Free Radical Scavengers
UVB activates ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways via reactive oxygen species in cultured keratinocytes. (1/170)We have previously shown that hydrogen peroxide is an important mediator of ultraviolet B induced phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human keratinocytes. Here we demonstrate that physiologic doses of ultraviolet B and hydrogen peroxide stimulate activation of two related but distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways: extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), as well as p38, the mammalian homolog of HOG1 in yeast which is a major kinase for a recently identified stress-induced signaling pathway. The time-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and p38 are distinct, and ultraviolet B-induced ERK1/2 activation is downregulated more rapidly than p38. Using dihydrorhodamine or Amplex as specific fluorescent dye probes, we show that ultraviolet B-induced peroxides can be inhibited by ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid strongly blocks ERK1/2 and p38 activation by ultraviolet B and hydrogen peroxide whereas pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and butyl hydroxyanisole are less effective. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate was unable to inhibit ultraviolet B-induced p38 activation. Cell death was increased after ultraviolet B when ERK1/2 activation was attenuated by the specific inhibitor PD098059. The distinct time courses and extents of activation and inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 indicate that these pathways are separate and regulated independently in keratinocytes. Specific types of reactive oxygen species induced by ultraviolet B as well as selective activation or inhibition of specific phosphatases may mediate these responses in keratinocytes. These findings demonstrate that reactive oxygen species are important multifunctional mediators of ultraviolet B-induced ERK1/2 and p38 signaling transduction pathways and suggest that ERK1/2 may play an important part in protecting keratinocytes from cell death following oxidative stress. (+info)
Patterns of DNA adduct formation in liver and mammary epithelial cells of rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, and selective effects of chemopreventive agents. (2/170)7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) is a prototype carcinogen that induces a high yield of mammary tumors in rats after a single feeding. We investigated the induction and chemoprevention of DNA adducts in female Sprague Dawley rats receiving DMBA by gavage according to a variety of treatment schedules. The patterns of 32P-postlabeled DNA adducts in liver and mammary epithelial cells were similar to those produced by the in vitro reaction of metabolically activated DMBA with calf thymus DNA. There was a high and statistically significant correlation between dose of DMBA administered to rats (0, 0.6, 2.4, and 12 mg/kg body weight) and levels of DNA adducts in both types of cells. The regression lines relating DMBA doses to total DNA adduct levels were significantly divergent and crossed at 1.5 mg/kg body weight, indicating that, at lower doses, the formation of DNA adducts is more intense in target mammary cells, whereas at higher doses, DNA adduct levels are more elevated in liver cells, presumably due to the greater metabolic capacity of this organ. When the rats were sacrificed 7 days rather than 2 days after DMBA administration, DNA adduct levels were approximately halved in both liver and mammary cells. The observed patterns can be interpreted based on toxicokinetic factors, local and distant metabolism, removal of DNA adducts by excision repair, and cell proliferation rate. Of three chemopreventive agents given with the diet to rats treated with 12 mg of DMBA, 5,6-benzoflavone (1650 ppm) was the most effective, inhibiting DNA adduct formation in liver and mammary cells by 96.5 and 83.5%, respectively. Feeding of 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (600 ppm) inhibited this biomarker by 68.5 and 50.2%, whereas butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA; 5000 ppm) showed a significant inhibition in the liver (46.5%) but was ineffective in mammary cells (29.0%, not significant). These data correlate nicely with the results of a parallel study in which 5,6-benzoflavone, 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, and BHA inhibited formation of hemoglobin adducts by 80.0, 44.0, and 0%, respectively; the incidence of mammary tumors by 82.4, 47.1, and 5.9%, respectively; and their multiplicity by 92.6, 80.0, and 7.4%, respectively. Therefore, biomarkers of biologically effective dose are highly predictive of the efficacy of chemopreventive agents in the DMBA rat mammary model. The selective inhibition by BHA of DNA adducts in the liver but not in mammary cells is consistent with the finding that this phenolic antioxidant stimulated phase II activities in the liver but not in the mammary gland (L. L. Song et al., manuscript in preparation). In any case, the broad-spectrum inducer 5,6-BF appears to be more effective than the two monofunctional phase II inducers, presumably because an enhanced activation of DMBA to reactive metabolites is coordinated with their blocking, detoxification, and excretion. (+info)
Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the acetylation of 2-aminofluorene and DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts in the rat. (3/170)The effects of the synthetic phenolic antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) on the in vivo acetylation of 2-aminofluorene and formation of DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. For in vitro examination, cytosols and intact cells, with or without butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene co-treatment, showed different percentages of 2-aminofluorene acetylation and DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts. For in vivo examination, pre-treatment of male rats with butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene (10 mg/kg) 48 h prior to the administration of 2-aminofluorene (50 mg/kg) resulted in 34% and 18%, 29% and 20% decreases, respectively, in the urinary and fecal recovery of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene, and 34% and 19% decreases, respectively, in the metabolic clearance of 2-aminofluorene to N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene. Following exposure of rats to the 2-aminofluorene, with or without pretreatment with butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts were observed in the target tissues of liver and bladder, and also in circulating leukocytes. The DNA-2-aminofluorene adducts in liver, bladder, and leukocytes were decreased by pretreatment with butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. This is the first demonstration that synthetic phenolic antioxidants decrease the N-acetylation of carcinogens and formation of DNA-carcinogen adducts in vivo. (+info)
Specificity of endogenous fatty acid release during tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis in WEHI 164 fibrosarcoma cells. (4/170)Recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha)-induced release of endogenous fatty acids was examined in WEHI 164 clone 13 fibrosarcoma cells using a highly sensitive HPLC method. The initial rTNF-alpha-induced extracellular release of endogenous fatty acids was dominated by 20:4n;-6, 22:4n;-6, 24:4n;-6, and 18:1n;-9 showing relative rates of 2.9, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0, respectively. Release of endogenous AA and DNA fragmentation occurred simultaneously and preceded cell death by approx. 2 h. Methyl arachidonoyl fluorophosphonate and LY311727, specific inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)) and secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)), respectively, neither blocked rTNF-alpha-induced cytotoxicity or endogenous AA release. However, both inhibitors reduced rTNF-alpha-induced release of other endogenous fatty acids. In comparison, the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) completely inhibited the rTNF-alpha-induced cytotoxicity as well as AA release mediated through the TNF receptor p55, while the very similar antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene had no effect. BHA did not inhibit recombinant cPLA(2) or sPLA(2) enzyme activity in vitro. Furthermore, stimulation of cells with rTNF-alpha for 4 h did not increase cPLA(2) enzyme activity. The data indicate that neither cPLA(2) or sPLA(2) mediate rTNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and extracellular AA release in WEHI cells. The results suggest that a BHA-sensitive signaling pathway coupled to AA release is a key event in TNF-induced cytotoxicity in these cells. (+info)
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase negatively regulates the induction of phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes that detoxify carcinogens. (5/170)Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase, play an important role in the detoxification of chemical carcinogens. The induction of these detoxifying enzymes by a variety of agents occurs at the transcriptional level and is regulated by a cis-acting element, called the antioxidant response element (ARE) or electrophile-response element. In this study, we identified a signaling kinase pathway that negatively regulates ARE-mediated gene expression. Treatment of human hepatoma HepG2 and murine hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells with tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) stimulated the activity of p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Inhibition of p38 activation by its inhibitor, SB203580, enhanced the induction of quinone reductase activity and the activation of ARE reporter gene by tBHQ. In contrast, SB202474, a negative analog of SB203580, had little effect. Consistent with this result, interfering with the p38 kinase pathway by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of p38 or MKK3, an immediate upstream regulator of p38, potentiated the activation of the ARE reporter gene by tBHQ, whereas the wild types of p38 and MKK3 diminished such activation. In addition, inhibition of p38 activity augmented the induction of ARE reporter gene activity by tert-butylhydroxyanisole, sulforaphane, and beta-naphthoflavone. Thus, p38 kinase pathway functions as a negative regulator in the ARE-mediated induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes. (+info)
Examination of selected food additives and organochlorine food contaminants for androgenic activity in vitro. (6/170)In order to produce a reporter gene assay for androgenic chemicals, a constitutive expression vector coding for the human androgen receptor and a reporter construct containing the firefly luciferase coding sequence under transcriptional control of the androgen responsive MMTV promoter were cotransfected into the androgen-insensitive human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line and stable transfectants selected. One colony of transfectants, PC-3 LUCAR+, was characterized further. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) enhanced luciferase activity in a linear fashion for up to 3 days of culture. The Kd for DHT activation was within the range of 25.0-60.0 pM (r2 values >0.95). Flutamide competitively inhibited DHT activation (mean Ki value of 0.89 microM). Progesterone, estradiol, dexamethasone, and hydrocortisone were weak agonists (100-fold less effective than DHT) and diethylstilbestrol was without effect. The effects of organochlorine food contaminants (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microM) on luciferase activity in PC-3 LUCAR+ cells were determined after exposure to the chemical for 18 h in the presence and absence of DHT (50 pM). 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) induced luciferase activity in the absence of DHT (100 microM p,p'-DDE equivalent to 50 pM DHT), but in the presence of DHT (50 pM), p,p'-DDE acted antagonistically. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, kepone, butylated hydroxyanisole, and butylated hydroxytoluene all partially inhibited activation by DHT (50 pM) but alone had little or no effect. Toxaphene at 10 microM induced luciferase activity in the absence of DHT but decreased cell viability. Alpha- and delta-Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) at 10 microM antagonized the DHT effect, but beta-HCH and gamma-HCH mirex, photomirex, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor were without effect. Thus, of the chemicals tested, some interact with the human androgen receptor in vitro as agonists, others as antagonists, and some as partial agonists/antagonists. (+info)
Modulation of the phosphatase activity of calcineurin by oxidants and antioxidants in vitro. (7/170)Previous research has indicated that oxidants, antioxidants and the intracellular redox state regulate the activities of a variety of protein tyrosine kinases, protein tyrosine phosphatases, phospholipases and transcription factors. In order to explore the redox regulation of the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin, we have investigated the effects of a variety of oxidants and antioxidants on calcineurin phosphatase activity in vitro. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and glutathione disulfide inhibited the phosphatase activity of calcineurin in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of purified calcineurin with the antioxidants ascorbate, ascorbate 2-phosphate, alpha-lipoic acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione increased phosphatase activity relative to untreated controls. In contrast, several other commonly used antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7, 8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-carboxylic acid) and dihydrolipoic acid decreased the activity of purified calcineurin, possibly through prooxidative mechanisms. Although the antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate increased the activity of purified calcineurin, it significantly inhibited the activity of calcineurin present in crude fibroblast lysates. These results support and extend the hypothesis that redox factors modulate the phosphatase activity of calcineurin and suggest that further in vivo studies are warranted. (+info)
Induction of murine intestinal and hepatic peroxiredoxin MSP23 by dietary butylated hydroxyanisole. (8/170)Feeding mice with 2(3)-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) induces phase II detoxifying enzymes that inhibit the action of carcinogens. We have found that dietary BHA induces intestinal and hepatic MSP23 (also called peroxiredoxin I), a stress-inducible antioxidant, in a manner similar to the induction of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). The levels of MSP23 in the proximal intestine and liver, estimated by immunoblotting, increased approximately 1.9- and 1.3-fold, respectively, in mice fed a diet containing 0.7% (w/w) BHA for 7 days. The level of MSP23 mRNA in these tissues also increased more than 2-fold after mice were fed BHA, suggesting that the induction of MSP23 is controlled at the transcription level. Immunostaining of the small intestine shows that MSP23 is expressed mainly in the columnar epithelial cells. The induction of MSP23 may be important to protect the cells and tissues against toxic electrophiles and reactive oxygen species. (+info)
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic organic compound that is used as a food additive and a preservative in various products. In the medical field, BHA is not typically used as a treatment or medication, but it may be used in some laboratory settings as a chemical reagent or in the production of certain medical devices or materials. BHA is also used as a stabilizer in some medications, to prevent the degradation of the active ingredients over time. However, it is important to note that the use of BHA in medical products is regulated by various government agencies, and its safety and efficacy must be carefully evaluated before it can be used in these applications.
Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a synthetic organic compound that is commonly used as an antioxidant in a variety of products, including food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, BHT is sometimes used as a preservative in medications to prevent the degradation of the active ingredients and to extend the shelf life of the product. It is also used as a stabilizer in some medical devices and as a solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations. However, the use of BHT in medical products is generally limited due to concerns about its potential toxicity and potential for allergic reactions.
Anisoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with an oxygen atom bonded to one of the carbon atoms. They are also known as phenols or phenolic ethers. In the medical field, anisoles are used as antiseptics, disinfectants, and antifungal agents. They are also used as flavoring agents in food and beverages. Some common examples of anisoles include anisole, estragole, and thymol.
Ethoxyquin is a synthetic organic compound that is used as a food preservative and a stabilizer in various industrial applications. It is also used as a veterinary drug to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi in animal feed and to treat certain infections in animals. In the medical field, ethoxyquin is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent. However, it has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Some studies have suggested that ethoxyquin may have anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Other studies have suggested that ethoxyquin may have anti-cancer properties and may be useful in the prevention and treatment of certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that the use of ethoxyquin as a food preservative and veterinary drug has raised concerns about its potential health effects in humans and animals. Some studies have suggested that ethoxyquin may have toxic effects on the liver and kidneys, and may cause allergic reactions in some people. As a result, the use of ethoxyquin as a food preservative and veterinary drug is regulated by various government agencies, and its use is subject to strict guidelines and restrictions.
Propyl gallate is a food additive and preservative that is commonly used to prevent the oxidation of fats and oils in food products. It is also used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals as a preservative and antioxidant. In the medical field, propyl gallate is not typically used as a treatment for any specific condition, but it may be used in some research studies as a tool to investigate the effects of antioxidants on various biological processes. It is important to note that propyl gallate is considered safe for consumption in small amounts, but larger doses may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine (NPN) is a chemical compound that is formed when nitrite and pyrrolidine react. It is a known carcinogen and has been found in various food products, particularly in processed meats such as bacon, ham, and sausages. In the medical field, NPN is often used as a model compound for studying the metabolism and carcinogenic effects of nitrosamines, which are a class of compounds that are also known to be carcinogenic.
Glutathione transferase (GST) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the detoxification of various harmful substances in the body, including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens. It is a member of a large family of enzymes that are found in all living organisms and are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism, cell signaling, and immune response. In the medical field, GST is often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions, including cancer, liver disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. GST enzymes are also used as biomarkers for exposure to environmental toxins and as targets for the development of new drugs for the treatment of these conditions. Overall, GST is an important enzyme that helps to protect the body from harmful substances and plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.
Hydroquinones are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used in the medical field as skin lightening agents. They work by inhibiting the production of melanin, a pigment that gives skin its color. Hydroquinones are often used to treat conditions such as melasma, a type of skin discoloration that is more common in women and is often caused by hormonal changes or sun exposure. They are also used to treat other types of skin discoloration, such as age spots and freckles. Hydroquinones are available in a variety of forms, including creams, lotions, and gels, and are typically applied to the skin once or twice a day. It is important to note that hydroquinones can cause skin irritation and should be used with caution, especially in individuals with sensitive skin.
I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on "Picrates" in the medical field. It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not commonly used in medicine. Can you please provide more context or clarify your question?
Benzopyrenes are a group of organic compounds that consist of a fused benzene ring and a pyrene ring. They are commonly found in the environment, including in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, and certain types of coal tar. In the medical field, benzopyrenes are of concern because they are known to be carcinogenic, meaning they can cause cancer. Exposure to benzopyrenes has been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer, skin cancer, and other types of cancer. They are also mutagenic, meaning they can cause changes in DNA that can lead to the development of cancer.
Thiocarbamates are a class of organic compounds that contain a sulfur atom and a carbamate group (-OC(=O)N-). They are commonly used as fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides in agriculture and medicine. In the medical field, thiocarbamates are used as antifungal agents to treat a variety of fungal infections, including dermatophytosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis. They work by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of fungi by interfering with their metabolism. Some examples of thiocarbamates used in medicine include thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl, and propiconazole.
Phenols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to an aromatic ring. In the medical field, phenols are commonly used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are also used as topical anesthetics and as ingredients in certain medications. Phenols can be found naturally in many plants and fruits, such as cloves, cinnamon, and citrus fruits. They are also used in the production of a variety of consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and cleaning agents. However, some phenols can be toxic and can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other health issues if they are not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow proper safety guidelines when handling and using phenols in the medical field.
Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. It is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. It is also used to treat certain types of anemia, as well as to boost the immune system and improve wound healing. Ascorbic acid is available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and is also used in some prescription medications. However, it is important to note that high doses of ascorbic acid can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and stomach cramps, and may interact with certain medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking ascorbic acid supplements.
Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant medication that is used to treat a variety of neurological conditions, including epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and bipolar disorder. It works by stabilizing the electrical activity in the brain, which can help prevent seizures and reduce the severity of mood swings. Carbamazepine is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically taken once or twice a day. It can cause side effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, and skin rash.
Trigeminal neuralgia is a type of chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve, which is responsible for sensation in the face. It is characterized by sudden, severe, and lancinating pain that typically lasts from a few seconds to a minute, and can occur multiple times per day. The pain is usually felt on one side of the face, and can be triggered by activities such as chewing, talking, or even brushing one's teeth. Trigeminal neuralgia can be caused by compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel or other structure, and can be treated with medications, nerve blocks, or surgery.
Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic is a type of seizure disorder characterized by a sudden and intense loss of muscle control, which can cause the person to fall to the ground and convulse. It is also known as a grand mal seizure. During a Tonic-Clonic seizure, the person's muscles first become rigid (tonic phase), and then they begin to contract and relax rapidly (clonic phase). This can cause the person's body to shake and jerk uncontrollably. Tonic-Clonic seizures can last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes, and they can be very frightening for both the person having the seizure and those around them. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic is a serious medical condition that requires ongoing treatment and management.
Seizures are abnormal electrical discharges in the brain that can cause a variety of symptoms, including convulsions, muscle spasms, loss of consciousness, and changes in behavior or sensation. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, infection, genetic disorders, and certain medications. They can be classified into different types based on their symptoms and the part of the brain affected. Treatment for seizures may include medications, surgery, or other interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.
Epilepsy, generalized is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that affect the entire brain. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain and can result in a variety of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered levels of awareness or behavior. Generalized seizures can be further classified into several types, including tonic-clonic seizures, which involve muscle stiffness and convulsions, and absence seizures, which are characterized by brief periods of unconsciousness and staring. Epilepsy, generalized is typically diagnosed based on a person's medical history, physical examination, and electroencephalogram (EEG) results. Treatment options for generalized epilepsy may include medications to control seizures, as well as lifestyle changes and other therapies to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Epilepsy, partial, is a type of seizure disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures that begin in a specific part of the brain. These seizures are also known as focal seizures and can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the affected brain region. Partial seizures can be further classified into several types, including simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, and focal seizures with secondary generalization. Simple partial seizures involve only limited symptoms, such as a sudden feeling of déjà vu or a strange smell, while complex partial seizures may involve more significant changes in consciousness, such as confusion or hallucinations. Focal seizures with secondary generalization involve a focal seizure that spreads to the entire brain, resulting in a generalized seizure. Partial seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, genetic factors, infections, and brain tumors. Treatment for partial seizures typically involves medication to control seizures, although surgery may be considered in some cases.
List of antioxidants in food
Naturally occurring phenols
Camlin Fine Sciences
List of food additives
List of MeSH codes (D02)
IARC group 2B
List of gasoline additives
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- Another ingredient in cereal packaging is Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA). (pitchrate.com)
- National intake assessments of five food additives or groups of food additives (benzoates, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), sulfites and tert - butylhydroquinone (TBHQ)) were evaluated. (who.int)
- BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) are toxic preservatives used in beer, cereal, meat, nut mixes, and margarine. (savingdinner.com)
- BHT, or butylated hydroxytoluene, is a man-made antioxidant commonly used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to counteract oxidative damage and extend product shelf life. (earthclinic.com)
- The following preservatives are frequently added to pet food and must be avoided: BHA - Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT - Butylated hydroxytoluene, and Propyl gallate. (rafterepups.com)
- Mezerein (34807415), 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (544638), amobarbital (57432), butylated-hydroxytoluene (128370), phenobarbital (50066), butylated-hydroxyanisole (25013165), tryptophan (153946), and catechol (120809) inhibited metabolic cooperation between the wild type and mutant cells. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, the study aims to determine whether the antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) will ameliorate the maximum dose of acrylamide and alpha (α)-solanine synergistic toxic effects in exposed BEAS-2B cells. (bvsalud.org)
Mixture of two isomeric organic compounds1
- This one is an antioxidant consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. (shivshaktiindia.co.in)
- The other ingredients are water, PEG-6, PEG-32 and glycol stearate, oleoyl macroglycerides, liquid paraffin, benzoic acid (E210) and butylated hydroxyanisole (E320). (homehealth-uk.com)
- [ 15 ] OFG may also result from reactions to some foods or medicaments, particularly cinnamon aldehyde and benzoates, but also butylated hydroxyanisole, dodecyl gallate, menthol, and monosodium glutamate. (medscape.com)
- Hormone disrupting chemicals, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals include BPA which is used in polycarbonate plastic and an epoxy resin for internal coating of cans, some phthalates and Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) found in food packaging and propyl and butyl parabens which are food additives. (beveragedaily.com)
- Butylated hydroxyanisole is a example of antioxidant or antioxidant can be used as antioxidant for food additives. (sbistudy.com)
- 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. (sbistudy.com)
- Not only are many riddled with harmful ingredients like formaldehyde, parabens, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and carbon black (you know, like ink toner? (100percentpure.com)
- As the foods are kept in the body for so long as a result of slow digestion, toxic chemicals and preservatives are retained in the body, often leading to an over-exposure of Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). (lifehack.org)
- The Reaction of Butylated Hydroxyanisole and Its Metabolites with Some Arylamines: Investigations of Product Mutagenicity. (nih.gov)
- [ 15 ] OFG may also result from reactions to some foods or medicaments, particularly cinnamon aldehyde and benzoates, but also butylated hydroxyanisole, dodecyl gallate, menthol, and monosodium glutamate. (medscape.com)
- Safety and efficacy of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as a feed additive for all animal species. (nih.gov)