, enterolactone and secoisolariciresinol accounted for 75-80% of urine radioactivity. Four potential new lignan metabolites, two of which were detected in the urine of rats fed nonradioactive flaxseed or SDG, were found. Type of treatment had no effect on levels of individual urinary metabolites of (3)H-SDG. As observed for plasma lignans in women fed flaxseed, blood radioactivity peaked at 9 h and remained high until 24 h in both treatment groups, suggesting that blood lignan kinetics might be similar with flaxseed or SDG consumption and that they were comparable between humans and rats. In conclusion, the main urinary lignan metabolites were enterodiol, enterolactone and secoisolariciresinol. Urinary composition or blood levels of radioactive lignans were not affected by the duration of SDG exposure. Thus, while chronic SDG exposure alters lignan disposition in rats, it does not change the metabolite profile.  (+info)

Adverse events, including death, associated with the use of 1,4-butanediol. (6/173)

BACKGROUND: 1,4-Butanediol is an industrial solvent that, when ingested, is converted to gamma-hydroxybutyrate, a drug of abuse with depressant effects, primarily on the central nervous system. After reports of toxic effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and its resultant regulation by the federal government, 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone, another precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and an industrial solvent, began to be marketed as dietary supplements. We investigated reports of toxic effects due to the ingestion of 1,4-butanediol and reviewed the related health risks. METHODS: From June 1999 through December 1999, we identified cases of toxic effects of 1,4-butanediol involving patients who presented to our emergency departments with a clinical syndrome suggesting toxic effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and a history of ingesting 1,4-butanediol and patients discovered through public health officials and family members. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 1,4-butanediol or its metabolite, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, in urine, serum, or blood. RESULTS: We identified nine episodes of toxic effects in eight patients who had ingested 1,4-butanediol recreationally, to enhance bodybuilding, or to treat depression or insomnia. One patient presented twice with toxic effects and had withdrawal symptoms after her second presentation. Clinical findings and adverse events included vomiting, urinary and fecal incontinence, agitation, combativeness, a labile level of consciousness, respiratory depression, and death. No additional intoxicants were identified in six patients, including the two who died. The doses of 1,4-butanediol ingested ranged from 5.4 to 20 g in the patients who died and ranged from 1 to 14 g in the nonfatal cases. CONCLUSIONS: The health risks of 1,4-butanediol are similar to those of its counterparts, gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone. These include acute toxic effects, which may be fatal, and addiction and withdrawal.  (+info)

Secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase purification, cloning, and functional expression. Implications for human health protection. (7/173)

Matairesinol is a central precursor in planta in the biosynthesis of numerous lignans, including that of the important antiviral and anticancer agent, podophyllotoxin. In this study, the approximately 32-kDa NAD-dependent secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the enantiospecific conversion of (-)-secoisolariciresinol into (-)-matairesinol in Forsythia intermedia, was purified >6,000-fold to apparent homogeneity. The 831-base pair cDNA clone encoding this 277-amino acid protein was next obtained from a library constructed from F. intermedia stem tissue, whose fully functional recombinant protein, produced by expression of this cDNA in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the same enantiospecific conversion via the corresponding lactol intermediate. A homologous secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase gene was also isolated from a Podophyllum peltatum rhizome cDNA library, whose 834-base pair cDNA clone encoded a 278-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 32 kDa. Expression of this protein in E. coli produced a fully functional recombinant protein that also catalyzed the enantiospecific conversion of (-)-secoisolariciresinol into (-)-matairesinol via the intermediary lactol. Various kinetic parameters were defined and established conversion of the intermediary lactol as being rate-limiting. With this overall enzymatic conversion now unambiguously defined, the entire biochemical pathway to the lignans, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol, has been elucidated. Last, both secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol are metabolized in the gut of mammals, following digestion of high fiber dietary grains, seeds, and berries, into the so-called "mammalian" lignans, enterodiol and enterolactone, respectively; these in turn confer significant protection against the onset of breast and prostate cancers.  (+info)

Application of a convenient extraction procedure to analyze gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in fatalities involving gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol. (8/173)

The most common chemicals that can be ingested and lead to greater than endogenous levels of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in decedents are salts of GHB, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-butanediol (BD). Results for three deaths involving the ingestion of one or another of these three chemicals, which led to findings of GHB in the decedents, are presented. An extraction procedure that facilitates the quantitation of GHB was developed. If present in the same specimen, both GHB and GBL can be quantitated. To determine the GBL concentration, the specimen is first analyzed for existing GHB, the GBL is then converted to GHB, and the analysis is repeated. The difference between the results in molarity units can yield the GBL concentration. A separate procedure was utilized for estimating concentrations of BD. Specimens analyzed included urine, blood, ocular fluid, brain, and solutions consumed by the decedents prior to death. The procedures were found to be convenient in as much as they are relatively rapid, precise, and economical.  (+info)

Butylene glycols are a type of organic compounds that belong to the class of diols, which are chemical compounds containing two hydroxyl groups. Specifically, butylene glycols are composed of a four-carbon chain with two hydroxyl groups located on adjacent carbon atoms.

There are two isomeric forms of butylene glycol: 1,2-butanediol and 1,3-butanediol.

* 1,2-Butanediol (also known as 1,2-butylene glycol) has the hydroxyl groups on the first and second carbon atoms of the chain. It is a colorless, viscous liquid that is used as a solvent, humectant, and antifreeze in various industrial and cosmetic applications.
* 1,3-Butanediol (also known as 1,3-butylene glycol) has the hydroxyl groups on the first and third carbon atoms of the chain. It is also a colorless, viscous liquid that is used as a solvent, humectant, and antifreeze in various industrial and cosmetic applications.

Butylene glycols are generally considered to be safe for use in cosmetics and other consumer products, although they may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals. They are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, such as polyesters and polyurethanes.

Glycols are a type of organic compound that contain two hydroxyl (OH) groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms. They are colorless, odorless, and have a sweet taste. The most common glycols are ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is widely used as an automotive antifreeze and in the manufacture of polyester fibers and resins, while propylene glycol is used as a food additive, in pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent in various industries. Glycols are also used as a coolant, humectant, and in the production of unsaturated polyester resins. Exposure to high levels of glycols can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and ingestion can be harmful or fatal.

Butanones are a group of chemical compounds that contain a ketone functional group and have the molecular formula C4H8O. They are also known as methyl ethyl ketones or MEKs. The simplest butanone is called methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) or 2-butanone, which has a chain of four carbon atoms with a ketone group in the second position. Other butanones include diethyl ketone (3-pentanone), which has a ketone group in the third position, and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) or 4-methyl-2-pentanone, which has a branched chain with a ketone group in the second position.

Butanones are commonly used as solvents in various industrial applications, such as paint thinners, adhesives, and cleaning agents. They have a characteristic odor and can be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Exposure to butanones can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, and nausea.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Succinic Anhydrides" is not a recognized medical term. Succinic anhydride is a chemical compound with the formula (CH2)2(CO)2O. It is used in organic synthesis as a dehydrating agent and acylating agent. If you're asking about a medical application or effect of succinic anhydride or its derivatives, I would need more specific information to provide an accurate and helpful response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyesters" is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and textile industry to describe a type of synthetic fiber made from polymers characterized by the presence of ester groups in their main chain. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a family of synthetic, water-soluble polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. They are commonly used in the medical field as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations due to their ability to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. PEGs can also be used as laxatives to treat constipation or as bowel cleansing agents prior to colonoscopy examinations. Additionally, some PEG-conjugated drugs have been developed for use in targeted cancer therapies.

In a medical context, PEGs are often referred to by their average molecular weight, such as PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 1500, and so on. Higher molecular weight PEGs tend to be more viscous and have longer-lasting effects in the body.

It's worth noting that while PEGs are generally considered safe for use in medical applications, some people may experience allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to these compounds. Prolonged exposure to high molecular weight PEGs has also been linked to potential adverse effects, such as decreased fertility and developmental toxicity in animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the long-term safety of PEGs in humans.

Ethylene glycols are a class of synthetic chemical compounds that are commonly used as automotive antifreeze, de-icing agents, and as raw materials in the manufacture of polyester fibers and resins. The two most common types of ethylene glycol are ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (also known as ethylene glycol monomethyl ether or EGME) and diethylene glycol (DEG).

Ethylene glycols are colorless, odorless liquids with a sweet taste. They are highly toxic to humans and animals if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Exposure can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, and even death.

In medical terms, ethylene glycols are often referred to as "toxic alcohols" or "antifreeze poisoning" when they cause toxicity in humans. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement and kidney dialysis, as well as the use of specific antidotes, such as fomepizole or ethanol, to prevent further absorption and metabolism of the toxic alcohol.

Propylene glycol is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. However, it does have various applications in the medical field. Medically, propylene glycol can be used as a:

1. Vehicle for intravenous (IV) medications: Propylene glycol helps dissolve drugs that are not water-soluble and allows them to be administered intravenously. It is used in the preparation of some IV medications, including certain antibiotics, antivirals, and chemotherapeutic agents.
2. Preservative: Propylene glycol acts as a preservative in various medical products, such as topical ointments, eye drops, and injectable solutions, to prevent bacterial growth and increase shelf life.
3. Humectant: In some medical devices and pharmaceutical formulations, propylene glycol is used as a humectant, which means it helps maintain moisture and prevent dryness in the skin or mucous membranes.

The chemical definition of propylene glycol (C3H8O2) is:

A colorless, nearly odorless, viscous liquid belonging to the alcohol family. It is a diol, meaning it contains two hydroxyl groups (-OH), and its molecular formula is C3H8O2. Propylene glycol is miscible with water and most organic solvents and has applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, food processing, cosmetics, and industrial manufacturing.

Strecker HJ, Harary I (November 1954). "Bacterial butylene glycol dehydrogenase and diacetyl reductase". The Journal of ... butylene glycol dehydrogenase, diacetyl (acetoin) reductase, D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase, D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase, 1- ...
1,3 Butanediol, also referred to as 1,3-Butylene glycol, maintains FDA GRAS status as a flavor molecule. Gräfje, Heinz; Körnig ... "1,3 Butylene Glycol". Kohlpaintner, Christian; Schulte, Markus; Falbe, Jürgen; Lappe, Peter; Weber, Jürgen (2008). "Aldehydes, ...
Harden, Arthur; Norris, Dorothy (10 April 1912). "The bacterial production of acetylmethylcarbinol and 2.3-butylene glycol from ...
Butylene glycol Ethylene glycol Polylactic acid Propylene glycol "1,3-propanediol - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: ...
"Synthesis of elastic biodegradable polyesters of ethylene glycol and butylene glycol from sebacic acid". Acta Biomaterialia. 8 ... Carothers' research was incomplete and had not advanced to investigating the polyester formed from mixing ethylene glycol and ... and monoethylene glycol (MEG). With 18% market share of all plastic materials produced, it ranges third after polyethylene ( ... butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(hexamethylene terephthalate)(PHT), poly(propylene terephthalate) (PTT, Sorona), etc are ...
... butylene succinate) containing styrene glycol units". European Polymer Journal. 36 (12): 2693-2698. doi:10.1016/S0014-3057(00) ... Copolymerizing styrene glycol with adipic acid and ethylene glycol can result in phenyl side chains being added to PEA. Adding ... Second, a melt condensation of ethylene glycol and adipic acid could be carried out at 190-200 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. ... Adding PEA to PLLA was shown to reduce the brittleness of PLLA significantly more than poly(butylene adipate) (PBA), poly( ...
Other enterics subsequently use the butylene glycol pathway to metabolize pyruvic acid to neutral end products. These bacteria ...
Propylene glycol, hexylene glycol, and butylene glycol Aloe vera gel Alpha hydroxy acids such as lactic acid Egg yolk and egg ... Humectants used in cosmetics include triethylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, propylene glycol, and PPGs. Other popular ... hexylene and butylene glycol, urea, and collagen. Glycerin is one of the most popular humectants used because it produces the ... "Safety Assessment of Propylene Glycol, Tripropylene Glycol, and PPGs as Used in Cosmetics". International Journal of Toxicology ...
The yeasts also help keep levels low by consuming diacetyl and reducing it to acetoin and butylene glycol. Diacetyl production ...
... butylene glycols MeSH D02.033.455.125.125 - busulfan MeSH D02.033.455.250 - ethylene glycols MeSH D02.033.455.250.130 - chloral ... polyethylene glycols MeSH D02.033.455.250.700.150 - cetomacrogol MeSH D02.033.455.250.700.485 - hydrogel MeSH D02.033.455.250. ... propylene glycols MeSH D02.033.455.706.100 - alpha-chlorohydrin MeSH D02.033.455.706.300 - chloramphenicol MeSH D02.033.455.706 ... propylene glycol MeSH D02.033.455.706.900 - tromethamine MeSH D02.033.455.843 - sphingosine MeSH D02.033.480.300 - ...
... hydrate of butanone Isobutylene glycol may be considered a kind of butylene glycol, similarly to butane historically including ... Butanediol, also called butylene glycol, may refer to any one of four stable structural isomers: 1,2-Butanediol 1,3-Butanediol ... not a glycol) These three methylpropanediols are structural isomers of butanediols. They are not chiral. 2-Methylpropane-1,3- ...
... butylene succinate-co-adipate)and poly(butylene terephthalate-co-adipate) as drug encapsulation systems". Colloids and Surfaces ... the reaction between succinic acid and ethylene glycol to form what he named "succino-ethylenic acid". He noticed that this ... ISBN 978-3-642-03286-8. Xu, J. (2010). "Microbial Succinic Acid, Its Polymer Poly(butylene succinate), and Applications". ... ISBN 978-3-642-03286-8. Brunner, C.T. (2011). "Performance of biodegradable microcapsules of poly(butylene succinate), poly( ...
... ethylene glycol, water and inhibitor mixture polyesters - any of several polymers with ester linkages in the main chain glycol ... and some amine butene isomers of butylene - useful as monomers or co-monomers isobutylene - feed for making methyl tert-butyl ... used in engine coolant and aircraft deicer fluid glycol ethers - from the condensation of glycols acrylic acid acrylic polymers ... via ethylene oxidation ethylene glycol - via ethylene oxide hydration engine coolant - ...
3-butylene glycol in vitro". Acta Dermato-Venereologica. R. Rietschel; J. Fowler; A. Fisher Hexylene Glycol. In Fisher's ... Hexylene Glycol Product Page Hexylene Glycol at Jena Bioscience, Hexylene Glycol Product Page Chemicalland21.com Hexylene ... Additionally hexylene glycol is not a strong denaturing agent and thus does not significantly alter the structure of a protein ... When hexylene glycol binds to these different locations, water is removed and the protein crystals anneal, which prevents ice ...
... oxide is subsequently hydrolyzed in vivo to styrene glycol by the enzyme epoxide hydrolase. The US Environmental ... styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene), styrene-divinylbenzene (S-DVB), styrene-acrylonitrile resin (SAN), and unsaturated ...
... ethylene glycol), PEG). This article incorporates text by Marcus Knappert available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license. Mutlu, ... butylene terephthalate) transesterification. II. Structure analysis of the reaction products by IR and 1H and 13C NMR". Journal ...
Other major products are polypropylene glycol, propylene glycol ethers, and propylene carbonate. The United States Food and ... Ohnishi A, Murai Y (February 1993). "Polyneuropathy due to ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, and butylene oxide". Environmental ... About 20% of propylene oxide is hydrolyzed into propylene glycol, via a process which is accelerated by acid or base catalysis ... With water, propylene glycol is produced. With alcohols, reactions, called hydroxylpropylation, analogous to ethoxylation occur ...
Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS), used in low self-adhering non-woven applications. Styrene-ethylene/propylene (SEP) ... diurethane bridges resulting from diisocyanate reacting with a small-molecule glycol chain extender). The rigid segments form ...
Polyethylene glycols (PEG) irritate the skin and eyes on a weak basis. For PEG aerosols, the American Industrial Hygiene ... butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/poly(propylene carbonate)/polylactide mulch films". Polymer Bulletin. 80 (3): 2485-2501. doi ... Ethylene glycol from renewable sources (cellulose) is commercially available. The physical properties of solvents are important ... In industrial chemistry, polyethylene glycols (PEGs, H(OCH2CH2)nOH) are one of the most widely used polymeric solvent families ...
Oxea Announces Price Increases for 1,3-Butylene Glycol. September 16, 2015 , By Business Wire News ...
Butylene glycol is a clear, colorless and odorless organic compound commonly used in skincare and cosmetic products as a ... Butylene glycol helps to maintain skins moisture balance and reduce the potential for irritation that may be associated with ... Butylene glycol considered safe and generally well-tolerated on most skin, with a low potential for irritation or sensitization ... Butylene glycol is a synthetic compound created through chemical processes and is not derived from natural sources. ...
Butylene glycol. Evidence-based: Mixed. Butylene glycol is a type of alcohol found in shampoos, serums, and acne products. It ...
Butylene Glycol) in Produkten 🌸 Online kaufen Koreanische Kosmetik und Korean Skincare. K-beauty Produkte mit schneller ...
Molar Mass of: 2,3-Butylene Glycol CH3CHOHCHOHCH3. CAS: 513-85-9. Formula Calculate. Formatted Formula. CH3CHOHCHOHCH3. ...
Strecker HJ, Harary I (November 1954). "Bacterial butylene glycol dehydrogenase and diacetyl reductase". The Journal of ... butylene glycol dehydrogenase, diacetyl (acetoin) reductase, D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase, D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase, 1- ...
Butylene Glycol, Cetearyl Ethylhexanoate, Sorbitan Isostearate, Silica Dimethyl Silylate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Mentha Arvensis ...
WATER, CAPRYLIC/ CAPRIC TRIGLYCERIDE, HYDROGENATED POLYDECENE, DIMETHICONE, GLYCERIN, BUTYLENE GLYCOL, CETEARYL OLIVATE, ...
Butylene Glycol: It improves the cream texture and supports the penetration of other ingredients. It also helps retain the ...
... butylene glycol, octyldodecanol, cetearyl glucoside, methylparaen, citronellol, prunus armeniaca (apricot) kernel oil, laureth- ...
INCI/chemical name: Butylene Glycol (and) 10-Hydroxydecanoic Acid (and) Sebacic Acid (and) 1,10-Decanediol. SDS Link , * ...
Water (Aqua), Glycerin, Mica, Octyldodecyl Neopentanoate, Butylene Glycol, Cyclopentsiloxane, Titanium Dioxide (CI 77891), ... Decylene Glycol, Sodium Hydroxide, Disodium EDTA, Phenoxyethanol, Iron Oxides (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499).. ...
Butylene Glycol+Glyceryl Oleate+Purified Water+Sodium Cocoyl Glycinate at Netmeds.com. Find dosages, compare prices and get up ... Butyl Carbamte+Butylene Glycol+Glyceryl Oleate+Purified Water+Sodium Cocoyl Glycinate Butyl Carbamte+Butylene Glycol+Glyceryl ...
AQUA (WATER) , GLYCERIN , BUTYLENE GLYCOL , PENTYLENE GLYCOL , ISONONYL ISONONANOATE , CAMELLIA JAPONICA FLOWER EXTRACT , ... DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL , DISODIUM EDTA , SODIUM PALMITATE , DEHYDROXANTHAN GUM , AMODIMETHICONE , SODIUM HYALURONATE , ETHYLHEXYL ...
Other names: Tetramethylene dinitrate; Tetramethylene nitrate; 1,4-Butylene glycol dinitrate *Information on this page: *Notes ...
Butylene Glycol. Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysate. Sodium Acrylates Copolymer. Sodium Hyaluronate. Nymphaea Alba Flower Extract ... Butylene Glycol. Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysate. Sodium Acrylates Copolymer. Sodium Hyaluronate. Nymphaea Alba Flower Extract ...
GLYCOLIC ACID • BUTYLENE GLYCOL • ISONONYL ISONONANOATE • DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL • SODIUM HYDROXIDE • ANANAS SATIVUS FRUIT EXTRACT ... Butylene Glycol, Argilla/Magnesium Aluminum Silicate, Palmitic Acid, Glycol Stearate, Lauric Acid, Stearic Acid, Potassium ... PENTYLENE GLYCOL • BENZOIC ACID • PROPANEDIOL • CAPRYLYL GLYCOL • PAPAIN • SORBIC ACID • ROSA DAMASCENA FLOWER WATER • ROSA ...
Water\Aqua\Eau; Cyclopentasiloxane; Trimethylsiloxysilicate; Peg/Ppg-18/18 Dimethicone; Butylene Glycol; Tribehenin; ... Water\Aqua\Eau; Cyclopentasiloxane; Trimethylsiloxysilicate; Peg/Ppg-18/18 Dimethicone; Butylene Glycol; Tribehenin; ...
Butylene glycol. Solvent. Undeceth-5. Surfactant. Limnanthes alba (Meadowfoam) seed oil. Hair conditioning agent ...
Butylene Glycol. C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate. Cetyl Alcohol. Citric Acid. Cocoglycerides Hydrogenated. Cyclomethicone. Dicaprylyl ... Polypropylene Glycol Dicaprylate. Potassium Phosphate. Povidone Eicosene Copolymer. Propylene Glycol. Propylparaben. Sodium ... Propylene Glycol. Titanium Dioxide. Water. Xanthan Gum Fotoprotector Isdin Extrem UVA Plus Crema - ISDIN ... Butylene Dicaprylate. Cetyl Dimethicone. Corn Starch. Glycine. Lanolin Alcohol. Mineral Oil. Octoxyglycerin. Octyl Triazone. ...
Butylene Glycol. Citric Acid. Sodium Citrate. Ceramide AP. Cholesterol. Phytosphingosine. Carbomer. Xanthan Gum. Geraniol. ... Butylene Glycol. Citric Acid. Sodium Citrate. Ceramide AP. Cholesterol. Phytosphingosine. Carbomer. Xanthan Gum. Geraniol. ... Caprylyl Glycol. Hyaluronic Acid. Hydrolyzed Soy Protein. Hexylene Glycol. Potassium Sorbate. Sodium Benzoate. Ascorbyl ... Caprylyl Glycol. Hyaluronic Acid. Hydrolyzed Soy Protein. Hexylene Glycol. Potassium Sorbate. Sodium Benzoate. Ascorbyl ...
Butylene Glycol,/span,,/strong, - Butylene glycol, or let's just call it BG, is a multi-tasking colorless, syrupy liquid. ... Propylene Glycol, Ethylhexylglycerin, Butylene Glycol, PEG-3, SORBITAN OLEATE, STEARETH-21, Dimethicone, Octyldodecanol, PVP, ...
BUTYLENE GLYCOL • HYDROXYCITRONELLAL • HEXYL CINNAMAL • CITRONELLOL • ALPHA-ISOMETHYL IONONE • LIMONENE • LINALOOL • GERANIOL ...
BUTYLENE GLYCOL , ARGININE , STEARIC ACID , ALUMINA , METHYLPROPANEDIOL , TERMINALIA FERDINANDIANA FRUIT EXTRACT , ... DIPROPYLENE GLYCOL , TOCOPHEROL , [+ / - (MAY CONTAIN) , CI 77007 (ULTRAMARINES) , CI 77491, , CI 77492, , CI 77499 (IRON ...
BUTYLENE GLYCOL. PENTAERYTHRITYL TETRA-DI-T-BUTYL HYDROXYHYDROCINNAMATE. POTASSIUM SORBATE. SODIUM CHONDROITIN SULFATE. ... CAPRYLYL GLYCOL. HYDROGENATED JOJOBA OIL. HYDROGENATED PALM OIL. PROPYLENE GLYCOL. DISODIUM EDTA. PENTAERYTHRITYL ... HEXYLENE GLYCOL. [+/- MAY CONTAIN / PEUT CONTENIR. CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499 / IRON OXIDES. CI 77891 / TITANIUM DIOXIDE. CI ...
Butylene Glycol. Emu Oil. The Emollient Caregivers.. Butylene Glycol found in the beauteous form of sunflower seeds and Emu Oil ... Both Butylene Glycol and Emu Oil act as pathways for deep absorption, quick penetration and potent ingredient delivery. ...
15866 AQUA (WATER) • METHYL TRIMETHICONE • ISODODECANE • ALCOHOL • BUTYLENE GLYCOL • TITANIUM DIOXIDE • PEG-9 ... CAPRYLYL GLYCOL • SODIUM BENZOATE • POTASSIUM SORBATE • [+/- CI 77891 (TITANIUM DIOXIDE) • CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499 (IRON ...
butylene glycol Compositions Boundary Composition(s) open all close all (R)-(-)-butane-1,3-diol - boundary composition ...
moisturizers: propylene glycol, butylene glycol, polyisbutene. I hope this was helpful!. Reply ... I use Toms of Maine deodorant plus a crystal deodorant and find them really good - although Toms has propylene glycol so Im ...
BUTYLENE GLYCOL • CHLORPHENESIN • 1,2-HEXANEDIOL • CAPRYLYL GLYCOL • LENS ESCULENTA (LENTIL) SEED EXTRACT • KAOLIN • ... AQUA (WATER) • DIMETHICONE/VINYL DIMETHICONE CROSSPOLYMER • POLYESTER-5 • PENTYLENE GLYCOL • ALOE BARBADENSIS LEAF JUICE • ...
  • Water: Ethylene glycol can pollute water. (cdc.gov)
  • Butylene glycol is a clear, colorless and odorless organic compound commonly used in skincare and cosmetic products as a solvent and humectant. (glaminc.com)
  • Butylene glycol, or let's just call it BG, is a multi-tasking colorless, syrupy liquid. (westfield.com.au)
  • Butylene glycol considered safe and generally well-tolerated on most skin, with a low potential for irritation or sensitization. (glaminc.com)
  • Butylene glycol helps to maintain skin's moisture balance and reduce the potential for irritation that may be associated with dehydrated skin. (glaminc.com)
  • CAS No. 6290-03-5 Butylene Glycol, Natural is a sustainably-sourced, naturally-derived humectant and carrier material for cosmetic ingredients. (lotioncrafter.com)
  • Indoor Air: Ethylene glycol can release into indoor air as a liquid spray (aerosol), vapor, or mist. (cdc.gov)
  • Agricultural: If ethylene glycol releases as a liquid spray (aerosol) or mist, it may pollute agricultural products. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol is odorless. (cdc.gov)
  • Butylene glycol may improve the overall feel and appearance of skin and leave it softer and smoother. (glaminc.com)
  • Butylene glycol is a synthetic compound created through chemical processes and is not derived from natural sources. (glaminc.com)
  • Butylene Glycol found in the beauteous form of sunflower seeds and Emu Oil work symbiotically to condition the skin - soothing, smoothing, glowing - producing a comforting feeling. (australiandream.com)
  • Ethylene glycol does not absorb well through the skin so systemic toxicity is unlikely. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol is a useful industrial compound found in many consumer products. (cdc.gov)
  • Only food grade or high grade glycols should be used. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of the more commonly used chemicals to produce the theatrical smokes include ethylene - glycol (107211), propylene- glycol (57556), 1,3-butylene- glycol (107880), diethylene- glycol (111466), and triethylene- glycol (112276). (cdc.gov)
  • Powered by ginseng, glycerin, glycols, polymers and spherical powder, Hydra Booster Step 1 Primer offers long-lasting hydration, while plumping and softening the skin with a creamy texture. (makeupforever.com)
  • It can be used almost anywhere where propylene glycol and glycerine can be used, but the properties are slightly different each time. (hekserij.nl)
  • With propylene glycol this occurs at 20% and with glycerine 40% is required. (hekserij.nl)
  • Certain active ingredients from plants will dissolve better in butylene glycol than in propylene glycol, and vice versa. (hekserij.nl)
  • Also ethylene glycol was not separated from propylene glycol by the chromatography. (cdc.gov)
  • Propylene glycol, reagent grade. (cdc.gov)
  • This mascara is also free of propylene glycol . (healthline.com)
  • Cross-Reactivity Between Propylene Glycol and Butylene Glycol. (medscape.com)
  • Some of the more commonly used chemicals to produce the theatrical smokes include ethylene - glycol (107211), propylene- glycol (57556), 1,3-butylene- glycol (107880), diethylene- glycol (111466), and triethylene- glycol (112276). (cdc.gov)
  • Then filter the butylene glycol and the plant extract is ready for use. (hekserij.nl)
  • Butylene glycol is a humectant and solvent for use in cosmetics. (hekserij.nl)
  • Butylene glycol is a well-known chemical ingredient that is used majorly in self-care products such as shampoo, lotion, conditioner, anti-aging serums, cosmetics, sheet masks, sunscreens, and more. (vedaoils.com)
  • If you come across lists of any skin and hair products such as shampoos, lip-liners, hydrating serums, tinted moisturizers, eye-liners, and sunscreens, Butylene glycol is a part of every such product's ingredient's list. (vedaoils.com)
  • There is an increasing demand for downstream products of butylene glycol such as shampoos, sunscreens, and humidifiers, among others. (theasianposts.com)
  • Micellar Water Superfruit Skin Enforcement er en alt i ét rensevand med anti-oxidanter. (naturoghelse.dk)
  • Butylene glycol is a colourless, practically odourless liquid at room temperature. (hekserij.nl)
  • Butylene glycol is a colourless to pale yellow chemical compound which is widely used in the personal care industry to manufacture a variety of products. (theasianposts.com)
  • aliquots of each glycol and dissolve in 2. (cdc.gov)
  • GLYCOLS: METHOD 5523, Issue 1, dated 15 May 1996 - Page 3 of 5 through the sampler at 1 L/min for 60 min. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation of glycol mists causes respiratory irritation, shortness of breath, and coughing. (cdc.gov)
  • The Butylene Glycol market analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions development status. (bigmarketresearch.com)
  • The 'Global Butylene Glycol Market Size Report and Forecast 2023-2028' by Expert Market Research gives an extensive outlook of the global butylene glycol market, assessing the market on the basis of its segments like types, functions, applications, and major regions. (theasianposts.com)
  • Butylene glycol is not classified as a hazardous substance. (hekserij.nl)
  • Whats more, the Butylene Glycol industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (bigmarketresearch.com)
  • Butylene Glycol has properties that help in hydrating and condition the skin and hair well. (vedaoils.com)
  • Butylene glycol is one such ingredient that we use typically in all the skin and hair products we use. (vedaoils.com)
  • Butylene glycol infuses moisture in the skin and hair care products and is also used as a pigment. (theasianposts.com)
  • Butylene glycol is gentle in texture and hydrates the skin very well. (vedaoils.com)
  • Butylene glycol is amazing at adding softness and improving the texture of hair and skin. (vedaoils.com)
  • Moreover, butylene glycol is conditioning agent and reduces lifestyle-related skin problems such as acne, which is a major driving factor of the global butylene glycol market. (theasianposts.com)
  • In addition, butylene glycol is crucial in the food and beverage industry as it is an excellent anti-caking agent. (theasianposts.com)
  • Because of its non-irritating property , Butylene glycol is exceptionally good for acne-prone and sensitive skin types. (vedaoils.com)
  • The growing expansion of the personal care and cosmetics industry, further supported by rising disposable income, increasing urban development, and growing hygienic awareness, is driving the demand for butylene glycol. (theasianposts.com)
  • The Global Butylene Glycol Industry 2016 Deep Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Butylene Glycol industry. (bigmarketresearch.com)
  • Butylene glycol finds application in paints and coatings which are witnessing a heightened demand in the construction industry. (theasianposts.com)
  • In this study, both thermal and crystallisation-thermal properties of PBF have been enlarged simply by the incorporation of other renewable soft moieties in the polymer structure, namely, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) moieties. (ua.pt)
  • Hence, the increasing demand for downstream food products of butylene glycol, such as cheese and soups, among others, are further aiding the global butylene glycol market. (theasianposts.com)
  • Butylene Glycol is used in cosmetic products as well. (vedaoils.com)