Action potentials, contraction, and membrane currents in guinea pig ventricular preparations treated with the antispasmodic agent terodiline. (1/87)Terodiline was widely prescribed for urinary incontinence before reports of adverse cardiac effects that included bradycardia, QT lengthening, and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The present study on guinea pig papillary muscles and ventricular myocytes was undertaken to gain insight into the cardioactive properties of the drug. Clinically relevant concentrations (<10 microM) of terodiline lengthened the action potential duration by up to 12%; higher concentrations shortened the duration in a concentration-dependent manner. The drug depressed maximal upstroke velocity in a use-dependent manner; the IC(50) value was near 150 microM in muscles driven at 1 Hz, 60 microM at 3 Hz, 38 microM at 5 Hz, and 3 microM at 1 Hz in muscles depolarized with 14 mM K(+). Submicromolar terodiline frequently had a small positive inotropic effect, whereas micromolar concentrations depressed force in a frequency-dependent manner. Voltage-clamp results on myocytes indicate that terodiline inhibits three membrane currents that govern repolarization: 1) E4031-sensitive, rapidly activating K(+) current with an IC(50) value near 0.7 microM as previously reported; 2) slowly activating, delayed-rectifier K(+) current with an IC(50) value of 26 microM; and 3) L-type Ca(2+) current with an IC(50) value of 12 microM. These findings are correlated with the changes in action potential configuration and developed tension and discussed in relation to the cardiotoxic effects of the drug. (+info)
Block and modified gating of cardiac calcium channel currents by terodiline. (2/87)1. Terodiline, an anticholinergic/antispasmodic drug effective in the treatment of urinary incontinence, is presently restricted due to adverse side effects on cardiac function. To characterize its effects on cardiac L-type Ca2+-channel current carried by Ca2+ (ICa, L) and Ba2+ (IBa,L), concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 microM were applied to whole-cell-configured guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. 2. Although sub-micromolar concentrations of terodiline had no effect on ICa,L at 0 mV, 100 microM drug reduced its amplitude to ca. 10% of pre-drug control. The estimated IC50 (15.2 microM in K+-dialysed cells, 12.2 microM in Cs+-dialysed cells; 0.1 Hz pulsing rate) is eight times higher than reported for ICa,L in bladder smooth muscle myocytes. 3. Terodiline affected ICa,L in a use-dependent manner; block increased when the pulsing rate was increased from 0.1 to 2 - 3 Hz, and when holding potential was lowered from -43 mV. The drug accelerated the decay of ICa,L at 0 mV in a concentration-dependent manner, and slowed the recovery of channels from inactivation. 4. Terodiline reduced peak IBa,L more effectively than peak ICa,L, and markedly accelerated the rate of inactivation of the current. 5. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms of Ca2+ channel block and relation to the therapeutic and cardiotoxic effects of the drug. (+info)
Lysyl oxidase coupled with catalase in egg shell membrane. (3/87)The activity of lysyl oxidase was found in egg shell membrane (ESM) of hens. The activity was determined by measuring the enzymatic conversion of n-butylamine and Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine to n-butyraldehyde and Nalpha-acetyl-L-allysine, respectively. ESM lysyl oxidase was significantly inhibited by beta-aminopropionitrile, chelating agents, and deoxygenation, consistent with the known properties of lysyl oxidase. Nevertheless, ESM lysyl oxidase was insoluble in urea solution, suggesting that it complexes with ESM. These findings support previous reports indicating the presence of lysine-derived cross-links in ESM and the necessity of lysyl oxidase located in the isthmus of the hen oviduct for the biosynthesis of ESM. Lysyl oxidase secreted around the egg white from the isthmus may initiate the cross-linking reaction of ESM protein, and remain as the constituent of ESM. Moreover, the H(2)O(2) released by lysyl oxidase in ESM was completely decomposed by coexisting catalase activity. ESM lysyl oxidase activity was greatly elevated in the presence of H(2)O(2), probably due to the O(2) produced by catalase. These findings indicate that lysyl oxidase is coupled with catalase in ESM. This coupling enzyme system was considered to be involved in the biosynthesis of ESM and to protect the embryo against H(2)O(2). (+info)
Increased hindrance on the chiral carbon atom of mexiletine enhances the block of rat skeletal muscle Na+ channels in a model of myotonia induced by ATX. (4/87)1 The antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (Mex) is also used against myotonia. Searching for a more efficient drug, a new compound (Me5) was synthesized substituting the methyl group on the chiral carbon atom of Mex by an isopropyl group. Effects of Me5 on Na+ channels were compared to those of Mex in rat skeletal muscle fibres using the cell-attached patch clamp method. 2 Me5 (10 microM) reduced the maximal sodium current (INa) by 29.7+/-4.4 % (n=6) at a frequency of stimulation of 0.3 Hz and 65.7+/-4.4 % (n=6) at 1 Hz. At same concentration (10 microM), Mex was incapable of producing any effect (n=3). Me5 also shifted the steady-state inactivation curves by -7. 9+/-0.9 mV (n=6) at 0.3 Hz and -12.2+/-1.0 mV (n=6) at 1 Hz. 3 In the presence of sea anemone toxin II (ATX; 5 microM), INa decayed more slowly and no longer to zero, providing a model of sodium channel myotonia. The effects of Me5 on peak INa were similar whatever ATX was present or not. Interestingly, Me5 did not modify the INa decay time constant nor the steady-state INa to peak INa ratio. 4 Analysis of ATX-induced late Na+ channel activity shows that Me5 did not affect mean open times and single-channel conductance, thus excluding open channel block property. 5 These results indicate that increasing hindrance on the chiral atom of Mex increases drug potency on wild-type and ATX-induced noninactivating INa and that Me5 might improve the prophylaxis of myotonia. (+info)
CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes of patients with terodiline cardiotoxicity identified through the yellow card system. (5/87)AIMS: Terodiline has concentration dependent QT prolonging effects and thus the potential for cardiotoxicity. Pharmacogenetic variation in terodiline metabolism could be responsible for cardiotoxicity. We sought to determine whether CYP2D6 (debrisoquine hydroxylase) or CYP2C19 (S-mephenytoin hydroxylase) status is a risk factor for terodiline cardiotoxicity. METHODS: Using the UK Yellow Card scheme to identify patients, blood samples were obtained from eight patients who survived ventricular tachycardia or torsades de pointes suspected to be due to terodiline, for determination of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes. Genotype prevalence was compared with that in published general population groups. RESULTS: One patient was a CYP2D6 poor metaboliser (CYP2D6*4 homozygous) and a second was heterozygous for CYP2D6*4, a slightly lower frequency for these genotypes compared with the general population (P = 0.31). In the case of CYP2C19, one patient was a poor metaboliser and four were heterozygous for the variant CYP2C19*2 allele, compared with general population frequencies of 2% and 23%, respectively (P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that debrisoquine poor metaboliser status is not primarily responsible for terodiline cardiotoxicity. However, possession of the CYP2C19*2 allele appears to contribute to adverse cardiac reactions to terodiline. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting schemes to determine the contribution of genotype for metabolizing enzymes to uncommon adverse drug reactions. (+info)
Differences in the effects of urinary incontinence agents S-oxybutynin and terodiline on cardiac K(+) currents and action potentials. (6/87)1. The cardiac electrophysiological effects of S-oxybutynin, a single-enantiomer drug under evaluation for the management of urinary incontinence, have been investigated and compared with those of terodiline, an incontinence agent withdrawn following reports of QT lengthening and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Membrane currents were recorded from whole-cell configured guinea-pig and rabbit ventricular myocytes, and action potentials were recorded from guinea-pig and rabbit papillary muscles. 2. L-type Ca(2+) current (I:(Ca,L)), rapidly-activating K(+) current (I:(Kr)) and slowly-activating K(+) current (I:(Ks)) were unaffected by submicromolar S-oxybutynin and inhibited by higher concentrations; IC(50) values were 17.8 microM for I:(Ca,L), 12 microM for I:(Kr), and 41 microM for I:(Ks). Terodiline IC(50) values were somewhat lower for I:(Ca,L) (15.2 microM) and I:(Ks) (30 microM), but 24 fold lower in the case of I:(Kr) (0.5 microM). 3. The durations of action potentials in guinea-pig and rabbit papillary muscles driven at 1 Hz were unaffected or moderately shortened by 0.1 - 100 microM S-oxybutynin, but lengthened by terodiline. Terodiline (< or =10 microM) also depressed maximal upstroke velocity. 4. The action potential plateau shortened by an average of 23% when control rabbit papillary muscles were driven at 0.4 Hz instead of 1 Hz. Plateau shortening was significantly smaller in the presence of drugs (30 microM S-oxybutynin, 3 and 30 microM terodiline), suggesting that they suppress the transient outward current (I:(to)) involved in rate-dependent shortening. In experiments on rabbit ventricular myocytes, 3 and 30 microM S-oxybutynin inhibited I:(to) by 9+/-2% and 35+/-3%, respectively, whereas 3 and 30 microM terodiline inhibited the current by 31+/-3% and 87+/-3%, respectively. 5. The results indicate that S-oxybutynin has relatively weak non-specific effects on cardiac ion channels, and that clinically relevant submicromolar concentrations are unlikely to have terodiline-like proarrhythmic actions on the myocardium. (+info)
New pathway of amine oxidation respiratory chain of Paracoccus denitrificans IFO 12442. (7/87)The physiological electron acceptor of quinohemoprotein amine dehydrogenase (QH-AmDH) from Paracoccus denitrificans IFO 12442 was identified by biochemical and electrochemical methods. Of three types of heme c-containing proteins purified together with QH-AmDH from the periplasm of n-butylamine-grown cells, only constitutive cytochrome c-550 was reduced by the addition of QH-AmDH and n-butylamine. Reconstitution of the respiratory chain revealed that cytochrome c-550 mediates the electron transfer from QH-AmDH to the terminal oxidase. This is a new pathway of the amine oxidation respiratory chain of P. denitrificans. (+info)
Comparison of the omega-transaminases from different microorganisms and application to production of chiral amines. (8/87)Microorganisms that are capable of (S)-enantioselective transamination of chiral amines were isolated from soil samples by selective enrichment using (S)-alpha-methyl-benzylamine ((S)-alpha-MBA) as a sole nitrogen source. Among them, Klebsiella pneumoniae JS2F, Bacillus thuringiensis JS64, and Vibrio fluvialis JS17 showed good omega-transaminase (omega-TA) activities and the properties of the omega-TAs were investigated. The induction level of the enzyme was strongly dependent on the nitrogen source for the strains, except for V. fluvialis JS17. All the omega-TAs showed high enantioselectivity (E>50) toward (S)-alpha-MBA and broad amino donor specificities for arylic and aliphatic chiral amines. Besides pyruvate, aldehydes such as propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde showed good amino acceptor reactivities. All the omega-TAs showed substrate inhibition by (S)-alpha-MBA above 200 mm. Moreover, substrate inhibition by pyruvate above 10 mm was observed for omega-TA from V. fluvialis JS17. In the case of product inhibition, acetophenone showed much greater inhibitions than L-alanine for all omega-TAs. Comparison of the enzyme properties indicates that omega-transaminase from V. fluvialis JS17 is the best one for both kinetic resolution and asymmetric synthesis to produce enantiomerically pure chiral amines. Kinetic resolution of sec-butylamine (20 mM) was done under reduced pressure (150 Torr) to selectively remove an inhibitory product (2-butanone) using the enzyme from V. fluvialis JS17. Enantiomeric excess of (R)-sec-butylamine reached 94.7% after 12 h of reaction. (+info)
Butylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a butyl group (-C4H9) attached to an amine functional group (-NH2). They are derivatives of ammonia and are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry as intermediates in the synthesis of various drugs and as solvents for drug delivery systems. In the medical field, butylamines have been used in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and insomnia. They work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and dopamine, which can help to improve mood and reduce symptoms of mental health disorders. However, butylamines can also have side effects, including dizziness, nausea, and dry mouth. They may also interact with other medications, so it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking them.
In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.
Jenny Y. Yang
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- Abstract Perindopril erbumine (Perindopril tert-butylamine salt) is a potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. (bvsalud.org)
- Tetrachloroethylene * Trichloroethylene Oxygen-containing compounds (either a ketone, alcohol, aldehyde or ether) * Acetone * Benzaldehyde * Benzyl alcohol * Cyclohexanone * Methyl alcohol * Methyl ethyl ketone * Tetrahydrofuran Nitrogen-containing compounds * N-Butylamine * Diethylamine * Dimethylformamide * Nitrobenzene Acids and bases * Acetic acid (glacial) * Hydrochloric acid (25% w/v) * Sodium hydroxide (25% w/v) Real-world containment levels Many PVC sheet pile products have been installed in cutoff and containment barriers. (nxtbook.com)
- The 7d NOEC of propylamine is supposed to be in between since it is a C3 substance (ethylamine: C2, butylamine: C4) and the toxicity of primary amines enhances with longer C-chains due to a higher bioaccumulative potential. (europa.eu)