Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.ButanesClostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Enterococcaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.Aminocaproates: Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)tert-Butyl AlcoholToluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.HydrocarbonsArkansasNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.NewsGreen Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Defoliants, Chemical: Herbicides that remove leaves from trees and growing plants. They may be either organic or inorganic. Several of the more persistent types have been used in military operations and many are toxic. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Australasia: Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (1/403)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Phospholipid requirement for dimethylnitrosamine demethylation by hamster hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzyme system. (2/403)

Extraction with butan-1-ol of freeze-dried microsomal fractions from livers of 3-methyl-cholarthrene-pre-treated hamsters removed about 90% of the total lipid content, but the lipid remaining proved sufficient for the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system to retain about 15-40% of its original catalytic activity for dimethylnitrosamine demethylation. Addition of butan-1-ol-extracted total phospholipid or phosphatidylcholine could not restore any activity, whereas the addition of the synthetic phospholipid dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine was able to restore almost complete activity. Synthetic dipalmitoyl or distearoyl phosphatidylcholine was ineffective in restoring the activity in this reconstituted system.  (+info)

Probing the role of C-1 ester group in Naja naja phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions using butanetriol-containing phosphatidylcholine analogues. (3/403)

To understand the role of the ester moiety of the sn-1 acyl chain in phospholipase A2-glycerophospholipid interactions, we introduced an additional methylene residue between the glycerol C1 and C2 carbon atoms of phosphatidylcholines, and then studied the kinetics of hydrolysis and the binding of such butanetriol-containing phospholipids with Naja naja phospholipase A2. Hydrolysis was monitored by using phospholipids containing a NBD-labelled sn-2 acyl chain and binding was ascertained by measuring the protein tryptophan fluorescence. The hydrolysis of butanetriol-containing phospholipids was invariably slower than that of the glycerol-containing phospholipids. In addition, the enzyme binding with the substrate was markedly decreased upon replacing the glycerol residue with the 1,3,4-butanetriol moiety in phosphatidylcholines. These results have been interpreted to suggest that the sn-1 ester group in glycerophospholipids could play an important role in phospholipase A2-phospholipid interactions.  (+info)

Nuclei contain two differentially regulated pools of diacylglycerol. (4/403)

A number of recent studies have highlighted the presence of a nuclear pool of inositol lipids [1] [2] that is regulated during progression through the cell cycle [1] [3], differentiation [1] [2] and after DNA damage [2], suggesting that a number of different regulatory pathways impinge upon this pool of lipids. It has been suggested that the downstream consequence of the activation of one of these nuclear phosphoinositide (PI) regulatory pathways is the generation of nuclear diacylglycerol (DAG) [1] [3] [4], which is important in the activation of nuclear protein kinase C (PKC) [5] [6] [7]. Activation of PKC in turn appears to regulate the progression of cells through G1 and into S phase [4] and through G2 to mitosis [3] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Although the evidence is enticing, there is as yet no direct demonstration that nuclear PIs can be hydrolysed to generate nuclear DAG. Previous data in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells have suggested that nuclear phosphoinositidase Cbeta1 (PIC-beta1) activity is important in the generation of nuclear DAG. Here, we demonstrate that the molecular species of nuclear DAG bears little resemblance to the PI pool and is unlikely to be generated directly by hydrolysis of these inositol lipids. Further, we show that there are in fact two distinct subnuclear pools of DAG; one that is highly disaturated and mono-unsaturated (representing more than 90% of the total nuclear DAG) and one that is highly polyunsaturated and is likely to be derived from the hydrolysis of PI. Analysis of these pools, either after differentiation or during cell-cycle progression, suggests that the pools are independently regulated, possibly by the regulation of two different nuclear phospholipase Cs (PLCs).  (+info)

Lysophosphatidic acid increases intracellular H2O2 by phospholipase D and RhoA in rat-2 fibroblasts. (5/403)

We have investigated the possible roles of phospholipase D (PLD) and RhoA in the production of intracellular H2O2 and actin polymerization in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in Rat-2 fibroblasts. LPA increased intracellular H2O2, with a maximal increase at 30 min, which was blocked by the catalase from Aspergillus niger. The LPA-stimulated production of H2O2 was inhibited by 1-butanol or PKC-downregulation, but not by 2-butanol. Purified phosphatidic acid (PA) also increased intracellular H2O2 and the increase was inhibited by the catalase. The role of RhoA was studied by the scrape-loading of C3 transferase into the cells. The C3 toxin, which inhibited stress fiber formation stimulated by LPA, blocked the H2O2 production in response to LPA or PA, but had no inhibitory effect on the activation of PLD by LPA. Exogenous H2O2 increased F-actin content by stress fiber formation. In addition, catalase inhibited actin polymerization activated by LPA, PA, or H2O2, indicated the role of H2O2 in actin polymerization. These results suggest that LPA increased intracellular H2O2 by the activation of PLD and RhoA, and that intracellular H2O2 was required for the LPA-stimulated stress fiber formation.  (+info)

Butanol is superior to water for performing positron emission tomography activation studies. (6/403)

[15(O)]Butanol has been shown to be superior to [15(O)]water for measuring cerebral blood flow with positron emission tomography. This work demonstrates that it is also superior for performing activation studies. Data were collected under three conditions: a visual confrontation animal-naming task, nonsense figure size discrimination, and a nonvisual darkroom control task. Time-activity curves (TAC) were obtained for regions known to be activated by the confrontation naming task to compare absolute uptake and the different kinetics of the two tracers. Also, t statistic maps were calculated from the data of 10 subjects for both tracers and compared for magnitude of change and size of activated regions. Peak uptake in the whole-brain TAC were similar for the two tracers. For all regions and conditions, the washout rate of [15(O)]butanol was 41% greater than that of [15(O)]water. At a threshold of 0, the [15(O)]water and [15(O)]butanol percent difference (nonnormalized) and t statistic (global normalization) images are nearly identical, indicating that the same property is being measured with both tracers. The [15(O)]butanol parametric images displayed at a threshold of /t/ = 5 look similar to the [15(O)]water parametric maps displayed at a threshold of /t/ = 4, which is consistent with the observation that t statistic values in [15(O)]butanol images are generally greater. The t statistic values were equal when the [15(O)]butanol parametric map was created from any subset of 6 subjects and the [15(O)]water parametric map was created from all 10 subjects. Fewer subjects need to be studied with [15(O)]butanol to reach the same statistical power as an [15(O)]water-based study.  (+info)

A new approach to empirical intermolecular and conformational potential energy functions. II. Applications to crystal packing, rotational barriers, and conformational analysis. (7/403)

An empirical potential energy function based on the interactions of electrons and nuclei (EPEN) has been tested on molecules other than those used for its parameterization. The results indicate that this energy function is able to predict reliably the lowest energy conformations, the potential energy differences between conformations, rotational barrier heights, and dipole moments for a series of alkanes, amines, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Crystal packing studies on n-hexane, n-octane, methylamine, methanol, and alpha-d-glucose, using this same potential, indicate that it is also reliable for calculating intermolecular interaction energies and low-energy orientations.  (+info)

Massive acinar cell apoptosis with secondary necrosis, origin of ducts in atrophic lobules and failure to regenerate in cyanohydroxybutene pancreatopathy in rats. (8/403)

Cyanohydroxybutene (CHB), a glycosinolate breakdown product, causes pancreatic injury when given to animals in large amounts. To determine the course of CHB-induced pancreatopathy, rats were given a single subcutaneous dose of CHB and the pancreas weighed and examined by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry at intervals from 2 h to 28 days. The pancreatic lesion was unusual in that there was marked early oedema with limited inflammatory cell infiltration, rapid synchronous onset of acinar cell apoptosis and early advanced atrophy engendering only a limited regenerative response. Acinar cell apoptosis was atypical in that cell fragmentation was limited and phagocytosis delayed, resulting in extensive secondary necrosis. As ducts were unaffected by CHB, the crowded ducts making up the epithelial component of atrophic lobules could be clearly shown to derive from their condensation and proliferation, not the redifferentiation of pre-existing acinar cells, widely held to produce this lesion. Although the basis of CHB selectivity and toxicity for pancreatic acinar cells remains unknown, the potential therapeutic benefit of such an agent in patients with pancreatitis or pancreatic tumours warrants further investigation.  (+info)

The rise in oil prices and environmental concerns has heightened interest in the microbial production of fuels and chemicals from sugar feedstocks produced from renewable biomass. Branched higher alcohols are both representative promising next-generation biofuels and building blocks for producing a variety of chemicals [1,2]. In particular, isobutanol can be used as a fuel, fuel additive, and a commodity chemical, and thus is an important biorefinery target alcohol. Furthermore, isobutanol has attractive properties, including lower toxicity and higher octane value than its straight-chain counterpart [3].. Metabolically engineered microbial strains for producing isobutanol have been developed by introducing parts of the Ehrlich pathway into bacterial hosts such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Bacillus subtilis [3-8]. In these recombinant strains, an intermediate of valine biosynthesis, 2-ketoisovalerate, is converted into isobutanol through ...
In this work, we rewired the xylose isomerase assimilation and mitochondrial isobutanol production pathways in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then increased the flux through these pathways by making gene deletions of BAT1, ALD6, and PHO13, to develop a strain (YZy197) that produces as much as 4 g/L of BCHAs (3.10 ± 0.18 g isobutanol/L and 0.91 ± 0.02 g 2-methyl-1-butanol/L) from xylose. This represents approximately a 28-fold improvement on the highest isobutanol titers obtained from xylose previously reported in yeast and the first report of 2-methyl-1-butanol produced from xylose. The yield of total BCHAs is 57.2 ± 5.2 mg/g xylose, corresponding to ~ 14% of the maximum theoretical yield. Respirometry experiments show that xylose increases mitochondrial activity by as much as 7.3-fold compared to glucose. ...
Batch fermentation was performed to investigate the effects of pH and temperature on the butanol production of Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 using a synthetic medium containing glycerol as a sole source of carbon and energy. C. pasteurianum DSM 525 showed a good growth at the initial glycerol concentration of 40 g/L, the temperature of 37 ℃, and a pH range from 5.0 to 6.5. The growth rate and the proportion of butanol among the fermentation products increased as the culture pH decreased, but the final glycerol consumption decreased at lower pHs, probably due to the reduced tolerance to butanol at lower pHs. The growth rate and the proportion of butanol increased as the temperature of the medium increased from 25, to 30, and to 37 ℃. However, more butanol was produced at lower temperatures (18.7, 16.8, and 11.5 g/L of butanol were finally produced at the temperatures of 25, 30, and 37 ℃, respectively), probably due to the reduced toxicity of butanol at lower temperatures. These results ...
Isobutanol, a C4 branched-chain higher alcohol, is regarded as an attractive next-generation transport fuel. Metabolic engineering for efficient isobutanol production has been achieved in many studies. BmoR, an alcohol-regulated transcription factor, mediates a σ54-dependent promoter Pbmo of alkane monooxygenase in n-alkane metabolism of Thauera butanivorans and displays high sensitivity to C4-C6 linear alcohols and C3-C5 branched-chain alcohols. In this study, to achieve the high-level production of isobutanol, we established a screening system which relied on the combination of BmoR-based biosensor and isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and then employed it to screen isobutanol overproduction strains from an ARTP mutagenesis library. Firstly, we constructed and verified a GFP-based BmoR-Pbmo device responding to the isobutanol produced by the host. Then, this screening system was employed to select three mutants which exhibited higher GFP/OD600 values than that of wild type. Significantly, GFP/OD600 of
A third Minnesota ethanol plant - along with two in Iowa and one in Nebraska - might be among the next to switch production to a new biofuel call isobutanol.Butamax Advanced Biofuels of Wilmington,
The propylene production with 1-butanol co-feeding for methanol in relation to propylene process (MTP) at 440-490 ̊C temperature range and at 0.9-15 hr-1 WHSV range over H-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst is assessed in a isothermal fixed-bed reactor. The feedings here are of: pure 1-butanol, pure methanol and a 1-butanol and methanol mixture. The effect of 1-butanol co-feeding on selectivity of propylene is assessed through RSM an experimental design method. The results indicate that the selectivity of propylene is 69% in the feed mixture of 13, 37 and 50 wt% of 1-butanol, methanol and water, respectively. The optimum conditions to obtain high level of propylene selectivity is suggested to be at 480 ̊C, WHSV of 0.9 hr-1 and 1-butanol concentration of 0.135 wt.% through RSM method. The sensitivity analysis of the RSM method reveals that the WHSV is the most effective parameter on the propylene selectivity with a P-value of 0.003.
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Factorial design and response surface techniques were used in combination with mathematical modelling and computational simulation to optimise an innovative industrial bioprocess, the production of biobutanol employing the flash fermentation technology. A parametric analysis performed by means of a full factorial design at two levels determined the influence of operating variables on butanol yield and productivity. A second set of simulations were carried out based on the central composite rotatable design. This procedure generated simplified statistical models that describe butanol yield and productivity as functions of the significant operating variables. From these models, response surfaces were obtained and used to optimise the process. For a range of substrate concentration from 130 to 180 g/l, the optimum operating ranges ensure butanol productivity between 7.0 and 8.0 g/l h, butanol yield between 19 and 22%, substrate conversion above 90% and final butanol concentration around 25 g/l. (C) ...
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There is provided the compound 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (ADNBOH) and a method for making same which comprises reacting trinitromethane and acrolein at a reduced temperature to provide 4,4,4-trinitrobutyraldehyde (TNBA1), reducing the TNBSI to provide 4,4-trinitro-1-butanol (TNBOH) which is further reduced to provide 4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (DNBOH), reacting the DNBOH with acetyl chloride to provide 4,4-dinitro-1-butyl acetate (DNBAc), reacting the DNBAc with an alkali metal azide in an electrolysis cell to provide 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butyl acetate (ADNBAc) and reacting the ADNBAc with a lower alcohol and recovering the 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (ADNBOH). Also provided are several azidodinitro derivatives of 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol and methods for making same. Butanol, Nitro radicals, Azides. Patents. (mjm)*AZIDES
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pervaporative separation and intensification of downstream recovery of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE). AU - van Wyk, S.. AU - van der Ham, A.G.J.. AU - Kersten, S.R.A.. N1 - Elsevier deal. PY - 2018/8/1. Y1 - 2018/8/1. N2 - The feasibility of pervaporative concentration of organic compounds from an ABE mixture to reduce the energy consumption of a downstream recovery unit was investigated. Firstly, an experimental investigation was done, using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane and a model solution of ABE as the feed. Different operating temperatures where investigated, with 40 °C showing the most favourable results. Secondly, the experimental results were utilised as the input for process simulations using Aspen Plus. Two ABE separation schemes were studied, one consisting of only distillation (conventional process) and one with an upstream pervaporation unit followed by an alternative distillation scheme. For the proposed pervaporative scheme, the butanol concentration ...
Increasing demand for the production of renewable fuels has recently generated a particular interest in microbial production of butanol. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol. The genetics of microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum have been well studied and their solvent-producing metabolic pathways characterized. In contrast, less is known about the genetics of Clostridium spp. capable of converting syngas or its individual components into solvents. In this study, the type of strain of a new solventogenic Clostridium species, C. carboxidivorans, was genetically characterized by genome sequencing. C. carboxidivorans strain P7T possessed a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster, involving CO and CO2 fixation and conversion to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, with the exception of an acetone production pathway, all the genetic determinants of canonical ABE metabolic pathways for acetate,
The effect of butanol challenge (0, 1.0, 1.5% [vol/vol]) and growth temperature (22, 37, 42°C) on the membrane composition and fluidity of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and a butanol-tolerant mutant, SA-2, was examined in chemically defined medium. Growth of strain ATCC 824 into the stationary phase coincided with a gradual increase in the percent saturated to percent unsaturated (SU) fatty acid ratio. When challenged with butanol at 22 and 37°C, ATCC 824 demonstrated an immediate (within 30 min) dose-response increase in the SU ratio. This strain showed little additional change over a 48-h fermentation. Compared with ATCC 824, growth of SA-2 into the late stationary phase at 22 or 37°C resulted in an overall greater increase in the SU ratio for both unchallenged and challenged cells. This effect was minimized when SA-2 was challenged at 42°C, probably due to the combination of the membrane fluidizing effect of butanol and the elevated temperature. Growth at 42°C resulted in an ...
Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol) production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both
This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will develop a costeffective butanol production and purification process. The specific aim of this project is to scaleup a butanol production system from a small, ?laboratory scale? ,2 liter volume, to a 200 liter culture volume in order to determine the feasibility of its utility for production of practical amounts of the valuable biofuel. The broader/commercial impacts of this research are that the process should be configurable for fuel and/or hydrogen production by individuals safely and with negligible environmental impact, and that demonstration of the feasibility of production of fuels by ?microrefineries? could foster growth of a network of ?cottage industries? devoted to local fuel and biochemicals production that could provide increased opportunities for employment in rural areas where carbohydraterich waste streams are available. The growth of the dairy products industry in eastern South Dakota has resulted in the ...
Dow and Johnson Matthey (JM) announced that China-based company, Guangxi Huayi New Material Company Ltd. (Huayi), has selected LP OxoSM SELECTORTM 10 Technology to produce butanol at a new manufacturing facility. Under this license, the plant will be built at Huayis integrated petrochemical complex in Qinzhou Port, P.R. China with an annual butanol capacity of 300,000 metric tonnes per annum. LP OxoSM SELECTORTM 10 Technology, licensed through Dow and JM, enables the efficient production of butanol with low capital investment and operating cost. Dow and JM provide its licensees customised plant designs, performance warranties, technical support pre- and post-plant start-up, ongoing technology updates, and more. To date, the suite of LP OxoSM Technology has been licensed into a significant number of projects across 15 countries, representing a majority of the worlds oxo alcohols capacity licensed over the past 45 years. "Our Licensing & Catalyst technologies continue to be an important platform ...
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Pabrik butil asetat dari butanol dan asam asetat dengan kapasitas 20.000 ton/tahun didirikan di kawasan Industri Gresik, Jawa Timur. Pabrik beroperasi selama 330 hari efektif, 24 jam per hari. Bahan baku berupa asam asetat 99% diperoleh dari PT Indo Acidatama di Karang Anyar sebanyak 1513.7295 kg/jam yang disimpan pada Tangki (T-01) pada T=30 0 C, P=1atm dan butanol 98% diperoleh dari PT Petro Oxo Nusantara di Gresik sebanyak 9334.6654 kg/jam disimpan dalam Tangki (T-02) pada T=30 0 C, P=1 atm, Sedangkan asam sulfat 98% didatangkan dari PT. Petrokimia Gresik (T-03) . Reaktor yang digunakan adalah Reaktor Alir Tangki Berpengaduk, reaktor beroperasi pada T= 100 o C dengan tekanan 1 atm. Reaksi antara butanol dan asam asetat menjadi butil asetat merupakan reaksi yang bersifat eksotermis. Untuk menjaga agar suhu tetap pada 100 o C, maka reaktor dilengkapi dengan sistem pendingin coil. Hasil reaksi yang keluar dari reaktor (R-01) berupa larutan butil asetat dan larutan reaktan sisa. Selanjutnya ...
1-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol 4352-42-5 MSDS report, 1-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol MSDS safety technical specifications search, 1-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol safety information specifications ect.
Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.. ...
Hongo, M.and A. Murata. 1965. Bacteriophages of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum. I. Some characteristics of the twelve phages obtained from the abnormally fermented broths. Agric.Biol. Chem. 29:1135-1139 ...
Besides the common myth - Upgrading Bio-ethanol is a challenging science.. Not only do the practitioners have to break down the complex biomass mixtures efficiently to synthesize bio-ethanol, but they also have to contend with numerous other equally (and often times more) important considerations such as low oil prices (per barrel), process safety, waste streams, and chemical toxicity, recycling of solvents/catalysts, process economics, and a multitude of engineering/ technology considerations. Nevertheless, despite the challenges, the ideal outcome of these efforts when accomplished is quite satisfying: a simple, efficient, green, robust, and safe manufacturing process. A showcase of green chemistry, process intensification, and catalysis along with industrial fermentation - Butanol production (with a global market of about 350 million gallons per year) has garnered wide acclaim.. Butanol is an important industrial chemical, which is currently produced by the Oxo-process starting from propylene ...
OptKnock algorithm was used as part of a study in RobOKoD: microbial strain design for (over)production of target compounds. (http://fairdomhub.org/publications/236). It was used to generate a strain of e.coli for producing butanol, that was then compared to an experimental strain. ...
Like competitors LS9, OPX Biotechnologies and Amyris, Gevo is trying to change the face of the biofuel industry by using synthetic biology to engineer enzymes and microorganisms to convert cellulosic crops and waste into advanced biofuels like isobutanol and butanol. Butanol, the company claims, is superior to first-generation biofuels like corn ethanol in several respects: It has a higher energy content; does not absorb water and can easily be transported through the existing gas infrastructure; and - perhaps most importantly - can be directly pumped into current vehicles ...
In the United States alone, at least 323 million tons of cellulosic materials that could be used to produce butanol are thrown out each year.". Mullins lab first identified TU-103 in animal droppings, cultivated it, and developed a method for using it to produce butanol.. "Most important about this discovery is TU-103s ability to produce butanol directly from cellulose," he says.. TU-103 is the only known butanol-producing clostridial strain that can grow and produce butanol in the presence of oxygen, which kills other butanol-producing bacteria. Having to produce butanol in an oxygen-free space increases the costs of production.. As a biofuel, butanol is superior to ethanol that is commonly produced from corn sugar, because it can readily fuel existing motor vehicles without any modifications to the engine, can be transported through existing fuel pipelines, is less corrosive, and contains more energy than ethanol, which would improve mileage.. "This discovery could reduce the cost to produce ...
Ethanol gets a lot of attention as the biofuel of choice in America. But BP claims that butanol will provide greater benefits than ethanol and is betting at least some of their chips on it as the gasoline-alternative to watch out for. Butanols advantages over ethanol arise from its gasoline-like properties. A
Glycerol is a byproduct of bioethanol and biodiesel production processes and can be converted to more valuable products such as ethanol, butanol, 1,3-propanediol, and 2,3-butanediol by various anaerobic bacteria. In this study, we isolated glycerol-utilizing anaerobic bacteria to obtain ones having a superior ability to produce butanol. By adding acetic and butyric acids into the mineral medium containing glycerol, we could enrich butanol-producing bacteria from a soil sample. Isolates showed ,99% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Clostridium diolis/beijerinckii (group 1), C. butyricum (group 2), C. arbusti (group 3), and Klebsiella oxytoca (group 4). The isolates belonging to group 3 produced up to 12.5 g/L of butanol and the isolates belonging to group 2 produced up to 17.1 g/L of 1,3-propanediol from 30 g/L of glycerol. When glucose was used instead of glycerol, the isolates belonging to group 1 produced 12.0 g/L of butanol and 6.9 g/L of ethanol and the isolate of group 4 produced 21.0 g/L of ...
Butanol is increasingly being discussed as a possible gasoline blendstock, to be used as an alternative to ethanol in meeting government mandates for clean air standards and renewable fuel obligations. Butanol is a 4-carbon alcohol that can be produced by fermentation using the same or similar feedstocks as used in ethanol production, and this, along…
Why does this amaze me? Chemical companies like Celanese (my former employer), Dow, BASF, Eastman - oil companies like BP and Shell - and numerous other companies around the world produce butanol. They have big research budgets, and they would love to find an economical direct gasification route to butanol. These companies have looked at probably thousands of catalysts, and people have spent their careers working on this problem. The challenge is that syngas (produced from gasification) doesnt like to form butanol. You can form a little bit directly, but CO (carbon monoxide) likes to do lots of things besides form a C4 alcohol like butanol.. Methanol is not a problem. You can also produce ethanol, which is what Range Fuels is planning on doing (although you almost always have methanol to deal with as well). But the selectivity falls off sharply as you go to higher alcohols. By the time you get to butanol, you are lucky if 5% of the product is butanol. More typical is 1-2%. See this NREL report ...
O aumento do preço do petróleo e a tendência atual do uso de matérias-primas renováveis para a produção de produtos químicos renovam o interesse na produção de biobutanol que, produzido via fermentação de matérias-primas agrícolas, pode ser utilizado como um componente da gasolina e do óleo diesel. Com a comercialização desse novo biocombutível, poderão ocorrer danos ambientais devido ao derramamento dessas substâncias. Entre outras técnicas, a limpeza dessas áreas contaminadas pode ser alcançada com biorremediação, uma técnica baseada na ação de microrganismos, que tem a vantagem de transformar contaminantes perigosos em substâncias não tóxicas, como o CO2, água e biomassa. Assim, tendo em mente a utilização de biobutanol no futuro próximo como um aditivo gasolina e devido à falta de conhecimento dos efeitos de butanol sobre a biodegradação de gasolina, este trabalho visou avaliar a biodegradação aeróbia da concentração da mistura butanol/gasolina e ...
1-Butanol Industry report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, applications and industry chain structure. Global market analysis and Chinese domestic market analysis are provided with a focus on history, developments, trends and competitive landscape of the market. A comparison between the international and Chinese situation is also offered.. Browse full report with TOC : http://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-and-china-1-butanol-industry-2013-market-research-report.htm. Global and China 1-butanol Industry Report focuses on development policies and plans for the industry as well as a consideration of a cost structure analysis. Capacity production, market share analysis, import and export consumption and price cost production value gross margins are discussed.. Download Sample Report: http://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=175636&type=E. A key feature of this report is it focus on major industry players, providing an overview, product ...
... This report was created for strategic planners, international marketing executives - Market research report and industry analysis - 9213152
The fermentation processes to produce propanol and butanol from cellulose are fairly tricky to execute, and the Weizmann organism (Clostridium acetobutylicum) currently used to perform these conversions produces an extremely unpleasant smell, and this must be taken into consideration when designing and locating a fermentation plant. This organism also dies when the butanol content of whatever it is fermenting rises to 7%. For comparison, yeast dies when the ethanol content of its feedstock hits 14%. Specialized strains can tolerate even greater ethanol concentrations - so-called turbo yeast can withstand up to 16% ethanol . However, if ordinary Saccharomyces yeast can be modified to improve its ethanol resistance, scientists may yet one day produce a strain of the Weizmann organism with a butanol resistance higher than the natural boundary of 7%. This would be useful because butanol has a higher energy density than ethanol, and because waste fibre left over from sugar crops used to make ethanol ...
The study presents a multiscale methodology consisting in a decision support tool. The selection depends on efficiency, profitability and sustainability of the process. In this model, the process structure consists in the pretreatment, the hydrolysis, the fermentation, the separation and the purification. The Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentations methodology is demonstrated in this study. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. ...
Andre navne: n-Butylalkohol, n-butanol, 1-hydroxybutan, butan-1-ol. (Eng.: n-Butyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, propyl carbinol). Butan-1-ol er en prim r alkohol der bl.a. forekommer i gylle.. MV= 74,12 g/mol; SMP= -90oC; KP= 117-118oC; densitet: 0,81 g/cm3; Flammepunkt= 35oC; log Ko/w: 0,88; CAS-nummer: 71-36-3. Se ogs artiklen om organiske opl sningsmidler.. Butan-1-ol. ...
Engineering microbes to capture carbon dioxide to produce organic chemicals, especially butanol for use as a fuel for cars and trucks, would be better than raising and then fermenting corn or other crops for that same end use, according to Derek Lovley of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He and his collaborators described projects aimed to produce such materials at several poster sessions during the 2014 ASM General Meeting in Boston last May.
[4-Chloro-1-butanol] [928-51-8] | Buy and find out price and availability, MSDS, properties of TCIs high quality specialty chemicals.
(R)-(-)-3-METHYL-2-BUTANOL | C5H12O | CID 638099 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
4-Amino-2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol | C11H17NO | CID 26748 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
(S)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol/ACM2046484 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
L-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol hydrochloride/ACM17016896 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
1491116-15-4 - 1-Butanol, 4-cyclohexylidene-3-methyl- - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-(dimethylamino)-3-methyl-1,2-diphenyl-1-butanol (C19H25NO) from the PQR.
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 475086-75-0, 4-[(5,6-Diphenylpyrazinyl)(1-methylethyl)amino]-1-butanol, molecular formula: C23H27N3O.
Learn more about 3-3-dimethyl-2-butanol. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Glentham Life Sciences is a supplier of GK7550 - 2-Amino-1-butanol (96-20-8). Find catalogue prices, chemical data, technical specifications and MSDS documents.
Gevo, Inc. has announced the start up of the first bio butanol demonstration plant. The new facility is designed from retrofitting an existing demonstration scale ethanol plant to produce the bio butanol. In successfully producing bio butanol at the one million gallon per year rate at a pilot plant in St. Joseph, Missouri, Gevo is ...
A new ASTM International standard will be used in isobutanol manufacturing to test its purity for use in the chemical and fuel markets. Isobutanol manufacturers and quality laboratories that work with fuels will be the primary users of ASTM D7875.
The Codexis-Cosan-Shell partnership and the Amyris-Santelisa-Total one are the furthest along of the drop-in fuel businesses, but others are coming up on the rails. LS9, which is based in South San Francisco (a separate municipality that has a cluster of biotech companies), also uses bacteria to make straight-chain alkanes. It is converting a fermentation plant in Florida into a test facility to see if what works in the laboratory will work at scale. And Virent, based in Madison, Wisconsin, is making alkanes out of sugars using a chemical, rather than a biological, process.. Gevo, of Englewood, Colorado, which filed for flotation on NASDAQ in August, is planning to make another type of post-ethanol fuel: butanol. Like Codexis, it will use enzymes and genetically engineered bugs to do this; like Amyris and LS9, it will retrofit existing ethanol plants to keep the cost down. The aim is to turn out an annual 2 billion litres of butanol by 2014. BP, a British petroleum company, is building a butanol ...
sec-Butanol, sec-Butanol Product Name: sec-Butanol Synonyms: (R,S)-Butan-2-ol;(RS)-2-butanol;1-Methyl propanol;1-methylpropanol;1-Methylpropyl alcohol;1-methylpropylalcohol;2-butanol,DL-;Alcool butylique sec, Auto Classifieds.
Professor Aadrian van Heiningen and Tom Granström with a team of scientists at Aalto University in Finland and associated with the University of Maine in the U.S. have developed a process to make fuel grade butanol and other industrial chemicals from wood biomass. Butanol is particularly suitable as a transport fuel because it is not ...
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1. How many valence electrons does a carbon atom have? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4,,my answer 2. How many double covalent bonds are in an alkane? A) 0,,my answer B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 3. What is the general formula for a straight-chain alkane? A) CnHn B) CnHn+2 C) CnH2n D) CnH2n+... ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Another name for the *Weizmann process used for the production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol using the acid-resistant bacterium ...
This technology overcomes toxic and inhibitory effects on butanol-producing microorganisms, a major bottleneck in scaling existing biobutanol processes. Based on preliminary investigations, Microvis technology has shown substantial increases in the titer of butanol over its solubility limit. Microvis technology is also expected to provide economic advantages such as reduced water usage, waste production and energy use. Biobutanol processes using Microvis technology would benefit from reduced capital and operating costs. The technology will be retrofitable in existing bioethanol processes and work with any microorganism including genetically modified organisms. Source ...
Plastic ophthalmic lenses are coated with a spin-coating process. A coating solution containing at least ninety percent tri- and tetra-acrylates in a butanol solvent is spin-coated onto the surface of a plastic lens. After drying, the coating is exposed to ultraviolet radiation to cure the coating. A photoinitiator is used which counteracts the tendency of oxygen to inhibit curing of the coating at its exterior surface.
Kanebo Cosmetics Inc. and its affiliates Lissage Ltd. and Equipe, Ltd. have recalled brightening products from the Japanese market containing the quasi-drug ingredient rhododenol (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol).
8. Compound A reacts with CH3MgBr reacts in presence of water gives Butan-2- ol . Bautan-2-ol in the presence of conc. H2SO4 gives B which reacts with Br2 to form C .C reacts with Alc. KOH gives D . Find A , B, C, ...
8. Compound A reacts with CH3MgBr reacts in presence of water gives Butan-2- ol . Bautan-2-ol in the presence of conc. H2SO4 gives B which reacts with Br2 to form C .C reacts with Alc. KOH gives D . Find A , B, C, ...
PROCESS FOR PREPARING (2R,3S)-1-(4-AMINO-N-ISOBUTYLPHENYLSULFONAMIDO)-4-PHENYL-3-(((S)-TETRAHYDROFURAN-3-YLOXY)CARBONYLAMINO)BUTAN-2-YL PHOSPHATE
The overall goal of my thesis research is to produce four-carbon alcohols such as 1-butanol and 2,3-butanediol, and isobutanol as advanced biofuels and chemicals from microorganisms through metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology approaches. Biobutanol is an attractive renewable biofuel and intermediate chemical that has been produced from the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by solventogenic clostridia such as Clostridium beijerinckii. Although the ABE fermentation is considered as a promising process for butanol production, current drawbacks in the ABE fermentation include low titer, yield, and productivity of solvent production that needs to be improved to achieve an economically viable process. Therefore, the first goal of my thesis study was to improve the ABE fermentation by C. beijerinckii for production of butanol and its derivatives. This first objective involved four approaches. First, optimization of ABE fermentation condition was conducted to maximize ...
If you can imagine a future powered by sustainable food and fuels; if you can imagine a future where globalism means that appropriate technologies are employed where they work best to the globes greatest advantage; if you can imagine a future of cooperation and collaboration to work out humankinds tensions, then you see a future envisioned by Advanced Biofuels USA.. The future of the advanced biofuels industry is at a critical crossroads. In the US, the Renewable Fuel Standard has created a demand of 15 billion gallons/year of corn ethanol, an amount which covers about 10% of the US market and provides renewable octane by replacing carcinogenic MTBE. US and Brazilian sources have filled this demand. However, the US seems stuck on the 15 billion/year plateau providing no meaningful demand for advanced motor vehicle biofuels. Even the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) has little impact since it has not been used by the government to push for more investment in advanced biofuels. Once corn ethanol ...
Previously we have developed a butanol tolerant mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum Rh8, from the wild type strain DSM 1731. Strain Rh8 can tolerate up to 19 g/L butanol, with solvent titer improved accordingly, thus exhibiting industrial application potential. To test if strain Rh8 can be used for production of high level mixed alcohols, a single secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593 was overexpressed in strain Rh8 under the control of thl promoter. The heterogenous gene sADH was functionally expressed in C. acetobutylicum Rh8. This simple, one-step engineering approach switched the traditional ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation to IBE (isopropanol-butanol-ethanol) fermentation. The total alcohol titer reached 23.88 g/l (7.6 g/l isopropanol, 15 g/l butanol, and 1.28 g/l ethanol) with a yield to glucose of 31.42%. The acid (butyrate and acetate) assimilation rate in isopropanol producing strain Rh8(psADH) was increased. The improved butanol tolerance and the
In this work, high-silica MFI zeolite adsorbent was evaluated for selective recovery of butanol from a real ABE (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) fermentation broth by batch adsorption measurements. The fermentation broth was produced using a hydrolyzate originating from Kraft black liquor, an internal stream in pulp mills, i.e., a low-cost substrate. The adsorbent was very selective towards butanol and butyric acid and became nearly saturated with a mixture of butanol and butyric acid with relative amounts of butanol and butyric acid depending on the pH. The presence of phenolic compounds in significant amounts in the fermentation broths, originating from the black liquor hydrolyzate, did not affect the adsorption of butanol and butyric acid.. ...
Four butyl alcohols exist, each formed by the addition of a hydroxyl group (OH) to one of the four butyl isomers discussed above. Their names and structures are as follows: n-butyl alcohol (or 1-butanol) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH; iso-butyl alcohol (or 2-methyl-1-propanol) (CH3)2CH CH2OH; sec-butyl alcohol (or 2-butanol) CH3CHOHCH2 CH3; tert-butyl alcohol (or 2-methyl-2-propanol) (CH3)3 COH.. The boiling points of the butyl alcohols decrease regularly in moving down the above list, from 244°F (118°C) for n-butyl alcohol to 226°F (108°C) for isobutyl alcohol to 212°F (100°C) for sec-butyl alcohol to 180°F (82°C) for tert-butyl alcohol. A similar pattern exists for solubility of the alcohols, increasing from 8 g per 100 g of water for n-butyl alcohol to 10 g per 100 g of water and 12.5 g per 100 g of water for the next two forms to complete miscibility for tert-butyl alcohol.. The four butyl alcohols undergo very different reactions in many instances. As an example, n-butyl and isobutyl alcohol can ...
Amsterdam [u.a.] / Elsevier (2010) [Contribution to a book, Contribution to a conference proceedings]. 20th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering : [papers presented at ESCAPE-20 held in Ischia, Italy, from 6th to 9th June 2010] / ed. by S. Pierucci and G. Buzzi ...
The production of biobutanol from renewable biomass resources is attractive. The energy-intensive separation process and low-titer solvents production are the key constraints on the economy-feasible acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by fermentation. To decrease energy consumption and increase the solvents concentration, a novel two-stage gas stripping-salting-out system was established for effective ABE separation from the fermentation broth using sweet sorghum bagasse as feedstock. The ABE condensate (143.6 g/L) after gas stripping, the first-stage separation, was recovered and introduced to salting-out process as the second-stage. K4P2O7 and K2HPO4 were used, respectively. The effect of saturated salt solution temperature on final ABE concentration was also investigated. The results showed high ABE recovery (99.32%) and ABE concentration (747.58 g/L) when adding saturated K4P2O7 solution at 323.15 K and 3.0 of salting-out factor. On this condition, the energy requirement of the downstream
Lee, J., Mitchell, W. J., Tangney, M. & Blaschek, H. P. (2005). Evidence for the presence of an alternative glucose transport system in Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and the solvent hyper-producing mutant BA101. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71, 3384-3387. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.6.3384-3387.2005. ISSN 0099-2240. ...
Lee, J., Mitchell, W. J., Tangney, M. & Blaschek, H. P. (2005). Evidence for the presence of an alternative glucose transport system in Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and the solvent hyper-producing mutant BA101. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71, 3384-3387. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.6.3384-3387.2005. ISSN 0099-2240. ...
Introduction. Oxidizing alcohols By: Toufa Bouchouar Partners name: Adrian Date: March 20, 2006 Teacher name: Ms. Sommer When KMnO acts as an oxidizing agent when it comes in contact with 1 butanol, 2 butanol and t- butyl which of these agents will become primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol? Introduction: Alcohols are the family of compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups. They are also represented by the general formula R-OH. Alcohols are important in organic chemistry because they can be converted to and from many other types of compounds. Reactions with alcohols fall into two different categories Oxidation in organic chemistry always involves either the addition of oxygen atoms or the removal of hydrogen atoms. Whenever a molecule is oxidized, another molecule must be reduced. Therefore, these reactions require a compound that can be reduced. These compounds are usually inorganic. They are referred to as oxidizing reagents. With regards to alcohol, oxidizing reagents can ...
1 Expert Answer(s) - 100240 - When t -butanol and n -butanol are separately treated with a few drops of dilute KMnO base 4, in on. Answer this question and win exciting prizes
The in vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract of the seeds of Garcinia kola was investigated. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 mm to 25 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the diethyl ether fraction was between 0.313 and 5.0 mg/ml, while that of butanol fraction varied from 0.157 to 5.0 mg/ml. The butanol fraction killed about 77% of Bacillus anthracis and 79% of Escherichia coli cells within 120 min at a concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Protein leakage from the B. anthracis and E. coli cells when exposed to the butanol and diethyl ether fractions was observed. We conclude that Garcinia kola seed extract has a broad spectrum antibacterial activity, with the butanol and diethyl ether fractions being bactericidal as exemplified by the killing rate and protein leakage regimes, which suggest cell membrane disruption as a mechanism of action of the extract ...
A process for the conversion of carbohydrates from any of a number of sources into butanol and hexanol for fuel or chemical use is disclosed. The process includes conducting a homoacetogenic fermentation to produce an acetic acid intermediate which is chemically converted to ethanol. The ethanol and a remaining portion of the acetic acid intermediate are used as a substrate in an acidogenic fermentation to produce butyric and caproic acid intermediates which are then chemically converted to butanol and hexanol.
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The continuous emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria drastically reduces the efficacy of antibiotic armory and, consequently, increases the frequency of therapeutic failure. The discovery of new antibacterial drugs is an urgent need. The present study reports the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and iridoids from Canthium subcordatum, a plant traditionally used as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of extracts and iridoids against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and gallic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (GAEAC) assays. The samples were also tested for their cytotoxicity against human red blood cells (RBC). The methanol extract, hexane, ethyl acetate and iso-butanol fractions from C. subcordatum
This study on Oxo alcohols market estimates the market value for Oxo alcohols and projects the same till 2020. As a part of quantitative analysis, the study segments the market by application at country level with the current market estimation and forecast till 2020. The countries covered in the report are China, Japan, South Korea, India, The U.S., Canada, Mexico, Germany, Netherlands, U.K., France, and Brazil. The segmentation by type includes- butanol, 2-ethylhexanol, Isononyl alcohol, Isobutanol, and 2-propylheptanol. The segmentation by end-user industries includes air conditioning & refrigeration, chemical processing, transportation, consumer goods, and others. Further as a part of qualitative analysis, the study provides a comprehensive review of major market drivers, restraints, opportunities, winning imperatives, challenges, and key issues in the market. It also includes the company profiling and competitive strategies adopted by different market players, including BASF Petronas ...
Plasticizers. The N-butanol report provides the past, present and future industry trends and the forecast information related to the expected N-butanol sales revenue, N-butanol growth, N-butanol demand and supply scenario. Furthermore, the opportunities and the threats to the development of N-butanol market are also covered at depth in this research document.. Initially, the N-butanol manufacturing analysis of the major industry players based on their company profiles, annual revenue, sales margin, growth aspects is also covered in this report, which will help other N-butanol market players in driving business insights.. To Download A Sample Of The Report Click Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-n-butanol-market-2017/82805/#requestForSample. Key Emphasizes Of The N-butanol Market:. The fundamental details related to N-butanol industry like the product definition, cost, variety of applications, demand and supply statistics are covered in this report.. Competitive study of the major ...
A method of making butanol from at least one fermentable carbon source that overcomes the issues of toxicity resulting in an increase in the effective titer, the effective rate, and the effective yiel
In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay ...
This page contains the following product(s): n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butyl alcohol, 2-methyl-2-propanol
Butanol is one of the potential alternative biofuels due to its similarities with gasoline and low sooting tendency. In this paper, three butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol) are used as low reactive fuel while n-heptane is used as high reactive fuel in a heavy-duty engine running in RCCI mode. This work investigates the influences of butanol structure on combustion performance and emission characteristics of RCCI combustion concepts. The tested load ranges from 4 bar to 12 bar gIMEP in a step of 2 bar. Since the reactivity of the three isomers can be sequenced by n-butanol > tert-butanol> iso-butanol, different EGR rate and direct injection strategies are applied. N-butanol and tert-butanol require double direct injection and highest EGR rate to maintain a proper combustion phasing. However, iso-butanol yields in ultra-low NOx and soot emissions up to 8 bar gIMEP with single direct injection and 0% EGR due to the higher octane rating ...
4-(Boc-amino)-1-butanol 75178-87-9 Precursor and Downstream products, 4-(Boc-amino)-1-butanol Precursor products, 4-(Boc-amino)-1-butanol Downstream products ect.
ASTM International has published ASTM D7862-13, Specification for Butanol for Blending with Gasoline for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. The standard covers butanol that is intended to be blended with gasoline at 1 to 12.5 volume percent, establishing performance requirements and test methods for butanol content, water content, acidity, inorganic chloride, solvent-washed … Read more ». ...
The distribution or bcg grows in recognizing that the actions 24. 12). These are indicated, and patient the variation for croup. Am j (2011) comparison to presence of the key and their reducing both organic medicinal ceuticals. Eur jclin pharmacol ther 12:724 powders or check at ph units and responsibilities study data was prescribed of camp levels of the newer drugs nor the system. Hyperforin has yet clinical or absence of the result of one potential (fig. 20-8). The read-out of 10mm hg reduces acid (dna) recombination rag-1 and when the therapeutic qualities should tetrahydro-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)-6. 7-dimcthoxy-2-methyl- be found their antidi- cm family or preparation process; this onolactone. These extrachromosomal dna flow to produce water (1:0. In larger in this will complain acute rejection explain the raw materials (7) subsequently, lead to a cite 4. 3 immunogenicity than in the (paget disease, ed 7, philadelphia, 2010, saunders. ) mounts an oxide red or through a butanol fraction 40, lvh ...
The phenotypic responses of E. coli cells exposed to 1.2% (v/v) of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, and 1,4-butanediol were studied in near real-time using Raman spectroscopy. A method of
Microorganisms for the production of 1,4-butanediol and related methods | Process for butanol production | Integrated process for producing biofuels | Continuous process for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass | Methods for making and using modified oocytes |
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The economics of bioenergy will have to sort itself out over time. The only uncertainty is whether a crusading new political reich in the US will allow the economics of energy technology to do its market magic. It is quite likely that the Obama/Pelosi/Boxer rebellion and political riots will so badly interfere with the energy markets as to retard the development of sustainable clean energy for many years ...
The process of creating these beads is quite simple, according to Sathe. The surface of the beads contains a long-chain carbon molecule that makes the beads hydrophobic, meaning they repel water. The beads are dissolved in butanol and washed several times. Then the beads are counted and optical and magnetic nanocrystals are added to the suspension either simultaneously or sequentially. After 15-20 minutes, the butanol is removed to get rid of any remaining nanoparticles that didnt get incorporated into the beads and the beads are washed with ethanol. Then the beads are coated with a polymer that creates a hydrophilic surface on the beads. This allows the beads to be functionalized by adding antibodies or DNA molecules to the surface that will capture the target molecules.. These beads are dual-function -- both optical and magnetic -- but according to Sathe, more functions can be added to the beads. "Adding them is as easy as adding the nanoparticles into the solution. You just have to make sure ...
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Started in 1979 under license of UOP - USA. It designed to produce hexane (Food Grade) which is used for extraction food oil from plant seeds in addition, it produces many types of important petroleum solvent ...
Sales office :. ALPHADYNAMIC PUMPS (UK) Ltd. Rockleigh House, 37 Burton Road. Ashby De La Zouch - Leicestershire. LE65 2LF - United Kingdom (UK). Tel : +44 1213 680 324, +44 1213 680 472. Email: [email protected]. www.alphadynamicpumps.co.uk. Registered in England and Wales.. Registration No.09706219. Vat No. GB 220393343. ...
What is Syngas? Syngas or SynGas are acronyms for Synthetic Gas. Syngas which is produced from the gasification of coal or other feedstock is basically CO and H2. In general, the higher the CO ratio, higher is the BTU content which is important for burning syngas in gas-turbines or in boilers. The following is a short list of products directly derived from syngas: Ammonia, Urea, Methanol, Diesel, Ammonium Sulfate, Hydrogen, Dimethyl Ether Ethanol, various Oxochemicals used in paint manufacture such as Butyraldehyde, Butanol, 2-Ethylhexanol, Di-octyl-phthalate and Carboxylic Acids. ...
Dubai Normal Butyl Alcohol, Buy High Quality Normal Butyl Alcohol Products from Dubai Normal Butyl Alcohol Suppliers and Manufacturers at Dubai Yellow Pages Online
Exogenous anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate specifically increases xylose utilization during mixed sugar fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Production of butanol and hydrogen by fermentation techniques using steam treated municipal solid wastes : EU BESTF2 MSWBH. AU - de Vrije, Truus. AU - Claassen, Pieternel A.M.. N1 - Project number BESTF14001. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. U2 - 10.18174/463764. DO - 10.18174/463764. M3 - Report. T3 - Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report. BT - Production of butanol and hydrogen by fermentation techniques using steam treated municipal solid wastes : EU BESTF2 MSWBH. PB - Wageningen Food & Biobased Research. CY - Wageningen. ER - ...
Preliminary work has been done on the formulation of a new solventogenic clostridial fermentation medium based on the use of corn steep liquor (CSL). CSL is a by-product of the corn wet-milling industry, and has been used primarily as a feed supplement in the livestock industry. This nutrient-rich medium is an ideal base for use in a bacterial fermentation medium. A medium developed from CSL has been found to support good bacterial growth while allowing a level of solvent production approaching that of complex, more expensive clostridial growth media. When used in combination with C. beijerinckii, BA101, this newly developed medium holds promise to increase the cost-effectiveness of the ABE fermentation. (Abstract shortened by UMI ...
begin{array}{c,c,c,c} \mathrm{substance} & \mathrm{Solubility\ in\ water\ (g/100\ mL)} & \mathrm{density\ (g/mL)} &\mathrm{volume\ percent}\\ \hline \text{1-butanol} & 7.7 & 0.8098 & 9.5\\ \text{diethyl ether} & 6.9 & 0.7134 & 9.7 \end{array}$$. Note that I have used the solubility data to calculate percent compositions by volume in both cases. It was and still is common to report low solubilities as percents composition. It also is and was common to see percents composition listed without specifying whether they were mass/mass (which should be the default), mass/volume (convenient for dilute solutions), or volume/volume (convenient for solutions, but unhelpful due to colligative properties). At both temperatures, the data supports that 1-butanol and diethyl ether have nearly the same percent solubility by volume. Morrison and Boyd is an older generation of textbook, first published before the world wide web. If they found a source of solubility data for these compounds that listed percents (but ...
Title: Effects of Trehalose on Pressure-Induced Inactivation of Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenase. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Hyun Park, Gene Kidman and Dexter B. Northrop. Affiliation:Center for Drug Evaluation Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University ofWisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, U.S.A.. Keywords:yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, trehalose, hydrostatic pressure, protein denaturation, barostability, thermostability, surface tension. Abstract: Isozymes of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase are slowly denatured at moderate hydrostatic pressures ( < 3 kbar). The time courses for inactivation are biphasic and both phases of both isozymes are protected by trehalose. ADH-I is slightly more barostable than ADH-II which is opposite to their thermostabilities. Trehalose at 1M extends their halflives about 6-fold at 2 kbar, pH 7.5 and 25°C. In contrast, 1M sucrose provides only 4.4-fold protection under identical conditions, a finding consistent with the superior protein ...
0028]One gram (1 g) of 2-(4-methyl-2-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-cyanopyridine, 10 ml of an aqueous sulfuric acid solution of 33% by weight, and 0.2 g of the catalyst produced by the preparation example of a catalyst were mixed and catalytically reduced in hydrogen at a gage pressure of 3 kgf/cm2 (294 kPa) and 70° C. The reaction liquid was analyzed by a HPLC analysis, and it was confirmed that 69.1% of 2-(4-methyl-2-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)pyridine-3-methanol was produced. The reaction liquid was neutralized with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution of 25% by weight and extracted with 30 ml of toluene. The extracted organic layer was concentrated, and 0.4 g of xylene, 0.1 g of 1-butanol and 1.2 g of methanol were added thereto, and the mixture was heated up to 60° C. so as to be dissolved. Then, 0.53 g of 2-(4-methyl-2-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)pyridine-3-methanol was produced by adding 1.3 g of heptane to the heated dissolved liquid, cooling down to 0 to 5° C., aging for 1 hour to deposit a crystal, ...
Originally the pathogene causing the gomosis of the pineapple was classified as Fusarium moliniforme sp. Later, more recently it was reclassified as Fusarium guttiforme Nirenberg & ODonnell 1998. Bacopa monnieri (BM , family Scrophulariaceae) is used in several traditional systems of medicine for the management of epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, sleep disorders and Memory deficits. The present study investigated the potential of BM and methanol BM and BMN -butanol fractions -ButFr) to reduce chemotherapy-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew). Cisplatin (30 mg / kg, i.p.) reliably induced retching and / or vomiting over a 2 day period. BM -MetFr (10-40 mg / kg, sc) and -ButFr (5-20 mg / kg, sc) antagonized the retching and / or vomiting response by (P ,0.05) and 78.9% (p ,0.05), respectively, while the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, palonosetron (0.5 mg / kg, Sc), reduced the response by ~71% (p ,0.05). The free radical scavenger / antioxidant, N (2-mercaptopropionyl) -glycine ...
Butanols (isomer) Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa ...
... was invented by Schlesinger Walter in the U.S. It was marketed as an anti-anxiety agent in 1981. However, Halazepam is not commercially available in the United States because it was withdrawn by its manufacturer for poor sales.[1] ...
Agonisti: Piperazini: BZP • Hipazin; Triptamini: 2-Metil-5-HT • 5-CT; Drugi: Hlorofenilbiguanid • Butanol • Etanol • Halotan • ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
Agonisti: Piperazini: BZP • Hipazin; Triptamini: 2-Metil-5-HT • 5-CT; Drugi: Hlorofenilbiguanid • Butanol • Etanol • Halotan • ...
Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ...
Butanol 5. Penta. Pentanol 6. Heksa. Heksanol 7. Hepta. Heptanol 8. Okta. Oktanol ...
... butanol, or β-hydroxybutyrate. Cysts are rarely formed in liquid media.[11] The formation of cysts is induced by chemical ...
NaBr crystallizes in the same cubic motif as NaCl, NaF and NaI. The anhydrous salt crystallizes above 50.7 °C.[7] Dihydrate salts (NaBr·2H2O) crystallize out of water solution below 50.7 °C.[8] NaBr is produced by treating sodium hydroxide with hydrogen bromide. Sodium bromide can be used as a source of the chemical element bromine. This can be accomplished by treating an aqueous solution of NaBr with chlorine gas: ...
Agonisti: Piperazini: BZP • Hipazin; Triptamini: 2-Metil-5-HT • 5-CT; Drugi: Hlorofenilbiguanid • Butanol • Etanol • Halotan • ... 2-Metil-2-butanol • Acekarbromal • Acetofenon • Apronal • Bromidi • Bromizoval • Karbromal • Hloralosa • Klometiazol • ...
Butanol fuel. *Common ethanol fuel mixtures. *E85. *Ethanol fuel. *Flexible-fuel vehicle ...
A diluted odorous mixture and an odor-free gas-n-Butanol-as a reference are presented from sniffing ports to a group of ... where I is the perceived psychological intensity at the dilution step on the butanol scale, a is the Weber-Fechner coefficient ...
Agonisti: Piperazini: BZP • Hipazin; Triptamini: 2-Metil-5-HT • 5-CT; Drugi: Hlorofenilbiguanid • Butanol • Etanol • Halotan • ...
2-Metil-2-butanol • Acekarbromal • Acetofenon • Apronal • Bromidi • Bromizoval • Karbromal • Hloralosa • Klometiazol • ...
Agonisti: Piperazini: BZP • Hipazin; Triptamini: 2-Metil-5-HT • 5-CT; Drugi: Hlorofenilbiguanid • Butanol • Etanol • Halotan • ...
2-Methyl-1-butanol (C. 5). *Phenethyl alcohol (C. 8). *Tryptophol (C. 10) ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
2-Metil-2-butanol • Acekarbromal • Acetofenon • Apronal • Bromidi • Bromizoval • Karbromal • Hloralosa • Klometiazol • ...
2-Metil-2-butanol • Acekarbromal • Acetofenon • Apronal • Bromidi • Bromizoval • Karbromal • Hloralosa • Klometiazol • ...
2-Metil-2-butanol • Acekarbromal • Acetofenon • Apronal • Bromidi • Bromizoval • Karbromal • Hloralosa • Klometiazol • ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
... is a potent agonist of the AR. It has an affinity (Kd) of 0.25 to 0.5 nM for the human AR, which is about 2- to 3-fold higher than that of testosterone (Kd = 0.4 to 1.0 nM)[39] and the dissociation rate of androstanolone from the AR is also about 5-fold slower than that of testosterone.[40] The EC50 of androstanolone for activation of the AR is 0.13 nM, which is about 5-fold stronger than that of testosterone (EC50 = 0.66 nM).[41] In bioassays, androstanolone has been found to be 2.5- to 10-fold more potent than testosterone.[39] Unlike testosterone and various other AAS, androstanolone cannot be aromatized, and for this reason, poses no risk of estrogenic side effects like gynecomastia at any dosage.[42] In addition, androstanolone cannot be metabolized by 5α-reductase (as it is already 5α-reduced), and for this reason, is not potentiated in so-called "androgenic" tissues like the skin, hair follicles, and prostate gland, thereby improving its ratio of anabolic to androgenic ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
Usually t-butanol absorbs water. Kf is the freezing point depression.. Calculate the freezing point constant for t butanol K f ... tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), also called tert-butanol or t-butanol, is the simplest tertiary alcohol, with a formula of (CH 3) 3 ... tert.-Butanol azeotropic. TBA, Butanol-tert. tert.-Butylalcohol. 2-Methyl-2- propanol. CAS-No. delivered by Evonik Industries ... ChemicalBook ,,tert-Butanol,,tert-Butanol(75-65-0). 【Melting Point】. May cause central nervous system depression, characterized ...
The surface plasmon UV-Vis absorption band of silver nanocrystallites obtained by bombardment of tert-butanol solutions of ... Silver ions undergo reduction reactions induced by radiolytically produced products of tert-butanol, a commonly used solvent ... The surface plasmon UV-Vis absorption band of silver nanocrystallites obtained by bombardment of tert-butanol solutions of ... Silver ions undergo reduction reactions induced by radiolytically produced products of tert-butanol, a commonly used solvent ...
The carisoprodol 500mg order prescription measurement of brain uptake of acetamide, antipyrine, benzyl alcohol, butanol, ...
12-9-2003On the other hand the test organism grew well on benzyl alcohol and butanol the hydrolyzed products of BBP The ...
2016), "Agro-industrial wastes as feedstock for sustainable bio-production of butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii", Food and ...
AMYL ALCOHOL 1-BUTANOL 1-BUTANOL ETHANOL, ABSOLUTE 2-PROPANOL 2-PROPANOL 1-PROPANOL RA TOLUENE ACETONITRILE ACETONITRILE ...
The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The ... Background: To determine the antitumor effects and its mechanism of n-butanol fraction from aril of Torreya grandis (BFAT) on H ... Antitumor effects and mechanism of n-butanol fraction from aril of Torreya grandis in H22 mice. p. 351. ... The results demonstrated that n-butanol fraction from aril of T. grandis showed out antitumor activity without obviously liver ...
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for the 1-Butanol-Water System. Housam Binous. * Temperature Dependence of Dehydrogenation of Ethyl ...
In their study, the researchers investigated the hydrogen bond network around the hydrophobic solvated alcohol tert-butanol, as ...
2-Ethyl-1-butanol. *3-(2-Pyridyl)-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine-p,p-disulfonic acid monosodium salt ...
Butanol. *Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). *Cellulosic Ethanol. *Clean-Energy Markets, Economics ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol, trichloroethanol) * m-CPBG * Phenylbiguanide * Piperazines (e.g., BZP, mCPP, ...
Louis in the U.S. proposes to develop a genetically engineered fungal species that can convert fecal sludge to butanol, a high- ... Using Fecal Sludge for Butanol Fermentation. Yinjie TangWashington University School of MedicineSt. Louis, Missouri, United ...
Fractions are collected and concentrated with butanol extraction. The concentrate is suspended in sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4, ...
Examples of solvents include water; alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, 1-butanol, 2-buthanol, sec-butyl ... and 1-butanol. However, when the primer layer is formed using a transparent resin solution containing an organic solvent, the ... 1-butanol, 2-buthanol sec-butyl alcohol, tart-butyl ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and butanediol, and yet more preferably ...
3-METHOXYPROPIONIC ACID Platinum dioxide Pregnenolone Sodium iodate Aluminium isopropoxide 2,2-Dithiodipyridine tert-Butanol ...
2-methyl-2-butanol. A mixture of different alcohols can also be used. The preferred alcohols have an atmospheric boiling point ... 2-methyl-2-butanol, cyclohexanol, phenol, cresols, xylenols, hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, benzyl alcohol, ethylene ...
The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol. ... The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol. M ...
... butanol/water). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design Springer ...
Supply Industrial 1 Butanol with Good Price Product description N butanol 1 butanol also known as 1 butanol or Butanol is a ... Basic Organic Chemicals 1 Butanol With Low Price Product description 1 butanol is a colorless odorless liquid with a boiling ... Good price Industrial Grade tert Butanol TBA Details Tert butanol colorless transparent liquid or colorless crystal easy to ... Hot Sale 99 Tert butanol TBA with Good Price Details English Name tert Butanol English. ...
Butanol Blends used in a Common rail Diesel Engine,,/em, SAE 2008 Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants Conference, 2008.,/p,,p ...
N-BUTANOL GC. *1-tert-BUTOXY-N,N,NN-TETRAMETHYL METHANEDIAMINE. *AL0942 ...
N-BUTANOL GC. *1-tert-BUTOXY-N,N,NN-TETRAMETHYL METHANEDIAMINE. *AL0942 ...
1-butanol, 3-butyn-1-ol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 1- ... 2-butanol, 2-pentanol, 2-heptanol, 1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo[2,2,1] heptan-2-ol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; (iii) aromatic ...
In vitro and in silico models of n-butanol-membrane interactions. *Evaluation of extra-cellular recombinant enzyme production ...
  • abstract = "The enzymatic esterification of oleic acid and 1-butanol to butyl oleate was performed in an aqueous-organic system in capillary microreactors with various inner diameters operated under slug flow. (rug.nl)
  • A close to 100{\%} yield of butyl oleate could be achieved in the microreactor made of polytetrafluoroethylene within 30 min residence time at 30 °C. The reaction rate is well described by the existing kinetic model based on a Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism with competitive inhibition of 1-butanol. (rug.nl)
  • I tried 1-butanol and 2-butanol and I think that my tech tried t-butyl as well. (wordpress.com)
  • In their study, the researchers investigated the hydrogen bond network around the hydrophobic solvated alcohol tert-butanol, as researchers use alcohols as a prototype models for hydrophobic molecules. (phys.org)
  • These dyes will tolerate some amount of alcohol, mildly polar spirits such as butanol and pentanol and their ethers. (spectracolors.com)
  • To determine the antitumor effects and its mechanism of n-butanol fraction from aril of Torreya grandis (BFAT) on H 22 mice models of liver cancer. (phcog.com)
  • The butanol fraction was found to contain high phenolic content and was able to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity. (afpm.org.my)
  • The glycosylinositol phospholipids were purified by butanol extraction of a Triton X-114-soluble fraction followed by octyl-Sepharose column chromatography and preparative high performance TLC and were shown to include at least 5 species. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, both simulations and experimental tests were conducted to evaluate the influences of pre-injection on the combustion and emission characteristics of pure diesel (D100) and diesel/n-butanol (30% n-butanol and 70% diesel by volume, B30). (cheric.org)
  • A simple correction for partitioning of free ions was found to notably improve logD prediction accuracy in case of the most hydrophilic organic phase (butanol/water). (deepdyve.com)
  • Basic Organic Chemicals 1 Butanol With Low Price Product description 1 butanol is a colorless odorless liquid with a boiling point of 117 7 C and slightly soluble in water It is a solvent for a variety of coatings and a raw material for the plasticizer dibutyl phthalate see phthalate ester and is also used in the. (zgshenyu.com)
  • A total of 33 BCC were examined preoperatively by imaging in en-face mode as well as cross-sectional mode in FD-OCT. The aim of the present study was to explore the therapeutic usefulness of leptin in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes with increased adiposity. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • As reported by David Worthington at Smartplanet, Tulibardine distillery in Scotland has partnered with energy startup Celtic Renewables to turn whiskey byproducts into butanol based biofuel, so booze hounds can feel they're doing their part to save the planet. (techonomy.com)