Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.
Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A widely used industrial solvent.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Herbicides that remove leaves from trees and growing plants. They may be either organic or inorganic. Several of the more persistent types have been used in military operations and many are toxic. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (1/403)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Phospholipid requirement for dimethylnitrosamine demethylation by hamster hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzyme system. (2/403)

Extraction with butan-1-ol of freeze-dried microsomal fractions from livers of 3-methyl-cholarthrene-pre-treated hamsters removed about 90% of the total lipid content, but the lipid remaining proved sufficient for the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system to retain about 15-40% of its original catalytic activity for dimethylnitrosamine demethylation. Addition of butan-1-ol-extracted total phospholipid or phosphatidylcholine could not restore any activity, whereas the addition of the synthetic phospholipid dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine was able to restore almost complete activity. Synthetic dipalmitoyl or distearoyl phosphatidylcholine was ineffective in restoring the activity in this reconstituted system.  (+info)

Probing the role of C-1 ester group in Naja naja phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions using butanetriol-containing phosphatidylcholine analogues. (3/403)

To understand the role of the ester moiety of the sn-1 acyl chain in phospholipase A2-glycerophospholipid interactions, we introduced an additional methylene residue between the glycerol C1 and C2 carbon atoms of phosphatidylcholines, and then studied the kinetics of hydrolysis and the binding of such butanetriol-containing phospholipids with Naja naja phospholipase A2. Hydrolysis was monitored by using phospholipids containing a NBD-labelled sn-2 acyl chain and binding was ascertained by measuring the protein tryptophan fluorescence. The hydrolysis of butanetriol-containing phospholipids was invariably slower than that of the glycerol-containing phospholipids. In addition, the enzyme binding with the substrate was markedly decreased upon replacing the glycerol residue with the 1,3,4-butanetriol moiety in phosphatidylcholines. These results have been interpreted to suggest that the sn-1 ester group in glycerophospholipids could play an important role in phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions.  (+info)

Nuclei contain two differentially regulated pools of diacylglycerol. (4/403)

A number of recent studies have highlighted the presence of a nuclear pool of inositol lipids [1] [2] that is regulated during progression through the cell cycle [1] [3], differentiation [1] [2] and after DNA damage [2], suggesting that a number of different regulatory pathways impinge upon this pool of lipids. It has been suggested that the downstream consequence of the activation of one of these nuclear phosphoinositide (PI) regulatory pathways is the generation of nuclear diacylglycerol (DAG) [1] [3] [4], which is important in the activation of nuclear protein kinase C (PKC) [5] [6] [7]. Activation of PKC in turn appears to regulate the progression of cells through G1 and into S phase [4] and through G2 to mitosis [3] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Although the evidence is enticing, there is as yet no direct demonstration that nuclear PIs can be hydrolysed to generate nuclear DAG. Previous data in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells have suggested that nuclear phosphoinositidase Cbeta1 (PIC-beta1) activity is important in the generation of nuclear DAG. Here, we demonstrate that the molecular species of nuclear DAG bears little resemblance to the PI pool and is unlikely to be generated directly by hydrolysis of these inositol lipids. Further, we show that there are in fact two distinct subnuclear pools of DAG; one that is highly disaturated and mono-unsaturated (representing more than 90% of the total nuclear DAG) and one that is highly polyunsaturated and is likely to be derived from the hydrolysis of PI. Analysis of these pools, either after differentiation or during cell-cycle progression, suggests that the pools are independently regulated, possibly by the regulation of two different nuclear phospholipase Cs (PLCs).  (+info)

Lysophosphatidic acid increases intracellular H2O2 by phospholipase D and RhoA in rat-2 fibroblasts. (5/403)

We have investigated the possible roles of phospholipase D (PLD) and RhoA in the production of intracellular H2O2 and actin polymerization in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in Rat-2 fibroblasts. LPA increased intracellular H2O2, with a maximal increase at 30 min, which was blocked by the catalase from Aspergillus niger. The LPA-stimulated production of H2O2 was inhibited by 1-butanol or PKC-downregulation, but not by 2-butanol. Purified phosphatidic acid (PA) also increased intracellular H2O2 and the increase was inhibited by the catalase. The role of RhoA was studied by the scrape-loading of C3 transferase into the cells. The C3 toxin, which inhibited stress fiber formation stimulated by LPA, blocked the H2O2 production in response to LPA or PA, but had no inhibitory effect on the activation of PLD by LPA. Exogenous H2O2 increased F-actin content by stress fiber formation. In addition, catalase inhibited actin polymerization activated by LPA, PA, or H2O2, indicated the role of H2O2 in actin polymerization. These results suggest that LPA increased intracellular H2O2 by the activation of PLD and RhoA, and that intracellular H2O2 was required for the LPA-stimulated stress fiber formation.  (+info)

Butanol is superior to water for performing positron emission tomography activation studies. (6/403)

[15(O)]Butanol has been shown to be superior to [15(O)]water for measuring cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography. This work demonstrates that it is also superior for performing activation studies. Data were collected under three conditions: a visual confrontation animal-naming task, nonsense figure size discrimination, and a nonvisual darkroom control task. Time-activity curves (TAC) were obtained for regions known to be activated by the confrontation naming task to compare absolute uptake and the different kinetics of the two tracers. Also, t statistic maps were calculated from the data of 10 subjects for both tracers and compared for magnitude of change and size of activated regions. Peak uptake in the whole-brain TAC were similar for the two tracers. For all regions and conditions, the washout rate of [15(O)]butanol was 41% greater than that of [15(O)]water. At a threshold of 0, the [15(O)]water and [15(O)]butanol percent difference (nonnormalized) and t statistic (global normalization) images are nearly identical, indicating that the same property is being measured with both tracers. The [15(O)]butanol parametric images displayed at a threshold of /t/ = 5 look similar to the [15(O)]water parametric maps displayed at a threshold of /t/ = 4, which is consistent with the observation that t statistic values in [15(O)]butanol images are generally greater. The t statistic values were equal when the [15(O)]butanol parametric map was created from any subset of 6 subjects and the [15(O)]water parametric map was created from all 10 subjects. Fewer subjects need to be studied with [15(O)]butanol to reach the same statistical power as an [15(O)]water-based study.  (+info)

A new approach to empirical intermolecular and conformational potential energy functions. II. Applications to crystal packing, rotational barriers, and conformational analysis. (7/403)

An empirical potential energy function based on the interactions of electrons and nuclei (EPEN) has been tested on molecules other than those used for its parameterization. The results indicate that this energy function is able to predict reliably the lowest energy conformations, the potential energy differences between conformations, rotational barrier heights, and dipole moments for a series of alkanes, amines, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Crystal packing studies on n-hexane, n-octane, methylamine, methanol, and alpha-d-glucose, using this same potential, indicate that it is also reliable for calculating intermolecular interaction energies and low-energy orientations.  (+info)

Massive acinar cell apoptosis with secondary necrosis, origin of ducts in atrophic lobules and failure to regenerate in cyanohydroxybutene pancreatopathy in rats. (8/403)

Cyanohydroxybutene (CHB), a glycosinolate breakdown product, causes pancreatic injury when given to animals in large amounts. To determine the course of CHB-induced pancreatopathy, rats were given a single subcutaneous dose of CHB and the pancreas weighed and examined by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry at intervals from 2 h to 28 days. The pancreatic lesion was unusual in that there was marked early oedema with limited inflammatory cell infiltration, rapid synchronous onset of acinar cell apoptosis and early advanced atrophy engendering only a limited regenerative response. Acinar cell apoptosis was atypical in that cell fragmentation was limited and phagocytosis delayed, resulting in extensive secondary necrosis. As ducts were unaffected by CHB, the crowded ducts making up the epithelial component of atrophic lobules could be clearly shown to derive from their condensation and proliferation, not the redifferentiation of pre-existing acinar cells, widely held to produce this lesion. Although the basis of CHB selectivity and toxicity for pancreatic acinar cells remains unknown, the potential therapeutic benefit of such an agent in patients with pancreatitis or pancreatic tumours warrants further investigation.  (+info)

Decarboxylation of α-ketoisovalerate to isobutyraldehyde is a key reaction in metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for isobutanol production with published studies relying on overexpression of either the native ARO10 gene or of the Lactococcus lactis kivD decarboxylase gene resulting in low enzymatic activities. Here, we compare relevant properties for isobutanol production of Aro10, KivD and an additional, less studied, L. lactis decarboxylase KdcA. To eliminate interference by native decarboxylases, each 2-oxo acid decarboxylase was overexpressed in a decarboxylase-negative (pdc1Δ pdc5Δ pdc6Δ aro10Δ) S. cerevisiae background. Kinetic analyses in cell extracts revealed a superior V max/K m ratio of KdcA for α-ketoisovalerate and a wide range of linear and branched-chain 2-oxo acids. However, KdcA also showed the highest activity with pyruvate which, in engineered strains, can contribute to formation of ethanol as a by-product.
The rise in oil prices and environmental concerns has heightened interest in the microbial production of fuels and chemicals from sugar feedstocks produced from renewable biomass. Branched higher alcohols are both representative promising next-generation biofuels and building blocks for producing a variety of chemicals [1,2]. In particular, isobutanol can be used as a fuel, fuel additive, and a commodity chemical, and thus is an important biorefinery target alcohol. Furthermore, isobutanol has attractive properties, including lower toxicity and higher octane value than its straight-chain counterpart [3].. Metabolically engineered microbial strains for producing isobutanol have been developed by introducing parts of the Ehrlich pathway into bacterial hosts such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Bacillus subtilis [3-8]. In these recombinant strains, an intermediate of valine biosynthesis, 2-ketoisovalerate, is converted into isobutanol through ...
In this work, we rewired the xylose isomerase assimilation and mitochondrial isobutanol production pathways in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then increased the flux through these pathways by making gene deletions of BAT1, ALD6, and PHO13, to develop a strain (YZy197) that produces as much as 4 g/L of BCHAs (3.10 ± 0.18 g isobutanol/L and 0.91 ± 0.02 g 2-methyl-1-butanol/L) from xylose. This represents approximately a 28-fold improvement on the highest isobutanol titers obtained from xylose previously reported in yeast and the first report of 2-methyl-1-butanol produced from xylose. The yield of total BCHAs is 57.2 ± 5.2 mg/g xylose, corresponding to ~ 14% of the maximum theoretical yield. Respirometry experiments show that xylose increases mitochondrial activity by as much as 7.3-fold compared to glucose. ...
Batch fermentation was performed to investigate the effects of pH and temperature on the butanol production of Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 using a synthetic medium containing glycerol as a sole source of carbon and energy. C. pasteurianum DSM 525 showed a good growth at the initial glycerol concentration of 40 g/L, the temperature of 37 ℃, and a pH range from 5.0 to 6.5. The growth rate and the proportion of butanol among the fermentation products increased as the culture pH decreased, but the final glycerol consumption decreased at lower pHs, probably due to the reduced tolerance to butanol at lower pHs. The growth rate and the proportion of butanol increased as the temperature of the medium increased from 25, to 30, and to 37 ℃. However, more butanol was produced at lower temperatures (18.7, 16.8, and 11.5 g/L of butanol were finally produced at the temperatures of 25, 30, and 37 ℃, respectively), probably due to the reduced toxicity of butanol at lower temperatures. These results ...
Isobutanol, a C4 branched-chain higher alcohol, is regarded as an attractive next-generation transport fuel. Metabolic engineering for efficient isobutanol production has been achieved in many studies. BmoR, an alcohol-regulated transcription factor, mediates a σ54-dependent promoter Pbmo of alkane monooxygenase in n-alkane metabolism of Thauera butanivorans and displays high sensitivity to C4-C6 linear alcohols and C3-C5 branched-chain alcohols. In this study, to achieve the high-level production of isobutanol, we established a screening system which relied on the combination of BmoR-based biosensor and isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and then employed it to screen isobutanol overproduction strains from an ARTP mutagenesis library. Firstly, we constructed and verified a GFP-based BmoR-Pbmo device responding to the isobutanol produced by the host. Then, this screening system was employed to select three mutants which exhibited higher GFP/OD600 values than that of wild type. Significantly, GFP/OD600 of
A third Minnesota ethanol plant - along with two in Iowa and one in Nebraska - might be among the next to switch production to a new biofuel call isobutanol.Butamax Advanced Biofuels of Wilmington,
Butanol is an important biofuel and chemical. The development of butanol-tolerant strains and the identification of functional butanol-tolerant genes is essential for high-yield bio-butanol production due to the toxicity of butanol. Escherichia coli BW25113 was subjected for the first time to error-prone PCR-based whole-genome shuffling. The resulting mutants BW1847 and BW1857 were found to tolerate 2% (v/v) butanol and short-chain alcohols, including ethanol, isobutanol, and 1-pentanol. The mutants exhibited good stability under butanol stress, indicating that they are potential host strains for the construction of butanol pathways. BW1847 had better butanol tolerance than BW1857 under 0-0.75% (v/v) butanol stress, but showed a lower tolerance than BW1857 under 1.25-2% (v/v) butanol stress. Genome resequencing and PCR confirmation revealed that BW1847 and BW1857 had nine and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, and a common 14-kb deletion. Functional complementation experiments of the
The propylene production with 1-butanol co-feeding for methanol in relation to propylene process (MTP) at 440-490 ̊C temperature range and at 0.9-15 hr-1 WHSV range over H-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst is assessed in a isothermal fixed-bed reactor. The feedings here are of: pure 1-butanol, pure methanol and a 1-butanol and methanol mixture. The effect of 1-butanol co-feeding on selectivity of propylene is assessed through RSM an experimental design method. The results indicate that the selectivity of propylene is 69% in the feed mixture of 13, 37 and 50 wt% of 1-butanol, methanol and water, respectively. The optimum conditions to obtain high level of propylene selectivity is suggested to be at 480 ̊C, WHSV of 0.9 hr-1 and 1-butanol concentration of 0.135 wt.% through RSM method. The sensitivity analysis of the RSM method reveals that the WHSV is the most effective parameter on the propylene selectivity with a P-value of 0.003.
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Factorial design and response surface techniques were used in combination with mathematical modelling and computational simulation to optimise an innovative industrial bioprocess, the production of biobutanol employing the flash fermentation technology. A parametric analysis performed by means of a full factorial design at two levels determined the influence of operating variables on butanol yield and productivity. A second set of simulations were carried out based on the central composite rotatable design. This procedure generated simplified statistical models that describe butanol yield and productivity as functions of the significant operating variables. From these models, response surfaces were obtained and used to optimise the process. For a range of substrate concentration from 130 to 180 g/l, the optimum operating ranges ensure butanol productivity between 7.0 and 8.0 g/l h, butanol yield between 19 and 22%, substrate conversion above 90% and final butanol concentration around 25 g/l. (C) ...
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There is provided the compound 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (ADNBOH) and a method for making same which comprises reacting trinitromethane and acrolein at a reduced temperature to provide 4,4,4-trinitrobutyraldehyde (TNBA1), reducing the TNBSI to provide 4,4-trinitro-1-butanol (TNBOH) which is further reduced to provide 4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (DNBOH), reacting the DNBOH with acetyl chloride to provide 4,4-dinitro-1-butyl acetate (DNBAc), reacting the DNBAc with an alkali metal azide in an electrolysis cell to provide 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butyl acetate (ADNBAc) and reacting the ADNBAc with a lower alcohol and recovering the 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (ADNBOH). Also provided are several azidodinitro derivatives of 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol and methods for making same. Butanol, Nitro radicals, Azides. Patents. (mjm)*AZIDES
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pervaporative separation and intensification of downstream recovery of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE). AU - van Wyk, S.. AU - van der Ham, A.G.J.. AU - Kersten, S.R.A.. N1 - Elsevier deal. PY - 2018/8/1. Y1 - 2018/8/1. N2 - The feasibility of pervaporative concentration of organic compounds from an ABE mixture to reduce the energy consumption of a downstream recovery unit was investigated. Firstly, an experimental investigation was done, using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane and a model solution of ABE as the feed. Different operating temperatures where investigated, with 40 °C showing the most favourable results. Secondly, the experimental results were utilised as the input for process simulations using Aspen Plus. Two ABE separation schemes were studied, one consisting of only distillation (conventional process) and one with an upstream pervaporation unit followed by an alternative distillation scheme. For the proposed pervaporative scheme, the butanol concentration ...
A novel pathway to produce butanol and isobutanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Butanol has similar properties to gasoline and thus it has the potential to be used as a substitute for gasoline in currently running engines. Clostridia are recognized as natural and good butanol producers and are employed in the industrial-scale production of solvents. This research article shows how Clostridia can be used for biofuel processes.
Increasing demand for the production of renewable fuels has recently generated a particular interest in microbial production of butanol. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol. The genetics of microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum have been well studied and their solvent-producing metabolic pathways characterized. In contrast, less is known about the genetics of Clostridium spp. capable of converting syngas or its individual components into solvents. In this study, the type of strain of a new solventogenic Clostridium species, C. carboxidivorans, was genetically characterized by genome sequencing. C. carboxidivorans strain P7T possessed a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster, involving CO and CO2 fixation and conversion to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, with the exception of an acetone production pathway, all the genetic determinants of canonical ABE metabolic pathways for acetate,
The effect of butanol challenge (0, 1.0, 1.5% [vol/vol]) and growth temperature (22, 37, 42°C) on the membrane composition and fluidity of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and a butanol-tolerant mutant, SA-2, was examined in chemically defined medium. Growth of strain ATCC 824 into the stationary phase coincided with a gradual increase in the percent saturated to percent unsaturated (SU) fatty acid ratio. When challenged with butanol at 22 and 37°C, ATCC 824 demonstrated an immediate (within 30 min) dose-response increase in the SU ratio. This strain showed little additional change over a 48-h fermentation. Compared with ATCC 824, growth of SA-2 into the late stationary phase at 22 or 37°C resulted in an overall greater increase in the SU ratio for both unchallenged and challenged cells. This effect was minimized when SA-2 was challenged at 42°C, probably due to the combination of the membrane fluidizing effect of butanol and the elevated temperature. Growth at 42°C resulted in an ...
Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol) production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both
1-Butanol, 99.5%, for analysis ACS, ACROS Organics™ 500mL; Glass bottle, EcoSafPak 1-Butanol, 99.5%, for analysis ACS, ACROS Organics™ 1-Butanol
This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will develop a costeffective butanol production and purification process. The specific aim of this project is to scaleup a butanol production system from a small, ?laboratory scale? ,2 liter volume, to a 200 liter culture volume in order to determine the feasibility of its utility for production of practical amounts of the valuable biofuel. The broader/commercial impacts of this research are that the process should be configurable for fuel and/or hydrogen production by individuals safely and with negligible environmental impact, and that demonstration of the feasibility of production of fuels by ?microrefineries? could foster growth of a network of ?cottage industries? devoted to local fuel and biochemicals production that could provide increased opportunities for employment in rural areas where carbohydraterich waste streams are available. The growth of the dairy products industry in eastern South Dakota has resulted in the ...
Dow and Johnson Matthey (JM) announced that China-based company, Guangxi Huayi New Material Company Ltd. (Huayi), has selected LP OxoSM SELECTORTM 10 Technology to produce butanol at a new manufacturing facility. Under this license, the plant will be built at Huayis integrated petrochemical complex in Qinzhou Port, P.R. China with an annual butanol capacity of 300,000 metric tonnes per annum. LP OxoSM SELECTORTM 10 Technology, licensed through Dow and JM, enables the efficient production of butanol with low capital investment and operating cost. Dow and JM provide its licensees customised plant designs, performance warranties, technical support pre- and post-plant start-up, ongoing technology updates, and more. To date, the suite of LP OxoSM Technology has been licensed into a significant number of projects across 15 countries, representing a majority of the worlds oxo alcohols capacity licensed over the past 45 years. Our Licensing & Catalyst technologies continue to be an important platform ...
We began by constructing an integration library (library A) in which a construct containing the alsS gene, under the PLlacO1 promoter, and a kanamycin-resistance gene was integrated by Tn5 transposase into the genome of JCL260 ∆lysA in random locations. JCL260 was developed by Atsumi et al. (38) as an isobutanol production strain, and its genome features six gene deletions created to decrease by-product formation, as well as the lacIq mutation for reduced leakiness of genes under the lac promoter before induction. We introduced the ∆lysA deletion into JCL260 in our previous work to render the strain a lysine auxotroph for applying the SnoCAP screening approach (36). In the SnoCAP approach, a library is coencapsulated in water-in-oil microdroplets with a fluorescent sensor strain that is auxotrophic for the target molecule of interest. The library itself is also auxotrophic for a second, orthogonal molecule (here, lysine) supplied by the sensor strain. This cross-feeding configuration enables ...
(S)-(+)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol, 96%, ACROS Organics™ 1mL; Glass bottle (S)-(+)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol, 96%, ACROS Organics™ Aminomethyl -Organics
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Pabrik butil asetat dari butanol dan asam asetat dengan kapasitas 20.000 ton/tahun didirikan di kawasan Industri Gresik, Jawa Timur. Pabrik beroperasi selama 330 hari efektif, 24 jam per hari. Bahan baku berupa asam asetat 99% diperoleh dari PT Indo Acidatama di Karang Anyar sebanyak 1513.7295 kg/jam yang disimpan pada Tangki (T-01) pada T=30 0 C, P=1atm dan butanol 98% diperoleh dari PT Petro Oxo Nusantara di Gresik sebanyak 9334.6654 kg/jam disimpan dalam Tangki (T-02) pada T=30 0 C, P=1 atm, Sedangkan asam sulfat 98% didatangkan dari PT. Petrokimia Gresik (T-03) . Reaktor yang digunakan adalah Reaktor Alir Tangki Berpengaduk, reaktor beroperasi pada T= 100 o C dengan tekanan 1 atm. Reaksi antara butanol dan asam asetat menjadi butil asetat merupakan reaksi yang bersifat eksotermis. Untuk menjaga agar suhu tetap pada 100 o C, maka reaktor dilengkapi dengan sistem pendingin coil. Hasil reaksi yang keluar dari reaktor (R-01) berupa larutan butil asetat dan larutan reaktan sisa. Selanjutnya ...
1-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol 4352-42-5 MSDS report, 1-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol MSDS safety technical specifications search, 1-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol safety information specifications ect.
Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.. ...
Hongo, M.and A. Murata. 1965. Bacteriophages of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. I. Some characteristics of the twelve phages obtained from the abnormally fermented broths. Agric.Biol. Chem. 29:1135-1139 ...
Besides the common myth - Upgrading Bio-ethanol is a challenging science.. Not only do the practitioners have to break down the complex biomass mixtures efficiently to synthesize bio-ethanol, but they also have to contend with numerous other equally (and often times more) important considerations such as low oil prices (per barrel), process safety, waste streams, and chemical toxicity, recycling of solvents/catalysts, process economics, and a multitude of engineering/ technology considerations. Nevertheless, despite the challenges, the ideal outcome of these efforts when accomplished is quite satisfying: a simple, efficient, green, robust, and safe manufacturing process. A showcase of green chemistry, process intensification, and catalysis along with industrial fermentation - Butanol production (with a global market of about 350 million gallons per year) has garnered wide acclaim.. Butanol is an important industrial chemical, which is currently produced by the Oxo-process starting from propylene ...
Sustainable production of target compounds such as biofuels and high-value chemicals for pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and chemical industries is becoming an increasing priority given their current … dependency upon diminishing petrochemical resources. Designing these strains is difficult, with current methods focusing primarily on knocking-out genes, dismissing other vital steps of strain design including the overexpression and dampening of genes. The design predictions from current methods also do not translate well-into successful strains in the laboratory. Here, we introduce RobOKoD (Robust, Overexpression, Knockout and Dampening), a method for predicting strain designs for overproduction of targets. The method uses flux variability analysis to profile each reaction within the system under differing production percentages of target-compound and biomass. Using these profiles, reactions are identified as potential knockout, overexpression, or dampening targets. The identified reactions are ...
Like competitors LS9, OPX Biotechnologies and Amyris, Gevo is trying to change the face of the biofuel industry by using synthetic biology to engineer enzymes and microorganisms to convert cellulosic crops and waste into advanced biofuels like isobutanol and butanol. Butanol, the company claims, is superior to first-generation biofuels like corn ethanol in several respects: It has a higher energy content; does not absorb water and can easily be transported through the existing gas infrastructure; and - perhaps most importantly - can be directly pumped into current vehicles ...
Isobutanol is a naturally occurring, four-carbon alcohol found in food and some alcoholic beverages. It is also a drop-in platform chemical with broad applications in the product of approximately 40 percent of petrochemicals and 100 percent of hydrocarbon fuels. It can be used directly for a solvent and converted to isobutylene, the raw material for plastics and fibers. Gevo believes its isobutanol will provide a route to the renewable production of rubber, polypropylene, polystyrene, and PET. Isobutanol can also be used directly as a gasoline blendstock and as a building block in the production of hydrocarbons found in petroleum-derived gasoline, jet and diesel fuels ...
In the United States alone, at least 323 million tons of cellulosic materials that could be used to produce butanol are thrown out each year.. Mullins lab first identified TU-103 in animal droppings, cultivated it, and developed a method for using it to produce butanol.. Most important about this discovery is TU-103s ability to produce butanol directly from cellulose, he says.. TU-103 is the only known butanol-producing clostridial strain that can grow and produce butanol in the presence of oxygen, which kills other butanol-producing bacteria. Having to produce butanol in an oxygen-free space increases the costs of production.. As a biofuel, butanol is superior to ethanol that is commonly produced from corn sugar, because it can readily fuel existing motor vehicles without any modifications to the engine, can be transported through existing fuel pipelines, is less corrosive, and contains more energy than ethanol, which would improve mileage.. This discovery could reduce the cost to produce ...
Ethanol gets a lot of attention as the biofuel of choice in America. But BP claims that butanol will provide greater benefits than ethanol and is betting at least some of their chips on it as the gasoline-alternative to watch out for. Butanols advantages over ethanol arise from its gasoline-like properties. A
Glycerol is a byproduct of bioethanol and biodiesel production processes and can be converted to more valuable products such as ethanol, butanol, 1,3-propanediol, and 2,3-butanediol by various anaerobic bacteria. In this study, we isolated glycerol-utilizing anaerobic bacteria to obtain ones having a superior ability to produce butanol. By adding acetic and butyric acids into the mineral medium containing glycerol, we could enrich butanol-producing bacteria from a soil sample. Isolates showed ,99% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Clostridium diolis/beijerinckii (group 1), C. butyricum (group 2), C. arbusti (group 3), and Klebsiella oxytoca (group 4). The isolates belonging to group 3 produced up to 12.5 g/L of butanol and the isolates belonging to group 2 produced up to 17.1 g/L of 1,3-propanediol from 30 g/L of glycerol. When glucose was used instead of glycerol, the isolates belonging to group 1 produced 12.0 g/L of butanol and 6.9 g/L of ethanol and the isolate of group 4 produced 21.0 g/L of ...
Butanol is increasingly being discussed as a possible gasoline blendstock, to be used as an alternative to ethanol in meeting government mandates for clean air standards and renewable fuel obligations. Butanol is a 4-carbon alcohol that can be produced by fermentation using the same or similar feedstocks as used in ethanol production, and this, along…
Why does this amaze me? Chemical companies like Celanese (my former employer), Dow, BASF, Eastman - oil companies like BP and Shell - and numerous other companies around the world produce butanol. They have big research budgets, and they would love to find an economical direct gasification route to butanol. These companies have looked at probably thousands of catalysts, and people have spent their careers working on this problem. The challenge is that syngas (produced from gasification) doesnt like to form butanol. You can form a little bit directly, but CO (carbon monoxide) likes to do lots of things besides form a C4 alcohol like butanol.. Methanol is not a problem. You can also produce ethanol, which is what Range Fuels is planning on doing (although you almost always have methanol to deal with as well). But the selectivity falls off sharply as you go to higher alcohols. By the time you get to butanol, you are lucky if 5% of the product is butanol. More typical is 1-2%. See this NREL report ...
O aumento do preço do petróleo e a tendência atual do uso de matérias-primas renováveis para a produção de produtos químicos renovam o interesse na produção de biobutanol que, produzido via fermentação de matérias-primas agrícolas, pode ser utilizado como um componente da gasolina e do óleo diesel. Com a comercialização desse novo biocombutível, poderão ocorrer danos ambientais devido ao derramamento dessas substâncias. Entre outras técnicas, a limpeza dessas áreas contaminadas pode ser alcançada com biorremediação, uma técnica baseada na ação de microrganismos, que tem a vantagem de transformar contaminantes perigosos em substâncias não tóxicas, como o CO2, água e biomassa. Assim, tendo em mente a utilização de biobutanol no futuro próximo como um aditivo gasolina e devido à falta de conhecimento dos efeitos de butanol sobre a biodegradação de gasolina, este trabalho visou avaliar a biodegradação aeróbia da concentração da mistura butanol/gasolina e ...
2-Metil-2-butanol (terc-amil alkohol, 2M2B, amilen hidrat) je jedan od izomera amil alkohola. On je čista, bezbojna tečnost sa jakim mirisom peperminta ili kamfora.[7][8] Kod ljudi on ispoljava sedativno, hipnotičko, i antikonvulsivno dejstvo slično etanolu pri gutanju ili udisanju. Ranije je korišten u medicini za te svrhe.[9] On je aktivan u dozama u opsegu od 2.000-4.000 mg, te je 20 puta potentniji od etanol.a[10][11] Njegov hipnotički potencijal je između hloral hidrata i paraldehida.[12] In humans, 2-methyl-2-butanol is metabolized primarily via gluconoridation and oxidation to 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane.[13] Prekomerna doza proizvodi simptome slične alkoholnom trovanju. ...
1-Butanol Industry report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, applications and industry chain structure. Global market analysis and Chinese domestic market analysis are provided with a focus on history, developments, trends and competitive landscape of the market. A comparison between the international and Chinese situation is also offered.. Browse full report with TOC : Global and China 1-butanol Industry Report focuses on development policies and plans for the industry as well as a consideration of a cost structure analysis. Capacity production, market share analysis, import and export consumption and price cost production value gross margins are discussed.. Download Sample Report: A key feature of this report is it focus on major industry players, providing an overview, product ...
The 2016 World Market Forecasts for Imported Butanols The 2016 World Market Forecasts for Imported Butanols This report was created for strategic planners, international marketing executives - Market research report and industry analysis - 9213152
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fatty-acyl chain profiles of cellular phosphoinositides. AU - Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis. AU - Kruse, Martin. AU - Dickson, Eamonn J. AU - Dai, Gucan. AU - Vivas, Oscar. AU - Yu, Haijie. AU - Whittington, Dale. AU - Hille, Bertil. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Phosphoinositides are rapidly turning-over phospholipids that play key roles in intracellular signaling and modulation of membrane effectors. Through technical refinements we have improved sensitivity in the analysis of the phosphoinositide PI, PIP, and PIP2 pools from living cells using mass spectrometry. This has permitted further resolution in phosphoinositide lipidomics from cell cultures and small samples of tissue. The technique includes butanol extraction, derivatization of the lipids, post-column infusion of sodium to stabilize formation of sodiated adducts, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode, achieving a detection limit of 20 pg. We describe the spectrum of ...
Cyanobacterial 1-butanol production is an important model system for direct conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Metabolically-engineered cyanobacteri
The measured data from the second experiment cannot be given in detail in tabular form since they are too large for this field. However, a graphical presentation of the results is given below. For the graphical presentation, the corrected values (following Sidney Young) were used. The two determinations showed good correlation of the boiling range. The different boiling fractions covered for a long period a temperature range between 70 and 83°C. In the first determination, the temperature did not increase at this point anymore; it even decreased as the next fraction had a much higher boiling point. With the adjusted heating rate, it took a longer time to reach the boiling temperature of the next fraction. Over this period of time, no vapour passed the thermometer; therefore, a decreasing temperature was recorded.Then; the heating rate was increased. In the second determination, this effect was anticipated and the heating rate was increased before decrease of temperature. At approximately ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
The fermentation processes to produce propanol and butanol from cellulose are fairly tricky to execute, and the Weizmann organism (Clostridium acetobutylicum) currently used to perform these conversions produces an extremely unpleasant smell, and this must be taken into consideration when designing and locating a fermentation plant. This organism also dies when the butanol content of whatever it is fermenting rises to 7%. For comparison, yeast dies when the ethanol content of its feedstock hits 14%. Specialized strains can tolerate even greater ethanol concentrations - so-called turbo yeast can withstand up to 16% ethanol . However, if ordinary Saccharomyces yeast can be modified to improve its ethanol resistance, scientists may yet one day produce a strain of the Weizmann organism with a butanol resistance higher than the natural boundary of 7%. This would be useful because butanol has a higher energy density than ethanol, and because waste fibre left over from sugar crops used to make ethanol ...
A team at the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) announced that it succeeded to produce isobutanol directly from cellulose. It is the first time anyone does that.. The process presents several advantages, including saving time and money. Besides, isobutanol is a higher-grade of alcohol than ethanol.. ...
Isobutanol Market is projected to reach USD 1.56 bn by 2027 registering a CAGR of 6.4%. The rising market for isobutanol through diverse end-use industries, including oil & gas & chemical intermediates, is anticipated to enhance its production over the forecast period.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Note. T2 - Sucrose transport and metabolism in Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. AU - Tangney, M.. AU - Rousse, C.. AU - Yazdanian, M.. AU - Mitchell, W. J.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Sucrose is the major carbon source in molasses, the traditional substrate employed in the industrial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by solventogenic clostridia. The utilization of sucrose by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 was investigated. Extracts prepared from cultures grown on sucrose (but not xylose or fructose) as the sole carbon source possessed sucrose phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) activity. Extract fractionation and reconstitution experiments revealed that the entire sucrose Enzyme II complex resides within the membrane in this organism. Sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase and fructokinase activities were also detected in sucrose grown cultures. The fructokinase activity, which is required specifically during growth on sucrose, was shown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ex situ product recovery for enhanced butanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii. AU - Lee, Sang Hyun. AU - Eom, Moon Ho. AU - Choi, Jin Dal Rae. AU - Kim, Sooah. AU - Kim, Jungyeon. AU - Shin, Yong An. AU - Kim, Kyoung Heon. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - In situ butanol recovery fermentation has been intensively studied as an effective alternative to conventional butanol production, which is limited due to the cellular toxicity of butanol. However, the low biocompatibility of adsorbents often leads to failure of in situ recovery fermentations. In this study, Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 was cultured in flasks without shaking and in situ recovery fermentation was performed by using an adsorbent L493. The amounts of acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) increased by 34.4 % in the presence of the adsorbent. In contrast, cell growth and production of organic acids and ABE were retarded in the 7-L batch fermentations with in situ butanol recovery. Cell damage occurred ...
The overall goal of my thesis research is to produce four-carbon alcohols such as 1-butanol and 2,3-butanediol, and isobutanol as advanced biofuels and chemicals from microorganisms through metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology approaches. Biobutanol is an attractive renewable biofuel and intermediate chemical that has been produced from the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by solventogenic clostridia such as Clostridium beijerinckii. Although the ABE fermentation is considered as a promising process for butanol production, current drawbacks in the ABE fermentation include low titer, yield, and productivity of solvent production that needs to be improved to achieve an economically viable process. Therefore, the first goal of my thesis study was to improve the ABE fermentation by C. beijerinckii for production of butanol and its derivatives. This first objective involved four approaches. First, optimization of ABE fermentation condition was conducted to maximize ...
If you can imagine a future powered by sustainable food and fuels; if you can imagine a future where globalism means that appropriate technologies are employed where they work best to the globes greatest advantage; if you can imagine a future of cooperation and collaboration to work out humankinds tensions, then you see a future envisioned by Advanced Biofuels USA.. The future of the advanced biofuels industry is at a critical crossroads. In the US, the Renewable Fuel Standard has created a demand of 15 billion gallons/year of corn ethanol, an amount which covers about 10% of the US market and provides renewable octane by replacing carcinogenic MTBE. US and Brazilian sources have filled this demand. However, the US seems stuck on the 15 billion/year plateau providing no meaningful demand for advanced motor vehicle biofuels. Even the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) has little impact since it has not been used by the government to push for more investment in advanced biofuels. Once corn ethanol ...
Isolation and Characterization of Clostridia from the Feces of Wild Rabbit and Swine for Hemicellulosic Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Production. L. Veeranjaneya Reddy,a,b A. Sreeveda,b In-Hye Park,a and Young-Jung Wee a,*. Isolation and characterization of solventogenic bacteria from animal feces were carried out. Ten samples were collected continually for 5 d from the feces of wild rabbit and wild swine in Jawaharlal Nehru Zoological Park, Hyderabad, India. Ten acetone-positive strains were selected for evaluation of their phenotypic and physiological characteristics. Two potential solvent-producing cultures were selected for 16S rRNA gene analysis. The culture isolated from the wild rabbit feces exhibited 97.3% similarity with Clostridium beijerinckii 8052, and the culture isolated from the wild swine feces exhibited 93.8% similarity with Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum NI-4(HMT). The isolated strains utilized a wide range of carbohydrate substrates including glucose, fructose, ...
In this work, high-silica MFI zeolite adsorbent was evaluated for selective recovery of butanol from a real ABE (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) fermentation broth by batch adsorption measurements. The fermentation broth was produced using a hydrolyzate originating from Kraft black liquor, an internal stream in pulp mills, i.e., a low-cost substrate. The adsorbent was very selective towards butanol and butyric acid and became nearly saturated with a mixture of butanol and butyric acid with relative amounts of butanol and butyric acid depending on the pH. The presence of phenolic compounds in significant amounts in the fermentation broths, originating from the black liquor hydrolyzate, did not affect the adsorption of butanol and butyric acid.. ...
Comprehensive kinetic models of microbial metabolism can enhance the understanding of system dynamics and regulatory mechanisms, which is helpful in optimizing microbial production of industrial chemicals. Clostridium acetobutylicum produces solvents (acetone-butanol-ethanol, ABE) through the ABE pathway. To systematically assess the potential of increased production of solvents, kinetic modeling has been applied to analyze the dynamics of this pathway and make predictive simulations. Up to date, only one kinetic model for C. acetobutylicum supported by experiment has been reported as far as we know. But this model did not integrate the metabolic regulatory effects of transcriptional control and other complex factors. It also left out the information of some key intermediates (e.g. butyryl-phosphate). We have developed an improved kinetic model featured with the incorporation of butyryl-phosphate, inclusion of net effects of complex metabolic regulations, and quantification of endogenous enzyme activity
The genetic study of the clostridia is in its infancy, but significant advances have been made in recent years. C. acetobutylicum was the most reported in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation for synthesis of biobutanol with higher yields [5, 6]. Cells were stained in an iodine solution. Currently, petroleum-based products have largely replaced these fermentation processes. Clostridium strains with the potential of utilizing various biomass (e.g., corn cobs, cassava and rice bran) and the production of biofuels (e.g., butanol) were mainly classified within Clade 1 and Clade 5 such as C. cellulovorans 743B and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 [39,40,41].Genomes from the same clustered group usually appear to have similar metabolic functions, which … It was formerly used from the First World War onwards on an industrial … Although most plasmids encode unknown (cryptic) functions, some have been demonstrated to possess genes for virulence and antibiotic resistance. NNT: The enzymes ...
Four butyl alcohols exist, each formed by the addition of a hydroxyl group (OH) to one of the four butyl isomers discussed above. Their names and structures are as follows: n-butyl alcohol (or 1-butanol) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH; iso-butyl alcohol (or 2-methyl-1-propanol) (CH3)2CH CH2OH; sec-butyl alcohol (or 2-butanol) CH3CHOHCH2 CH3; tert-butyl alcohol (or 2-methyl-2-propanol) (CH3)3 COH.. The boiling points of the butyl alcohols decrease regularly in moving down the above list, from 244°F (118°C) for n-butyl alcohol to 226°F (108°C) for isobutyl alcohol to 212°F (100°C) for sec-butyl alcohol to 180°F (82°C) for tert-butyl alcohol. A similar pattern exists for solubility of the alcohols, increasing from 8 g per 100 g of water for n-butyl alcohol to 10 g per 100 g of water and 12.5 g per 100 g of water for the next two forms to complete miscibility for tert-butyl alcohol.. The four butyl alcohols undergo very different reactions in many instances. As an example, n-butyl and isobutyl alcohol can ...
Amsterdam [u.a.] / Elsevier (2010) [Contribution to a book, Contribution to a conference proceedings]. 20th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering : [papers presented at ESCAPE-20 held in Ischia, Italy, from 6th to 9th June 2010] / ed. by S. Pierucci and G. Buzzi ...
Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the Weizmann Organism, after Jewish-Russian-born Chaim Weizmann. A senior lecturer at the University of Manchester, England, he used them in 1916 as a bio-chemical tool to produce at the same time, jointly, acetone, ethanol, and butanol from starch. The method has been described since as the ABE process, (Acetone Butanol Ethanol fermentation process), yielding 3 parts of acetone, 6 of butanol, and 1 of ethanol. Acetone was used in the important wartime task of casting cordite. The alcohols were used to produce vehicle fuels and synthetic rubber. Unlike yeast, which can digest only sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide, C. acetobutylicum and other Clostridia can digest whey, sugar, starch, cellulose and perhaps certain types of lignin, yielding butanol, propionic acid, ether, and glycerin. ...
Production of Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 from Pretreated Palm Kernel Cake in Batch Culture Fermentation
Lee, J., Mitchell, W. J., Tangney, M. & Blaschek, H. P. (2005). Evidence for the presence of an alternative glucose transport system in Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and the solvent hyper-producing mutant BA101. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71, 3384-3387. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.6.3384-3387.2005. ISSN 0099-2240. ...
Lee, J., Mitchell, W. J., Tangney, M. & Blaschek, H. P. (2005). Evidence for the presence of an alternative glucose transport system in Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and the solvent hyper-producing mutant BA101. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71, 3384-3387. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.6.3384-3387.2005. ISSN 0099-2240. ...
Introduction. Oxidizing alcohols By: Toufa Bouchouar Partners name: Adrian Date: March 20, 2006 Teacher name: Ms. Sommer When KMnO acts as an oxidizing agent when it comes in contact with 1 butanol, 2 butanol and t- butyl which of these agents will become primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol? Introduction: Alcohols are the family of compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups. They are also represented by the general formula R-OH. Alcohols are important in organic chemistry because they can be converted to and from many other types of compounds. Reactions with alcohols fall into two different categories Oxidation in organic chemistry always involves either the addition of oxygen atoms or the removal of hydrogen atoms. Whenever a molecule is oxidized, another molecule must be reduced. Therefore, these reactions require a compound that can be reduced. These compounds are usually inorganic. They are referred to as oxidizing reagents. With regards to alcohol, oxidizing reagents can ...
1 Expert Answer(s) - 100240 - When t -butanol and n -butanol are separately treated with a few drops of dilute KMnO base 4, in on. Answer this question and win exciting prizes
The in vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract of the seeds of Garcinia kola was investigated. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 mm to 25 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the diethyl ether fraction was between 0.313 and 5.0 mg/ml, while that of butanol fraction varied from 0.157 to 5.0 mg/ml. The butanol fraction killed about 77% of Bacillus anthracis and 79% of Escherichia coli cells within 120 min at a concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Protein leakage from the B. anthracis and E. coli cells when exposed to the butanol and diethyl ether fractions was observed. We conclude that Garcinia kola seed extract has a broad spectrum antibacterial activity, with the butanol and diethyl ether fractions being bactericidal as exemplified by the killing rate and protein leakage regimes, which suggest cell membrane disruption as a mechanism of action of the extract ...
Influence of sulfate on the anaerobic hydrolysis and acidogenesis of particulate organics was studied in a completely mixed acidogenic reactor. The shattered food waste as a particulate organics was added into the reactor at a daily basis while dilution water containing various concentration of sulfate was continuously supplied. The efficiencies of hydrolysis and acidogenesis at control were 60.1% and 19.4%, respectively while they have increased up to 70.6% and 46.2% respectively at 350 mg/L of the sulfate level in the dilution water. The buffering capacity of the acidogenic system increased with the increase of the sulfate level. The efficiencies of hydrolysis and acidogenesis gradually decreased at over 350 mg/L of the sulfate level in the dilution water. It was caused by the increase of the acidogenesis product used as electron donor for sulfate reduction and inhibition effect of the hydrogen sulfide from sulfate reduction. It could be concluded that sulfate in acidogenesis of particulate ...
A process for the conversion of carbohydrates from any of a number of sources into butanol and hexanol for fuel or chemical use is disclosed. The process includes conducting a homoacetogenic fermentation to produce an acetic acid intermediate which is chemically converted to ethanol. The ethanol and a remaining portion of the acetic acid intermediate are used as a substrate in an acidogenic fermentation to produce butyric and caproic acid intermediates which are then chemically converted to butanol and hexanol.
Shraddha Enterprise - Started in 2016 as a leading Wholesaler, Supplier and Trader of Butanol in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. We are also trusted Exporter from India.
The continuous emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria drastically reduces the efficacy of antibiotic armory and, consequently, increases the frequency of therapeutic failure. The discovery of new antibacterial drugs is an urgent need. The present study reports the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and iridoids from Canthium subcordatum, a plant traditionally used as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of extracts and iridoids against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and gallic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (GAEAC) assays. The samples were also tested for their cytotoxicity against human red blood cells (RBC). The methanol extract, hexane, ethyl acetate and iso-butanol fractions from C. subcordatum
This study on Oxo alcohols market estimates the market value for Oxo alcohols and projects the same till 2020. As a part of quantitative analysis, the study segments the market by application at country level with the current market estimation and forecast till 2020. The countries covered in the report are China, Japan, South Korea, India, The U.S., Canada, Mexico, Germany, Netherlands, U.K., France, and Brazil. The segmentation by type includes- butanol, 2-ethylhexanol, Isononyl alcohol, Isobutanol, and 2-propylheptanol. The segmentation by end-user industries includes air conditioning & refrigeration, chemical processing, transportation, consumer goods, and others. Further as a part of qualitative analysis, the study provides a comprehensive review of major market drivers, restraints, opportunities, winning imperatives, challenges, and key issues in the market. It also includes the company profiling and competitive strategies adopted by different market players, including BASF Petronas ...
Fermentation is used to produce chemical solvents (acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation) and pharmaceuticals (mixed acid fermentation). Type # 1. Depending upon the species of yeast, they produce damaging as well as beneficial effects. Some of them are also involved in spoiling the food. Fermentation w [von latein. Fermentation is an alternative energy yielding process for respiration, which is preferred by organisms that are facultative or obligate anaerobes. A classification, based on the product formation in relation to energy metabolism is briefly discussed below (Fig. Ensuring that cells have optimal conditions for production is not a trivial task. Dairy farming caught attention around 5000 BC, and people began raising milking animals. The preservation of high-yielding strains of microorganisms for fermentation is very important for product formation in substantial amounts. We will keep our customers informed as the situation evolves. In the 1850s and 1860s, Louis Pasteur became the first ...
Plasticizers. The N-butanol report provides the past, present and future industry trends and the forecast information related to the expected N-butanol sales revenue, N-butanol growth, N-butanol demand and supply scenario. Furthermore, the opportunities and the threats to the development of N-butanol market are also covered at depth in this research document.. Initially, the N-butanol manufacturing analysis of the major industry players based on their company profiles, annual revenue, sales margin, growth aspects is also covered in this report, which will help other N-butanol market players in driving business insights.. To Download A Sample Of The Report Click Here: Key Emphasizes Of The N-butanol Market:. The fundamental details related to N-butanol industry like the product definition, cost, variety of applications, demand and supply statistics are covered in this report.. Competitive study of the major ...
Due to environmental challenges, depleting oil resources, rising cost of oil and instability in oil-producing countries, biofuel production has attracted a lot of attention in recent decades. Biobutanol is one of the biofuels showing the most potential as an alternative for partly replacing petroleum-based fuels. Both researchers and industrialists are currently working at developing an energy-effective process to produce biobutanol at a large scale. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is the biological process of biobutanol production and Clostridia are the most common bacteria used to produce biobutanol. However, there are several challenges in the butanol bioproduction process that should be addressed to make this process economically viable. The main challenge in the biobutanol production process is the low concentration of butanol in the ABE fermentation broth. It is therefore important to develop an efficient separation method. Several separation methods such as distillation, ...
A method of making butanol from at least one fermentable carbon source that overcomes the issues of toxicity resulting in an increase in the effective titer, the effective rate, and the effective yiel
In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay ...
This page contains the following product(s): n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butyl alcohol, 2-methyl-2-propanol
Butanol is one of the potential alternative biofuels due to its similarities with gasoline and low sooting tendency. In this paper, three butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol) are used as low reactive fuel while n-heptane is used as high reactive fuel in a heavy-duty engine running in RCCI mode. This work investigates the influences of butanol structure on combustion performance and emission characteristics of RCCI combustion concepts. The tested load ranges from 4 bar to 12 bar gIMEP in a step of 2 bar. Since the reactivity of the three isomers can be sequenced by n-butanol > tert-butanol> iso-butanol, different EGR rate and direct injection strategies are applied. N-butanol and tert-butanol require double direct injection and highest EGR rate to maintain a proper combustion phasing. However, iso-butanol yields in ultra-low NOx and soot emissions up to 8 bar gIMEP with single direct injection and 0% EGR due to the higher octane rating ...
While working late one night at a large-scale meat processing plant, Abe, a Mudokon slave, overhears the plant owner, Molluck the Glukkon, speaking with his Glukkon peers. Because of a decline in the animals they use for meat products, including one which is now extinct, Molluck has begun production on a new snack food - made from Mudokons. Afraid of his fate at the plant, Abe decides that escaping is his only option.. Abe sneaks from the plant, but upon seeing a moon imprinted with a Mudokon hand, he becomes distracted and falls off a short cliff, hitting his head on the way down. A Mudokon Shaman, „Big Face as will come to call him, assists Abes recovery and informs him that Abe must save the Mudokon people. But to do that, Abe must undergo some trials in the land of the Paramites and Scrabs.. After traversing abandoned temples, avoiding wild animals, and finishing the trials, the shaman marks Abes hands with scars to represent each of the Paramite and Scrab species. This grants Abe the ...
Duncan Wass explained a discovery that could speed an emerging effort to replace ethanol in gasoline with the substantially better biofuel additive called butanol at the 245th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society. In view of some experts regarding butanol as the gasoline of the future the report on this discovery holds ...
4-(Boc-amino)-1-butanol 75178-87-9 Precursor and Downstream products, 4-(Boc-amino)-1-butanol Precursor products, 4-(Boc-amino)-1-butanol Downstream products ect.
ASTM International has published ASTM D7862-13, Specification for Butanol for Blending with Gasoline for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. The standard covers butanol that is intended to be blended with gasoline at 1 to 12.5 volume percent, establishing performance requirements and test methods for butanol content, water content, acidity, inorganic chloride, solvent-washed … Read more ». ...
The distribution or bcg grows in recognizing that the actions 24. 12). These are indicated, and patient the variation for croup. Am j (2011) comparison to presence of the key and their reducing both organic medicinal ceuticals. Eur jclin pharmacol ther 12:724 powders or check at ph units and responsibilities study data was prescribed of camp levels of the newer drugs nor the system. Hyperforin has yet clinical or absence of the result of one potential (fig. 20-8). The read-out of 10mm hg reduces acid (dna) recombination rag-1 and when the therapeutic qualities should tetrahydro-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)-6. 7-dimcthoxy-2-methyl- be found their antidi- cm family or preparation process; this onolactone. These extrachromosomal dna flow to produce water (1:0. In larger in this will complain acute rejection explain the raw materials (7) subsequently, lead to a cite 4. 3 immunogenicity than in the (paget disease, ed 7, philadelphia, 2010, saunders. ) mounts an oxide red or through a butanol fraction 40, lvh ...
The phenotypic responses of E. coli cells exposed to 1.2% (v/v) of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, and 1,4-butanediol were studied in near real-time using Raman spectroscopy. A method of
Microorganisms for the production of 1,4-butanediol and related methods | Process for butanol production | Integrated process for producing biofuels | Continuous process for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass | Methods for making and using modified oocytes |
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Separation of Acetaldehyde .003 %; Acetone .003 %; Methanol .003 %; 2-Butanol .003 %; Ethanol .08 %; 2-Butanol .006 %; 1-Propanol .003 %
The primary condensation nucleus counter used on the NSF/NCAR G-V is a modified version of the TSI 3786 Ultra-Fine Water-Based Condensation Nucleus Counter, with modifications made by Aerosol Dynamics, Inc., and Quant. The modifications were primarily to lower the temperature in the region where droplets grow on condensation nuclei, which was necessary because the 60 C growth temperature of the standard 3786 is the boiling point when the pressure is about 200 mb, and the GV flies well above this altitude. Other changes were made to the flow control, flow rates, pumps, and water injection scheme to adapt to the large altitude range of the G-V. One substantial advantage of this instrument over other CN counters is that it does not depend on butanol as the operating fluid and so does not require handling of a flammable gas around the aircraft or flight with a flammable substance.. The threshold particle size detected by the WCN is about 5 nm, becoming larger at low pressure but remaining below the ...
Celtic Renewables mission is to re-establish, at a global scale, the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, utilising local low value materials to produce low-carbon, high-value, sustainable products.. Local Solutions ● Global Impacts ...
Celtic Renewables mission is to re-establish, at a global scale, the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, utilising local low value materials to produce low-carbon, high-value, sustainable products.. Local Solutions ● Global Impacts ...
The economics of bioenergy will have to sort itself out over time. The only uncertainty is whether a crusading new political reich in the US will allow the economics of energy technology to do its market magic. It is quite likely that the Obama/Pelosi/Boxer rebellion and political riots will so badly interfere with the energy markets as to retard the development of sustainable clean energy for many years ...
The process of creating these beads is quite simple, according to Sathe. The surface of the beads contains a long-chain carbon molecule that makes the beads hydrophobic, meaning they repel water. The beads are dissolved in butanol and washed several times. Then the beads are counted and optical and magnetic nanocrystals are added to the suspension either simultaneously or sequentially. After 15-20 minutes, the butanol is removed to get rid of any remaining nanoparticles that didnt get incorporated into the beads and the beads are washed with ethanol. Then the beads are coated with a polymer that creates a hydrophilic surface on the beads. This allows the beads to be functionalized by adding antibodies or DNA molecules to the surface that will capture the target molecules.. These beads are dual-function -- both optical and magnetic -- but according to Sathe, more functions can be added to the beads. Adding them is as easy as adding the nanoparticles into the solution. You just have to make sure ...
EINECS (European INventory of Existing Commercial chemical Substances) as published in O.J. C 146A, 15.6.1990. EINECS is an inventory of substances that were deemed to be on the European Community market between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. EINECS was drawn up by the European Commission in the application of Article 13 of Directive 67/548/EEC, as amended by Directive 79/831/EEC, and in accordance with the detailed provisions of Commission Decision 81/437/EEC. Substances listed in EINECS are considered phase-in substances under the REACH Regulation ...
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Started in 1979 under license of UOP - USA. It designed to produce hexane (Food Grade) which is used for extraction food oil from plant seeds in addition, it produces many types of important petroleum solvent ...
Sales office :. ALPHADYNAMIC PUMPS (UK) Ltd. Rockleigh House, 37 Burton Road. Ashby De La Zouch - Leicestershire. LE65 2LF - United Kingdom (UK). Tel : +44 1213 680 324, +44 1213 680 472. Email: [email protected]. Registered in England and Wales.. Registration No.09706219. Vat No. GB 220393343. ...
The cost of butanol is about $1.25-$1.32 per kilogram ($0.57-$0.58 per pound or $4 approx. per US gallon). Butanol is much more ... The Weizmann organism can only tolerate butanol levels up to 2% or so, compared to 14% for ethanol and yeast. Making butanol ... Butanol is an alcohol which can be used as a fuel in most gasoline internal combustion engines without engine modification. It ... The advantages of butanol are its high octane rating (over 100) and high energy content, only about 10% lower than gasoline, ...
Its isomers, the other butanols, include n-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol, all of which are important industrially. ... 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol. The host's highly active amino acid biosynthetic ... Isobutanol is one of the least toxic of the butanols with an LD50 of 2460 mg/kg (rat, oral). In March 2009, the Canadian ... 0352". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). IPCS Environmental Health Criteria 65: Butanols: four ...
Many EHCs cover the properties of individual chemicals or of groups of related chemicals (see, e.g., EHC 65: Butanols). Since ... Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monographs, retrieved 2009-08-30 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). Butanols: four ...
Butanol (C. 4H. 9OH) is formed by ABE fermentation (acetone, butanol, ethanol) and experimental modifications of the process ... " 2005-08-15. Retrieved 2010-07-14.. *^ Evans, Jon (14 January 2008). "Biofuels aim higher". Biofuels, Bioproducts ... DuPont and BP are working together to help develop butanol. Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to ... Butanol will produce more energy and allegedly can be burned "straight" in existing gasoline engines (without modification to ...
Main article: Butanol fuel. Butanol can be made from algae or diatoms using only a solar powered biorefinery. This fuel has an ... In most gasoline engines, butanol can be used in place of gasoline with no modifications. In several tests, butanol consumption ... In addition, it has been shown that macroalgae (seaweeds) can be fermented by bacteria of genus Clostridia to butanol and other ... Potts, T.; Du, J.; Paul, M.; May, P.; Beitle, R.; Hestekin, J. (2012). "The Production of Butanol from Jamaica Bay Macro Algae ...
n-Butanol. 33.075. 26.79. 14,222. 2,501.6. Isobutanol. 32.959. 26.43. 14,172. 2,442.9. tert-Butanol. 32.587. 25.45. 14,012. ...
... butanol fuel occurs as American motorist David Ramey drove from Blacklick, Ohio to San Diego, California using 100% butanol in ... "Boosting Biomass-to...Butanol?". Green Car Congress. 20 July 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-29. UN rapporteur calls for biofuel ...
2-Methyl-1-butanol (C. 5). *Phenethyl alcohol (C. 8). *Tryptophol (C. 10) ...
Ethanol, isopropanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol are produced by this general method. Two implementations are employed, the ... Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble. Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling ... The simplest example is tert-butanol (2-methylpropan-2-ol), for which each of R, R', and R" is CH3. In these shorthands, R, R ... Like ethanol, butanol can be produced by fermentation processes. Saccharomyces yeast are known to produce these higher alcohols ...
Designations such as isopropanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol are incorrect because there are no hydrocarbons isopropane, sec ... Together with ethanol, n-butanol, and methanol, it belongs to the group of alcohol solvents, about 6.4 million tonnes of which ...
2-Methyl-1-butanol (C. 5). *Phenethyl alcohol (C. 8). *Tryptophol (C. 10) ...
Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ...
Butanol (C 4H 9OH) is formed by ABE fermentation (acetone, butanol, ethanol) and experimental modifications of the process show ... Butanol will produce more energy than ethanol because of its lower oxygen content and allegedly can be burned "straight" in ... One drawback to butanol production in E. coli remains the high cost of nutrient rich media, however, recent work has ... The primary targets are butanol, biodiesel, and hydrogen, but include other alcohols and carbon-containing gases such as ...
... and butanol from starch. The method has been described since as the ABE process, (Acetone Butanol Ethanol fermentation process ... In 2008, a strain of Escherichia coli was genetically engineered to synthesize butanol; the genes were derived from Clostridium ... yielding 3 parts of acetone, 6 of butanol, and 1 of ethanol. Acetone was used in the important wartime task of casting cordite ... "Better Bugs for Making Butanol". MIT Technology Review.. *^ Atsumi, S.; Hanai, T.; Liao, JC. (Jan 2008). "Non-fermentative ...
... specifically investigating butanol. Specific advantages to using butanol compared to ethanol include, higher energy content per ... Currently, about 2.5 US gallons (9.5 L) of butanol can be produced per bushel of corn (373 l/t). Meanwhile, about 2.75 US ... "Butanol : An Energy Alternative?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2014-02-22. " ... "Algae converted to butanol; Fuel can be used in automobiles". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2014-02-22. "Chemical & Engineering News ...
Proposed US Ethanol and Butanol pipelines Coal and ore[edit]. Slurry pipelines are sometimes used to transport coal or ore from ...
The butanol-hydrochloric acid-iron assay (Porter assay) is a colorimetric assay. It is based on acid catalysed oxidative ... Acid butanol assy for proanthocyanidins. by Ann E. Hagermann, 2002 (article) Porter, Lawrence J.; Hrstich, Liana N.; Chana, ... doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)94533-3. Makkar, H. P. S.; Gamble, G.; Becker, K. (1999). "Limitation of the butanol-hydrochloric ... and prodelphinidin-based condensed tannins in Lotus species by the butanol-HCl-iron assay". J. Agric. Food Chem. 61 (11): 2669- ...
Wald, Matthew L. (10 March 2011). "Ethanol Plant Is Switching to Butanol". New York Times. Retrieved 10 March 2011. "From 1st- ... This global market for butanol represents approximately 1.1 BGPY, based upon volume data from SRI. Plastics, Fibers, Rubber and ...
Yeasts as production organisms for butanol have decisive advantages compared to bacteria. Butanol combustion is: C4H9OH + 6O2 ... Ethanol content Propanol and butanol are considerably less toxic and less volatile than methanol. In particular, butanol has a ... "Butanol Works in your Car Today". Environmental Energy, inc. Archived from the original on 29 May 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2007. ... This organism also dies when the butanol content of whatever it is fermenting rises to 7%. For comparison, yeast dies when the ...
... has been combined with the ABE (acetone butanol ethanol) fermentation for butanol production. Butanol is toxic to ... The technique has been applied to the hydrolysis of penicillin G. Qureshi, N.; Maddox, I.S. (2005). "Reduction in Butanol ... but the extractants with the highest affinity for butanol tend to be toxic to the bacteria. The application of LLE would also ... the fermentation, therefore perstraction can be applied to remove the butanol from the vicinity of the bacteria as soon as it ...
Butanol and Isobutanol via recombinant pathways expressed in hosts such as E. coli and yeast, butanol and isobutanol may be ... "Butanol Production by Metabolically Engineered Yeast". " HTU diesel". Archived from the original ... Mixed Alcohols (i.e., mixture of mostly ethanol, propanol, and butanol, with some pentanol, hexanol, heptanol, and octanol). ... Products include alcohols (such as ethanol and butanol) and other hydrocarbons for transportation use. The following second- ...
in diameter when fractionated without butanol. The virions are also slightly heavier than that of other Nepoviruses at 60,000 ...
or the etherification of butanol with 2-chloroethanol.[6] 2-butoxyethanol can be obtained in the laboratory by performing a ... 2-Butoxyethanol is commonly obtained through two processes; the ethoxylation reaction of butanol and ethylene oxide in the ...
n-Butanol. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH. 118 °C. 18. 0.810 g/ml. ...
An indole and notably butanol-producing bacterium. Companilactobacillus ginsenosidimutans Zheng et al., 2020 and ...
"Novel bacterium produces butanol directly from cellulose". August 28, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2012. ... Renewable energy portal Energy portal Butanol fuel Environmental impact of aviation Food vs. fuel Issues relating to biofuels ... organism can convert nearly any form of cellulose into butanol, and is the only known strain of Clostridium-genus bacteria that ...
... and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. These fuels may be used in a dedicated system that burns a ...
Acyl-CoA Fatty acyl-CoA esters [1] Berzin, Vel; Tyurin, Michael; Kiriukhin, Michael (2013-01-08). "Selective n-Butanol ... and NAD-Dependent Butanol Dehydrogenase". Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 169 (3): 950-959. doi:10.1007/s12010-012-0060 ...
3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) is a structural analog of choline.[1] ... Retrieved from ",3-Dimethyl-1-butanol&oldid=779907899" ...
These are n-butanol, 2 stereoisomers of sec-butanol, isobutanol and tert-butanol. Butanol is primarily used as a solvent and as ... Salts of butanol are chemical intermediates; for example, alkali metal salts of tert-butanol are tert-butoxides. Butanol is a ... Butanol is a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). Butanol at 85 percent concentration can be used in cars designed for gasoline ( ... The butanol isomers have different melting and boiling points. n-butanol and isobutanol have limited solubility, sec-butanol ...
Animal experiments show isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) to be an irritant to mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and ...
Isomers of 1-Butanol are isobutanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol. The unmodified term butanol usually refers to the straight ... Butanol is considered as a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). Butanol at 85 percent strength can be used in cars designed for ... Butanols: four isomers IPCS Health and Safety Guide 3: 1-Butanol "1-Butanol - Compound Summary". The PubChem Project. USA: ... 1-Butanol (IUPAC: Butan-1-ol) also known as n-Butanol is a primary alcohol with the chemical formula C4H9OH and a linear ...
DL-sec-Butanol; DL-2-Butanol; Alcool butylique secondaire; Butanol secondaire; s-Butanol; 1-Methyl propanol; n-Butan-2-ol; NSC ... Piekarski, H.; Somsen, G., Heat capacities and volumes of mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide with isobutanol, sec-butanol and t- ... Other names: sec-Butyl Alcohol; sec-Butanol; CCS 301; Ethyl methyl carbinol; Methyl ethyl carbinol; 1-Methyl-1-propanol; 1- ... and isobaric heat capacities of methanol-isomeric butanol systems at 298.15 K, Can. J. Chem., 1988, 66, 713-717. [all data] ...
DL-sec-Butanol; DL-2-Butanol; Alcool butylique secondaire; Butanol secondaire; s-Butanol; 1-Methyl propanol; n-Butan-2-ol; NSC ... I. 2-Butanol, 2-octanol, cyclopentanol and benzyl alcohol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1946, 68, 1149-1151. [all data] ... Piekarski, H.; Somsen, G., Heat capacities and volumes of mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide with isobutanol, sec-butanol and t- ... Rodionov P.P., Thermodynamic functions of 2-butanol (d,l), Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved., Khim. Khim. Tekhnol., 1969, 12, 1214-1218 ...
DL-sec-Butanol; DL-2-Butanol; Alcool butylique secondaire; Butanol secondaire; s-Butanol; 1-Methyl propanol; n-Butan-2-ol; NSC ... Other names: sec-Butyl Alcohol; sec-Butanol; CCS 301; Ethyl methyl carbinol; Methyl ethyl carbinol; 1-Methyl-1-propanol; 1- ... Methylpropyl alcohol; 2-Hydroxybutane; sec-C4H9OH; Butane, 2-hydroxy-; Butanol-2; Butan-2-ol; 2-Butyl alcohol; s-Butyl alcohol ...
2-Butanol, puriss. p.a., Reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.5% (GC), Honeywell™ Riedel-de Haen™. CAS: 78-92-2 Molecular Formula: C4H10O ... sec-Butanol, 99+%, for analysis, ACROS Organics™. CAS: 78-92-2 Molecular Formula: C4H10O Molecular Weight (g/mol): 74.123 MDL ... sec-Butanol, 99%, Extra Pure, ACROS Organics™ CAS: 78-92-2 Molecular Formula: C4H10O Molecular Weight (g/mol): 74.123 MDL ... sec-Butanol (Certified), Fisher Chemical CAS: 78-92-2 Molecular Formula: C4H10O Molecular Weight (g/mol): 74.123 MDL Number: ...
The new technology could speed up the development of butanol biofuels into a cost-effective alternative to ethanol. While ... coli that is highly efficient in producing butanol, a promising new type of biofuel. ... Butanol bugs: Through a series of genetic modifications, scientists programmed E. coli to make butanol efficiently, bringing ... Because butanol packs more energy per gallon than ethanol does, cars running on butanol get better mileage. And, unlike ethanol ...
Butanols - four isomers : 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol, isobutanol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United ... Presents individual monographs on the risks to health and the environment associated with 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol, ... tert-Butanol : health and safety guide  International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization (‎World Health ... Laboratory evaluation of the molluscicidal potency of a butanol extract of Phytolacca dodecandra (‎endod)‎ berries  ...
tert-BUTANOL. ICSC. : 0114. tert-Butyl alcohol. 2-Methyl-2-propanol. 1,1-Dimethylethanol. Trimethyl carbinol. 2-Methylpropan-2- ...
... has developed two routes to liberate butanol from its… ... Butanol-a promising next-generation biofuel-packs more energy ... "Butanol has some technical benefits, but the real problem is the amount of food that goes into making a gallon of fuel," says ... Butanol-a promising next-generation biofuel-packs more energy than ethanol and can be shipped via oil pipelines. But, like ... Butamax alleges that Gevos use of genetic engineering to make butanol violates a broad U.S. patent issued to Butamax in ...
Looking for SPECTRUM Butanol, 500ml (26YF12)? Graingers got your back. Price:$36.00. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log- ...
Synthesis of flavors, perfumes, dyestuffs, industrial cleaners. Solvent for resins. In hydraulic brake fluids. Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products.. ...
1-Butanol. Known Uses. Flavoring ingredient. Has been used in pain control. Associated with tobacco: reported either as a ... Testing Status of n-Butanol 71363. CASRN: 71-36-3. Related: 35296-72-1. Formula: C4-H10-O. Synonyms/Common Names. * ...
A process for the conversion of carbohydrates from any of a number of sources into butanol and hexanol for fuel or chemical use ... in an acidogenic fermentation to produce butyric and caproic acid intermediates which are then chemically converted to butanol ... The present invention can also achieve high yields of butanol and hexanol. Specifically, the yield of butanol and hexanol when ... is converted into the butanol and hexanol, at least about 75% of carbon source is converted into the butanol and hexanol, at ...
There is a special relationship between ethanol and water, that butanol and gasoline dont have. Butanol will mix with 7 to 9% ... butanol and ethanol. Butanol is produced in greatest quantity but other two are also valuable components. "Feb batch feeding" ... Wile the butanol is in the laboratory phase it shows that more research will take what was the waste can be be a resource. ... Moving to Butanol. The Ease of production is equal to that of Ethanol, because it is produced with the ABE method. The Price is ...
Butanol production made easy. Scraping the algae, drying it, carbohydrates are extracted which are converted to natural sugars ... Apart from the fact that butanol is far superior to ethanol in efficiency, this process helps the water become less polluted ... Again butyric acid is converted by fermentation into butanol. This process was made speedier by a special technique called ... Common Algae for Biofuel Butanol Production. Posted in Biofuels , Future Technology , Transportation ...
The Kauri-butanol value ("Kb value") is an international, standardized measure of solvent power for a hydrocarbon solvent, and ... In terms of the test itself, the kauri-butanol value (Kb) of a chemical shows the maximum amount of the hydrocarbon that can be ... ASTM D1133 - 10 Standard Test Method for Kauri-Butanol Value of Hydrocarbon Solvents ... Retrieved from "" ...
... the global market for Tert-butanol estimated at US$1.9 Billion ... ... Global Tert-butanol Market to Reach $2.6 Billion by 2027 - Amid the COVID-19 crisis, ... Global Tert-butanol Market to Reach $2.6 Billion by 2027 - Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Tert-butanol ... The Tert-butanol market in the U.S. is estimated at US$502.6 Million in the year 2020. China, the world`s second largest ...
However, n-butanol is not produced rapidly in these systems because the native enzymes can work in reverse to convert butanol ... Various species of the Clostridium bacteria naturally produce a chemical called n-butanol (normal butanol) that has been ... into n-butanol. Other researchers who have engineered yeast or E. coli to produce n-butanol have taken the entire enzyme ... Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. Because its longer hydrocarbon chain causes it to be fairly non ...
NNAL is a product formed after 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) enters the body. NNK belongs to a group of chemicals called tobacco-specific n-nitrosamines (TSNA). This group of chemicals is found only in tobacco and tobacco products. Measuring NNAL in peoples urine is a reliable way to determine exposure to NNK for smokers, for non-smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and for people who use smokeless tobacco products (chewing tobacco, snuff).. ...
LONDON - Butanol, the gasoline substitute being promoted by billionaire Richard Branson, is headed for its debut at U.S. pumps ... Butanol gasses up for race against ethanol. By EDUARD GISMATULLIN AND KARI LUNDGREN BLOOMBERG NEW ...
An Ohio inventor has taken to the road to promote butanol as an alternative fuel to ethanol as well as his process for ... From Ohio to California and back on butanol. ... Boosting Biomass-to...Butanol? 20 July 2005 From Ohio to ... Virtually all of the butanol is use today is produced petrochemically.. In conventional fermentations, the butanol yield from ... Rameys fermentation only produces hydrogen, butyric acid, butanol and carbon dioxide, and doubles the yield of butanol from a ...
An Ohio inventor has taken to the road to promote butanol as an alternative fuel to ethanol as well as his process for ... From Ohio to California and back on butanol. ... Boosting Biomass-to...Butanol? 20 July 2005 From Ohio to ... Is there any plans to separate the butanol from the water?. Im all for butanol and other biofuels, and Im even working at a ... Tom we did have Butanol tested in Denver against 100% Ethanol so he said and we are cleaner they looked for 2.5000 and Butanol ...
His expertise is in bio-butanol, ethanol valorization to butanol and higher hydrocarbons, lignin (hydrothermal upgrading), ... 4.5 g/L/h in butanol productivity, and a butanol yield of less than 25% (w/w) from glucose (1.29 gallons per bushel where, 1 US ... Butanol is versatile for many reasons - one could use it as a fuel additive or chemically transform it to high value high ... In considering the de novo design of any systems that upgrade existing biofuels (such as ethanol to n-butanol or to Jet Fuel A- ...
This page contains information on the chemical Butanol including: 35 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations ... Butanol*Butanol [French]*Butanol, 1-*Butanolen [Dutch]*Butanolo*Butanolo [Italian]*Butanols*Butyl alcohol*Butyl alcohol ( ... Butanols. 3. UN1120. III. 3. B1, IB3, T2, TP1. 150. 203. 242. Forbid. Forbid. A. Butyl alcohols, see Butanols. Forbid. Forbid. ... Butanol. Identifications. *Formula: CH3CH2CH2CH2OH. Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen. *CAS Number: 71-36-3*RTECS Number: ...
China was the key consumer of n-butanol in the Asia-Pacific region in 2014. It is also the biggest import market of n-butanol. ... Direct solvent is the fastest-growing n-butanol application. N-butanol is widely used as a direct solvent for paints, coatings ... Oxo Alcohols Market by Type (N-Butanol, ISO Butanol, 2-Ethylhexanol), Application (Acrylates, Glycol Ethers, Acetates, Lube Oil ... which in turn would help in increasing the consumption for n-butanol globally. Butyl acrylate was the biggest n-butanol ...
Most butanol is made via fermentation which actually produces a combination of Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol (which is why it ... Are there any companies trying the butanol route from algae? As you might know, butanol is one another promising fuel that can ... While there are some companies trying the butanol route, I am not sure if there is any company looking at producing butanol ... Guess it should be easy to get the answers, because butanol is a fairly hot topic now; I will ask my colleagues to dig up.... ...
Polycistronic expression of butanol biosynthetic genes yielded butanol titers of 120 and 24 mg/L from P. putida and B. subtilis ... Alternative microbial hosts have been engineered as biocatalysts for butanol biosynthesis. The butanol synthetic pathway of ... Engineering alternative butanol production platforms in heterologous bacteria. Author(s). Nielsen, David R.; Leonard, Effendi; ... DownloadPrather-Engineering Alternative Butanol.pdf (914.2Kb). OPEN_ACCESS_POLICY Open Access Policy. Creative Commons ...
  • This means that butanol can have effects like ethanol when ingested or drunk by living beings such as humans. (
  • However, butanol can have depressant and sedative psychological effects a little bit more intense and stronger than ethanol when consumed. (
  • Butanol at 85 percent concentration can be used in cars designed for gasoline (petrol) without any change to the engine (unlike 85% ethanol), and it contains more energy for a given volume than ethanol and almost as much as gasoline, and a vehicle using butanol would return fuel consumption more comparable to gasoline than ethanol. (
  • The new technology could speed up the development of butanol biofuels into a cost-effective alternative to ethanol. (
  • While ethanol is the main biofuel on the market today, energy firms are increasingly looking to alternatives such as butanol. (
  • It has many attractive properties," says Jim McMillan, manager of biorefining process R&D at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Bioenergy Center, in Golden, CO. Because butanol packs more energy per gallon than ethanol does, cars running on butanol get better mileage. (
  • Butanol at 85 percent strength can be used in cars designed for gasoline (petrol) without any change to the engine (unlike 85% ethanol), and it provides more energy for a given volume than ethanol, due to butanol's lower oxygen content, and almost as much as gasoline. (
  • Therefore, a vehicle using butanol would return fuel consumption more comparable to gasoline than ethanol. (
  • At sub-lethal doses, 1-butanol acts as a depressant of the central nervous system, similar to ethanol: one study in rats indicated that the intoxicating potency of 1-butanol is about 6 times higher than that of ethanol, possibly because of its slower transformation by alcohol dehydrogenase. (
  • Butanol-a promising next-generation biofuel-packs more energy than ethanol and can be shipped via oil pipelines. (
  • Butanol has some technical benefits, but the real problem is the amount of food that goes into making a gallon of fuel," says Jeremy Martin, a senior scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists , a Cambridge, Massachusetts-based advocacy group that is part of a broad coalition pushing Congress to end lucrative tax credits for corn ethanol. (
  • The ethanol and a remaining portion of the acetic acid intermediate are used as a substrate in an acidogenic fermentation to produce butyric and caproic acid intermediates which are then chemically converted to butanol and hexanol. (
  • and reducing the butyric acid and caproic acid esters to form butanol and ethanol. (
  • First the enzymes hydrolyze the straw and release simple sugars then the bacterias start fermenting those sugars into acetone, butanol and ethanol. (
  • There is a special relationship between ethanol and water, that butanol and gasoline don't have. (
  • Apart from the fact that butanol is far superior to ethanol in efficiency, this process helps the water become less polluted and healthier. (
  • An Ohio inventor has taken to the road to promote butanol as an alternative fuel to ethanol as well as his process for producing it from the anaerobic fermentation of biomass waste. (
  • According to the inventor, David Ramey, his butanol process delivers about 42% more energy than ethanol for a given amount of feedstock, based on the higher energy content of butanol (some 25% greater than ethanol), plus the hydrogen. (
  • The conventional fermentation process produced a number of products as well as butanol: acetic, lactic and propionic acids, acetone, isopropanol and ethanol production. (
  • The second, greener pathway is the ABE-fermentation process (Acetone, Butanol, Ethanol) that was pioneered by Chaim Weizmann during World War I. At the time, the petroleum-derived approach proved to be economically advantageous in comparison to the ABE-fermentation based processes. (
  • Butanol has since successfully made the transition from a commodity chemical to a fuel additive specially when it is compared to a much hygroscopic and less energy dense - ethanol. (
  • One may choose to go to the other end of the spectrum and consider making alcohol-to-jet (AtJ) fuel blend with the ethanol or butanol platform. (
  • As you might know, butanol is one another promising fuel that can be used instead of ethanol - butanol is less corrosive and hence can be more easily transported over pipes. (
  • Yes, butanol is also produced by fermentation similar to ethanol production. (
  • Most butanol is made via fermentation which actually produces a combination of Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol (which is why it is frequently called the ABE process). (
  • This work elucidates the interdependence of gene regulation, metabolism, and environmental cues during clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. (
  • One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum , during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. (
  • Influence of ethanol and ethers used for gasoline blending on water phase stability of 1-butanol-gasoline blend was studied. (
  • In contrast to the ethanol-gasoline blends, 1-butanol remained in the hydrocarbon phase. (
  • Nevertheless 1-butanol could be a possible alternative to the ethanol which is currently the most useful biofuel for spark ignition engines. (
  • 1-Butanol could become an option for ethanol as a motor fuel for spark ignition engine due to its possible better physical-chemical properties. (
  • Properties of conventional gasoline meeting requirements of CSN EN 228 with an octane number of 95, ethanol, and 1-butanol are compared in Table 1 . (
  • In contrast to ethanol, blending of 1-butanol to gasoline reduces the vapour pressure [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) were produced from corn fiber arabinoxylan (CFAX) and CFAX sugars (glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose) using Clostridium acetobutylicum P260. (
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum is a natural producer of butanol, butyrate, acetone and ethanol. (
  • Cooksley CM, Zhang Y, Wang H, Redl S, Winzer K, Minton NP (2012) Targeted mutagenesis of the Clostridium acetobutylicum acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation pathway. (
  • Butanol is considered to be a better biofuel than ethanol because it. (
  • Butanol is considered to be a better biofuel than ethanol because its less corrosive and has a higher caloric value, giving a higher energy value. (
  • Like ethanol, butanol is being considered as an additive to gasoline. (
  • A. 1-Propanol B. 1-Butanol C. n-pentane D. n-hexane E. methanol F. ethanol We shall be happy to critique your thinking. (
  • This is because n-butanol possesses much better fuel characteristics compared to ethanol, such as higher energy content (29.2 MJ/L vs 19.6 MJ/L), less corrosiveness, less hygroscopy, and the ease with which it can be blended with gasoline and diesel. (
  • This process takes place in aqueous solution and typically yields 3 parts acetone, 6 parts butanol and 1 part ethanol, albeit at a low concentration. (
  • 7. The method according to claim 1, wherein the fermentation medium further comprises ethanol, and the butanol-containing organic phase contains ethanol. (
  • It yields 3 parts of acetone, 6 of butanol and 1 of ethanol. (
  • Butanol is far less corrosive than ethanol and can be shipped and distributed through existing pipelines and filling stations. (
  • Reformed butanol has four more hydrogen atoms than ethanol, resulting in a higher energy output. (
  • Scientists from the University of Bristol's School of Chemistry have been working for several years to develop technology that will convert widely-available ethanol into butanol. (
  • The Bristol team's key finding is that their catalysts will convert beer (or specifically, the ethanol in beer) into butanol. (
  • The bio n-butanol will be made from sugarcane straw and bagasse, the same raw material that is used to manufacture ethanol and other biochemicals in Brazil. (
  • Thirteen (13) heterogeneous catalysts were screened in search for the optimal material composition for direct one-pot conversion of ethanol to 1-butanol. (
  • For the most promising catalyst, a 25% ethanol conversion with 80% selectivity (among liquid carbon products) to 1-butanol could be reached at 250 °C. Additionally, the reaction kinetics and mechanisms were further investigated upon use of the most suitable catalyst candidate. (
  • n-butanol has been recognized as a promising alternative fuel for gasoline and may potentially overcome the drawbacks of methanol and ethanol, e.g. higher energy density. (
  • N -Butanol, a valuable solvent and potential fuel extender, can be produced via acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. (
  • We report a wild-type Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum strain TG57, which is capable of using microcrystalline cellulose directly to produce butanol (1.93 g/liter) as the only final product (without any acetone or ethanol produced), comparable to that of engineered microbes thus far. (
  • Both enzymatic and sulfuric acid hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke tubers were fermented via solventogenic Clostridia to acetone- butanol- ethanol (ABE). (
  • Prior to the 1950s, Clostridium acetobutylicum was used in industrial fermentation to produce butanol. (
  • Research in the past few decades showed results of other microorganisms that can produce butanol through fermentation. (
  • Although the bacterium does not produce butanol naturally, it is easy to modify and grows fast. (
  • Instead of tweaking the pathway that the microbes employ for fermenting sugar into alcohol, Liao reasoned that he could program E. coli to produce butanol by diverting some of the microorganism's metabolites into alcohol production. (
  • Butyraldehyde is then hydrogenated to produce butanol. (
  • Ramey ultimately envisions small, turnkey biorefineries of 5 to 30 million gallons per year capacity for small municipalities and surrounding farming communities that would produce butanol as a gasoline substitute. (
  • HSCBs were used as a renewable feedstock to produce butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792. (
  • The tests on the sugars (alone or mixed) highlighted the predisposition of C. acetobutylicum to metabolize them and to produce butanol. (
  • Further study will be done to produce butanol more economically on the basis of the 3D structure of C. acetobutylicum thiolase. (
  • The ABE process has been around for decades to produce butanol. (
  • We are exploring a two step process, first proposed by Ramey (1998 patent) to produce butanol. (
  • In the second step of thei process, butyric acid is used to produce butanol. (
  • Furthermore, the use of glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose posed a selection pressure to facilitate isolation of strain TG57 with deletion/silencing of carbon catabolite repressor genes-the ccr and xylR genes-and thus is able to simultaneously ferment glucose, xylose, and arabinose to produce butanol (7.33 g/liter) as the sole solvent. (
  • In order to overcome some of these limitations, the overall goal of this thesis was to develop a process to produce butanol via fermentation using low-cost feedstocks and integrated product recovery. (
  • Most of these groups rely on the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum , which naturally makes a form of butanol called 1-butanol. (
  • Clostridium produces much higher yields of butanol. (
  • Genetic engineers reprogrammed this microbe, Clostridium cellulolyticum, to turn cellulose into butanol. (
  • The key was adding Liao's sugar-to-isobutanol pathway to a microbe, Clostridium cellulolyticum, that likes chewing on biomass but does not normally make butanol. (
  • Various species of the Clostridium bacteria naturally produce a chemical called n-butanol (normal butanol) that has been proposed as a greener substitute for diesel oil and gasoline. (
  • While most researchers, including a few biofuel companies, have genetically altered Clostridium to boost its ability to produce n-butanol, others have plucked enzymes from the bacteria and inserted them into other microbes, such as yeast, to turn them into n-butanol factories. (
  • The basic steps evolved by Clostridium to make butanol involve five enzymes that convert a common molecule, acetyl-CoA, into n-butanol. (
  • The first, Clostridium tyrobutyricum , optimizes the production of hydrogen and butyric acid, while the other, Clostridium acetobutylicum , converts the butyric acid to butanol. (
  • Usually Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum bacteria are used for butanol fermentation. (
  • The butanol synthetic pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum was first re-constructed in Escherichia coli to establish a baseline for comparison to other hosts. (
  • Butanol Production from Corn Fiber Xylan Using Clostridium acetob. (
  • Here the exogenous genes of ferredoxin-NAD(P) + oxidoreductase (FdNR) and trans -enoyl-coenzyme reductase (TER) are introduced to three different Clostridium acetobutylicum strains to investigate the distribution of redox equivalents and butanol productivity. (
  • Whole broth containing viable cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum was cycled to a Karr reciprocating plate extraction column in which acetone and butanol were extracted into oleyl alcohol flowing counter-currently through the column. (
  • A redox-switch of thiolase involves in butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum . (
  • Daegu and Daejeon, Republic of Korea, September 22, 2015--Two Korean research teams at the Kyungpook National University (KNU) and the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have succeeded in uncovering the redox-switch of thiolase, a key enzyme for n-butanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum , one of the best known butanol-producing bacteria. (
  • Biological n-butanol production was first reported by Louis Pasteur in 1861, and the bioprocess was industrialized using Clostridium acetobutylicum . (
  • The fermentation process by Clostridium strains has been known to be the most efficient one for n-butanol production. (
  • The goal of this study was to obtain mutant strains of Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-598 with improved butanol tolerance using random chemical mutagenesis, describe changes in their phenotypes compared to the wild-type strain and reveal changes in the genome that explain improved tolerance or other phenotypic changes. (
  • The most famous species of the group of solventogenic clostridia are Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii , both of which share a common process bottleneck - low tolerance to butanol. (
  • 176:871-885, 1994) was found to encode a repressor of the sol locus ( aad , ctfA , ctfB and adc ) genes for butanol and acetone formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. (
  • The genes for butanol and acetone formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 reside on a large plasmid whose loss leads to degeneration of the strain. (
  • Butanol is a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). (
  • In a push to find better biofuels to reduce gasoline consumption and lower greenhouse-gas emissions, scientists have genetically engineered E. coli that is highly efficient in producing butanol, a promising new type of biofuel. (
  • Through a series of genetic modifications, scientists programmed E. coli to make butanol efficiently, bringing the biofuel closer to commercialization. (
  • University of California, Berkeley, chemists have engineered bacteria to churn out a gasoline-like biofuel (butanol) at about 10 times the rate of competing microbes, a breakthrough that could soon provide an affordable transportation fuel. (
  • 1-Butanol produced from waste biomass or nonfood agricultural products is classified as the biofuel of the second generation [ 4 ]. (
  • Angenent is part of a team using new techniques to produce the biofuel butanol. (
  • After brief resurgence of interest in the 1970s and early 1980s, interest in butanol as a biofuel dropped off during the cheap oil era. (
  • With several beneficial attributes that make it a good blending agent in gasoline, butanol continues to hold promise for use as a biofuel. (
  • Butanol has long been considered a potential advanced liquid biofuel, in addition to its current application as an industrial solvent. (
  • These are n-butanol, 2 stereoisomers of sec-butanol, isobutanol and tert-butanol. (
  • The branched isomer with the alcohol at a terminal carbon is isobutanol or 2-methyl-1-propanol, and the branched isomer with the alcohol at the internal carbon is tert-butanol or 2-methyl-2-propanol. (
  • n-butanol and isobutanol have limited solubility, sec-butanol has substantially greater solubility, while tert-butanol is miscible with water. (
  • for example, alkali metal salts of tert-butanol are tert-butoxides. (
  • tert-butanol is derived from isobutane as a co-product of propylene oxide production. (
  • Isomers of 1-Butanol are isobutanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol. (
  • Presents individual monographs on the risks to health and the environment associated with 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol, and isobutanol. (
  • Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Tert-butanol estimated at US$1.9 Billion in the year 2020, is projected to reach a revised size of US$2.6 Billion by 2027, growing at a CAGR of 5% over the analysis period 2020-2027. (
  • The Tert-butanol market in the U.S. is estimated at US$502.6 Million in the year 2020. (
  • Solutions of the isomers of butanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol and tert-butanol will be prepared in protonated solvents chloroform (CHCl3) and acetone. (
  • tert-butanol alcohol 5. (
  • Liao's demonstration of direct cellulose-to-butanol conversion could bring down the cost of cellulosic biofuels, which is currently prohibitively high. (
  • The number of start-ups pursuing various aspects of butanol is flourishing more than ever - from carbon dioxide capture, to developing alcohol-to-jet (AtJ) fuel with the potential to deliver aviation biofuels, developing new microbial strains for efficient conversions to butanol, feedstock analysis, to downstream processing. (
  • However, production of cellulosic biofuels, especially cellulosic butanol, has been hampered by the lack of potent microbes that are capable of converting cellulosic biomass into biofuels. (
  • Butanol is primarily used as a solvent and as an intermediate in chemical synthesis, and may be used as a fuel. (
  • Butanol is used as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical and textile processes, in organic synthesis, and as a chemical intermediate. (
  • A.B.E. process Algal fuel Butanol fuel Solvent Merck Index, 12th Edition, 1575. (
  • The largest use of 1-butanol is as an industrial intermediate, particularly for the manufacture of butyl acetate (itself an artificial flavorant and industrial solvent). (
  • 1-Butanol is used as an ingredient in processed and artificial flavorings, and for the extraction of lipid-free protein from egg yolk, natural flavouring materials and vegetable oils, the manufacture of hop extract for beermaking, and as a solvent in removing pigments from moist curd leaf protein concentrate. (
  • The Kauri-butanol value ("Kb value") is an international, standardized measure of solvent power for a hydrocarbon solvent, and is governed by an ASTM standardized test, ASTM D1133. (
  • Butanol (C 4 H 10 O) is a four-carbon alcohol in widespread use as an industrial solvent, with a US market size of some 370 million gallons per year at a price of about $3.75 per gallon (approximately $1.4 billion). (
  • The report "N-Butanol Market by Application (Butyl Acrylate, Butyl Acetate, Glycol Ethers, Direct Solvent, Plasticizers) and by Region (North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, RoW) - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2020" , defines and segments the global n-butanol market with an analysis and forecast of its global volume and value. (
  • Some of the drivers include impressive growth of the butyl acrylate industry, growing demand of n-butanol as direct solvent, and the growing construction industry in the Asia-Pacific region. (
  • Direct solvent is the fastest-growing n-butanol application. (
  • N-butanol, as a solvent, improves brushability of paints and coats by reducing viscosity and prevents cobwebbing and blushing. (
  • 1-Butanol is used as a solvent for many organic reactions in pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as a solvent in coating industries and also used as a diluent/reactant in the manufacture of urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins. (
  • The market growth is fueled by the increasing demand for n-Butanol as a solvent and intermediate from end-use industries, such as construction, automotive, textile, agrochemical, and pharmaceuticals. (
  • An essential chemical in the production of acrylates and methacrylates, n-butanol is widely used in the paint and solvent industries, in which Solvay is the market leader in South America. (
  • The compositions contain at least one 4 carbon cyclic ether solvent mixtures with at least one 3-alkoxy 3-methyl butanol, as well as other optional alkaline materials as well as other optional solvents and additives. (
  • pO1X) which exhibited deregulated solvent production characterized by increased flux towards butanol and acetone formation, earlier induction of aad , lower overall acid production, markedly improved yields of solvents on glucose, a prolonged solvent production phase, and increased biomass accumulation compared to those of the wild-type strain. (
  • To make butanol from keto acids, the researchers inserted two different nonnative genes into E. coli . (
  • In the meantime, certain technological hurdles still need to be overcome to make butanol cost competitive, he says. (
  • Butamax alleges that Gevo's use of genetic engineering to make butanol violates a broad U.S. patent issued to Butamax in December 2010. (
  • Assuming he finds his funding, and the process scales, his plans call initially to sell the butanol into the commercial solvents market to generate a sustainable revenue stream. (
  • Like butyl acetate, butanol is often encountered in many OTC solvents/paint thinners as diluting agent, and its presence may affect various chemical reactions done in said solvents. (
  • Butanol is widely used as an industrial chemical found in paints, adhesives, inks, and other solvents. (
  • This operon contains genes involved in both butanol and acetone formation, the two predominant solvents produced by C. acetobutylicum . (
  • The plant, which will use sugar beet as a feedstock, is expected to begin operations in 2009, with the ultimate goal of commercializing butanol after 2010. (
  • The announcement is another step by the two companies toward the construction of commercial-scale bio-refineries using Cobalt's technology to convert Brazilian bagasse and other local non-food feedstock into bio n-butanol in Latin America, officials said. (
  • In the first phase of this research the suitability of Jerusalem artichoke tubers as a renewable feedstock for butanol production was studied and statistical experimental design was used to optimize enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of the feedstock. (
  • An overall ABE productivity of 0.25 g L -1 hr -1 was obtained from both hydrolysates, indicating the suitability of this feedstock for fermentative butanol production. (
  • The report also defines driving and restraining factors for the global n-butanol market with the analysis of trends, opportunities, and challenges. (
  • The global n-butanol market is expected to reach USD 9.9 Billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.1% in the forecast period. (
  • Increasing population, growing urbanization, rising GDP, improving standards of living, and the increasing number of agreements, joint ventures, expansions, and other development activities by leading market players have also contributed to the growth of the global n-Butanol market. (
  • Butanol can also be produced by fermentation of biomass by bacteria. (
  • Two isomers 1-butanol (n-butanol and butan-1-ol) and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) can be easily produced from biomass via fermentation. (
  • The fuel is butanol, It can be derived from lignocellulosic material, plant biomass parts that range from woody stems, straw, agricultural residues, corn fiber and husks, all containing in large part cellulose and some lignin. (
  • Cathay Industrial Biotech produces bio-butanol with the help of anaerobic fermentation of biomass or corn. (
  • Under the partnership, the companies plan to build the world's first biomass-based n-butanol plant in Brazil, which will enter into operation in 2015. (
  • The investment in the biomass-based n-butanol plant requires the approval of the companies' boards. (
  • In terms of the test itself, the kauri-butanol value (Kb) of a chemical shows the maximum amount of the hydrocarbon that can be added to a solution of kauri resin (a thick, gum-like material) in butyl alcohol without causing cloudiness. (
  • The butanol threshold test involves a forced-choice test using an aqueous concentration of butyl alcohol in one sniff bottle and water in the other. (
  • This page is your butyl alcohol n butanol one-stop source for the competitive price and quality. (
  • Global butyl alcohol n butanol buyers find suppliers here every day. (
  • All butyl alcohol n butanol Offers/ Products/ Company Profiles/ Images and other contents are posted by the user and EC21 shall not be liable for any such content. (
  • abstract = "The enzymatic esterification of oleic acid and 1-butanol to butyl oleate was performed in an aqueous-organic system in capillary microreactors with various inner diameters operated under slug flow. (
  • d) chemically converting the butyrate, butyric acid, caproate, caproic acid or mixtures thereof to the butanol and hexanol. (
  • Again butyric acid is converted by fermentation into butanol. (
  • Ramey's fermentation only produces hydrogen, butyric acid, butanol and carbon dioxide, and doubles the yield of butanol from a bushel of corn from 1.3 to 2.5 gallons per bushel-equivalent to corn ethanol's fermentative yield, but with higher heat content and hydrogen as a co-product. (
  • The unmodified term butanol usually refers to the straight chain isomer with the alcohol functional group at the terminal carbon, which is also known as n-butanol or 1-butanol. (
  • The straight chain isomer with the alcohol at an internal carbon is sec-butanol or 2-butanol. (
  • The unmodified term butanol usually refers to the straight chain isomer. (
  • In 2008, Liao developed a microbial pathway for converting sugar into isobutanol , a high-octane isomer of butanol. (
  • The term ''butanol'' is generally accepted only for the n isomer. (
  • The mass percent of oxygen of a butanol blend with gasoline depends on the volume percent of butanol blended, the density of the butanol isomer, and the density of the base blendstock. (
  • A second method for producing butanol involves the Reppe reaction of propylene with CO and water: CH3CH=CH2 + H2O + 2 CO → CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + CO2 In former times, butanol was prepared from crotonaldehyde, which can be obtained from acetaldehyde. (
  • Today, petroleum price increases have rekindled interest in tapping butanol as a biobased fuel, notes Qureshi, with the ARS National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, Ill. In 2003, he began researching the use of wheat straw to make biobutanol drawn by the straw's abundance and promise as a lower-cost alternative to corn-glucose-based feedstocks. (
  • Butanol at a concentration of 1% can significantly inhibit cell growth and the fermentation process. (
  • The highest allowed concentration of 1-butanol (classified as other oxygenates) in the gasoline in the Czech Republic is 10 v/v% according to actual CSN EN 228 requirements. (
  • This sort of separation can allow low-concentration butanol that is generally produced from biological processes (perhaps 2% to 6% butanol) to concentrate up to above the phasing concentration (~8% for n-butanol). (
  • Once the phasing concentration is reached, the energy requirements are far lower because the mixture separates into a butanol-rich phase containing maybe 20% water and a water-rich phase containing about 8% butanol. (
  • The present work was undertaken to study the relationship between n-butanol concentration, temperature and the performance of a conditioned response in the goldfish, to see if it fitted any of the theories. (
  • It was found that the concentration of n-butanol required to just block the conditioned response in the goldfish was maximal (18mM) at about 18 °C and that both raising the temperature and lowering it reduced the required concentration. (
  • After each incorrect response, the concentration of butanol is increased by a factor of 3 until the patient either achieves 5 correct responses or fails to correctly identify the bottle with 4% butanol. (
  • The detection threshold is recorded as the concentration at which the patient correctly identifies the butanol on 5 consecutive trials. (
  • Use of these methods resulted in improved survival in the presence of butanol at a concentration of 10-12 g/L for the wild-type strain (WTS) to 16-18 g/L for mutant strains ( Vasylkivska and Patakova, 2020 ), sometimes up to 23 g/L, as in the case of mutant strain C. beijerinckii BA101 ( Qureshi and Blaschek, 2001 ). (
  • 1-Butanol (IUPAC: Butan-1-ol) also known as n-Butanol is a primary alcohol with the chemical formula C4H9OH and a linear structure. (
  • A process for the conversion of carbohydrates from any of a number of sources into butanol and hexanol for fuel or chemical use is disclosed. (
  • Chang and her colleagues stuck the same enzyme pathway into E. coli, but replaced two of the five enzymes with look-alikes from other organisms that avoided one of the problems other researchers have had: n-butanol being converted back into its chemical precursors by the same enzymes that produce it. (
  • He has produced butanol from his process in small amounts here and there-but for the promotional drive, he and his team bought four barrels of conventional butanol from Ashland Chemical. (
  • BASF SE (Germany), The Dow Chemical Company (U.S.), BASF-YPC Ltd. (China), OXO Corporation (U.S.), Sasol Ltd. (South Africa), Formosa Plastics Corporation (Taiwan), Eastman Chemical Company (U.S.), Oxichimie SAS (France), KH Neochem Co. Ltd. (Japan), and CNPC (China) are some of the major manufacturers of n-butanol globally. (
  • Chemical companies that produce billions of gallons of butanol each year are well aware of such systems, and have taken a look at the economics many times. (
  • In 2006, chemical maker DuPont and the British oil company BP announced collaboration with British Sugar to introduce butanol made from sugar beets as a gasoline-blending additive in the United Kingdom. (
  • The combination of the discovery of 3D enzyme structure and systems metabolic engineering approaches resulted in increased n-butanol production in C. acetobutylicum , which allows the production of this important industrial chemical to be cost competitive. (
  • BASF ( Germany ), Dow Chemical (US), OXEA ( Germany ), Sasol ( South Africa ), PetroChina ( China ), Eastman Chemical Company (US), Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation ( Japan ), BASF PETRONAS ( Malaysia ), Sinopec ( China ), and KH Neochem ( Japan ) are the leading players operating in the n-Butanol market. (
  • Bio-based chemicals firm Cobalt Technologies and specialty chemical company Rhodia, member of the Solvay Group, said Wednesday that they will soon develop and build a bio-butanol demonstration facility in Brazil. (
  • GranBio, a Brazilian biotechnology company, and Rhodia, part of Belgian chemical group Solvay , have signed an agreement to create a partnership to produce bio n-butanol in Brazil. (
  • LONDON - Butanol, the gasoline substitute being promoted by billionaire Richard Branson, is headed for its debut at U.S. pumps as soon as next year in a challenge to ethanol's domination of the $26 billion renewable-fuels market. (
  • The productivity of the acetone-butanol fermentation was increased by continuously removing acetone and butanol from the fermentation broth during fed-batch culture. (
  • Acetone-butanol fermentation revisited. (
  • In acetone-butanol fermentation, acetone and butanol are produced from glucose using strains of Clostridiua , which are strictly anaerobic bacteria. (
  • Hers's a question im not sure how to do Write a mechanism for the acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction of ethyl acetate with 1-butanol, which gives butyl acetate. (
  • 1.2 This specification covers three butanol isomers:1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 2-methyl-1-propanol. (
  • Originally produced by fermentation starting nearly 90 years ago (using Clostridia acetobutylicum ), butanol shifted to becoming a petrochemically-derived product in the 1950s as the price of petrochemicals dropped below that of starch and sugar substrates such as corn and molasses. (
  • A butanol production of 9.01 g/L (36.9% higher than the control), and the highest ratios of butanol/acetate (7.02) and C 4 /C 2 (3.17) derived metabolites were obtained in the C acetobutylicum buk - strain expressing FdNR. (
  • While the TER functions as an NAD(P)H oxidase, butanol production was decreased in the C. acetobutylicum strains containing TER. (
  • To reinforce a metabolic flux toward butanol production, the metabolic network of C. acetobutylicum strain was engineered with the redesigned enzyme. (
  • We have reported the 3D structure of C. acetobutylicum thiolase-a key enzyme involved in n-butanol biosynthesis, for the first time. (
  • In C. acetobutylicum , at inhibitory levels, effects of butanol on cell membrane results in lower ATP generation by the cell, a malfunction in nutrient uptake and an inability of the cell to maintain its internal pH ( Bowles and Ellefson, 1985 ). (
  • Often the positive points are highlighted - sometimes exaggerated while the negative ones are not openly discussed such as the inherent toxicity of butanol to the cell wall of the microorganism synthesizing it in addition to the low yields. (
  • One of the main drawbacks of ABE fermentation is the high toxicity of butanol to producing cells, leading to cell membrane disruption, low culture viability and, consequently, low produced concentrations of butanol. (
  • In addition, researchers and start-ups from across the globe have reported on their staggering progress towards research and development efforts towards the production of butanol from renewable resources. (
  • Understanding of the regulation of these solventogenic genes is crucial for metabolically engineering ( 37 ) this organism to improve production of butanol and acetone. (
  • adds the n-Butanol market was valued at USD 3.89 Billion in 2016 and is projected to reach USD 5.58 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 5.9% during the forecast period. (
  • Sarchami, Tahereh, "Co-substrate Fermentation of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers and Crude Glycerol to Butanol with Integrated Product Recovery" (2016). (
  • A number of research groups are engineering microbes that can convert sugar from various feedstocks into butanol. (
  • The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to identify an alternative disposal process for the industry of high-sugar-content beverages (HSCBs) and (2) to contribute to the study of butanol production from non-edible feedstocks. (
  • Jerusalem artichoke tubers and biodiesel-derived glycerol were investigated as potential feedstocks for fermentative butanol production. (
  • Under most circumstances, butanol is quickly metabolized to carbon dioxide. (
  • 1-Butanol is one of the "fusel alcohols" (from the German for "bad liquor"), which include alcohols that have more than two carbon atoms and have significant solubility in water. (
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , wherein at least about 70% of carbon in the carbohydrate source is converted into the butanol and hexanol. (
  • Some start-ups have also claimed their niche in developing butanol from the ubiquitous carbon dioxide, or from Scotch whisky by-products! (
  • From the following combustion: 1-butanol + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water. (
  • How many grams of carbon dioxide and water are produced when 130.6 grams of 1-butanol is completely burned? (
  • Thiolase condenses two acetyl-CoA molecules for initiating four carbon flux towards butanol. (
  • Butanol will burn to release carbon dioxide, water and heat. (
  • Butanol, when consumed in an internal combustion engine, yields no SOX, NOX or carbon monoxide, all environmentally harmful byproducts of combustion. (
  • Alternative microbial hosts have been engineered as biocatalysts for butanol biosynthesis. (
  • These results demonstrate the potential of engineering butanol biosynthesis in a variety of heterologous microorganisms, including those cultivated aerobically. (
  • The mitigation of end‐product inhibition during the biosynthesis of n‐butanol is demonstrated for an in‐situ product recovery (ISPR) system employing a poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) absorbent. (
  • Mutant strains exhibited increase in butanol tolerance from 36% up to 127% and the greatest improvement was achieved for the strains for which EB was used as a mutagenic agent. (
  • The complete genomes of mutant strains were sequenced and revealed that improved butanol tolerance can be attributed to mutations in genes encoding typical stress responses (chemotaxis, autolysis or changes in cell membrane structure), but, also, to mutations in genes X276_07980 and X276_24400, encoding efflux pump regulators. (
  • to improve the strains' butanol titer and tolerance, advanced fermentation techniques, and in-situ product recovery technologies. (
  • The second gene, derived from yeast, codes for an enzyme that converts aldehydes into butanol. (
  • Ph.D., using fermenters, converts the butyrate to butanol. (
  • a) 1-butanol b) 2-butanol c) butane d) 1-methylpropanol I "think" that it "should" be "B" (2-butanol)? (
  • catalyzed the oxidation of butane to butanol coupled to NADH. (
  • About 4.9 mM butanol was produced from 50% n-butane/O2 mixture through the combined reactions of the crude enzyme and the NR-electrode in 250 ml reactor for 3 h. (
  • The results illustrate that metabolic flux can be significantly changed and directed into butanol or butyrate due to enhancement of NAD(P)H availability by controlling electron flow through the ferredoxin node. (
  • In 1861 butanol production through microbial fermentation was reported for the first time by Pasteur. (
  • There have been numerous efforts over the years to improve butanol yield by using a variety of techniques to minimize product inhibition. (
  • Ramey claims his butanol yield from this process is 42% from glucose. (
  • If the heat of combustion of 1-butanol (C4H9OH) is 2,710 kJ/mol, what mass of oxygen is consumed when enough 1-butanol is burned to yield 26,400 kJ of energy? (
  • In March 2014, Cobalt Technologies Inc. built a bioreactor in Brazil which has a non-genetically modified organism as a bio-catalyst which helps in increasing the yield of bio-butanol and the result is of high quality and efficiency. (
  • A close to 100{\%} yield of butyl oleate could be achieved in the microreactor made of polytetrafluoroethylene within 30 min residence time at 30 °C. The reaction rate is well described by the existing kinetic model based on a Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism with competitive inhibition of 1-butanol. (
  • The optimized conditions were then used for an integrated fed-batch fermentation including pervaporation for in situ butanol recovery. (
  • The purpose of this experiment is to gain an understanding of the utility of NMR in structure characterization by assigning the spectra of regioisomers of butanol (C4H9OH). (
  • 3-Cyclohexyl-1-propanol and 3-cyclohexyl-1-butanol rank among synthetic fragrant compounds. (
  • It is the first utilization of this approach for the development of butanol-tolerant mutants of solventogenic clostridia, for which generally there is a lack of knowledge about butanol efflux or efflux mechanisms and their regulation. (
  • Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of acetic acid, ammonia, putrescine and mixtures which function as highly effective attractants for frugivorous pest flies especially of Anastrepha species. (
  • 5. An attractant composition for frugivorous pest insects comprising a vapor blend consisting of ammonia, acetic acid, putrescine, and 3-methyl-1-butanol wherein said composition provides effective frugivorous pest insect attractant amounts ofsaid vapor blend. (
  • butanol-acetic acid esterification process and n_butene_acetic acid addition process. (
  • The aim of this work was to describe the density and viscosity and water tolerance of 1-butanol-gasoline blends. (
  • Density and viscosity of 1-butanol are higher than that for gasoline and they can affect these parameters in the final gasoline blend. (
  • 1-Butanol could affect the density and viscosity of its blends with gasoline due to their higher values compared to gasoline. (
  • With this astounding pace one would not be surprised to find a start-up next door aiming to be the next analogue of the Oxo-process to synthesize 100% of global butanol production using renewable resources! (
  • So, contemplating a niche in downstream processing to focus on renewable chemicals or plastics, one may consider butanol conversion to lucrative chemicals markets. (
  • Rising demand for alternative fuels and renewable energy owing to the harmful effects of synthetic fuels to the environment including global warming is expected to boost bio-butanol growth over the next seven years. (
  • Esterification of butanol in a two-phase liquid/liquid system. (
  • Other researchers who have engineered yeast or E. coli to produce n-butanol have taken the entire enzyme pathway and transplanted it into these microbes. (
  • For this reason, most of the facilities using butanol / acetone fermentation process ceased to operate with a few exceptions in Mainland China and South Africa (until 1980s). (
  • Pervaporation was evaluated as an online butanol recovery technique and was integrated into the butanol fermentation process. (
  • A showcase of green chemistry, process intensification, and catalysis along with industrial fermentation - Butanol production (with a global market of about 350 million gallons per year) has garnered wide acclaim. (
  • Two distinct metabolic pathways exist, one producing butanol from starch, the other producing butanol from sucrose. (
  • The majority of global production of bio-butanol is from sugarcane and starch and the remaining from sugar beet, wheat, cellulosic sugars and sweet sorghum juice. (
  • Butanol can also be added to diesel fuel to reduce soot emissions. (
  • Despite decades of tinkering by scientists, the microbe still can't produce enough butanol to make it economically viable as a transportation fuel, Liao says. (
  • 1-Butanol has been proposed as a substitute for diesel fuel and gasoline. (
  • Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. (
  • Butanol itself could be reformed for hydrogen for use in fuel cells, and the production process itself produces hydrogen. (
  • Hi, my name is Harry Garner and recently I was introduced to the idea of a new fuel type called Butanol by a good friend who is in the automechanics dept. @ college. (
  • What I was wondering is whether the butanol actually has to be removed from the ABE mixture (which typically has the proportions of 3:6:1) in order to be a useful fuel. (
  • The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. (
  • The applicable window of the injection timing for the n-butanol fuel was much narrower than that of the conventional diesel fuel because of the constraints of misfiring and excessive pressure rise rate. (
  • The study demonstrated that the n-butanol fuel had the potential to achieve ultra-low exhaust emissions. (
  • Higher viscosity of 1-butanol may negatively affect engine fuel injection system at lower temperatures due to higher resistance to flow and it can also negatively influence the homogenisation of fuel with air mainly for engines with direct injection system. (
  • The fuel is butanol It can be derived from lignocellulosic materia. (
  • In this paper, the research efforts are directed towards improving the performance of C.I. engine using ethyl ester Kusum oil (Vegetable oil) and butanol blended with diesel as a fuel. (
  • Availability== Butanol is available as car fuel, though it may contain other isomers depending on the product. (
  • In WWII, butanol was produced as fuel for fighter planes. (
  • This specification covers butanol intended to be blended with gasoline at 1 to 12.5 volume % for use as an automotive spark-ignition engine fuel. (
  • The new standard is based on an annex that had previously appeared in ASTM D7862, Specification for Butanol for Blending with Gasoline for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. (
  • Therefore, instead of distilling off a mixture of 95% water and 5% butanol - which is extremely energy-intensive - you would distill a mixture that contains only 20% water. (
  • Animal experiments show isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) to be an irritant to mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. (
  • [12] In humans, 2-methyl-2-butanol is metabolized primarily via gluconoridation and oxidation to 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane. (
  • d) 2-methyl-2-butene from 3-methyl-2-butanol? (
  • butryic acid t-butanol 2-bromo-2-methylbutane 2-amino-2-methyl-butal-1-ol I know it's not t-butanol or 2-bromo-2-methylbutane. (
  • 4-methyl-1-pentanol 2-methyl-2-butanol 3-ethyl-1-butanol 2, 2-diethyl-4-pentanol 3-ethyl -2-hexanol IS THERE ANY WRONG NAMES? (
  • 2. The composition of claim 1 wherein said 3-alkyl-1-butanol is 3-methyl-1-butanol. (
  • 1. A composition for cleaning contaminants from a surface, consisting essentially of tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and 3-methoxy-3-methyl butanol. (
  • While these techniques have produced promising genetically altered E. coli bacteria and yeast, n-butanol production has been limited. (
  • The most common process starts with propene (propylene), which is put through a hydroformylation reaction to form butanal, which is then reduced with hydrogen to 1-butanol and/or 2-butanol. (
  • The answer I found was that: only 1-butanol can form hydrogen bonds. (
  • The results can be well explained by the presence of an oppositely oriented quasi-bilayer structure of butanol molecules, where the bottom layer is strongly bound by hydrogen-bonding with the PF 6 − anion. (
  • 2-Metil-2-butanol ( terc -amil alkohol, 2M2B, amilen hidrat) je jedan od izomera amil alkohola . (
  • Butan-1-ol er en prim r alkohol der bl.a. forekommer i gylle . (