Butoxamine: A beta-2 selective adrenergic antagonist. It is used primarily in animal and tissue experiments to characterize BETA-2 ANDRENERGIC RECEPTORS.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Heart Sounds: The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.EncyclopediasBisoprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker. It is effective in the management of HYPERTENSION and ANGINA PECTORIS.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Celiprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Vascular Headaches: Secondary headache disorders attributed to a variety of cranial or cervical vascular disorders, such as BRAIN ISCHEMIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS.Pancreatic Function Tests: Tests based on the biochemistry and physiology of the exocrine pancreas and involving analysis of blood, duodenal contents, feces, or urine for products of pancreatic secretion.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Interlibrary LoansContract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT1: A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to GI-GO G-PROTEINS resulting in decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP levels.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.

Impaired isoproterenol-induced hyperpolarization in isolated mesenteric arteries of aged rats. (1/38)

Stimulation of vascular beta-adrenoceptors leads to membrane hyperpolarization, presumably via the beta-adrenoceptor/G(s) protein/adenylate cyclase signaling cascade; the ionic mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. beta-Adrenoceptor-mediated vascular relaxation is impaired with aging; however, little is known concerning whether beta-adrenoceptor-mediated hyperpolarization is altered with aging. We sought to determine the ionic mechanisms of isoproterenol-induced hyperpolarization in the rat mesenteric resistance artery, as well as the age-related changes in isoproterenol-induced hyperpolarization and their underlying mechanisms. Isoproterenol-induced hyperpolarization was inhibited by high-K(+) solution and glibenclamide (10(-6) mol/L), an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP)), but not by apamin, iberiotoxin, or charybdotoxin, inhibitors of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Isoproterenol-induced hyperpolarization was markedly less in aged rats (>/=24 months) than in adults rats (12 to 20 weeks) (3x10(-6) mol/L; -3.1 versus -9.9 mV; P<0.001; n=8 to 9). Cholera toxin (10(-9) g/mL), an activator of G(s), evoked hyperpolarization only in adult rats. Hyperpolarization to forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase, was also reduced to some extent in aged rats (10(-5) mol/L; -8.8 versus -13 mV; P<0.05; n=6), whereas hyperpolarization to levcromakalim, a K(ATP) opener, was comparable in both groups. These findings suggest that isoproterenol elicits hyperpolarization via an opening of K(ATP) in the rat resistance artery and that isoproterenol-induced hyperpolarization is attenuated in aged rats mainly because of a defective coupling of beta-adrenoceptors to adenylate cyclase and partly because of a defect at the level of adenylate cyclase, but not because of an alteration of K(ATP) per se.  (+info)

Presynaptic beta(2)-adrenoceptors mediate nicotine-induced NOergic neurogenic dilation in porcine basilar arteries. (2/38)

We previously reported that nicotine-induced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated cerebral neurogenic vasodilation was dependent on intact sympathetic innervation. We hypothesized that nicotine acted on sympathetic nerve terminals to release norepinephrine (NE), which then acted on adrenoceptors located on the neighboring nitric oxidergic (NOergic) nerve terminals to release NO, resulting in vasodilation. The adrenoceptor subtype in mediating nicotine-induced vasodilation in isolated porcine basilar arterial rings denuded of endothelium was therefore examined pharmacologically and immunohistochemically. Results from using an in vitro tissue bath technique indicated that propranolol and preferential beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists (ICI-118,551 and butoxamine), in a concentration-dependent manner, blocked the relaxation induced by nicotine (100 microM) without affecting the relaxation elicited by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS, 8 Hz). In contrast, preferential beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists (atenolol and CGP-20712A) did not affect either nicotine- or TNS-induced relaxation. Results of double-labeling studies indicated that beta(2)-adrenoceptor immunoreactivities and NADPH diaphorase reactivities were colocalized in the same nerve fibers in basilar and middle cerebral arteries. These findings suggest that NE, which is released from sympathetic nerves upon application of nicotine, acts on presynaptic beta(2)-adrenoceptors located on the NOergic nerve terminals to release NO, resulting in vasodilation. In addition, nicotine-induced relaxation was enhanced by yohimbine, an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, which, however, did not affect the relaxation elicited by TNS. Prazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, on the other hand, did not have any effect on relaxation induced by either nicotine or TNS. The predominant facilitatory effect of beta(2)-adrenoceptors in releasing NO may be compromised by presynaptic alpha(2)-adrenoceptors.  (+info)

Structure-activity relationship studies of (+/-)-terbutaline and (+/-)-fenoterol on beta3-adrenoceptors in the guinea pig gastric fundus. (3/38)

(+/-)-Terbutaline and (+/-)-fenoterol are both arylethanolamine analogs that have tertbutyl and aryliso-propyl substituents respectively at the a position on the nitrogen of the ethanolamine side chain. In the present study, we have investigated the structure-activity relationships of (+/-)-terbutaline and (+/-)-fenoterol as beta3-adrenoceptor agonists in the guinea pig gastric fundus. (+/-)-Terbutaline and (+/-)-fenoterol induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the precontracted gastric fundus with pD2 values of 4.45+/-0.10 and 5.90+/-0.09, and intrinsic activities of 1.00+/-0.03 and 0.99+/-0.01 respectively. The combination of the selective beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist (+/-)-atenolol (100 microM), and the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist (+/-)-butoxamine (100 microM), produced a 2 and 6 fold rightward shift of the concentration-response curves for (+/-)-terbutaline and (+/-)-fenoterol respectively, without depressing the maximal responses. The order of potency of these agonists was (pD2 value): (+/-)-fenoterol (5.09+/-0.10) > (+/-)-terbutaline (4.13+/-0.08). In the presence of (+/-)-atenolol and (+/-)-butoxamine, however, the non-selective beta1, beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist (+/-)-bupranolol caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the concentration-response curves for (+/-)-terbutaline and (+/-)-fenoterol. Schild plot analyses of the effects of (+/-)-bupranolol against these agonists gave pA2 values of 6.21+/-0.07 ((+/-)-terbutaline) and 6.37+/-0.06 ((+/-)-fenoterol) respectively, and the slopes of the Schild plot were not significantly different from unity (p>0.05). These results suggest that the relaxant responses to (+/-)-terbutaline and (+/-)-fenoterol are mainly mediated through beta3-adrenoceptors in the guinea pig gastric fundus. The beta3-adrenoceptor agonist potencies of arylethanolamine analogs depend on the size of the end of the alkylamine side chain.  (+info)

The beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation induced by fenoterol in guinea pig taenia caecum. (4/38)

Fenoterol, a beta2-adrenoceptor selective agonist, belongs to the arylethanolamine class. To understand the receptor subtypes responsible for beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of guinea pig taenia caecum, we investigated the effect of fenoterol. Fenoterol caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the guinea pig taenia caecum. Propranolol, bupranolol and butoxamine produced shifts of the concentration-response curve for fenoterol. Schild regression analyses carried out for propranolol, butoxamine and bupranolol against fenoterol gave pA2 values of 8.41, 6.33 and 8.44, respectively. However, in the presence of 3 x 10(-4) M atenolol, 10(-4) M butoxamine and 10(-6) M phentolamine to block the beta1-, beta2- and a-adrenoceptor effects, respectively, Schild regression analysis carried out for bupranolol against fenoterol gave pA2 values of 5.80. These results suggest that the relaxant response to fenoterol in the guinea pig taenia caecum is mediated by both the beta2- and the beta3-adrenoceptors.  (+info)

Interaction between noradrenaline or adrenaline and the beta 1-adrenergic receptor in the nervous system triggers early metamorphosis of larvae in the ascidian, Ciona savignyi. (5/38)

Molecular mechanisms underlying the metamorphosis of larvae, e.g., ligand and receptor interaction, have to be determined and roles for the nervous system in marine invertebrates are not well understood. We report here that treatment of swimming larvae of the ascidian Ciona savignyi with noradrenaline or adrenaline promoted morphological changes in early metamorphosis, e.g., tail resorption. Antagonists of the beta-adrenergic receptor, propranolol, and the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor, metoprolol, inhibited the noradrenaline-induced tail resorption, while an antagonist of the alpha-adrenergic receptor, phentolamine, and of the beta(2)- adrenergic receptor, butoxamine, had no inhibitory effects. In addition, a selective agonist of the beta-adrenergic receptor, isoproterenol, the concentration of which was lower than the effective concentration of the neurotransmitters, facilitated tail resorption. Immunohistochemical studies, using an anti-dopamine-hydroxylase antibody, showed that neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and adrenaline localized around the brain vesicle of the larvae during metamorphosis. The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor stained with antibodies was localized on the nervous system. Temporal expression of the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor was intense in the nervous system in the larvae competent for metamorphosis. We propose that interactions between noradrenaline or adrenaline and the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor in the nervous system mediate the process of metamorphosis of Ciona larvae.  (+info)

The beta3-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation induced by dopamine in guinea pig taenia caecum. (6/38)

The mechanisms of the beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation induced by dopamine in guinea pig taenia caecum were examined. The relaxant response to dopamine was unaffected by propranolol (10(-8)-10(-5) M) or phentolamine (10(-8)-10(-5) M). Atenolol (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-4) M), butoxamine (10(-7)-10(-4) M), prazosin (10(-8)-10(-5) M), yohimbine (10(-8)-10(-5) M), SCH 23390 (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and haloperidol (10(-8)-10(-5) M) had no effect on the potency of dopamine. The response to dopamine was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by bupranolol (3 x 10(-6)-3 x 10(-5) M), and Schild plot of the data revealed the pA2 value of 5.55 and the slope of the regression line was 1.13. These results suggest that the relaxant response to dopamine in the guinea pig taenia caecum is mainly mediated by the beta3-adrenoceptors.  (+info)

Nebivolol increases arterial distensibility in vivo. (7/38)

Arterial stiffness is a key determinant of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. beta-Blockers appear to be less effective than other drugs in improving outcome in hypertensive patients, and a potential explanation may be that beta-blockers are less effective in reducing arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to assess the direct effect of beta-blockade on pulse wave velocity (PWV), a robust measure of arterial distensibility, using a local, ovine, hind-limb model. In addition, we hypothesized that the vasodilating beta-blocker nebivolol, but not atenolol, would increase arterial distensibility in vivo. All studies were conducted in anesthetized sheep. PWV was recorded in vivo using a dual pressure-sensing catheter placed in the common iliac artery. Intraarterial infusion of nebivolol reduced PWV by 6+/-3% at the higher dose (P<0.001), but did not alter mean arterial pressure (change of -1+/-3 mm Hg, P=0.1). In contrast, atenolol had no effect on PWV (P=0.11) despite a small drop in mean pressure (change of -5+/-3 mm Hg, P<0.01). Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate led to a dose-dependent fall in PWV, and 2 nmol/min produced a similar reduction in PWV to the higher dose of nebivolol (500 nmol/min). The effect of nebivolol on PWV was significantly attenuated during coinfusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (P=0.003) and also during coinfusion of butoxamine (P=0.02). These results demonstrate that nebivolol, but not atenolol, increases arterial distensibility. This effect of nebivolol is mediated through the release of NO via a beta2 adrenoceptor-dependent mechanism. Thus, nebivolol may be of benefit in conditions of increased large artery stiffness, such as isolated systolic hypertension.  (+info)

Effect of orthovanadate on platelet aggregation induced by platelet-activating factor. (8/38)

Orthovanadate (vanadate) inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF) in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol, a nonspecific beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and H-8, a selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), suppressed the inhibition of the PAF-induced platelet aggregation by vanadate. Vanadate increased the cAMP content in platelets accompanied by the activation of PKA. The beta-adrenergic receptors of platelets have been reported to be abundant in the beta(2) isoform, coupled to adenylyl cyclases (R. Kerry and M. C. Scrutton, Br. J. Pharmacol., 79, 681-691 (1983)). When the washed platelets were preincubated with vanadate, salbutamol, a selective beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist, or 8-Br-cAMP, the latter two mimicked the vanadate-induced anti-platelet aggregation and prolongation of clotting time of plasma, suggesting involvement of the increased intracellular cAMP content in both actions of vanadate. Butoxamine, a selective beta(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suppressed both actions of vanadate. The vanadate-induced increase in cAMP content was inhibited in part by butoxamine or genistein. These results suggest that vanadate inhibits the PAF-induced platelet aggregation by the stimulation of a cAMP/PKA-dependent process via the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor and receptor tyrosine kinases, and that the anti-platelet aggregation is involved in part in mechanisms of the anticoagulant action of vanadate.  (+info)

*Butaxamine

... (INN, also known as butoxamine) is a β2-selective beta blocker. Its primary use is in experimental situations in ... Bupropion Methoxamine "Definition: butoxamine from Online Medical Dictionary". Hillman KL, Doze VA, Porter JE (August 2005). " ...

*Beta blocker

"Butaxamine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. ... Metoprolol Nebivolol Butaxamine ICI-118,551 SR 59230A Agents with intrinsic sympathomimetic action (ISA) Acebutolol, pindolol, ...

*Beta-2 adrenergic antagonist

ICI-118,551 Butaxamine Propranolol Betablocker Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta2-adrenergic agonist Bilski, AJ; Halliday, SE; ... like Butaxamine and ICI-118,551, or non-specifically (an antagonist for β2 and for β1 or β3 adrenoceptors) like the non- ...

*Methoxamine

... is an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, somewhat similar in structure to butaxamine and 2,5-DMA. It is no longer ...

*Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

... butoxamine* First generation (non-selective) β-blockers ICI-118,551* Propranolol * denotes selective antagonist to the receptor ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... butoxamine MeSH D02.092.471.683.338 --- dexfenfluramine MeSH D02.092.471.683.386 --- dimethoxyphenylethylamine MeSH D02.092. ...

*List of adrenergic drugs

Bisoprolol Bopindolol Bornaprolol Brefonalol Bucindolol Bucumolol Bufetolol Bufuralol Bunitrolol Bunolol Bupranolol Butaxamine ...

*Sympatholytic

Atenolol Betaxolol Bisoprolol Celiprolol Esmolol Metoprolol Nebivolol β2-selective agents Butaxamine (weak α-adrenergic agonist ...

*List of drugs: Bs-Bz

... butaxamine (INN) Butazolidin butedronic acid (INN) butenafine (INN) buterizine (INN) butetamate (INN) Butex Forte buthalital ...
Prior biochemical studies have suggested that beta adrenergic receptors in the ciliary process are mostly of the beta-2 subtype. The present experiments evaluate a number of beta adrenergic antagonists, including several recently developed drugs, for their ability to block rabbit and human ciliary process and heart beta adrenergic receptors activating adenylate cyclase. Three of these agents (alpha-methylpropranolol, IPS 339 and ICI 118,551) demonstrated a high degree of oculoselectivity in both rabbit and human. The other agents (S 37-429, S 32-468, ICI 78,462,H35/25, butoxamine, propranolol, timolol, atenolol and practolol) showed either modest or no oculoselectivity. Structure-activity studies suggested that, among antagonists of the aryloxymethyl type, methylation of the side-chain alpha-carbon or the aromatic ring may enhance oculoselectivity primarily by decreasing potency at cardiac beta adrenergic receptors. Additional physiological studies of cardiac chronotropic response revealed that, ...
Extracellular ATP is a broad-spectrum cytotoxic agent that produces effects via cell surface P2 purinoceptors. The ligand-gated P2X purinoceptor subtype has very high sequence homology with theRP-2 gene, which encodes for apoptosis. The P2X RNA found in rat vas deferens is expressed preferentially by apoptotic thymocytes. P2X purinoceptor-mediated phasic (twitch) motor responses of the isolated rat vas deferens to neurogenic or exogenous ATP were rapidly, specifically and irreversibly potentiated by bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (HD 10-100 μM). Both untreated and HD-potentiated neurogenic responses were Ca++ dependent, blocked in the absence of Ca++ plus 0.1 mM EGTA, by the neuronal Ca++channel blocker ω-conotoxin-MVIIC (3 μM), by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist suramin (100 μM) and by tetrodotoxin (100 nM). HD also potentiated the effects of ATP on isolated guinea pig taenia caecum, where the nucleotide acts at G protein-coupled P2Y purinoceptor subtypes to cause relaxation. HD failed to inhibit ...
Detection of pregnancy specific beta1-glycoprotein in formalin-fixed tissues.: Using an enzyme-bridge immunoperoxidase method, pregnancy specific beta1-glycopro
View Notes - ps_8_answers from BIO 115 at UCSC. Bio 115 Problem set #8 March 11, 2005 1. You are studying Slater syndrome, which is associated with a progressive loss of balance, social withdrawal
BioAssay record AID 47971 submitted by ChEMBL: In vivo beta adrenergic receptor blocking potency was determined by inhibition of tachycardia produced by isoproterenol (0.2 mg/kg iv) in cat preparation.
It is now well established that any given ligand for a G-protein-couple receptor (GPCR) does not simply possess a single defined efficacy. Rather, a ligand possesses multiple efficacies, depending on the specific down-stream signal transduction pathway analyzed. This diversity may be based on ligand-specific GPCR conformations and is often referred to as "functional selectivity." It has been known for a century that stereoisomers of catecholamines differ in their potency and, in some systems, also in their efficacy. However, the molecular basis for efficacy differences of GPCR ligand stereoisomers has remained poorly defined. In an elegant study published in this issue of Molecular Pharmacology, Woo et al. (p. 158) show that stereoisomers of the β2-adrenoceptor selective agonist fenoterol differentially activates Gs- and Gi-proteins in native rat cardiomyocytes. This study is so important because it is the first report to show that even the subtle structural differences within a ligand ...
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase carboxyl-terminus (also βARKct) is a peptide composed of the last 194 amino acid residues of the carboxyl-terminus of beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (βARK1). It binds the βγ subunits of G proteins located in the plasma membrane of cells. It is currently an experimental gene therapy for the treatment of heart failure. During heart failure, the heart is not able to pump enough blood to the rest of the body and will begin to undergo processes in order to compensate for its decreased function. These processes will attempt to increase the hearts output; however, the heart may become overstressed and eventually dysfunctional as a result. The sympathetic nervous system increases norepinephrine release to stimulate β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) located on heart cell (cardiomyocyte) membranes to increase the hearts rate and force of contraction. If the heart is already stressed or damaged, this will cause the heart to work above its capacity. Continuous ...
Single assays of Schwangerschaftsprotein 1 (SP1) and serum human placental lactogen (HPL) were performed in 500 consecutive patients attending a routine ante-natal clinic for their first visit. All samples were taken before 112 days gestation. Of the
The optimum pH of salivary amylase is approximately 6.7 to 7, according to Worthington Biochemical Corporation, meaning very slightly acidic. If the pH is significantly out of this range, the enzyme...
Terbutaline is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Terbutaline is available on the Drugs.com website.

Butaxamine - WikipediaButaxamine - Wikipedia

Butaxamine (INN, also known as butoxamine) is a β2-selective beta blocker. Its primary use is in experimental situations in ... Bupropion Methoxamine "Definition: butoxamine from Online Medical Dictionary". Hillman KL, Doze VA, Porter JE (August 2005). " ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butaxamine

Effect of sympathomimetics on isolated heart of frogEffect of sympathomimetics on isolated heart of frog

3. Beta blockers • Beta1, beta2: propranolol • Beta 1: metoprolol and atenolol • Beta 2: butoxamine ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/samghany/effect-of-sympathomimetics-on-isolated-heart-of-frog

Plus itPlus it

Butoxamine (5 mg/kg, i.p., in PBS) and RU486 (5 mg/kg, i.p., in ethanol/sesame oil 1:10) were administrated immediately before ... Butoxamine (Butox; a selective β2AR antagonist; 5 mg/kg) and RU486 (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist; 5 mg/kg) were ... To test this hypothesis, selective β2AR (butoxamine; 5 mg/kg) and GR antagonists (RU486; 5 mg/kg) were injected ... repeat injections of butoxamine and RU486 significantly reduced splenic atrophy (Fig. 9A) and restored immune function to ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/32/12970

Beta blocker - WikipediaBeta blocker - Wikipedia

"Butaxamine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_blocker

Free Medical Flashcards about ANS drugs.Free Medical Flashcards about ANS drugs.

Free flashcards to help memorize facts about intro. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-1291343

Beta blocker - WikipediaBeta blocker - Wikipedia

"Butaxamine". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_blocker

Nefazodone : Wikis (The Full Wiki)Nefazodone : Wikis (The Full Wiki)

Butaxamine • Butidrine • Butofilolol • Capsinolol • Carazolol • Carpindolol • Carteolol • Carvedilol • Celiprolol • Cetamolol ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Nefazodone

Amphetamine : Wikis (The Full Wiki)Amphetamine : Wikis (The Full Wiki)

Butaxamine • Butidrine • Butofilolol • Capsinolol • Carazolol • Carpindolol • Carteolol • Carvedilol • Celiprolol • Cetamolol ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Amphetamine

Neonatal Maternal Deprivation Followed by Adult Stress Enhances Adrenergic Signaling to Advance Visceral Hypersensitivity |...Neonatal Maternal Deprivation Followed by Adult Stress Enhances Adrenergic Signaling to Advance Visceral Hypersensitivity |...

B The β2 receptor antagonist butoxamine (BUTO, 5 mg/kg) also reversed the visceral hyperalgesia induced by NMD + AMS in a time- ... In the behavioral experiments, 5 mg/kg butoxamine (BUTO, a β2 antagonist; Sigma, St. Louis, MO), 3 mg/kg propranolol (PROP, a ... Inhibition of β2 adrenergic receptors with propranolol or butoxamine enhanced the colorectal distention threshold and ... application of butoxamine also reversed the enhanced hypersensitivity of DRG neurons. Overall, our data demonstrate that AMS ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12264-018-0318-3

Novel epinephrine and cyclic AMP-mediated activation of BCAM/Lu-dependent sickle (SS) RBC adhesion | Blood JournalNovel epinephrine and cyclic AMP-mediated activation of BCAM/Lu-dependent sickle (SS) RBC adhesion | Blood Journal

... and butoxamine were from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO). Unless otherwise indicated, reagents were reconstituted and diluted in ... or the β2-specific AR antagonist butoxamine (160 μM for 30 minutes (P , .05, n = 5), (C) a PKA inhibitor (PKAI) (36 nM for 1 ... whereas the β2-specific antagonist butoxamine inhibited adhesion by 62% (P , .001) (Figure 5B). These data are consistent with ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/101/8/3281?ijkey=2ac9830b7b7ddb3c7b7210160b206da1678113ad&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

Beta blockers - wikidocBeta blockers - wikidoc

Butaxamine (weak α-adrenergic agonist activity). Comparative information. Pharmacological differences. *Agents with intrinsic ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Beta_blocker

Beta blocker | World Library - eBooks | Read eBooks onlineBeta blocker | World Library - eBooks | Read eBooks online

Butaxamine Butidrine Butofilolol Capsinolol Carazolol Carpindolol Carteolol Carvedilol Celiprolol Cetamolol Cicloprolol ... Butaxamine (weak α-adrenergic agonist activity): No common clinical applications, but used in experiments ...
more infohttp://www.netlibrary.net/articles/Beta_blocker

Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressantNoradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant

Butaxamine • Butidrine • Butofilolol • Capsinolol • Carazolol • Carpindolol • Carteolol • Carvedilol • Celiprolol • Cetamolol ...
more infohttps://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/649731

Gary Peltz | Stanford Medicine ProfilesGary Peltz | Stanford Medicine Profiles

Using the selective beta2-AR antagonist butoxamine, the authors observed a dose-dependent reversal of OIH. Furthermore, ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/gary-peltz

Journal of Animal Science - Animal Physiology β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors stimulation relaxes porcine myometrium in the...Journal of Animal Science - Animal Physiology β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors stimulation relaxes porcine myometrium in the...

Effect of Butoxamine Pretreatment on Salbutamol and BRL 37344 Activity. Salbutamol, administered further to butaxamine, did not ... The influence of butoxamine (But; 10-4 M), a selective antagonist of β2-adrenoceptors on changes in the tension (A), frequency ... The antagonists: butoxamine (a selective β2-adrenoceptor antagonist; Sigma), propranolol (a nonselective β1- and β2- ... BRL 37344, administered further to butaxamine, caused a reduction of the tension (Fig. 4A) and frequency (Fig. 4B) at ...
more infohttps://www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas/articles/94/11/4611

Die Wirkung β-adrenerger Substanzen auf die exokrine Funktion des Pankreas | SpringerLinkDie Wirkung β-adrenerger Substanzen auf die exokrine Funktion des Pankreas | SpringerLink

The enzyme secretion was inhibited by different adrenolytic drugs (phenoxybenzamine, practolol, butoxamine), by tetracain, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01851591

Pharm Exam 2 Flashcards - Cram.comPharm Exam 2 Flashcards - Cram.com

butoxamine beta-2 receptor antagonist. note: tool only, there are no drugs on the market that block only beta-2 ...
more infohttp://www.cram.com/flashcards/pharm-exam-2-267424

The Autonomic Nervous System And DisordersThe Autonomic Nervous System And Disorders

Butoxamine is a selective b2-blocker.. Box 6-2: Responses elicited in effector organs by sympathetic and parasympathetic ... Butoxamine. The rank order of sensitivity of a series of chemically similar compounds for activating a receptor (agonists) or ...
more infohttp://worldmedicine.forumotion.com/t60-the-autonomic-nervous-system-and-disorders

Mepindolol | World eBook Library | Read eBooks onlineMepindolol | World eBook Library | Read eBooks online

Mepindolol: lt;table class=infobox bordered style=border-collapse: collapse; width: 22em; font-size: 88%||... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
more infohttp://ebook.worldlibrary.net/articles/eng/Mepindolol

EpinephrineEpinephrine

Butaxamine • Butidrine • Butofilolol • Capsinolol • Carazolol • Carpindolol • Carteolol • Carvedilol • Celiprolol • Cetamolol ...
more infohttps://enwiki.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/6032/9262055

Read eBooks online | World Heritage Encyclopedia | CarbuterolRead eBooks online | World Heritage Encyclopedia | Carbuterol

World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
more infohttp://worldheritage.org/articles/eng/Carbuterol
  • Inhibition of β 2 adrenergic receptors with propranolol or butoxamine enhanced the colorectal distention threshold and application of butoxamine also reversed the enhanced hypersensitivity of DRG neurons. (springer.com)
  • Changes in the contractility of myometrial strips were assessed further to the administration of increasing concentrations of the agonists (10 -9 to 10 -5 M ) with and without β-adrenergic receptor antagonists: butoxamine, propranolol, and bupranolol at 10 -4 M . Moreover, the -log EC 50 (pD 2 ) of the agonists were compared. (animalsciencepublications.org)