Receptors, Opioid, kappa
Effect of butorphanol tartrate on shock-related discomfort during internal atrial defibrillation. (1/72)BACKGROUND: In patients with atrial fibrillation, intracardiac atrial defibrillation causes discomfort. An easily applicable, short-acting analgesic and anxiolytic drug would increase acceptability of this new treatment mode. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner, the effect of intranasal butorphanol, an opioid, was evaluated in 47 patients with the use of a step-up internal atrial defibrillation protocol (stage I). On request, additional butorphanol was administered and the step-up protocol continued (stage II). Thereafter, if necessary, patients were intravenously sedated (stage III). After each shock, the McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to obtain a sensory (S), affective (A), evaluative (E), and total (T) pain rating index (PRI) and a visual analogue scale analyzing pain (VAS-P) and fear (VAS-F). For every patient, the slope of each pain or fear parameter against the shock number was calculated and individual slopes were averaged for the placebo and butorphanol group. All patients were cardioverted at a mean threshold of 4.4+/-3.3 J. Comparing both patient groups for stage II, the mean slopes for PRI-T (P=0.0099), PRI-S (P=0.019), and PRI-E (P=0.015) became significantly lower in the butorphanol group than in the placebo group. Comparing patients who received the same shock intensity ending stage I and going to stage II, in those patients randomized to placebo the mean VAS-P (P=0.023), PRI-T (P=0. 029), PRI-S (P=0.030), and PRI-E (P=0.023) became significantly lower after butorphanol administration. CONCLUSIONS: During a step-up internal atrial defibrillation protocol, intranasal butorphanol decreased or stabilized the value of several pain variables and did not affect fear. Of the 3 qualitative components of pain, only the affective component was not influenced by butorphanol. The PRI evaluated pain more accurately than the VAS. (+info)
Assessment of opioid partial agonist activity with a three-choice hydromorphone dose-discrimination procedure. (2/72)The discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of opioid mixed agonist-antagonists were assessed in volunteer nondependent heroin users trained in a three-choice drug discrimination procedure to discriminate among the effects of i.m. administration of 2 ml of saline, 1 mg of hydromorphone, and 4 mg of hydromorphone (a morphine-like mu agonist). Other subjective, behavioral, and physiological measures were concurrently collected. The discrimination was readily learned by six of the eight subjects. After training, generalization curves were determined for the following i.m. drug conditions: hydromorphone (0.375-4.0 mg), pentazocine (7.5-60 mg), butorphanol (0.75-6 mg), nalbuphine (3-24 mg), and buprenorphine (0.075-0.6 mg). All five of the test drugs were discriminated significantly or showed trends toward being discriminated as hydromorphone 1 mg-like at one or more dose levels. Hydromorphone showed an inverted U-shaped dose-effect function on the hydromorphone 1 mg-like discrimination. Subjective effect measures produced clearer differentiation among the test drugs than did drug discrimination performance. The present results differ from those of a previous study that observed a close relationship between the results of the discrimination measure and subjective effect measures. The previous study used similar methods and test drugs but different training drugs (e.g., 3 mg of hydromorphone versus 6 mg of butorphanol versus saline). It appears that both the sensitivity of drug discrimination performance to between-drug differences and the relationship between discriminative and subjective effects depends upon the specific discrimination that is trained (e.g., two-choice or three-choice). The present high dose-low dose-saline discrimination procedure appears useful for assessing partial agonist activity. The present data are consistent with partial agonist activity for pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, and buprenorphine. (+info)
kappa-Opioid receptor effects of butorphanol in rhesus monkeys. (3/72)Butorphanol and nalbuphine have substantial affinity for mu and kappa-opioid receptor sites, yet their behavioral effects in monkeys are largely consistent with a mu receptor mechanism of action. Using ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) discrimination and diuresis assays in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), the purpose of the current investigation was to characterize the in vivo kappa-opioid activity of these compounds through the use of an insurmountable mu-opioid receptor antagonist, clocinnamox. Alone, butorphanol (0.001-0.032 mg/kg i.m.) failed to generalize to EKC, and pretreatment with the competitive opioid receptor antagonist quadazocine (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg i.m.) did not alter this generalization. At 24 h after clocinnamox (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) administration, butorphanol fully generalized to EKC, and this generalization was maintained in two of three monkeys at 72 h. Parallel results were observed in diuresis: butorphanol alone and in the presence of quadazocine (1 mg/kg i.m.) did not alter urine output, and a marked diuretic effect was demonstrated 24 h to 2 weeks after clocinnamox administration. Clocinnamox did not alter the discriminative stimulus or diuretic effects of nalbuphine or of the kappa-opioid receptor agonists EKC or U69593. These results are consistent with an in vivo agonist activity of butorphanol at kappa-opioid receptors that can only be demonstrated when an insurmountable antagonist has substantially eliminated the dominant receptor population through which it exerts its action. (+info)
Butorphanol tartrate acts to decrease sow activity, which could lead to reduced pig crushing. (4/72)The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of an analgesic to sows immediately after farrowing would allow them to lie more restfully. Sows lying on their pigs, causing them to be "crushed," is a major cause of pig mortality. Most deaths due to crushing occur during the first 3 d postpartum. For modern, lean-type sows, farrowing crates are relatively hard and unforgiving, even though they may be equipped with plastic-coated, expanded metal flooring. Indeed, many sows develop pressure sores on their shoulders, and this may contribute to the sows' discomfort. These sores may cause a sow to change position frequently to alleviate pain, thus increasing its chances of crushing pigs. Sixteen production sows were assigned to either a control group (C, n = 8) with litter size 11.71+/-.78 or an experimental group (B, n = 8) with litter size 11.63+/-1.22. Pigs born to C and B sows weighed 1.60+/-.04 and 1.37+/-.04 kg, respectively. The C sows were given no treatment, whereas the B sows were administered an i.m. injection of butorphanol tartrate at a dose of .15 mg/kg BW every 6 h until 3 d after farrowing. Data were collected on all sows using time-lapse photography (1 frame/.4 s) for a 3-d duration upon the initiation of farrowing. To assess the degree of comfort of each sow, body position changes were recorded when sows switched between lying, sitting, and standing. Data were analyzed by 12-h periods using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney equations. During the 72-h period, B sows tended to perform fewer position changes than C sows (P = .10). Specifically, position changes were fewer for B sows from 48 to 72 h postpartum (P<.06). There were no differences in position changes between treatments from 0 to 48 h postpartum (P>.50). There was no difference in the rate of crushing between treatments (C = 5, B = 5). The butorphanol did not seem to affect pig activity or normal behaviors or to create adverse effects, such as diarrhea. Although the sows given butorphanol showed a reduced number of position changes, the dose was intermediate, and a higher dose may have a greater effect. If pig mortality can be decreased, an analgesic protocol that is simple to administer and readily available to producers can be developed. Alternatively, using of more pliable flooring or an increase in sow body fat may allow sows to lie more stationary. (+info)
The effect of opioid and acepromazine premedication on the anesthetic induction dose of propofol in cats. (5/72)The median effective dosage (ED50) for induction of anesthesia with propofol was determined by using the up-and-down method in 31 unpremedicated cats, in 30 cats premedicated with butorphanol, 0.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and acepromazine, 0.1 mg/kg BW, intramuscularly, and in 30 cats premedicated with morphine, 0.2 mg/kg BW, and acepromazine, 0.1 mg/kg BW, intramuscularly. The dose required for a satisfactory anesthetic induction in 50% of unpremedicated cats (ED50) was 7.22 mg/kg BW and of premedicated cats was 5.00 mg/kg BW. The reduction in dose was statistically significant in both premedicated groups compared with no premedication. There was no significant difference in ED50 between premedication regimes. Cyanosis was the most common adverse effect observed in all groups following anesthetic induction with propofol. (+info)
Preemptive effects of a combination of preoperative diclofenac, butorphanol, and lidocaine on postoperative pain management following orthognathic surgery. (6/72)The aim of the study was to investigate whether preemptive multimodal analgesia (diclofenac, butorphanol, and lidocaine) was obtained during sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). Following institutional approval and informed consent, 82 healthy patients (ASA-I) undergoing SSRO were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, the preemptive multimodal analgesia group (group P, n = 41) and the control group (group C, n = 41). This study was conducted in a double-blind manner. Patients in group P received 50 mg rectal diclofenac sodium, 10 micrograms/kg intravenous 0.1% butorphanol tartrate, and 1% lidocaine solution containing 10 micrograms/mL epinephrine for regional anesthesia and for bilateral inferior alveolar nerve blocks before the start of surgery. Postoperative pain intensity at rest (POPI) was assessed on a numerical rating score (NRS) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at the first water intake (FWI) and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after extubation. POPI in the PACU was significantly lower in group P than in group C, whereas there were no significant differences at FWI, 24, 48, and 72 hours after extubation in both groups. Preemptive multimodal analgesia was not observed in this study. (+info)
Role of opioid receptors in neurogenic dural vasodilation and sensitization of trigeminal neurones in anaesthetized rats. (7/72)Migraine headache is thought to be caused by a distension of meningeal blood vessels, the activation of trigeminal sensory neurones and the the development of a central sensitization within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). It has been proposed that clinically effective 5-HT(1B/1D) agonists act peripherally to inhibit the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and neurogenic dural vasodilation, and to attenuate nociceptive neurotransmission within the TNC. Since opioids are also effective anti-migraine agents the present studies investigated the role of opioids within the trigemino-vascular system in anaesthetised rats. Electrical stimulation of the dura mater evoked neurogenic dural vasodilation which was significantly inhibited by morphine (1 mg kg(-1)) the selective mu-opioid agonist DAGO (10 microg kg(-1)) and the mixed agonist/antagonist butorphanol (1 mg kg(-1)) but not by the kappa- and delta-opioid agonists (+/-) U50488H (100 microg kg(-1)) and DPDPE (1 mg kg(-1)). Morphine had no effect on CGRP-evoked dural vasodilation. In electrophysiological studies morphine (1 - 10 mg kg(-1)) significantly attenuated brainstem neuronal activity in response to electrical stimulation of the dura by 65% at 10 mg kg(-1). Morphine (3 mg kg(-1)) also inhibited the TNC neuronal sensitization following CGRP-evoked dilation. The present studies have demonstrated that opioids block the nociceptive neurotransmission within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and in addition inhibit neurogenic dural vasodilation via an action on mu-opioid receptors located on trigeminal sensory fibres innervating dural blood vessels. These peripheral and central actions are similar to those of the 'triptan' 5-HT(1B/1D) agonists and could account for the anti-migraine actions of opioids. (+info)
Enadoline and butorphanol: evaluation of kappa-agonists on cocaine pharmacodynamics and cocaine self-administration in humans. (8/72)Preclinical studies have demonstrated that kappa-opioid agonists can attenuate the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine that are related to its reinforcing efficacy, suggesting that kappa-agonists may serve as pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. This 8-week inpatient study examined the ability of enadoline, a selective and high-efficacy kappa-agonist, and butorphanol, a mixed agonist with intermediate efficacy at both mu- and kappa-receptors, to reduce the direct pharmacodynamic effects and self-administration of intravenous cocaine in humans (n = 8). Acute doses of intramuscular enadoline (20, 40, and 80 microg/kg), butorphanol (1.5, 3, and 6 mg/70 kg) and placebo were examined separately as pretreatments during each of three test sessions with cocaine in a constrained random order. A cocaine dose-effect session (0, 20, and 40 mg cocaine i.v., 1 h apart) examined direct pharmacodynamic interactions on subjective and physiological indices; self-administration sessions examined choice behavior for cocaine (40 mg i.v. for six trials) versus money 1) in the presence of a sample cocaine dose with money choices presented in ascending value, and 2) in the absence of a sample dose with money choices presented in descending values. Enadoline (80 microg/70 kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced some of the positive subjective effects of cocaine (e.g., ratings of "high"), while butorphanol failed to modify subjective responses. Both agents were safely tolerated in combination with cocaine without adverse physiological responses. Cocaine self-administration was significantly greater across all pretreatment conditions when the sample dose was given and ascending money choices were used. Enadoline and butorphanol failed to modify cocaine self-administration. These data suggest that these kappa-agonists may be safely administered in the presence of cocaine but do not produce significant attenuation of cocaine's direct effects or self-administration under these acute dosing conditions. (+info)
Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid analgesic medication that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is a mixed agonist-antagonist opioid, meaning that it can both activate and block the opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Butorphanol is available in both injectable and oral forms and is often used in veterinary medicine to treat pain in animals. It is also used in humans to treat pain, especially in cases where other opioid analgesics have not been effective. However, butorphanol can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, constipation, and respiratory depression. It can also be habit-forming and may lead to addiction if used for a prolonged period of time. Therefore, it is typically only prescribed for short-term use and under close medical supervision.
Nalbuphine is a synthetic opioid analgesic medication that is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It is a mixed agonist-antagonist opioid, meaning that it can both activate and block opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Nalbuphine is often used in the treatment of postoperative pain, as well as in the management of chronic pain conditions such as cancer pain and fibromyalgia. It is available in both injectable and oral forms. Nalbuphine can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, constipation, and respiratory depression. It can also cause withdrawal symptoms if abruptly discontinued after long-term use. As with all opioid medications, nalbuphine carries the risk of addiction and abuse, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
Morphinans are a class of drugs that are derived from the opium poppy and are used to relieve pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, known as mu-opioid receptors, which are involved in the body's response to pain. Morphinans are used to treat a wide range of painful conditions, including acute pain, chronic pain, and cancer pain. They are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, injections, and transdermal patches. However, they can also be addictive and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, dizziness, and respiratory depression.
Receptors, Opioid, kappa are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to opioid drugs, such as morphine and heroin. These receptors play a role in the body's response to pain, stress, and reward, and are involved in a number of physiological processes, including breathing, digestion, and mood regulation. The kappa opioid receptor is one of three main types of opioid receptors, along with the mu and delta receptors. Activation of the kappa receptor can produce a range of effects, including analgesia, sedation, and changes in mood and behavior.
Pentazocine is a synthetic opioid pain medication that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is a centrally acting analgesic that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which reduces the perception of pain and produces feelings of euphoria. Pentazocine is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically prescribed for short-term use only. It is often used to treat postoperative pain, as well as pain associated with chronic conditions such as cancer, arthritis, and fibromyalgia. Pentazocine can cause side effects such as dizziness, nausea, constipation, and respiratory depression. It can also be habit-forming and may lead to addiction if used for an extended period of time. As such, it is typically only prescribed to patients who have not responded to other pain medications or who cannot tolerate the side effects of other opioids.
Miosis is a medical term that refers to the constriction or narrowing of the pupil of the eye. The pupil is the black circular opening in the center of the iris, which controls the amount of light that enters the eye. Miosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including the use of certain medications, exposure to bright light, or a neurological disorder. It can also be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as glaucoma, meningitis, or a head injury. In some cases, miosis may be treated with medication or surgery, depending on the underlying cause. If left untreated, miosis can lead to vision problems or even blindness. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any changes in the size or shape of your pupil.
Oxymorphone is a synthetic opioid pain medication that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring opioid alkaloid morphine. Oxymorphone is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically administered orally. Oxymorphone works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which can result in a decrease in pain perception and an increase in feelings of relaxation and euphoria. It is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States, which means that it has a high potential for abuse and addiction. Oxymorphone is commonly used to treat chronic pain conditions such as cancer pain, post-operative pain, and pain associated with fibromyalgia. It can also be used to manage acute pain, such as pain from injuries or surgeries. Like other opioids, oxymorphone can cause side effects such as dizziness, nausea, constipation, and respiratory depression. It can also be habit-forming and lead to dependence and addiction if not used as directed. Therefore, it is important to use oxymorphone only under the guidance of a healthcare professional and to follow the prescribed dosage and duration of use.
Ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) is a synthetic opioid that was developed in the 1960s as a potential alternative to heroin. It is a derivative of cyclazocine, which is a synthetic opioid with analgesic and sedative properties. EKC has a similar structure to morphine and other opioids, but it is more potent and has a faster onset of action. It is also more resistant to metabolism, which means that it stays in the body for longer periods of time. EKC is not currently used in medical practice, as it has a high potential for abuse and addiction. It is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, which means that it has a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use.
Meperidine is a synthetic opioid medication that is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It is also known by the brand name Demerol. Meperidine works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which can result in a decrease in pain perception and an increase in feelings of relaxation and sedation. Meperidine is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically prescribed for short-term use only, as it can be habit-forming and can lead to dependence if used for an extended period of time. It is also important to note that meperidine can have a number of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, constipation, and respiratory depression. In recent years, the use of meperidine has declined due to concerns about its potential for abuse and addiction, as well as its potential for causing serious side effects. As a result, many healthcare providers are now using alternative pain management options, such as non-opioid medications or non-pharmacological treatments like physical therapy or acupuncture.
Clonixin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. It is also known by its brand name, Rimadyl. Clonixin is available in both oral and injectable forms and is commonly used to treat pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory conditions in dogs and cats. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation and pain. Clonixin can cause side effects such as gastrointestinal upset, kidney damage, and increased risk of bleeding, so it should only be used under the guidance of a veterinarian.
Thiazines are a class of drugs that are commonly used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. They are primarily used to lower blood pressure and to treat fluid retention (edema) caused by heart failure, liver disease, or kidney disease. Thiazines work by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the kidneys, which helps to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. They are also sometimes used to treat high blood pressure, heart rhythm disorders, and to prevent the formation of blood clots. Some common examples of thiazine drugs include hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, and indapamide.
Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is primarily used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorder, and seizures. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to reduce anxiety and calm the nervous system. Clonazepam is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's condition and response to the medication. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional and to avoid abruptly stopping the medication, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms. Clonazepam can have side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, headache, nausea, and impaired coordination. It can also be habit-forming, and long-term use can lead to dependence and addiction. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and should be used with caution in individuals with a history of substance abuse or addiction.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by excessive and persistent feelings of worry, fear, and unease. These disorders can interfere with a person's daily life, relationships, and ability to function normally. Anxiety disorders can be classified into several categories, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for anxiety disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
Panic disorder is a mental health condition characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks. Panic attacks are sudden and intense episodes of fear, anxiety, and physical symptoms that come on quickly and reach their peak within 10 minutes. During a panic attack, a person may experience symptoms such as a racing heart, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness, and a sense of impending doom or loss of control. Panic attacks can be very distressing and can lead to avoidance behaviors and a fear of having another attack. Panic disorder is diagnosed when a person experiences at least four panic attacks in a four-week period and is significantly distressed by the attacks or by the fear of having another attack. Treatment for panic disorder typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
Seizures are abnormal electrical discharges in the brain that can cause a variety of symptoms, including convulsions, muscle spasms, loss of consciousness, and changes in behavior or sensation. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, infection, genetic disorders, and certain medications. They can be classified into different types based on their symptoms and the part of the brain affected. Treatment for seizures may include medications, surgery, or other interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.
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- The time of onset of breastfeeding was delayed in newborns whose mothers received analgesia at delivery with butorphanol or nalbuphine compared to those who did not receive analgesia, although in both groups it occurred on average within the first hour after birth. (e-lactancia.org)
- The two treatments were 1 or 2 mg of intranasal butorphanol tartrate as a single dose (treatment A) and 1 or 2 mg of intranasal butorphanol every six hours for seven doses (treatment B). During phase 1, 12 subjects, selected at random, received a single dose of 1 mg, and the other 12 received a single dose of 2 mg. (medscape.com)
- The butorphanol tartrate formulation was prepared using good manufacturing practices in the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy Center for Pharmaceutical Science and Technology. (medscape.com)
- The intranasal formulation, an aqueous solution buffered to pH 5.0 with 0.2% sodium citrate and 0.2% citric acid, provided 1 mg of butorphanol tartrate in a 0.1-mL spray from a commercially available, single-dose, metered sprayer (unit dose spray pump, Pfeiffer of America, Princeton, NJ). (medscape.com)
- Analgesic effects of intranasal butorphanol tartrate administered via a unit-dose device in the dental impaction pain model: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. (nih.gov)
- Butorphanol Tartrate Injection exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. (nih.gov)
- Assess each patient's risk prior to prescribing Butorphanol Tartrate Injection, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors or conditions [see WARNINGS ]. (nih.gov)
- Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Butorphanol Tartrate Injection. (nih.gov)
- Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Butorphanol Tartrate Injection or following a dose increase [see WARNINGS ]. (nih.gov)
- Prolonged use of butorphanol Tartrate Injection during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. (nih.gov)
- Butorphanol tartrate is an opioid agonist-antagonist of the phenanthrene series. (nih.gov)
- Butorphanol tartrate is a white crystalline substance. (nih.gov)
- Butorphanol Tartrate Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, parenteral, aqueous solution of butorphanol tartrate for intravenous or intramuscular administration. (nih.gov)
- Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains, butorphanol tartrate 1 or 2 mg, 3.3 mg of citric acid, 6.4 mg sodium citrate, and 6.4 mg sodium chloride, and 0.1 mg benzethonium chloride (in multiple dose vial only) as a preservative. (nih.gov)
- Examples of opioid-based painkillers for dogs include morphine, codeine, butorphanol and Demerol. (purina.com)
- Butorphanol is an opioid pain reliever similar to morphine. (somebodyhealme.com)
- Because butorphanol antagonizes the mu receptor, it will fight against opiates that are mu agonists: morphine, oxymorphone, meperidine, etc. (vin.com)
- Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid which is used as a nasal spray for treatment of migraine headaches and parenterally as a narcotic analgesic for moderate-to-severe pain or as an adjunct to general anesthesia. (nih.gov)
- Butorphanol is a partial opioid agonist at the mu opioid receptor and a full agonist at the kappa opioid receptor.The principal therapeutic action of butorphanol is analgesia. (nih.gov)
- Butorphanol nasal spray is used to relieve pain severe enough to require opioid treatment and when other pain medicines did not work well enough or cannot be tolerated. (somebodyhealme.com)
- Butorphanol is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist-antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers. (somebodyhealme.com)
- Certain pain medicines (mixed opioid agonist-antagonists such as pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol), as well as naltrexone, may interact with this substance. (usacurepharmacy.com)
- Subjects were not to take prescription and nonprescription drugs that might interact with butorphanol metabolism or nasal physiology from the date of screening until the end of the study. (medscape.com)
- Butorphanol nasal spray comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. (nih.gov)
- Comparison of butorphanol nasal spray and fiorinal with codeine in the treatment of migraine. (nih.gov)
- Is butorphanol nasal spray a controlled substance? (somebodyhealme.com)
- Article abstract-Butorphanol (Stadol, Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Princeton, NJ) is a synthetically derived opiate . (somebodyhealme.com)
- However, because there is no published experience with repeated, high, intravenous or intranasal doses of butorphanol during breastfeeding, other agents may be preferred in these situations, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. (nih.gov)
- As with other opioids, butorphanol can cause a euphoric high in patients , which is something people may find desirable with this medication. (somebodyhealme.com)
- butorphanol, alfentanil. (medscape.com)
- If butorphanol is used with any other drugs that have sedating properties, these sedating properties will be more blatant. (vin.com)
- Butorphanol injection may be habit forming, especially with prolonged use. (medlineplus.gov)
- Use butorphanol injection exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
- While using butorphanol injection, discuss with your health care provider your pain treatment goals, length of treatment, and other ways to manage your pain. (medlineplus.gov)
- Butorphanol injection may cause serious or life-threatening breathing problems, especially during the first 24 to 72 hours of your treatment and any time your dose is increased. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor will probably tell you not to use butorphanol injection. (medlineplus.gov)
- Taking certain other medications with butorphanol injection may increase the risk of serious or life-threatening breathing problems. (medlineplus.gov)
- Butorphanol injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. (nih.gov)
- Butorphanol has not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy or to clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
- butorphanol decreases effects of benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
- benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen, butorphanol. (medscape.com)
- SUMMARY: With the issuance of this final rule, the Acting Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) places the substance butorphanol, including its salts and optical isomers, into Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) . (somebodyhealme.com)
- Butorphanol acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain. (somebodyhealme.com)
- Reserve concomitant prescribing of butorphanol and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. (nih.gov)
- Limited data indicate that butorphanol is excreted into breastmilk in small amounts. (nih.gov)
- People who use butorphanol may notice agitation, changes in mood, constipation, itching or loss of appetite . (somebodyhealme.com)
- Can you get high on butorphanol? (somebodyhealme.com)