Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Propyl Gallate: Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.CresolsAntioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.PicratesUrethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Thiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Nitroanisole O-Demethylase: Oxidative enzyme which transforms p-nitroanisole into p-nitrophenol.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Biphenyl CompoundsFree Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Chymosin: The predominant milk-clotting enzyme from the true stomach or abomasum of the suckling calf. It is secreted as an inactive precursor called prorennin and converted in the acid environment of the stomach to the active enzyme. EC 3.4.23.4.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Sea Bream: A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Qi: The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)Therapeutic Touch: Placing of the hands of the healer upon the person to be cured with the intent of spiritual energetic healing.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.

Inhibition of expression of P-selectin by antioxidant in cholesterol-fed rats. (1/222)

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) can inhibit experimental atherosclerosis in animals. Although the agent is an antioxidant, the exact mechanism of the reaction in atherosclerosis is still unknown. To investigate the effects of BHT on expression of P-selectin (PADGEM, GMP-140), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and class II MHC (Ia) antigen, we proposed an experiment on rats. Male rats (n=18 per group) were fed either a normal cholesterol control diet, a normal cholesterol diet containing 0.5% BHT (BD), a high cholesterol diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate (CD), or the CD diet containing 0.5% BHT (BCD). Rats were sacrificed after 3 days, and after 1, 2, 4, 10, and 17 weeks of dietary treatment. Although there was no gross or light microscopic atherosclerotic lesions, scanning electron microscopy revealed monocytic adhesion to aortic endothelium and mild endothelial injuries in CD and BCD groups. Immunohistochemically, the addition of BHT to a high cholesterol diet inhibited P-selectin expression but not in ICAM-1 and Ia antigen. These findings suggest that in rats, high cholesterol diets induce expression of ICAM-1, P-selectin and Ia antigen. In addition, the antiatherogenic effect of BHT may play a role in the inhibition of P-selectin.  (+info)

Antioxidants reversibly inhibit the spontaneous resumption of meiosis. (2/222)

We previously showed that the cell-permeant antioxidant 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC) of the rat. The objective of the present studies was to assess other antioxidants and whether such inhibition was reversible. Spontaneous GVBD in OCC incubated for 2 h was significantly inhibited (P < 0.005) by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; GVBD = 19.4%), BHA (GVBD = 25.7%), octyl gallate (OG; GVBD = 52.2%), ethoxyquin (EQ; GVBD = 58.8%), 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-hydroxymethyl phenol (TBHMP; GVBD = 59%), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; GVBD = 59.5%), and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP; GVBD = 60.0%). Other antioxidants that produced lower but significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of oocyte maturation included propyl gallate (PG; GVBD = 70.3%), 2,4,5-trihydroxybutrophenone (THBP; GVBD = 71.4%), and lauryl gallate (LG; GVBD = 71.4%). Antioxidants that had no effect on oocyte maturation at the same concentration (100 microM) included ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and Trolox. Inhibition of GVBD was evident for up to 8 h of incubation of OCC and denuded oocytes (DO) with BHA or NDGA and was reversed by washing. NDGA was less potent than BHA for inhibition of GVBD in DO, unlike that seen with OCC. Oocyte maturation was induced by incubation of follicles for 3 h with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and this response was inhibited by BHA or NDGA. These findings support the conclusion that cell-permeant antioxidants inhibit spontaneous resumption of meiosis, which may implicate a role of oxygen radicals in oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Antimalarial activities of WR-194,965, an alpha-amino-o-cresol derivative. (3/222)

Pilot appraisals of the activities of WR-194,965 and WR-204,165, two closely related o-cresol derivatives (both Mannich bases), in owl monkeys infected with the multidrug-resistant Vietnam Smith strain of Plasmodium falciparum showed that these compounds had similar levels of efficacy. Total course doses effecting 90% cures (CD(90)s) were 27 and 37 mg/kg of body weight for the respective compounds, values almost identical to the CD(90) of mefloquine (a highly promising 4-quinolinemethanol) against infections with the same strain, and the CD(90)s of chloroquine against infections with 4-aminoquinoline-susceptible strains. Expanded studies of the activities of WR-194,965 against infections with the Smith strain of P. falciparum and Vietnam Palo Alto strain of P. vivax, designed to guide projected evaluations in human volunteers, showed: (i) that the activity of this compound was a function of total dose administered, with single doses as effective as the same amount delivered in three or seven successive daily fractions; (ii) that all regimens effected rapid clearance of parasitemia; and (iii) that based on CD(90)s, this agent was twice as active against infections with the Palo Alto strain of P. vivax as against the Smith strain of P. falciparum. These findings, together with results of preclinical pharmacological studies pursued elsewhere, provided support for studies in human volunteers now underway.  (+info)

Nrf2 is essential for protection against acute pulmonary injury in mice. (4/222)

Nrf2 is a member of the "cap 'n' collar" family of transcription factors. These transcription factors bind to the NF-E2 binding sites (GCTGAGTCA) that are essential for the regulation of erythroid-specific genes. Nrf2 is expressed in a wide range of tissues, many of which are sites of expression for phase 2 detoxification genes. Nrf2(-/-) mice are viable and have a normal phenotype under normal laboratory conditions. The NF-E2 binding site is a subset of the antioxidant response elements that have the sequence GCNNNGTCA. The antioxidant response elements are regulatory sequences found on promoters of several phase 2 detoxification genes that are inducible by xenobiotics and antioxidants. We report here that Nrf2(-/-) mice are extremely susceptible to the administration of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. With doses of butylated hydroxytoluene that are tolerated by wild-type mice, the Nrf2(-/-) mice succumb from acute respiratory distress syndrome. Gene expression studies show that the expression of several detoxification enzymes is altered in the Nrf2(-/-) mice. The Nrf2(-/-) mice may prove to be a good in vivo model for toxicological studies. As oxidative damage causes DNA breakage, these mice may also be useful for testing carcinogenic agents.  (+info)

Compensatory lung growth after partial pneumonectomy enhances lung tumorigenesis induced by 3-methylcholanthrene. (5/222)

In small mammals, partial pneumonectomy (PNX) elicits rapid hyperplastic compensatory growth of the remaining lung parenchyma to restore normal lung mass, structure, and function. In BALB mice subjected to PNX, compensatory lung growth is complete within 10 days. Because cellular hyperplasia contributes to the mechanism of tumor promotion by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), we hypothesized that hyperplastic compensatory lung growth would promote tumor formation in carcinogen-treated animals in a manner similar to that observed after BHT. In mice subjected to PNX, within 1 week of treatment with the carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA; 10 microg/g body weight), lung tumor multiplicity was 3-7-fold higher in animals subjected to PNX than in mice subjected to a sham operation. The increase in tumor multiplicity occurred when PNX was performed 1, 3, and 6 days before or 1 day after MCA treatment. In the absence of PNX, lung tumor multiplicity in MCA-treated mice given one injection of BHT (200 mg/kg body weight) increased significantly (P < 0.01) as compared to that in mice given MCA alone. Tumor multiplicity continued to increase linearly (R2 = 0.99) with each subsequent BHT injection. Lung tumor multiplicity and tumor size in mice given one or two injections of BHT were comparable to those in animals subjected to PNX. These data demonstrate that post-PNX compensatory lung growth stimulates tumorigenesis in MCA-treated mice and provides a novel model for investigating tumor formation.  (+info)

Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the acetylation of 2-aminofluorene and DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts in the rat. (6/222)

The effects of the synthetic phenolic antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) on the in vivo acetylation of 2-aminofluorene and formation of DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. For in vitro examination, cytosols and intact cells, with or without butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene co-treatment, showed different percentages of 2-aminofluorene acetylation and DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts. For in vivo examination, pre-treatment of male rats with butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene (10 mg/kg) 48 h prior to the administration of 2-aminofluorene (50 mg/kg) resulted in 34% and 18%, 29% and 20% decreases, respectively, in the urinary and fecal recovery of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene, and 34% and 19% decreases, respectively, in the metabolic clearance of 2-aminofluorene to N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene. Following exposure of rats to the 2-aminofluorene, with or without pretreatment with butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts were observed in the target tissues of liver and bladder, and also in circulating leukocytes. The DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts in liver, bladder, and leukocytes were decreased by pretreatment with butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. This is the first demonstration that synthetic phenolic antioxidants decrease the N-acetylation of carcinogens and formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts in vivo.  (+info)

Strain-dependent lung tumor formation in mice transplacentally exposed to 3-methylcholanthrene and post-natally exposed to butylated hydroxytoluene. (7/222)

The carcinogenic effects of in utero exposure to 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) have been demonstrated in the tumor-resistant C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA (D2) strains of mice. In this study, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to MC in BALB/c mice, a strain which demonstrates greater susceptibility to lung tumor induction, and compared our findings with those previously found in [D2xB6D2F(1)]F(2) mice. In addition, we assessed the molecular pathogenesis of the chemically induced tumors and examined the effects of the putative lung tumor promoter butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were treated on day 17 of gestation with 5, 15 or 45 mg/kg MC and 6 weeks after birth with BHT for 6 consecutive weeks. Mice were killed at 6 months of age. Ki-ras, p16Ink4a and p19ARF gene loci were amplified from paraffin-embedded lung tumor tissue and screened for the presence of point mutations via allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses. Ki-ras point mutations were found in 56% (20/36) of BALB/c lung tumors, with 33% (2/6) of the hyperplasias, 58% (10/19) of the adenomas and 73% (8/11) of the carcinomas exhibiting point mutations at this gene locus. Similar incidences of Ki-ras mutations were previously found following transplacental exposure of [D2xB6D2F(1)]F(2) mice to MC and treatment of adult A/J mice with urethane. Interestingly, a strain-dependent difference was observed in the mutational spectrum. Sixty-two and 38% of the lung lesions in BALB/c mice exhibited G-->C and G-->T transversions, respectively, in contrast to the 13 and 84% incidences previously observed in [D2xB6D2F(1)]F(2) mice. SSCP analysis of the tumor suppressor gene p16Ink4a showed a 6% incidence of point mutations, consistent with that found in [D2xB6D2F(1)]F(2) mice. No mutations were found in exon 1beta of the p19ARF gene of either strain. BHT, a lung tumor promoter in adult mice, had no statistically significant effects on either tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity or the mutational spectrum produced in the Ki-ras gene by in utero MC treatment. However, though not significant, there was an observable trend in increased tumor multiplicity in mice co-treated with BHT. These data demonstrate the transplacental carcinogenic effect of MC in BALB/c mice and show that mutagenic damage to Ki-ras is a critical early event mediating murine lung tumorigenesis in both the tumor-sensitive and tumor-resistant strains. Unlike what occurs when adult BALB/c mice are treated with MC, BHT does not appear to significantly promote the formation of lung tumors following transplacental exposure to MC, possibly due to the rapid growth and cell proliferation in the developing organism. Strain-dependent differences in the Ki-ras mutational spectrum may be associated with their differential susceptibility to lung tumor initiation.  (+info)

Effects of MK-447 on platelet shape change, aggregation, and ATP release by collagen, ADP, and stable analogue of thromboxane A2 in rabbit platelets. (8/222)

AIM: To investigate the effects of MK-447 on platelet shape change, aggregation, and ATP release by collagen (Col), ADP, and stable analogue of thromboxane A2 (STA2) in rabbits. METHODS: Platelet shape change and aggregation were quantified in light transmission by turbidimetric method and release reaction was assessed by the amount of ATP in platelet-rich plasma (PRP). RESULTS: (1) MK-447 100-700 mumol.L-1 caused only the shape change, which was not inhibited by indometacin 3 mumol.L-1. Platelet shape changes by Col, ADP, and STA2 were reduced (P < 0.01) after the addition of MK-447. The lag phase was prolonged (P < 0.01) in Col and shortened (P < 0.01) in ADP. (2) MK-447 reduced the aggregation by Col 5 mg.L-1 (P < 0.01), and enhanced that by ADP 0.3-10 mumol.L-1 and STA2 0.1-3 mumol.L-1 (P < 0.01). (3) The release reaction by STA2 1-3 mumol.L-1 was also increased (P < 0.01). The effects of MK-447 on STA2 were not inhibited by S-145. CONCLUSION: MK-447 induced the platelet shape change, and showed the dual effects, inhibition or enhancement, on the actions by different aggregating agents.  (+info)

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Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) Market Size By Application (Food, Animal feed [Poultry, Swine, Fish Feed, Cattle], Lubricating & Specialty Oils, Rubber, Personal Care & Cosmetics, Industrial - Market research report and industry analysis - 12393998
Infusion of menadione at two different doses [2.7 mg and 5.5 mg in 100 microliters of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)] into perfused rat livers for 30 min caused no or a 6-fold increase respectively in junctional permeability to horseradish peroxidase as compared with controls receiving 100 microliters of DMSO alone. The total glutathione (GSH) contents in these livers measured at the end of the experiments were 115% and 53%, compared with the controls. The free-radical scavenger butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (final concn. 5 microM) protected against the GSH depletion caused by the higher dose of menadione and partially decreased the menadione-induced increase in junctional permeability. Verapamil, a Ca2(+)-channel blocker which was added into the perfusion medium (final concn. 40 microM) 10 min before the infusion of 5.5 mg of menadione, completely abolished the effect of menadione on junctional permeability. Menadione exposure therefore increases tight-junctional permeability in the liver; this ...
Abstract : The antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of foods and the management of oxidative stress relateddiseases by acting on reactive oxygen species and free radicals. However, their use in high temperature processed food andpharmaceuticals are limited due to its low thermal stability. The objective of the study was to use the biofield energy treatment onbutylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) i.e. antioxidant and analyse its impact on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of BHT.For the study, the sample was divided into two groups and termed as control and treated. The treated group was subjected tobiofield energy treatment. The characterization of treated sample was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanningcalorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy.The XRD results showed the alteration in lattice parameters, unit cell volume, and molecular weight along with 14.8% reduction ...
NOTE: Because of the lack of human studies, BHT should only be used experimentally and as a last resort in situations where other treatments have failed. BHT should not be used casually until further studies are conducted. An FDA-approved preservativ
A hollow, muscular, J-shaped pouch located in the upper part of the abdomen to the left of the midline. The upper end (fundus) is large and dome-shaped; the area just below the fundus is called the body of the stomach. The fundus and the body are often referred to as the cardiac portion of the stomach. The lower (pyloric) portion curves downward and to the right and includes the antrum and the pylorus. The function of the stomach is to begin digestion by physically breaking down food received from the esophagus. The tissues of the stomach wall are composed of three types of muscle fibers: circular, longitudinal and oblique. These fibers create structural elasticity and contractibility, both of which are needed for digestion. The stomach mucosa contains cells which secrete hydrochloric acid and this in turn activates the other gastric enzymes pepsin and rennin. To protect itself from being destroyed by its own enzymes, the stomachs mucous lining must constantly regenerate itself. ...
Rocaltrol (calcitriol) is a synthetic vitamin D analog which is active in the regulation of the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and its utilization in the body. All dosage forms contain butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants. The capsules contain a fractionated triglyceride of coconut oil, and the oral solution contains a fractionated triglyceride of palm seed oil. Gelatin capsule shells contain glycerin, parabens (methyl and propyl) and sorbitol. The two known sites of action of calcitriol are intestine and bone. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Additional evidence suggests that calcitriol may also act on the kidney and the parathyroid glands. Calcitriol is the most active known form of vitamin D3 in stimulating intestinal calcium transport. In acutely uremic rats calcitriol has been shown to stimulate intestinal calcium absorption. The kidneys of uremic patients cannot ...
Rocaltrol (calcitriol) is a synthetic vitamin D analog which is active in the regulation of the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and its utilization in the body. All dosage forms contain butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants. The capsules contain a fractionated triglyceride of coconut oil, and the oral solution contains a fractionated triglyceride of palm seed oil. Gelatin capsule shells contain glycerin, parabens (methyl and propyl) and sorbitol. The two known sites of action of calcitriol are intestine and bone. A calcitriol receptor-binding protein appears to exist in the mucosa of human intestine. Additional evidence suggests that calcitriol may also act on the kidney and the parathyroid glands. Calcitriol is the most active known form of vitamin D3 in stimulating intestinal calcium transport. In acutely uremic rats calcitriol has been shown to stimulate intestinal calcium absorption. The kidneys of uremic patients cannot ...
Personal care compositions comprising at least one chronic skin care active selected from the group consisting of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), hexamidine, hexyl isobutyrate, menthyl anthranilate, methofuran, 3-butylidenepthalide, cetyl pyridinium chloride, green tea extract, catechins, phytosterols, ursolic acid, and plant extract compounds; at least one acute skin care active selected from the group consisting of particulate materials (including particles, pigments, and cross-linked silicone elastomers), panthenol, pantothenic acid derivatives, and tanning actives; and a dermatologically acceptable carrier. The composition can also comprise the cationic thickener, Polyquaternium 37. The present invention also relates to methods of using such compositions to regulate hair growth and the condition of mammalian skin. Said methods generally comprise the step of topically applying the composition to the skin of a mammal needing such treatment, a safe and effective amount
Buy BHT online at Wholesale Nutrition. Sale price $22, Free priority mail shipping! Each capsule contains 250 mg of BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene).
p-tert-Butylcatechol is used as an antioxidant, stabilizer, and polymerization inhibitor for styrene, butadiene, neoprene, and other olefins and reactive monomers. p-tert-Butylcatechol was nominated by the National Cancer Institute and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for testing based on reports of its increasing levels of production and use and to compare the toxicity of p-tert-butylcatechol with that of similar antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, which are added to food. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to p-tert-butylcatechol (greater than 99% pure) in feed for 15 days or 14 weeks. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, rat bone marrow cells, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes.. In the 15-day studies, groups of five male and five female rats and mice were fed diets containing 0, 3,125, 6,250, 12,500, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm p-tert-butylcatechol (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately ...
Recently, copper has been shown to be capable of mediating the activation of several xenobiotics producing reactive oxygen and other radicals. Since copper exists in the nucleus and is closely associated with chromosomes and DNA bases, in this study we have investigated whether the activation of 1,4-hydroquinone (1,4-HQ) and a variety of other phenolic compounds by copper can induce strand breaks in double-stranded φX-174 RF I DNA (φX-174 relaxed form I DNA). In the presence of micromolar concentrations of Cu(II), DNA strand breaks were induced by 1,4-HQ and other phenolic compounds including 4,4′-biphenol, catechol, 1,2,4-benzenetriol, 2-methoxyestradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, diethylstilbestrol, butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, tert-butylhydroquinone, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, eugenol, 2-acetamidophenol, and acetaminophen. Structure-activity analysis shows that in the presence of Cu(II), the DNA cleaving activity for phenolic compounds with a ...
bht is Butylated hydroxytoluene, more commonly used for food additives, recently used as an antiviral supplement, anyone know if bht reacts negatively...
Findings revealed that after CVPS dosage, the mice showed enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities.. "Organisms have antioxidant defense mechanisms to eliminate the oxidative stress damage, which is partly supported by antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidants enzymes… control the levels of reactive oxidants and damages," ​wrote the researchers.. In a previous in vivo​ study involving CVPS, researchers investigated the herbs inmmune-enhancing effects.. "The results showed that CVPS administered as an adjuvant could significantly promote the humoral and cellular-immune responses in mice of a foot-and-mouth disease vaccine."​. But in this study, evidence points to CVPS strong antioxidant capabilities, concluded the researchers.. "Synthetic antioxidants, such as butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), may be involved in liver damage and carcinogenesis,"​ they wrote.. "Therefore, much interest is given in developing antioxidants, with especially low side-effects, natural ...
BHT. Butylated hydroxytoluene, a synthetic, potent antioxidant that also has carcinogenic properties (Sources: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, May 2002, pages 1203-1210; and Free Radical Biology and Medicine, February 2000, pages 330-336). See BHA. bifida ferment lysate. Type of bacteria found in the digestive system. It has no known effect on skin. bifidus extract. Carbohydrate in human milk that stimulates the growth of Lactobacillus bifidus in the intestine. In turn, the Lactobacillus bifidus lowers the pH of the intestinal contents and suppresses the growth of Escherischia coli and other pathogenic bacteria. Whether or not bifidus extract can have benefit for skin is unknown. bilberry extract. Some research shows bilberry to be effective as an antioxidant, but this effect has not been demonstrated on skin (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, September 2001, pages 4183-4187). bioflavonoid. A diverse range of substances that are components of many fruits and vegetables. Many ...
Size/Dimension: 2.4g/0.08oz. Ingredients: Ricinus communic (castor) seed oil, rhus succedanea fruit wax, ozokerite, theobroma cacao, bees wax (cera alba), ethylhexyl palmitate, squalane, copernicia cerifera(carnauba)wax, isopropyl myristate, candelilla cera, jojoba oil, BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). [May contain: mica, titanium dioxide, iron oxides (CI77489, CI77491, CI77492, CI77499), carbon black, ferric ammonium ferrocyanide, manganese violet(CI77742), red 7 lake (CI15850), ultramarine(CI77007), red 22 lake (CI45380),red 34 lake(CI15880),red 40 lake (CI16035), green 6(CI61565)] Formulated for professional application.. ...
This was DUE TO THE LISINOPRIL WHICH WAS SUPPOSED TO PROTECT MY KIDNEYS. "The Beefcaking of America: Everyone Knows Women who have Body Image Issues! If you have a test done for protein in your urine, tell the healthcare provider you are using this medicine? A lot of times its hard to get that "perfect balance" between usability and visual appeal. Youll also be given some printed information to take away? 03:43 crossways strattera price on วันเสาร์ที่ 7 กันยายน พศ? Antibiotica manfully namenda cost zijn niet werkzaam tegen infecties die veroorzaakt worden door een virus, zoals griep (influenza), verkoudheid (meestal een rhinovirus of coronavirus) of waterpokken (varicella-zostervirus)? The solution contains the following inactive ingredients: glycerin, differin gel canada alcohol (12%), menthol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). I even tried backing down to just once per week and I still got the burning sensation. Tengo zonas como la frente, differin gel ...
In spite of the major role played by cigarette smoking in the epidemiology of lung cancer, it is very difficult to reproduce the carcinogenicity of this complex mixture in animal models. We implemented a series of pilot experiments in three mouse strains, exposed either to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) or mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) or its condensate (MCSC). The whole-body exposure of Aroclor-treated A/J mice to ECS resulted in a rapid and potent induction of micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes. After 6 months of exposure, 6 h a day, followed by 4 months of recovery in filtered air, both lung tumor incidence and multiplicity were significantly increased as compared to sham-exposed mice (77.8% vs. 22.2%, and 1.11±0.26 vs. 0.22±0.15, means ± SE). Multiple i.p. injections of butylated hydroxytoluene did not significantly enhance the tumor yield. Another experiment confirmed the responsiveness of A/J mice exposed to ECS for 5 months, followed by 4 months of recovery in air ...
Disclaimer: We have done our level best to create a useful Selector tool to help you navigate Eastmans vast Tenox™ line. This tool is not, however, all-knowing. Only you, the customer, are aware of every variable that could influence your product choice (ingredients, production methods, storage, end uses, etc.). While we hope this tool provides useful information and helps speed your selection process, we strongly encourage you to ask questions, test samples, and generally assure yourself that a product is exactly what you need. We are here to help. All products will be sold under ChemPoints Commercial Terms and Conditions.. ...
The effects of phenobarbital (PB) and other liver monooxygenase modifiers on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced alkylation of rat liver DNA and protein were investigated at different carcinogen doses. In rats given single injections of radioactively labeled DMN, pretreatment with PB (80 mg/kg body weight, administered for 5 days) resulted in a small but significant decrease in the formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine per mole of guanine in liver DNA associated with a decrease in the O6/N7-methylguanine ratio. The specific radioactivity of liver protein was also lowered in PB-pretreated rats. The degree of PB interference was independent of DMN dose within a carcinogen dose range of 0.5 µg to 10 mg/kg body weight. In parallel experiments, the effects of pretreatment with PB, Aroclor 1254, pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile, butylated hydroxytoluene, β-naphthoflavone, and ethanol on DMN-induced alkylation of liver DNA were studied at a DMN dose of 5 µg/kg body weight. In general, ...
Additive: a substance added to petroleum products to impart some desirable property, e.g. polymer may be added to a petroleum wax to increase tackiness, or food grade butylated hydroxytoluene added to prevent oxidation in storage.. Alkanes: hydrocarbon having the general Formula Cnttzn+z, also called a paraffin.. API: American Petroleum Institute. API Gravity: a special gravity scale adopted by the API for expressing density of petroleum products.. Aromatics: hydrocarbons with an unsaturated ring structure, e.g. benzene.. ASTM: American Society for Testing Materials, an organization which sets standards for the testing of industrial products. Asphaltenes: one of the principal components of asphalt, the black or brown solid material precipitated from asphalt with normal pentane. It is an arbitrary fraction defined by the method of analysis. Base Oil: a finished petroleum lubricant stock that when blended with other materials (additives) produces special purpose products such as engine ...
Carbonated Water, High Fructose Corn Syrup, Natural and Artificial Flavor, Citric Acid, Sodium Benzoate (as Preservative), Modified Food Starch, Glycerol Ester of Wood Rosin, Red No. 40 (Artificial Color), Brominated Vegetable Oil, Butylated Hydroxytoluene.. ...
Stearyl .beta.-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate Stearyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate Stearyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate Sumilizer BP 76 THANOX 1076 U 276 Total tonnage band Total range: 10 000+ tonnes per annum REACH Registered as: FULL Submitted: Joint Submission Publication dates First published ...
BHT acts as a synergist with BHA and mixtures of these antioxidants are commonly used for stabilising fats and oils as given weight of the mixture imparts a greater stability to the fat or oil than would the same weight of BHT or BHA if used individually. BHT is a particularly good antioxidant for stabilizing meat, fish and bone meals ...
2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-(tert-butylamino)phenol | C18H31NO | CID 534770 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
I think you have made a compelling argument for dissolving the BHT into an oil. I do remember that BHT takes a long time to dissolve when the oil isn t hot (but it does dissolve eventually). I never tried dissolving BHT into hot oil. But it follows that absorption would be enhanced were the BHT dissolved when ingested. Theoretically, one could heat enough oil add the right amount of BHT so that one wouldn t need to make the cocktail everytime a dose was administered. I do believe that the BHT would dissolve even without heat, but I don t know how long it would take. Also, I would nee ...
Chemicals were purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used as received unless otherwise noted. Metal compounds were synthesized in an inert atmosphere glove box (N2), using anhydrous solvents. Solvents were dried by passage over activated alumina columns from MBraun and stored over 3 Å or 4 Å molecular sieves. [Fe(CH3CN)6](PF6)2,37 4,5-dibromo-2,7-di-tert-butyl-9,9-dimethylxanthene,38 2,7-di-tert-butyl-9,9-dimethyl-4,5-xanthene dicarboxylic acid38 and 2,7-di-tert-butyl-9,9-dimethyl-4,5-xanthene diamine39 were prepared as described in the literature. Solution state NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker Avance-400 or Bruker Avance Ultrashield (400 MHz 1H, 100 MHz 13C, 162 MHz 31P), Bruker Avance Ultrashield (500 MHz 1H, 126 MHz 13C), Varian VNMRS-600 (600 MHz 1H, 151 MHz 13C) or Varian VNMRS-500 (500 MHz 1H, 126 MHz 13C) spectrometers. Solid state NMR spectra for 31P were recorded using a Bruker Avance 300 (121 MHz 31P) spectrometer equipped with a 2.5 mm BBMAS probe head at a rotation frequency of 20 ...
Synthesis and Physical Properties of Sterically Congested Cycloalkenes, 1,2-Di-tert-butyl-3,3,5,5-tetramethylcyclopentene and 1,2-Di-tert-butyl-3,3,6,6-tetramethylcyclohexene
The required volume (2-L) of test media was placed into a beaker (3-L nominal volume) and the test substance was weighed in. The beakers were covered with Parafilm and shaken gently (approx. 50 RPM, to avoid emulsion formation) for about three (3) days to ensure that the saturation concentration is reached. Undissolved test substance was removed by filtration with a membrane filter (Whatman OE66, cellulose acetate, pore width 0.2μm). To minimize test substance loss from adsorption, the filer was first saturated using approx. 300 mL of test solution. Centrifugation at 17700xg for 20 minutes did not adequately separate the undissolved test substance, therefore filtration was the method of choice ...
25OH VitD2 |5 25OH Vit D3 13 Prescribed 20,000 IU one a day for two weeks then one monthly for six months then re-test. Prescription of Fultium have gelatin in them, refined maize oil, butylated...
Butylated hydroxyanisole was tested for carcinogenicity in two experiments in rats and in two experiments in hamsters by administration in the diet, inducing benign and malignant tumours of the forestomach.. Butylated hydroxyanisole was studied in mice and rats for its ability to modify the carcinogenicity of selected chemical agents. When administered with known carcinogens, butylated hydroxyanisole either enhanced, inhibited or had no effect on carcinogenicity.. Butylated hydroxyanisole administered to rats at maternally toxic and occasionally lethal doses during, or before, during and after, gestation induced slight embryotoxicity but no definite indication of teratogenicity. No effect was seen in rabbits, pigs or rhesus monkeys.. In rats, feeding of butylated hydroxyanisole in the diet caused superficial necrosis, ulceration and hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium of the forestomach. Induction of forestomach hyperplasia also occurs in hamsters. Administration of butylated hydroxyanisole ...
The effects of four calcium channel blockers (nicardipine, nifedipine, verapamil, and diltiazem) on free radical injury in cultured endothelial cells were studied and compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene. When the cultured cells were exposed to a superoxide and hydroxyl radical generating system for up to 60 minutes, lipid peroxidation occurred, and cellular viability decreased by 60% at 30 minutes. Concomitantly, total cellular glutathione decreased by 40%, whereas total protein thiols changed minimally. Preincubation of the cells with each of the calcium blockers (5 and 20 microM) before free radical addition resulted in various degrees of significant protection against cell death, and losses of glutathione correlated significantly (r = 0.89, p less than 0.001). The order of efficacy was nicardipine greater than nifedipine greater than verapamil greater than diltiazem; butylated hydroxytoluene was about fourfold more potent than nicardipine. Because none of the agents affected the ...
Butylated Hydroxyanisole/Butylated Hydroxytoluene is a chemical preservative that is added to oils that are used in dog foods and treats. BHA is a combination of isomers 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and BHT is a mixture of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; methyl-di-tert-butylphenol; and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-cresol.. The ingredient is derived from natural preservatives that are found in all dry dog food. Its added to commercial products to extend the shelf life of the product by up to a year, and is one of the more inexpensive preservatives available. The FDA states that it can be used safely to preserve the fats and oils that are added to the pet food and to prevent them from spoiling or becoming oxidized. Its also easy for dogs to digest, but is known as a possible carcinogen by the State of California. BHA/BHT is commonly used in cosmetics, petroleum, embalming fluids and pesticides. Although its deemed to be safe to use, studies have shown that the ...
1. Progestins: synthetic hormones found in some birth controls (1) 2. Styrene: an ingredient in many plastic and foam products (1) 3. BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene): are closely related synthetic antioxidants used as preservatives in lipsticks and moisturizers, among other cosmetics. They are also widely used as food preservatives. 4. Parabens: are the most Read more…. ...
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a bio-based and biodegradable polymer that has gained a lot more interest in the packaging industry because of environmental concerns and decreasing prices. However, PLA as a food packaging material has some problems like the high oxygen permeability as oxygen causes lipid oxidation of the food product. Preventing this process is usually done by adding synthetic antioxidants (AOs) to the food but these AOs are toxic and could even be carcinogenic. Natural AOs present in plants are therefore a good alternative. By mixing plants with the PLA, an active packaging material could be obtained and less amounts of AOs need to be added to the food. Active packaging films were prepared by adding 3 wt% of dry or lyophilized (lyo) plants of white tea, borage, thyme and rosemary to PLA. Also, model antioxidant films (butylated hydroxytoluene, caffeic acid, epigallocatechin gallate and rosmarinic acid) with 1.5 wt% were solution casted.. The films were migration tested at 37°C for 10 ...
The essential oils, isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves, seeds and rhizomes of Heracleum sprengelianum (Wight and Arnott), collected from the Western Ghats of Peninsula India, were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant property of these oils was tested, with and without peroxidation inducer, through the egg yolk-based Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances assay (TBARS assay) and in the concentrations of 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/L. β-Pinene, 1,8-Cineole, β-Phellandrene and ρ-Cymen-8-ol were the main components of H. sprengelianum leaves, seeds and rhizomes essential oils. The oils demonstrated the antioxidant capacity in the absence of radical inducer 2, 20-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP), mainly that of H. sprengelianum at 250 and 500 mg/L, comparable in some cases to that of α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The presence of ABAP diminished the antioxidant ability of all tested
en] The effect of cryoprotectants (maltodextrin+glycerol) and cryoprotectants+antioxidant [ascorbic acid and/or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)] mixtures on the survival, electrolyte leakage, and lipid degradation of freeze-dried Weissella paramesenteroides LC11 during storage was investigated and compared with that of the control (cells without additives) over a 90-day storage period at 4 or 20 degrees in glass tubes with water activity (a(w)) of 0.23. The survival, electrolyte leakage, and lipid degradation were evaluated through colony counts, electrical conductivity, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, respectively. The fatty acids composition was determined by gas chromatography, in both the total lipid extract and the polar lipid fraction, and compared with that of the control after the 90-day storage period. As the storage proceeded, increases in leakage value and TBARS content, as well as a decrease in viability, were observed. After 90 days of storage, the major ...
0343] A 2 L reactor was filled with argon and charged with dichloromethane (500 mL), DiVA-PEG-DiVA-IN (52.3 g, 52.3 mmol), retinoic acid (70.6 g, 235 mmol) and 4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (2.6 g, 21.3 mmol). The mixture was stirred under argon until dissolved (˜20 minutes). Keeping the temperature of the reaction at 10-20° C., 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide) (EDCI) (70.6 g, 369 mmol) was added portion wise over a period of 10-15 minutes (the reaction was slightly exothermic for the first 30-60 minutes). The reactor was covered with aluminium foil and the mixture was stirred at 18-21° C. for 15-20 hours. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (25 mg) was added and the reaction mixture was then poured onto aqueous 6% sodium hydrogen carbonate (500 mL) while keeping an argon atmosphere over the mixture. The organic phase was separated. The aqueous phase was washed with dichloromethane (50 mL). The combined organic phase was dried with of magnesium sulphate (150 g) under inert atmosphere ...
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141545-89-3 - SIWZKGFBUXQFDK-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(ethylaminomethyl)phenol hydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a phenolic extract from olive mill waste water on the stabilization of refined olive oil and on French fry quality during the frying process. Frozen, pre-fried potatoes were fried at 180 °C for 8 min in refined olive oil enriched by different concentrations of a phenolic extract, while oil enriched by a common synthetic antioxidant (butylated hyd ...
Mutational activation of the K-ras oncogene often occurs in human and mouse lung adenocarcinomas. Since K-ras p21 functions in trans-membrane signaling, we have investigated whether the amount of this protein in lung cell membranes is a variable that could influence lung tumorigenesis, either due to genetic differences or in response to tumor promoters. The six mouse strains assessed showed little difference in the total lung K-ras p21 after immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. However, amount of ras p21 in the membrane fraction showed significant differences, with C57BL/6 and BALB/c having 3-5-fold more than NIH Swiss, AKR and DBA mice. Interestingly, a congenic AKR strain having the Ahr(b-1) Ah receptor allele from C57BL/6 mice (designated AKR.B6Ah) had high lung membrane K-ras p21 similar to that of C57BL/6. To test for possible changes related to lung tumor promotion, mice were treated with a promotional dose of TCDD (5 nmol/kg). After 48 h C57BL/6 lungs showed an increase in p21 in both ...
Rich in vitamins A and D, and also linoleic acid which is renowned for its benefits to suppleness and coat condition. Feeding Instructions:. Horses & Ponies 15-45ml per day. Ingredients:. Rapeseed oil, Cod Liver oil, Fish oil. Analysis:. Moisture 1.4% Additives: Vitamins Vitamin A 1 187 000 I.U. Vitamin D3 118 700 I.U. Antioxidants BHT 200mg. ...
Untersuchungen an 1,4-Naphthochinonen, 25. Mitt. Reaktion des Redox 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitors 2-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthochinon mit O2•-- und 3O2 (1,4-Naphthoquinones. 25. Reaction of the redox 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone with O2•- and 3O2) ...
Untersuchungen an 1,4-Naphthochinonen, 25. Mitt. Reaktion des Redox 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitors 2-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthochinon mit O2•-- und 3O2 (1,4-Naphthoquinones. 25. Reaction of the redox 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone with O2•- and 3O2) ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Single package C-enamel can coatings of improved stability are prepared by first dispersing the zinc oxide pigment in a water compatible solvent containing a butylated urea formaldehyde or butylated melamine and adding the dispersed pigment to a vehicle comprising an aqueous blend of an epoxy-acrylic emulsion with an acrylic latex. The stability improvement is evident in the coating viscosity, the non-settling of the pigment on storage, and the flexibility adhesion in the applied coating.
Other methods include butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), Rancimat method (rancidification ... butylated hydroxytoluene) - a fat-soluble antioxidant and food additive 4-Nonylphenol. a breakdown product of detergents and ... The green alga Botryococcus braunii is the subject of research into the natural production of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),[ ... "Production of Natural Butylated Hydroxytoluene as an Antioxidant by Freshwater Phytoplankton" (PDF). Journal of Phycology. 44 ( ...
M. aeruginosa is the subject of research into the natural production of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),[9] an antioxidant, food ... "Production of Natural Butylated Hydroxytoluene as an Antioxidant by Freshwater Phytoplankton" (PDF). Journal of Phycology. 44 ( ...
To minimize this problem, commercial samples of THF are often inhibited with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Distillation of ...
Antioxidants include butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Other preservatives include ...
6-Di-tert-butylphenol Butylated hydroxytoluene Propofol (Structural isomer). ...
B. braunii is also the subject of research into the natural production of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), an antioxidant, food ... Babu B, Wu JT (December 2008). "Production of Natural Butylated Hydroxytoluene as an Antioxidant by Freshwater Phytoplankton" ( ...
Other methods include butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), Rancimat method (rancidification ... are the subject of research into the natural production of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), an antioxidant, food additive and ... The green alga Botryococcus braunii is the subject of research into the natural production of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ... 8-16, INIST:21511068 Babu B.; Wu J. T. (December 2008). "Production of Natural Butylated Hydroxytoluene as an Antioxidant by ...
Butylated hydroxytoluene Cyanotoxin NOAA Center of Excellence for Great Lakes and Human Health. "Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii ... Research has shown that C. raciborskii can naturally produce butylated hydroxytoluene, an antioxidant, food additive, and ... "Production of Natural Butylated Hydroxytoluene as an Antioxidant by Freshwater Phytoplankton" (PDF). Journal of Phycology. 44 ( ...
It is a synergistic antioxidant with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Octyl gallate at ...
Preservatives like parabens and benzoates and antioxidants like butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and sodium metabisulfite. ...
It is composed of heptane, cellulose, methyl rhenium trioxide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and polyphenol oxidase. The additive ...
For antioxidants added to food to preserve them, see butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. In the following ...
Antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene are often added to ethers to prevent this process. Due to the shock and light ...
... is consumed mainly in the production of antioxidants, e.g., butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The monoalkylated ...
"Intake of Butylated Hydroxyanisole and Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Stomach Cancer Risk: Results from Analyses in the ... a b Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA), CAS No. 25013-16-5, Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition, National Institutes of Health ...
The cereal also contains monoglycerides and diglycerides, used to bind saturated fat, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a ...
Meperfluthrin - a pyrethroid ester Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) - an optional additive used to prevent pyrethroid from ...
Antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are produced by Friedel-Crafts ...
"Modification of carcinogenesis by -tocopherol, t-butylhydro-quinone, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene in a rat multi ... It can be combined with other preservatives such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). As a food additive, its E number is E319. ...
Commercial diethyl ether is typically supplied with trace amounts of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which ...
"Modification of carcinogenesis by α-tocopherol, t-butylhydro-quinone, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene in a rat ...
Bromoethane Bromoform 2-Butoxyethanol 1-tert-Butoxy-2-propanol n-Butyl acrylate Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) Butyl benzyl ...
... butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), TBHQ, propyl gallate and ethoxyquin. The natural antioxidants tend to be short-lived, so ... Natural antioxidants include ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E). Synthetic antioxidants include butylated ...
... butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and alpha-tocopherol). Avrainvillea erecta was reported to have strong ...
The molecular formula C15H24O (molar mass : 220.35g/mol) may refer to: Butylated hydroxytoluene, a food additive Nonylphenol 1- ...
Butylated hydroxytoluene. *1,2-Dibromoethane. *1,2-Dichloroethane. *Dimethyl methylphosphonate. *2,4-Dimethyl-6-tert- ...
BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE (ICSC) KEMI - Swedish Chemicals Agency - read the 1st of Marts 2010 on Archived 2011-08-11 at the ... Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), also known as dibutylhydroxytoluene, is a lipophilic organic compound, chemically a derivative ... Brugh, M (1977). "Butylated hydroxytoluene protects chickens exposed to Newcastle disease virus". Science. 197 (4310): 1291-2. ... Richards, J. T; Katz, M. E; Kern, E. R (1985). "Topical butylated hydroxytoluene treatment of genital herpes simplex virus ...
Butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene are used extensively as food antioxidants. It is estimated that man ... Butylate Butylate Hydroxytoluene Enterohepatic Circulation Butylate Hydroxyanisole Liver Cholesterol These keywords were added ... Butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene are used extensively as food antioxidants. It is estimated that man ... At levels 500 times this level (50 mg/kg/day), both butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene appear to be free of ...
Butylated hydroxytoluene (ICSC) Butylated hydroxytoluene (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 38a) Butylated hydroxytoluene ( ... Butylated hydroxytoluene (WHO Food Additives Series 5) Butylated hydroxytoluene (WHO Food Additives Series 10) Butylated ... Reddy, B.S., Sharma, C., & Mathews, L. (1983b). Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole on the ... BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE (BHT) EXPLANATION This substance was evaluated for acceptable daily intake for man by the Joint FAO/ ...
BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, butylhydroxytoluene, 4-methyl-2,6-ditertiarybutylphenol, E 321, CAS ... Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. ... delivers an opinion re-evaluating the safety of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (E 321). BHT is an authorised synthetic ...
Butylated hydroxytoluene (ICSC) Butylated hydroxytoluene (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 40abc) Butylated hydroxytoluene ... Butylated hydroxytoluene (WHO Food Additives Series 10) Butylated hydroxytoluene (WHO Food Additives Series 21) Butylated ... BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE CHEMICAL NAMES 2:6-di-tert.-butyl-p-cresol; 4-methyl-2:6-ditertiary-butylphenol SYNONYM BHT EMPIRICAL ... MOLECULAR WEIGHT 220.36 DEFINITION Butylated hydroxytoluene should contain not less than 99.0% of C15H24O. DESCRIPTION A white ...
... buy Butylated hydroxytoluene , Butylated hydroxytoluene supplier , purchase Butylated hydroxytoluene , Butylated hydroxytoluene ... Butylated hydroxytoluene. Catalog No.S6202 Synonyms: dibutylhydroxytoluene, Dibutylated hydroxytoluene, AO-29, BHT ... Butylated hydroxytoluene is a lipophilic organic compound that is useful for its antioxidant properties.. ... Butylated hydroxytoluene is a lipophilic organic compound that is useful for its antioxidant properties. ...
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What Is BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)? Typically Found In: Cereals, packaged snack foods and nuts, frozen pizzas and processed ...
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  • The free-radical scavenger butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (final concn. (biochemj.org)
  • Targretin ® gel is a clear gelled solution containing 1.0% (w/w) bexarotene in a base of dehydrated alcohol, USP, polyethylene glycol 400, NF, hydroxypropyl cellulose, NF, and butylated hydroxytoluene, NF. (drugs.com)
  • Sep 13, 2019· BHT Butylated hydroxytoluene manufacturers specifications. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a potent inactivator of lipid-enveloped viruses. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Abstract 3581: Impact of Nrf2 on the development of ethyl carbamate/ butylated hydroxytoluene-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • High consumption other than prescribed by FDA may result in illness including thyroid hyperactivity, enlargement of the liver, induction of several liver enzymes which may hamper butylated hydroxytoluene market price trend. (marketresearch.com)