Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Toxic, possibly carcinogenic, monomer of neoprene, a synthetic rubber; causes damage to skin, lungs, CNS, kidneys, liver, blood cells and fetuses. Synonym: 2-chlorobutadiene.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.

Purification of a glutathione S-transferase and a glutathione conjugate-specific dehydrogenase involved in isoprene metabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45. (1/1387)

A glutathione S-transferase (GST) with activity toward 1, 2-epoxy-2-methyl-3-butene (isoprene monoxide) and cis-1, 2-dichloroepoxyethane was purified from the isoprene-utilizing bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45. The homodimeric enzyme (two subunits of 27 kDa each) catalyzed the glutathione (GSH)-dependent ring opening of various epoxides. At 5 mM GSH, the enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for isoprene monoxide and cis-1, 2-dichloroepoxyethane, with Vmax values of 66 and 2.4 micromol min-1 mg of protein-1 and Km values of 0.3 and 0.1 mM for isoprene monoxide and cis-1,2-dichloroepoxyethane, respectively. Activities increased linearly with the GSH concentration up to 25 mM. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the product of GSH conjugation to isoprene monoxide was 1-hydroxy-2-glutathionyl-2-methyl-3-butene (HGMB). Thus, nucleophilic attack of GSH occurred on the tertiary carbon atom of the epoxide ring. HGMB was further converted by an NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase, and this enzyme was also purified from isoprene-grown cells. The homodimeric enzyme (two subunits of 25 kDa each) showed a high activity for HGMB, whereas simple primary and secondary alcohols were not oxidized. The enzyme catalyzed the sequential oxidation of the alcohol function to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid and followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to NAD+ and HGMB. The results suggest that the initial steps in isoprene metabolism are a monooxygenase-catalyzed conversion to isoprene monoxide, a GST-catalyzed conjugation to HGMB, and a dehydrogenase-catalyzed two-step oxidation to 2-glutathionyl-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid.  (+info)

High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene. (2/1387)

Chloroprene is the 2-chloro analog of 1,3-butadiene, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Following 2 years of inhalation exposure to 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K- and H-ras proto-oncogenes in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 80% of chloroprene-induced lung neoplasms (37/46) compared with only 30% in spontaneous lung neoplasms (25/82). Both K- and H-ras codon 61 A-->T transversions were identified in 100% of HG neoplasms (27/27) compared with a frequency of 56% (15/27) in spontaneous HG neoplasms. The predominant mutation in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This mutation has not been detected in spontaneous lung tumors of B6C3F1 mice and was identified in only 7% of spontaneous HG neoplasms. In lung neoplasms, greater percentages (80 and 71%) of A-->T transversions were observed at the lower exposures (12.8 and 32 p.p.m.), respectively, compared with 18% at the high exposure. In HG neoplasms, the percentage of A-->T transversions was the same at all exposure concentrations. The chloroprene-induced ras mutation spectra was similar to that seen with isoprene, where the predominant base change was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This differed from 1,3-butadiene, where K-ras codon 13 G-->C transitions and H-ras codon 61 A-->G transitions were the predominant mutations. The major finding of K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms suggests that this mutation may be important for tumor induction by this class of carcinogens.  (+info)

Measurement of some potentially hazardous materials in the atmosphere of rubber factories. (3/1387)

Two separate topics of work are outlined: methods for the measurement of chlorinated monomers in PVC and polychloroprene, and also methods for the measurement of these materials in factory air. Typical results which have been obtained in supplies of raw materials, in finished products, and in the working atmosphere at manufacturing operations are given. The second topic concerns the measurement of benzo[a]pyrene in the atmosphere of a tire manufacturing plant. This material is present in trace quantities in the mineral oils and carbon blacks used by the industry. The atmospheric concentrations present at various processes in this plant were measured on a daily basis over a period of two years, and the results obtained compared with results taken concurrently from an outside air station. It is shown that no significant quantities of benzo[a]pyrene are produced by tire manufacturing operations.  (+info)

Multiple organ carcinogenicity of inhaled chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and comparison of dose-response with 1,3-butadiene in mice. (4/1387)

Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) is a high production chemical used almost exclusively in the production of polychloroprene (neoprene) elastomer. Because of its structural similarity to 1,3-butadiene, a trans-species carcinogen, inhalation studies were performed with chloroprene to evaluate its carcinogenic potential in rats and mice. Groups of 50 male and female F344/N rats and 50 male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene (6 h/day, 5 days/week) for 2 years. Under these conditions, chloroprene was carcinogenic to the oral cavity, thyroid gland, lung, kidney and mammary gland of rats, and to the lung, circulatory system (hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas), Harderian gland, kidney, forestomach, liver, mammary gland, skin, mesentery and Zymbal's gland of mice. Survival adjusted tumor rates in mice were fit to a Weibull model for estimation of the shape of the dose-response curves, estimation of ED10 values (the estimated exposure concentration associated with an increased cancer risk of 10%) and comparison of these parameters with those for 1,3-butadiene. Butadiene has been identified as a potent carcinogen in mice and has been associated with increased risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer in exposed workers. Shape parameter values for most of the neoplastic effects of chloroprene and 1,3-butadiene were consistent with linear or supralinear responses in the area near the lowest tested exposures. The most potent carcinogenic effect of 1,3-butadiene was the induction of lung neoplasms in female mice, which had an ED10 value of 0.3 p.p.m. Since the ED10 value for that same response in chloroprene exposed mice was also 0.3 p.p.m., we conclude that the carcinogenic potency of chloroprene in mice is similar to that of 1,3-butadiene. Cancer potency of chloroprene is greater in the mouse lung than in the rat lung, but greater in the rat kidney than in the mouse kidney and nearly equivalent in the mammary gland of each species.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is required for fibroblast growth factor-2-stimulated cell proliferation but not differentiation. (5/1387)

Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is a member of a family of polypeptides that have roles in a wide range of biological processes. To determine why different cell types show distinct responses to treatment with FGF-2, the array of FGF receptors present on the surface of a cell which differentiates in response to FGF-2 (PC12 cells) was compared with that present on the surface of a cell that proliferates in response to FGF-2 (Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts). Both cell types express exclusively FGFR1, suggesting that there are cell type-specific FGFR1 signaling pathways. Since mitogen-activated protein kinases function as mediators of cellular responses to a variety of stimuli, the roles of these proteins in FGF-mediated responses were examined. FGF-2 activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases with similar kinetics in both fibroblasts and PC12 cells, and a specific inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation blocks differentiation but has little effect on proliferation. In contrast, while p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated weakly and transiently in PC12 cells treated with FGF-2, a much stronger and sustained activation of this kinase is seen in FGF-2-treated fibroblasts. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of this kinase block proliferation but have no effect on differentiation. This effect on proliferation is specific for FGF-2 since the same concentrations of inhibitors have little or no effect on proliferation induced by serum.  (+info)

Butadiene diolepoxide- and diepoxybutane-derived DNA adducts at N7-guanine: a high occurrence of diolepoxide-derived adducts in mouse lung after 1,3-butadiene exposure. (6/1387)

Butadiene (BD) is a high production volume chemical and is known to be tumorigenic in rodents. BD is metabolized to butadiene monoepoxide (BMO), diepoxybutane (DEB) and butadiene diolepoxide (BDE). These epoxides are genotoxic and alkylate DNA both in vitro and in vivo, mainly at the N7 position of guanine. In this study, a 32P-post-labeling/thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for BDE and DEB adducts at the N7 of guanine was developed and was used in determining the enantiomeric composition of the adducts and the organ dose of BD exposure in lung. Exposure of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo), 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphate (5'-dGMP) and 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-phosphate (3'-dGMP) to racemic BDE followed by neutral thermal hydrolysis gave two products (products 1 and 2) that were identified by MS and UV and NMR spectroscopy as a diastereomeric pair of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-guanines. Exposure of dGuo nucleotides to RR/SS DEB (also referred to as dl DEB) followed by thermal depurination resulted in a single product coeluting with the BDE product 1. If the reaction mixture of BDE and 5'-dGMP was analyzed by HPLC before hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, four major nucleotide alkylation products (A, B, C and D) with identical UV sepectra were detected. The products were isolated and hydrolyzed, after which A and C coeluted with product 1 and B and D coeluted with the product 2. The major adduct of DEB-exposed 5'-dGMP was N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP (product E). A 32P-post-labeling assay was used to detect BDE- and DEB-derived N7-dGMP adducts in DNA. Levels of adducts increased with a dose of BDE and DEB and exhibited a half life of 30 +/- 3 (r = 0.98) and 31 +/- 4 h (r = 0.95), respectively. Incubation of DEB-modified DNA at 37 degrees C at neutral pH for up to 142 h did not lead to an increase of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP in the DNA. These observations led to the conclusion that the N7-(2,3, 4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP adducts in DNA can be used as a marker of BDE exposure and that N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP adducts are related to DEB exposure. Dose-related levels of BDE- and DEB-derived adducts were detected in lungs of mice inhaling butadiene. Most of the N7-dGMP adducts (73%; product D) were derived from the 2R-diol-3S-epoxide of 1,3-butadiene. The data presented in this paper indicate that in vivo, 98% of N7-dGMP alkylation after BD exposure is derived from BDE, and approximately 2% of the adducts were derived from DEB and BMO.  (+info)

Identification of urinary metabolites of isoprene in rats and comparison with mouse urinary metabolites. (7/1387)

Isoprene, a major commodity chemical used in production of polyisoprene elastomers, has been shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. Similar to findings for the structurally related compound butadiene, mice are more susceptible than rats to isoprene-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. Although differences in uptake, and disposition of isoprene in rats and mice have been described, its in vivo biotransformation products have not been characterized in either species. The purpose of these studies was to identify the urinary metabolites of isoprene in Fischer 344 rats and compare these metabolites with those formed in male B6C3F1 mice. After i.p. administration of 64 mg [14C]isoprene/kg to rats and mice, isoprene was excreted unchanged in breath ( approximately 50%) or as urinary metabolites ( approximately 32%). In rats isoprene was primarily excreted in urine as 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (53%), 2-methyl-3-buten-1,2-diol (23%), and the C-1 glucuronide conjugate of 2-methyl-3-buten-1,2-diol (13%). These metabolites are consistent with preferential oxidation of isoprene's methyl-substituted vinyl group. No oxidation of the unsubstituted vinyl group was observed. In addition to the isoprene metabolites found in rat urine, mouse urine contained numerous other isoprene metabolites with a larger percentage (25%) of total urinary radioactivity associated with an unidentified, polar fraction than in the rat (7%). Unlike butadiene, there was no evidence that glutathione conjugation played a significant role in the metabolism of isoprene in rats. Because of the unidentified metabolites in mouse urine, involvement of glutathione in the metabolism of isoprene in mice cannot be delineated.  (+info)

Role of endothelial cell extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 in urokinase-type plasminogen activator upregulation and in vitro angiogenesis by fibroblast growth factor-2. (8/1387)

Downstream signaling triggered by the binding of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) to its tyrosine-kinase receptors involves the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) with consequent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Here we demonstrate that FGF2 induces ERK1/2 activation in bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells and that the continuous presence of the growth factor is required for sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This is prevented by the MEK inhibitors PD 098059 and U0126, which also inhibit FGF2-mediated upregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and in vitro formation of capillary-like structures in three-dimensional type I collagen gel. Various FGF2 mutants originated by deletion or substitution of basic amino acid residues in the amino terminus or in the carboxyl terminus of FGF2 retained the capacity to induce a long-lasting activation of ERK1/2 in BAE cells. Among them, K128Q/R129Q-FGF2 was also able to stimulate uPA production and morphogenesis whereas R129Q/K134Q-FGF2 caused uPA upregulation only. In contrast, K27, 30Q/R31Q-FGF2, K128Q/K138Q-FGF2 and R118,129Q/K119,128Q-FGF2 exerted a significant uPA-inducing and morphogenic activity in an ERK1/2-dependent manner only in the presence of heparin. Furthermore, no uPA upregulation and morphogenesis was observed in BAE cells treated with the deletion mutant (delta)27-32-FGF2 even in the presence of soluble heparin. Thus, mutational analysis of FGF2 dissociates the capacity of the growth factor to induce a persistent activation of ERK1/2 from its ability to stimulate uPA upregulation and/or in vitro angiogenesis. In conclusion, the data indicate that ERK1/2 phosphorylation is a key step in the signal transduction pathway switched on by FGF2 in endothelial cells. Nevertheless, a sustained ERK1/2 activation is not sufficient to trigger uPA upregulation and morphogenesis. FGF2 mutants may represent useful tools to dissect the signal transduction pathway(s) mediating the complex response elicited by an angiogenic stimulus in endothelial cells.  (+info)

The presence of chromosome-defective micronuclei in cells can be an indication of genetic damage and may be used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases or conditions, such as cancer or exposure to toxic substances. The frequency and distribution of these structures within a cell population can also provide information about the type and severity of genetic damage present.

In contrast to other types of micronuclei, which are typically smaller and less complex, chromosome-defective micronuclei are larger and more irregular in shape, and may contain fragmented or abnormal chromatin material. They can also be distinguished from other types of micronuclei by their specific staining properties and the presence of certain structural features, such as the presence of nucleoli or the absence of a membrane boundary.

Overall, the study of chromosome-defective micronuclei is an important tool for understanding the mechanisms of genetic damage and disease, and may have practical applications in fields such as cancer diagnosis and environmental health assessment.

Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor that grows rapidly and can invade surrounding tissues and organs. It can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, a process called metastasis.

The symptoms of hemangiosarcoma depend on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Pain in the affected area
* Swelling or mass in the abdomen or other areas where the tumor is located
* Difficulty breathing if the tumor is in the lungs
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss

Hemangiosarcoma is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, MRI, and PET scan, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for hemangiosarcoma depend on the location and stage of the disease, but they may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor and any affected tissues
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells

The prognosis for hemangiosarcoma is generally poor, as it is a aggressive and difficult-to-treat disease. However, with early detection and appropriate treatment, some patients may have a better outcome.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

... butadiene)(CO)3 and Mo(butadiene)3. Butadiene is of low acute toxicity. LC50 is 12.5-11.5 vol% for inhalation by rats and mice ... such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), nitrile-butadiene (NBR), and styrene-butadiene (SBR). These copolymers are tough ... The name butadiene can also refer to the isomer, 1,2-butadiene, which is a cumulated diene with structure H2C=C=CH−CH3. This ... The conversion of butadiene to adiponitrile entails the addition of hydrogen cyanide to each of the double bonds in butadiene. ...
... or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene ( ... The styrene/butadiene ratio influences the properties of the polymer: with high styrene content, the rubbers are harder and ... The material was initially marketed with the brand name Buna S. Its name derives Bu for butadiene and Na for sodium (natrium in ... SBR is derived from two monomers, styrene and butadiene. The mixture of these two monomers is polymerized by two processes: ...
... (1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene or TPB) is an organic chemical compound used as an electroluminescent ... ISBN 978-0-8493-0594-8. "1,1,4,4-Tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2021. Burton, W. M ... Powell, B. A (1973). "Fluorescence of Tetraphenyl-Butadiene in the Vacuum Ultraviolet". Applied Optics. 12 (1): 87-9. Bibcode: ...
In the butadiene series, (η2-C4H6)Fe(CO)4 and (η2:η2-C4H6)(Fe(CO)4)2 have been crystallized. Many related complexes are known ... Butadiene)iron tricarbonyl is an organoiron compound with the formula (C4H6)Fe(CO)3. It is a well-studied metal complex of ... Cyclobutadieneiron tricarbonyl Reiss, Guido J. (2010). "Redetermination of (η4-s-cis-1,3-butadiene)tricarbonyliron(0)". Acta ... Grée, R. (1989). "Acyclic Butadiene-Iron Tricarbonyl Complexes in Organic Synthesis". Synthesis. 1989 (5): 341-355. doi:10.1055 ...
... is the organic compound with the formula CH2=C=CHCH3. It is an isomer of 1,3-butadiene, a common monomer used to ... "Product Safety Summary 1,2-BUTADIENE". ExxonMobil. March 2016. J. Grub; E. Löser (2012). "Butadiene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... 3-butadiene, isobutene, 1-butene. 1,2-Butadiene comprises less than 1% or this mixture. It is partially purified by extraction ...
... (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·​(C4H6)y·​(C3H3N)z is a common thermoplastic polymer. Its glass ... "Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and its Features". Omnexus. Omnexus. Retrieved May 4, 2020. "Lego Celebrates 50 Years of ... The proportions can vary from 15% to 35% acrylonitrile, 5% to 30% butadiene and 40% to 60% styrene. The result is a long chain ... ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene on Designsite.dk, lists applications. Retrieved 27 October 2006. May, James (2009). James ...
The butadiene production method, which was based on aldol condensation of acetaldehyde (1905), was also implemented on ... He had patented more than 20 ways to produce butadiene (buta-1,3-diene), which were implemented industrially in the Soviet ... C to yield butadiene: CH3CH2OH + CH3CHO → CH2=CH-CH=CH2 + 2 H2O This process was used in the United States to produce ... Butadiene. In M. Grayson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed., vol. 4, pp. 313-337. New York: John Wiley & Sons ...
One example is the coupled dimerization and hydroesterification of 1,3-butadiene. This step produces a doubly unsaturated C9- ... ester: 2 CH2=CH-CH=CH2 + CO + CH3OH → CH2=CH(CH2)3CH=CHCH2CO2CH3 The monomer in this reaction is butadiene, the degree of ... "Butadiene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_431.pub2.{{cite ...
2 CH 2 = CH − CH = CH 2 1 , 3 − butadiene + CO + CH 3 OH ⟶ CH 2 = CH ( CH 2 ) 3 CH = CHCH 2 CO 2 CH 3 {\displaystyle {\ce {{\ ... doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_245.pub2 J. Grub, E. Löser (2012). "Butadiene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... overset {1,3-butadiene}{2CH2=CH-CH=CH2}}{}+ CO + CH3OH -> CH2=CH(CH2)3CH=CHCH2CO2CH3}}} CH 2 = CH ( CH 2 ) 3 CH = CHCH 2 CO 2 ... 3-butadiene. This step produces a doubly unsaturated C9-ester, which can be hydrogenated to give esters of pelargonic acid. ...
For example carboalkoxylation has been coupled with the dimerization of 1,3-butadiene. This step produces a doubly unsaturated ... J. Grub, E. Löser (2012). "Butadiene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
1,3-Butadiene is dimerized concomitant with the addition of one molecule of water. This conversion is catalyzed by palladium ... J. Grub; E. Löser (2012). "Butadiene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
For instance, the cleavage of cyclohexene to give butadiene and ethene has been observed, but only at temperatures exceeding ... butadiene Dienophile: N2 > CO2 > naphthalene > benzene, nitriles > methacrylate > maleimides > cyclopentadiene, imines, alkenes ...
1,1-Dibutylstannole is a pale yellow oil prepared from 1,4-dilithio-1,3-butadiene and dibutyltin dichloride. 1,1-Dimethyl-2,3,4 ... 1988). "1,4-Dilithio-1,3-butadienes". Organometallics. 7 (8): 1878. doi:10.1021/om00098a034. J.I.G. Cadogan; S.V. Ley; G. ... 5-tetraphenyl-1H-stannole, for example, can be formed by the reaction of 1,4-dilithio-1,2,3,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene and ...
The Butadiene + Acrolein Paradigm". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 120 (10): 2415-2420. doi:10.1021/ja9722279. Carey ... 3-butadiene is more asynchronous than that of the thermal reaction - the bond further from the carbonyl group is formed ahead ...
2]dendralene (butadiene) is the only one not cross-conjugated. The name dendralene is pulled together from the words dendrimer ... The ultraviolet absorption maxima equal that of butadiene itself. The dendralenes with an odd number of alkene units are more ... Blomquist, A. T.; Verdol, Joseph A. (1955). "2-Vinyl-1,3-butadiene". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77 (1): 81-83. doi:10.1021/ja01606a025. ... chloride in an oxidative coupling reaction to give the butadiene dimer called [4]dendralene. The gas-phase molecular structure ...
3-sulfolene is mainly valued as a stand-in for butadiene. The in situ production and immediate consumption of 1,3-butadiene ... The compound is used as a source of butadiene. Sulfolene is formed by the cheletropic reaction between butadiene and sulfur ... Sulfolene, or butadiene sulfone is a cyclic organic chemical with a sulfone functional group. It is a white, odorless, ... If neat butadiene is used, special equipment for work under elevated pressure is required. With sulfolene no buildup of ...
Photographs of Plains Butadiene Plant; a plant incorporating Phillips processes and designed, built and operated by Phillips ...
Iwamoto, M.; Yuguchi, S. (1966). "Reaction of Butadiene with Ethylene. II. New Catalytic Systems in Synthesis of 1,4-Hexadiene ...
Iwai I, Ide J (1988). "2,3-Diphenyl-1,3-Butadiene". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, vol. 6, p. 531 Michael Carrasco, ...
Grummitt, Oliver; Becker, Ernest I. (1950). "trans-1-Phenyl-1,3-butadiene". Organic Syntheses. 30: 75. doi:10.15227/orgsyn. ...
It is the perfluoroanalogue of butadiene. It can be prepared by coupling of C2 compounds such as from chlorotrifluoroethylene ...
Typical VIIs are polyacrylates and butadiene. Antioxidants suppress the rate of oxidative degradation of the hydrocarbon ...
doi:10.1021/om0207865 Iwai, I.; Ide, J. (1988). "2,3-Diphenyl-1,3-Butadiene". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, vol. 6, p ... 6 NaCl The polymerization of butadiene and styrene is catalyzed by sodium metal. Organopotassium, organorubidium, and ...
It catalyzes the trimerization of butadiene. With tertiary phosphines, the complex gives the tetrakis derivative. Such ...
doi:10.1055/s-2005-917075 Iwai, I.; Ide, J. (1988). "2,3-Diphenyl-1,3-Butadiene". Organic Syntheses.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint ...
When the alkene is butadiene the initial reaction product with catalyst copper(II) chloride is a 4-chloro-2-butene and after an ... 6, p. 21 Ropp, Gus A.; Coyner, Eugene C. (1951). "1-(p-Nitrophenyl)-1,3-butadiene". Organic Syntheses. 31: 80. doi:10.15227/ ... elimination the aryl substituted butadiene. In a so-called reductive arylation with 3-buten-2-one, titanium trichloride reduces ...
For instance, magnetic inequivalence is found in 1,4-homodisubstituted butadienes. It might be expected in a molecule such as a ... Synthesis of pseudo-.beta.-DL-gulopyranose from a diacetoxy butadiene. Proton magnetic resonance studies". J. Org. Chem. 33 (7 ...
C. F. H. Allen, Alan Bell, L. W. Newton, and E. R. Coburn (1942). "2,3-Dimethyl-1,3-butadiene". Organic Syntheses. 22: 39.{{ ... Dimethylbutadiene, formally referred to as 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C4H4. It ... Dimethylbutadiene readily undergoes Diels-Alder reactions and reacts faster than 1,3-butadiene. Its effectiveness in this ...
Other common classes of dienes are oxo- and aza- butadienes. The key quality of a good DAINV diene is a significantly lowered ... 3-butadienes". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 53 (24): 5793-5796. doi:10.1021/jo00259a040. Filatov, M.A.; Cheprakov, A. V. ( ...
Chlorine adds to 1,3-butadiene to afford a mixture of 3,4-dichlorobut-1-ene and 1,4-dichlorobut-2-ene. The 1,4-dichloro isomer ... This "acetylene process" has been replaced by a process, which adds Cl2 to one of the double bonds in 1,3-butadiene, and ... Chloroprene is produced in three steps from 1,3-butadiene: (i) chlorination, (ii) isomerization of part of the product stream, ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Lynch, Jeremiah (2001-06-01). "Occupational exposure to butadiene, ...
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified 1,3-butadiene as a human carcinogen. We assessed 1,3-butadiene ... 3-Butadiene is a volatile organic compound with a gasoline-like odour that is primarily used as a monomer in the production of ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified 1,3-butadiene as a human carcinogen. We assessed 1,3-butadiene ... Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene in the U.S. Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2016 Alma Nieto 1 , ...
3-butadiene occurs mainly from breathing contaminated air. Effects on the nervous system and irritations of the eyes, nose, and ... What is 1,3-butadiene?. 1,3-Butadiene is a chemical made from the processing of petroleum. It is a colorless gas with a mild ... How can 1,3-butadiene affect my health?. Breathing high levels of 1,3-butadiene for a short time may cause nausea, dry mouth ... This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about 1,3-Butadiene. For more information, you may call the ...
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile, 1,3-Butadiene [CAS® No. 106-99-0] [PDF - 349 KB] ... NIOSH [2016]. Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) value profile: 1,3-butadiene. By Dotson GS, Maier A, Parker A, ... Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile, 1,3-Butadiene [CAS® No. 106-99-0]. ... 3-butadiene (see Tables 4 and 5), the majority of these estimates are greater than 10% of the lower explosive limit (,10% LEL ...
Other names: α,γ-Butadiene; Biethylene; Bivinyl; Buta-1,3-diene; Butadiene; Divinyl; Erythrene; Pyrrolylene; Vinylethylene; CH2 ... Prosen, E.J.; Maron, F.W.; Rossini, F.D., Heat of isomerization of the two butadienes, J. Res. NBS, 1949, 42, 269-275. [all ... Part 9 - Thermochemistry of the butadiene and isoprene sulphones, Trans. Faraday Soc., 1969, 65, 1738-1741. [all data] ...
2001)‎. 1,3-Butadiene : human health aspects. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42367 ...
1,3-Butadiene : human health aspects  Hughes, K; International Programme on Chemical Safety (‎World Health OrganizationWorld ...
Testing Status of 1,3-Butadiene 10514-J. Testing Status of 1,3-Butadiene 10514-J. CASRN: 106-99-0. Formula: C4-H6. Synonyms/ ... Metabolism of 1,3-butadiene by lung and liver microsomes of rats and mice repeatedly exposed by inhalation to 1,3-butadiene. ... Species differences in the distribution of inhaled butadiene in tissues. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1987 Oct;48(10):867-72.Pubmed ... Lack of Carcinogenicity in Mice Exposed Once to High Concentrations of 1,3-Butadiene. J. Nat. Cancer Inst 85: 1866-1867 (1993). ...
1,3-butadiene. SUMMARY. What is 1,3-butadiene?. What happens to 1,3-butadiene when it enters the environment?. How might I be ... How can 1,3-butadiene affect my health?. How likely is 1,3-butadiene to cause cancer?. Is there a medical test to show whether ... Skin contact with liquid 1,3-butadiene can cause irritation and frostbite. How likely is 1,3-butadiene to cause cancer?. The ... 1,3-butadiene. This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about 1,3-butadiene. For more information, ...
The butadiene market is quite fragmented due to the presence of a large number of players. Asia-Pacific is the biggest market ... Butadiene Market & Its Derivatives (SBR, PBR, ABS, SB Latex, Adiponitrile, NR, & Others) Market, by Applications & Geography - ... of butadiene and is also the second fastest growing, after the ROW market. The market is expected to show a significant growth ...
Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Hot Oil Resistant, Low Swell 75 - 85(STABILIZED Jan 2020) AMS3229K ... Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Hot Oil and Coolant Resistant, Low Swell 55 - 65 ... Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR) Rubber Hot Oil and Coolant Resistant, Low Swell 55 - 65 ...
Cold Polymerised Emulsion Styrene Butadiene Rubber (E-SBR), Composition: BUNA™ SB 1500-Schkopau is manufactured by cold ... Trinseo BUNA™ SB 1500-SCHKOPAU Cold Polymerised Emulsion Styrene Butadiene Rubber (E-SBR) ...
depreciation requiring much less, net profit has turned out to be higher at Rs 3.27 crore (Rs 1.89 crore). Accordingly, the unchanged dividend of 18 per cent is covered 3.34 times by earnings as against 2.70 times previously. The wires and wire ropes division at Ranchi produced 40,640 tonnes as against 39,506 tonnes in the previous year and the wire rod mill division at
ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Return to. materials description ...
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers (ABS) ::pyrolysis and combustion products and their toxicity - a review of the ... Rutkowski, J. and Levin, B. (1985), Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers (ABS) ::pyrolysis and combustion products and ... https://www.nist.gov/publications/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene-copolymers-abs-pyrolysis-and-combustion-products-and-0 ...
Standard Test Methods for Rubber-Evaluation of NBR (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymers) Mixed With Carbon Black. ... Standard Test Methods for Rubber-Evaluation of NBR (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymers) Mixed With Carbon Black D3848-03R13 ... Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymers) Mixed With Carbon Black> new BOS Vol. 09.01 Committee D11 $ 68.00 In stock ... ASTM,D3848-03R13,en-US Standard Test Methods for Rubber-Evaluation of NBR (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymers) Mixed With ...
Research report on Butadiene Market is segmented by application (SBR, PBR, ABS, SB latex, NR , Adiponitrile) and geography. ... Derivatives of butadiene include styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), polybutadiene rubber (PBR), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ... Butadiene or 1,3-butadiene is a highly reactive gas that is colorless and noncorrosive with a mild aromatic or gasoline-like ... Butadiene Market by APPLICATION (SBR, PBR, ABS, SB latex, NR, Adiponitrile, Others): Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry ...
Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) - Determination of the microstructure of solution-polymerized SBR - Part 2: FTIR with ATR method ... Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) - Determination of the microstructure of solution-polymerized SBR - Part 2: FTIR with ATR method ... The vinyl, trans and cis contents are expressed in mol % relative to the butadiene content. This method is only applicable to ... ISO 21561-2:2016 specifies procedures for the quantitative determination of the microstructure of the butadiene and the content ...
3903 30 00 - Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers - EU Vocabularies. #header.header.custom-header{ display: none ! ...
Our new data indicates a new structure for HCN at low temp., and several new phases for butadiene. We will also discuss the ... thought to be present in significant quantities on Titans surface: hydrogen cyanide and butadiene. We have used Raman ... there are currently no published crystal structures available for butadiene, and its behavior at low temp. is unexplored. ... New insights into hydrogen cyanide and butadiene. In: 259th ACS National Meeting & Exposition, 22-26 March 2020, Philadelphia, ...
See below for related topics or Click here to go to 1,3-Butadiene page Government agencies frequently move their pages and ... See below for related topics or Click here to go to 1,3-Butadiene page Click here for the ehso.com home page ...
However, 6 malignant gliomas and 2 neuroblastomas were observed in B6C3F1 mice exposed to 625 ppm 1,3-butadiene (NTP technical ... Genetic alterations in brain tumors following 1,3-butadiene exposure in B6C3F1 mice Yongbaek Kim 1 , Hue-Hua L Hong, Yan Lachat ... Genetic alterations in brain tumors following 1,3-butadiene exposure in B6C3F1 mice Yongbaek Kim et al. Toxicol Pathol. 2005. ... Activation of K-ras by codon 13 mutations in C57BL/6 X C3H F1 mouse tumors induced by exposure to 1,3-butadiene. Goodrow T, ...
Hammond Electronics 1594DWGY Universal enclosure 131 x 66 x 55 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Grey 1 pc(s). ...
... an Agreement was signed for basic cooperation conditions under the Butadiene project to be implemented by JSC NC ... The new joint butadiene project is closely related to construction of a Tyre Complex in Saran. We will supply local feed for ... The new joint butadiene project is closely related to construction of a Tyre Complex in Saran. We will supply local feed for ... The butadiene rubber project in Atyrau Region is scheduled to be implemented by 2025. The capacity will be 186 thousand tonnes ...
Styrene-butadiene copolymer. KTR-201. H350E. Styrene-Butadiene Copolymer BENZENE, ETHENYL-, POLYMER WITH 1,3-BUTADIENE. Styrene ... Styrene Butadiene Styrene Rubber. About Styrene Butadiene Styrene Rubber. Enquire Now. Our team of experts are at the ready. ... Styrene/Butadiene copolymer, aqueous dispersion. Latex SBR Solid. SBR 1502. Rubber - Hot SBR Crumb. Styrene Butadiene Emulsion ... Styrene, 1,3-butadiene polymer. Styrene, Butadiene Copolymer. STYRON 470. 10090C2 Crumb. H350. Rubber - Sbr 1507 Contains: ...
Influences of Accelerators on the Properties of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)-Fourier ... Influences of Accelerators on the Properties of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)-Fourier ... Key words: acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber, accelerators, mechanical properties, ageing, ATR- FTIR. ...
... you can find acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic from the most reliable suppliers on China.cn. ... virgin/recycled provide free sample plastic particles ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene resin ABS granules ABS plastic ... Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Copolymer Glass Fiber Fiied Grade Abs With 45%gf Engineering Plastic ... White Color Injection Molding grade Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene plastic granules, vrgin grade ABS resin/granules/pellets ...
... the market sentiments of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber remained on the declining phase throughout the first quarter of 2023. ... represents the butadiene unit. The subscripts "m" and "n" represent the number of repeating units of styrene and butadiene, ... Hence, Styrene-Butadiene Rubber prices finished the quarter on a strong note and were assessed at USD 3940 per MT on CFR basis. ... Finally, region-specific markets for Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) are analyzed and region-wise demand pattern is tracked. ...
Chapter 7, Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Market describes the players of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Market with capacity, ... For the Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Market research study, the following years have been considered to estimate the market ... The Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Market covers the market landscape and their growth prospect over the approaching years, ... To analyze Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Market concerning growth trends, prospects, and also their participation in the ...
Microheterogeneous catalytic system Nicolloid0-NiI-NiII for low-pressure polymerization of butadiene. I. Redox equilibria as ... Microheterogeneous catalytic system Ni(0)col-Ni(I)-Ni(II) for low pressure polymerization of butadiene. IV. The structure of an ... Microheterogeneous catalytic system Ni(0)col-Ni(I)-Ni(II) for low-pressure polymerization of butadiene. II. An infrared study ... Microheterogeneous catalytic system Ni(0)coll-Ni(I)-Ni(II) for low-pressure polymerization of butadiene. III. Electric ...
  • The downstream (automotive sector) in the North American market remained weak, accompanied by declining feedstock (styrene and butadiene) prices. (chemanalyst.com)
  • Furthermore, one of the feedstock costs (styrene and butadiene) continued to fall in the Asia-Pacific market, impacting the entire production cost. (chemanalyst.com)
  • Q4 of 2022 starting witnessed stagnancy accompanied by the feedstock (Styrene and Butadiene) prices. (chemanalyst.com)
  • Oversupply of the product, along with low production cost impacted by the feedstock (styrene and butadiene) prices. (chemanalyst.com)
  • Business Market Overview:Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by styrene and butadiene link. (abilogic.com)
  • Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene. (indepetro.com)
  • SBR is derived from two monomers, styrene and butadiene. (indepetro.com)
  • In the North American region, the market sentiments of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber remained on the declining phase throughout the first quarter of 2023. (chemanalyst.com)
  • In the first quarter of 2023, Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) market dynamics inclined on account of stable demand outlook from downstream (automotive and rubber industrial). (chemanalyst.com)
  • The report analyzes and forecasts the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market at global and regional levels. (timestechpharma.com)
  • The study provides a decisive view of the Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market by segmenting it in terms of form and application. (timestechpharma.com)
  • The report provides size (in terms of volume and value) of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Market for the base year 2020 and the forecast between 2021 and 2028. (timestechpharma.com)
  • Derivatives of butadiene include styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), polybutadiene rubber (PBR), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resins (ABS), styrene butadiene latex (SB Latex), adiponitrile, nitrile rubber (NR), and others. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Currently, Asia-Pacific is the largest market for butadiene & its derivatives and China is the leading consumer of the chemical. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • New York, United States, Oct. 20, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin is considered the best polymer of the styrenic family and is used as an engineering plastic in several industries around the globe. (kettlebinyu.com)
  • In order to assess worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene (106990) at a polymer production facility, an in depth industrial hygiene survey was conducted at Firestone Synthetic Rubber and Latex Company (SIC- 2822), Lake Charles, Louisiana. (cdc.gov)
  • The overall market trend of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) moved southwards on the back of declining demand for the product from the automotive and rubber sectors. (chemanalyst.com)
  • In the fourth quarter of 2022, Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) market dynamics declined sharply as the demand for the product declined in China. (chemanalyst.com)
  • Towards the end of the quarter, the market prices of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) were USD 1430 per MT, CFR Qingdao (China). (chemanalyst.com)
  • The overall market trend of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) moved southwards on the back of declining demand for the product from the automotive and construction industries. (chemanalyst.com)
  • Experimental study of bifacial photovoltaic module with waste polyvinyl chloride flex and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene road side safety sticker as an alternative reflector: optimization using response surface methodology. (bvsalud.org)
  • Characterization of hemoglobin adduct formation in mice and rats after administration of [14C]butadiene or [14C]isoprene. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Molecular dosimetry of N-7 guanine adduct formation in mice and rats exposed to 1,3-butadiene. (nih.gov)
  • Exhaustive analysis of the global butadiene market by application predicts the major derivative used currently along with the ones that would gain prominence in the future. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • 1. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the adenine-guanine cross-links of 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane in tissues of butadiene-exposed B6C3F1 mice. (nih.gov)
  • 4. NanoHPLC-nanoESI(+)-MS/MS quantitation of bis-N7-guanine DNA-DNA cross-links in tissues of B6C3F1 mice exposed to subppm levels of 1,3-butadiene. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Molecular dosimetry of 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane-induced DNA-DNA cross-links in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats exposed to 1,3-butadiene by inhalation. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to 1,3-butadiene occurs mainly from breathing contaminated air. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the information on the health effects of 1,3-butadiene comes from studies where the exposure was from breathing contaminated air. (cdc.gov)
  • Since it evaporates so easily, it is not expected to In laboratory animals, 1,3-butadiene causes inflammation be found in water or soil, but adequate tests are of nasal tissues, changes to lung, heart, and reproductive not available to measure the amounts. (cdc.gov)
  • Species differences in the distribution of inhaled butadiene in tissues. (nih.gov)
  • 3. HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS analysis of N7-guanine-N7-guanine DNA cross-links in tissues of mice exposed to 1,3-butadiene. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Persistence and repair of bifunctional DNA adducts in tissues of laboratory animals exposed to 1,3-butadiene by inhalation. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolism of 1,3-butadiene by lung and liver microsomes of rats and mice repeatedly exposed by inhalation to 1,3-butadiene. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of the injection-molding temperatures and pyrolysis cycles on the butadiene phase of high-impact polystyrene. (upv.es)
  • Lack of Carcinogenicity in Mice Exposed Once to High Concentrations of 1,3-Butadiene. (nih.gov)
  • Toxicokinetics of inhaled 1,3-butadiene in monkeys: comparison to toxicokinetics in rats and mice. (nih.gov)
  • Significant demand decline from the tire and automotive industries will pressure butadiene demand and price, directly impacting the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin market. (kettlebinyu.com)
  • About 60% of the manufactured 1,3-butadiene is used to make synthetic rubber. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), IARC, and EPA have determined that 1,3-butadiene is a human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Increase in use of synthetic rubbers and polymers in various end-use industries drive the demand for butadiene. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services has determined that 1,3-butadiene may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Current exposure control programs at the facility maintained arithmetic mean 8 hour worker exposures to less than 10ppm of 1,3-butadiene. (cdc.gov)
  • 1.1 These test methods specify the standard materials, test formula, mixing procedures, and test methods for the evaluation of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) mixed with carbon black. (astm.org)
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
  • ISO 21561-2:2016 specifies procedures for the quantitative determination of the microstructure of the butadiene and the content of styrene in solution-polymerized SBR (S-SBR) by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) with Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) method. (iso.org)
  • 7. Column switching HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS methods for quantitative analysis of exocyclic dA adducts in the DNA of laboratory animals exposed to 1,3-butadiene. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Quantitative analysis of 1,3-butadiene-induced DNA adducts in vivo and in vitro using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Animal studies found increases in a variety of tumor types from exposure to 1,3-butadiene. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to 1,3-butadiene will result in birth defects or other developmental effects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to 1,3-butadiene? (cdc.gov)
  • There is currently no reliable medical test to determine types from exposure to 1,3-butadiene. (cdc.gov)
  • OSHA) has set an occupational exposure limit of 1 part of during pregnancy can decrease fetal weights and 1,3-butadiene per million parts of air (1 ppm). (cdc.gov)
  • The butadiene market is expected to register substantial growth in India & China during the forecast period, attributed to increase in population, developing economies, and favorable investment policies by government to promote industrial growth. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Comprehensive analysis of factors that drive and restrict the growth of the global butadiene market is provided. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • 11. Capillary HPLC-accurate mass MS/MS quantitation of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybut-1-yl)-guanine adducts of 1,3-butadiene in human leukocyte DNA. (nih.gov)
  • This report provides an extensive analysis of the current and emerging market trends & dynamics in the global butadiene market. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • In the North American region, the market sentiments of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber fluctuated throughout the quarter on account of the slow demand outlook. (chemanalyst.com)
  • The report segments the butadiene market on the basis of applications and geography. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Our latest research report entitled Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Market (by applications (home appliances, automobiles, electrical. (abilogic.com)
  • Other effects seen in animals that breathed low levels of 1,3-butadiene for one year include kidney and liver disease, and damaged lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,3-Butadiene is also used to make plastics including acrylics. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,3-Butadiene is also used to make plastics including exhaust, waste incineration, or wood fires. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing high levels of 1,3-butadiene for a short time may cause nausea, dry mouth and nose, headache, and decreased blood pressure and pulse rate. (cdc.gov)
  • Half of the 1,3-butadiene that enters into air is fumes, but levels are low. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing very high levels of 1,3-butadiene for a short time can cause central nervous system damage, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased blood pressure and pulse rate, and unconsciousness. (cdc.gov)
  • The vinyl, trans and cis contents are expressed in mol % relative to the butadiene content. (iso.org)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about 1,3-Butadiene. (cdc.gov)
  • How can 1,3-butadiene affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • It is likely that health effects seen in children exposed to high amounts of 1,3-butadiene will be similar to the effects seen in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about 1,3-butadiene, and is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1,3-Butadiene is a chemical made from the processing of petroleum. (cdc.gov)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Mammalian Cell Cytogenetics study conclusions related to Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (87-68-3). (nih.gov)
  • Studies have shown that workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene may have an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, blood, and lymphatic system. (cdc.gov)
  • Animal studies showed that breathing 1,3-butadiene during pregnancy can increase the number of birth defects. (cdc.gov)
  • Butadiene or 1,3-butadiene is a highly reactive gas that is colorless and noncorrosive with a mild aromatic or gasoline-like odor at room temperature and pressure. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • We find 56 products about acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic from 23 manufacturers & suppliers. (china.cn)
  • Asia-Pacific is the biggest market of butadiene and is also the second fastest growing, after the ROW market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Geographically, the butadiene market is analyzed based on various regions such as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • The butadiene market is quite fragmented due to the presence of a large number of players. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Butadiene-based polymers exhibit improved functionality, performance, and safety at lower costs. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Towards the end of Q4, the prices of Styrene Butadiene Rubber were USD 2676 per MT, CFR USG (USA). (chemanalyst.com)