Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Toxic, possibly carcinogenic, monomer of neoprene, a synthetic rubber; causes damage to skin, lungs, CNS, kidneys, liver, blood cells and fetuses. Synonym: 2-chlorobutadiene.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.
A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.

Purification of a glutathione S-transferase and a glutathione conjugate-specific dehydrogenase involved in isoprene metabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45. (1/1387)

A glutathione S-transferase (GST) with activity toward 1, 2-epoxy-2-methyl-3-butene (isoprene monoxide) and cis-1, 2-dichloroepoxyethane was purified from the isoprene-utilizing bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain AD45. The homodimeric enzyme (two subunits of 27 kDa each) catalyzed the glutathione (GSH)-dependent ring opening of various epoxides. At 5 mM GSH, the enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for isoprene monoxide and cis-1, 2-dichloroepoxyethane, with Vmax values of 66 and 2.4 micromol min-1 mg of protein-1 and Km values of 0.3 and 0.1 mM for isoprene monoxide and cis-1,2-dichloroepoxyethane, respectively. Activities increased linearly with the GSH concentration up to 25 mM. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the product of GSH conjugation to isoprene monoxide was 1-hydroxy-2-glutathionyl-2-methyl-3-butene (HGMB). Thus, nucleophilic attack of GSH occurred on the tertiary carbon atom of the epoxide ring. HGMB was further converted by an NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase, and this enzyme was also purified from isoprene-grown cells. The homodimeric enzyme (two subunits of 25 kDa each) showed a high activity for HGMB, whereas simple primary and secondary alcohols were not oxidized. The enzyme catalyzed the sequential oxidation of the alcohol function to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid and followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to NAD+ and HGMB. The results suggest that the initial steps in isoprene metabolism are a monooxygenase-catalyzed conversion to isoprene monoxide, a GST-catalyzed conjugation to HGMB, and a dehydrogenase-catalyzed two-step oxidation to 2-glutathionyl-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid.  (+info)

High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene. (2/1387)

Chloroprene is the 2-chloro analog of 1,3-butadiene, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Following 2 years of inhalation exposure to 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K- and H-ras proto-oncogenes in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 80% of chloroprene-induced lung neoplasms (37/46) compared with only 30% in spontaneous lung neoplasms (25/82). Both K- and H-ras codon 61 A-->T transversions were identified in 100% of HG neoplasms (27/27) compared with a frequency of 56% (15/27) in spontaneous HG neoplasms. The predominant mutation in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This mutation has not been detected in spontaneous lung tumors of B6C3F1 mice and was identified in only 7% of spontaneous HG neoplasms. In lung neoplasms, greater percentages (80 and 71%) of A-->T transversions were observed at the lower exposures (12.8 and 32 p.p.m.), respectively, compared with 18% at the high exposure. In HG neoplasms, the percentage of A-->T transversions was the same at all exposure concentrations. The chloroprene-induced ras mutation spectra was similar to that seen with isoprene, where the predominant base change was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This differed from 1,3-butadiene, where K-ras codon 13 G-->C transitions and H-ras codon 61 A-->G transitions were the predominant mutations. The major finding of K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms suggests that this mutation may be important for tumor induction by this class of carcinogens.  (+info)

Measurement of some potentially hazardous materials in the atmosphere of rubber factories. (3/1387)

Two separate topics of work are outlined: methods for the measurement of chlorinated monomers in PVC and polychloroprene, and also methods for the measurement of these materials in factory air. Typical results which have been obtained in supplies of raw materials, in finished products, and in the working atmosphere at manufacturing operations are given. The second topic concerns the measurement of benzo[a]pyrene in the atmosphere of a tire manufacturing plant. This material is present in trace quantities in the mineral oils and carbon blacks used by the industry. The atmospheric concentrations present at various processes in this plant were measured on a daily basis over a period of two years, and the results obtained compared with results taken concurrently from an outside air station. It is shown that no significant quantities of benzo[a]pyrene are produced by tire manufacturing operations.  (+info)

Multiple organ carcinogenicity of inhaled chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and comparison of dose-response with 1,3-butadiene in mice. (4/1387)

Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) is a high production chemical used almost exclusively in the production of polychloroprene (neoprene) elastomer. Because of its structural similarity to 1,3-butadiene, a trans-species carcinogen, inhalation studies were performed with chloroprene to evaluate its carcinogenic potential in rats and mice. Groups of 50 male and female F344/N rats and 50 male and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene (6 h/day, 5 days/week) for 2 years. Under these conditions, chloroprene was carcinogenic to the oral cavity, thyroid gland, lung, kidney and mammary gland of rats, and to the lung, circulatory system (hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas), Harderian gland, kidney, forestomach, liver, mammary gland, skin, mesentery and Zymbal's gland of mice. Survival adjusted tumor rates in mice were fit to a Weibull model for estimation of the shape of the dose-response curves, estimation of ED10 values (the estimated exposure concentration associated with an increased cancer risk of 10%) and comparison of these parameters with those for 1,3-butadiene. Butadiene has been identified as a potent carcinogen in mice and has been associated with increased risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer in exposed workers. Shape parameter values for most of the neoplastic effects of chloroprene and 1,3-butadiene were consistent with linear or supralinear responses in the area near the lowest tested exposures. The most potent carcinogenic effect of 1,3-butadiene was the induction of lung neoplasms in female mice, which had an ED10 value of 0.3 p.p.m. Since the ED10 value for that same response in chloroprene exposed mice was also 0.3 p.p.m., we conclude that the carcinogenic potency of chloroprene in mice is similar to that of 1,3-butadiene. Cancer potency of chloroprene is greater in the mouse lung than in the rat lung, but greater in the rat kidney than in the mouse kidney and nearly equivalent in the mammary gland of each species.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is required for fibroblast growth factor-2-stimulated cell proliferation but not differentiation. (5/1387)

Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is a member of a family of polypeptides that have roles in a wide range of biological processes. To determine why different cell types show distinct responses to treatment with FGF-2, the array of FGF receptors present on the surface of a cell which differentiates in response to FGF-2 (PC12 cells) was compared with that present on the surface of a cell that proliferates in response to FGF-2 (Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts). Both cell types express exclusively FGFR1, suggesting that there are cell type-specific FGFR1 signaling pathways. Since mitogen-activated protein kinases function as mediators of cellular responses to a variety of stimuli, the roles of these proteins in FGF-mediated responses were examined. FGF-2 activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases with similar kinetics in both fibroblasts and PC12 cells, and a specific inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation blocks differentiation but has little effect on proliferation. In contrast, while p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated weakly and transiently in PC12 cells treated with FGF-2, a much stronger and sustained activation of this kinase is seen in FGF-2-treated fibroblasts. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of this kinase block proliferation but have no effect on differentiation. This effect on proliferation is specific for FGF-2 since the same concentrations of inhibitors have little or no effect on proliferation induced by serum.  (+info)

Butadiene diolepoxide- and diepoxybutane-derived DNA adducts at N7-guanine: a high occurrence of diolepoxide-derived adducts in mouse lung after 1,3-butadiene exposure. (6/1387)

Butadiene (BD) is a high production volume chemical and is known to be tumorigenic in rodents. BD is metabolized to butadiene monoepoxide (BMO), diepoxybutane (DEB) and butadiene diolepoxide (BDE). These epoxides are genotoxic and alkylate DNA both in vitro and in vivo, mainly at the N7 position of guanine. In this study, a 32P-post-labeling/thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for BDE and DEB adducts at the N7 of guanine was developed and was used in determining the enantiomeric composition of the adducts and the organ dose of BD exposure in lung. Exposure of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo), 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphate (5'-dGMP) and 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-phosphate (3'-dGMP) to racemic BDE followed by neutral thermal hydrolysis gave two products (products 1 and 2) that were identified by MS and UV and NMR spectroscopy as a diastereomeric pair of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-guanines. Exposure of dGuo nucleotides to RR/SS DEB (also referred to as dl DEB) followed by thermal depurination resulted in a single product coeluting with the BDE product 1. If the reaction mixture of BDE and 5'-dGMP was analyzed by HPLC before hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, four major nucleotide alkylation products (A, B, C and D) with identical UV sepectra were detected. The products were isolated and hydrolyzed, after which A and C coeluted with product 1 and B and D coeluted with the product 2. The major adduct of DEB-exposed 5'-dGMP was N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP (product E). A 32P-post-labeling assay was used to detect BDE- and DEB-derived N7-dGMP adducts in DNA. Levels of adducts increased with a dose of BDE and DEB and exhibited a half life of 30 +/- 3 (r = 0.98) and 31 +/- 4 h (r = 0.95), respectively. Incubation of DEB-modified DNA at 37 degrees C at neutral pH for up to 142 h did not lead to an increase of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP in the DNA. These observations led to the conclusion that the N7-(2,3, 4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP adducts in DNA can be used as a marker of BDE exposure and that N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP adducts are related to DEB exposure. Dose-related levels of BDE- and DEB-derived adducts were detected in lungs of mice inhaling butadiene. Most of the N7-dGMP adducts (73%; product D) were derived from the 2R-diol-3S-epoxide of 1,3-butadiene. The data presented in this paper indicate that in vivo, 98% of N7-dGMP alkylation after BD exposure is derived from BDE, and approximately 2% of the adducts were derived from DEB and BMO.  (+info)

Identification of urinary metabolites of isoprene in rats and comparison with mouse urinary metabolites. (7/1387)

Isoprene, a major commodity chemical used in production of polyisoprene elastomers, has been shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. Similar to findings for the structurally related compound butadiene, mice are more susceptible than rats to isoprene-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. Although differences in uptake, and disposition of isoprene in rats and mice have been described, its in vivo biotransformation products have not been characterized in either species. The purpose of these studies was to identify the urinary metabolites of isoprene in Fischer 344 rats and compare these metabolites with those formed in male B6C3F1 mice. After i.p. administration of 64 mg [14C]isoprene/kg to rats and mice, isoprene was excreted unchanged in breath ( approximately 50%) or as urinary metabolites ( approximately 32%). In rats isoprene was primarily excreted in urine as 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (53%), 2-methyl-3-buten-1,2-diol (23%), and the C-1 glucuronide conjugate of 2-methyl-3-buten-1,2-diol (13%). These metabolites are consistent with preferential oxidation of isoprene's methyl-substituted vinyl group. No oxidation of the unsubstituted vinyl group was observed. In addition to the isoprene metabolites found in rat urine, mouse urine contained numerous other isoprene metabolites with a larger percentage (25%) of total urinary radioactivity associated with an unidentified, polar fraction than in the rat (7%). Unlike butadiene, there was no evidence that glutathione conjugation played a significant role in the metabolism of isoprene in rats. Because of the unidentified metabolites in mouse urine, involvement of glutathione in the metabolism of isoprene in mice cannot be delineated.  (+info)

Role of endothelial cell extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 in urokinase-type plasminogen activator upregulation and in vitro angiogenesis by fibroblast growth factor-2. (8/1387)

Downstream signaling triggered by the binding of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) to its tyrosine-kinase receptors involves the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) with consequent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Here we demonstrate that FGF2 induces ERK1/2 activation in bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells and that the continuous presence of the growth factor is required for sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This is prevented by the MEK inhibitors PD 098059 and U0126, which also inhibit FGF2-mediated upregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and in vitro formation of capillary-like structures in three-dimensional type I collagen gel. Various FGF2 mutants originated by deletion or substitution of basic amino acid residues in the amino terminus or in the carboxyl terminus of FGF2 retained the capacity to induce a long-lasting activation of ERK1/2 in BAE cells. Among them, K128Q/R129Q-FGF2 was also able to stimulate uPA production and morphogenesis whereas R129Q/K134Q-FGF2 caused uPA upregulation only. In contrast, K27, 30Q/R31Q-FGF2, K128Q/K138Q-FGF2 and R118,129Q/K119,128Q-FGF2 exerted a significant uPA-inducing and morphogenic activity in an ERK1/2-dependent manner only in the presence of heparin. Furthermore, no uPA upregulation and morphogenesis was observed in BAE cells treated with the deletion mutant (delta)27-32-FGF2 even in the presence of soluble heparin. Thus, mutational analysis of FGF2 dissociates the capacity of the growth factor to induce a persistent activation of ERK1/2 from its ability to stimulate uPA upregulation and/or in vitro angiogenesis. In conclusion, the data indicate that ERK1/2 phosphorylation is a key step in the signal transduction pathway switched on by FGF2 in endothelial cells. Nevertheless, a sustained ERK1/2 activation is not sufficient to trigger uPA upregulation and morphogenesis. FGF2 mutants may represent useful tools to dissect the signal transduction pathway(s) mediating the complex response elicited by an angiogenic stimulus in endothelial cells.  (+info)

1, 3 Butadiene Market: Global Demand Analysis & Opportunity Outlook 2024. The global 1, 3 Butadiene market is segmented by applications such as butadiene rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, nitrile butadiene rubber, SB latex hexamethylenediamine and others. Further, butadiene rubber segment grabbed major market share in 2016. Butadiene rubber is a synthetic polymer and due to its excellent wear resistance, rebound resilience and mechanical properties, it is widely used in manufacturing of products such as tire, golf balls, and shoe insoles. Further, other beneficial features of butadiene rubbers such as higher elasticity, wear resistance, cold resistance good process ability are likely to be the major factors which may bolster the growth of this segment in upcoming years.. Global 1, 3 Butadiene market is expected to register a notable CAGR over the forecast period. Moreover, the Global 1, 3 Butadiene Market is expected to reach at valuation of USD 33.5 Billion by ...
1, 3 Butadiene Market: Global Demand Analysis & Opportunity Outlook 2024. The global 1, 3 Butadiene market is segmented by applications such as butadiene rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, nitrile butadiene rubber, SB latex hexamethylenediamine and others. Further, butadiene rubber segment grabbed major market share in 2016. Butadiene rubber is a synthetic polymer and due to its excellent wear resistance, rebound resilience and mechanical properties, it is widely used in manufacturing of products such as tire, golf balls, and shoe insoles. Further, other beneficial features of butadiene rubbers such as higher elasticity, wear resistance, cold resistance good process ability are likely to be the major factors which may bolster the growth of this segment in upcoming years.. Global 1, 3 Butadiene market is expected to register a notable CAGR over the forecast period. Moreover, the Global 1, 3 Butadiene Market is expected to reach at valuation of USD 33.5 Billion by ...
1, 3 Butadiene Market: Global Demand Analysis & Opportunity Outlook 2024. The global 1, 3 Butadiene market is segmented by applications such as butadiene rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, nitrile butadiene rubber, SB latex hexamethylenediamine and others. Further, butadiene rubber segment grabbed major market share in 2016. Butadiene rubber is a synthetic polymer and due to its excellent wear resistance, rebound resilience and mechanical properties, it is widely used in manufacturing of products such as tire, golf balls, and shoe insoles. Further, other beneficial features of butadiene rubbers such as higher elasticity, wear resistance, cold resistance good process ability are likely to be the major factors which may bolster the growth of this segment in upcoming years.. Global 1, 3 Butadiene market is expected to register a notable CAGR over the forecast period. Moreover, the Global 1, 3 Butadiene Market is expected to reach at valuation of USD 33.5 Billion by ...
Refine business strategies with a fuller understanding of the trends and developments shaping your markets.. - Gain knowledge regarding the market share of each of the major producers in the market in different countries of the Americas.. 1 Table of Contents1 Table of Contents 61.1 List of Tables 81.2 List of Figures 92 Introduction 103 Americas Butadiene Market 113.1 Overview of Butadiene Market in the Americas 113.2 Butadiene Demand and Production Analysis for the Americas, and Forecast to 2020 113.3 Butadiene Demand Share Analysis for the Americas by Region, and Forecast to 2020 143.4 Butadiene Demand Analysis by End-Use Segment for the Americas, and Forecast to 2020 153.5 Butadiene Market Competitive Landscape in the Americas 174 North America Butadiene Market 184.1 North America Butadiene Market Overview 184.2 North America Butadiene Market Drivers 184.2.1 On-Purpose Production Technologies for Butadiene to Ease Supply Shortage 184.2.2 Bio-Based Butadiene Production Method Might Provide ...
5.1 Exposure data. 1,3-Butadiene is a monomer used in high volume in the manufacture of a wide range of polymers, including styrene butadiene rubber, polybutadiene, nitrile rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resins and styrene butadiene latexes. It is also an intermediate in the production of various other chemicals.. Occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene occurs in the production of monomeric 1,3-butadiene and of 1,3-butadiene-based polymers and 1,3-butadiene-derived products. The mean full-shift, time-weighted average exposure levels measured for workers in these industries have usually been below 10 ppm [22 mg/m3], although that level may be exceeded during some short-term activities. Recent data from monomer extraction and styrene butadiene rubber plants showed lower average concentrations (, 5 ppm [, 11 mg/m3]. 1,3-Butadiene is not usually found at detectable levels in workplace air during manufacture of finished rubber and plastic products. The general population may be exposed to ...
1,3-Butadiene is a general air pollutant associated with combustion of organic matter and is also an extensively used monomer in polymer production. The cancer risk estimation of 1,3-butadiene is encumbered with large uncertainties. Extrapolation from tumour frequencies in long-term animal tests has led to a relatively high figure for the risk associated with 1,3-butadiene exposure. This is mainly based on observations of very high tumour incidences in butadiene-exposed mice, which in this respect are about 100 times more sensitive than rats. It has been hypothesized that a high cancer risk from 1,3-butadiene could be associated with its metabolism to the bifunctional 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) which, in comparison with monofunctional epoxides, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB) and 1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol (EBdiol), is a highly effective mutagen, i.e. cancer initiator. Measurement of in vivo doses of DEB is therefore essential for the risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene. Reaction products with hemoglobin ...
The chemical kinetics of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-C4H6) are important because 1,3-butadiene is a major intermediate during the combustion of real fuels. However, there is only limited information on the chemical kinetics of 1,3-butadiene combustion, which has applications in several combustion schemes that are currently being developed, including spark-assisted homogeneous charge compression ignition and fuel reformate exhaust gas recirculation. In the present work, the ignition delay times of 1,3-butadiene mixtures has been investigated using pressure data. Oxidation of 1,3-butadiene/oxygen mixtures diluted in argon or nitrogen at equivalence ratios (Φ) of 0.3 behind reflected shock waves has been studied at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1300K and at pressures ranging from 1 to 2atm. Reaction progress was monitored by recording concentration time-histories of 1,3-butadiene and OH* radical at a location 2cm from the end wall of a 13.4m long shock tube with an inner diameter of 14cm. 1,3-Butadiene
The present invention relates to a method of preparing butadiene and a device for preparing the same. According to the present invention, when butadiene is prepared by oxidative dehydrogenation of butene, unlike conventional methods, in which nitrogen is used as a diluent gas and an absorption method is used to separate butadiene from reaction products, butane is used as a diluent gas and a condensation method, in which butadiene is liquefied and separated from reaction products using a low-temperature refrigerant or cooling water, is used. In addition, an absorption method of recovering all hydrocarbons from an upper stream generated in a condensation process is used, so that loss of hydrocarbons is minimized. Therefore, the method and device of the present invention may provide high-purity butadiene while reducing raw material costs, production costs, and energy consumption, thereby improving economic efficiency of processes.
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Word Scramble - English word BUTADIENE: words that start with butadiene, words that end with butadiene, anagrams of butadiene, how to spell butadiene!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
1,3-Butadiene is a general air pollutant associated with combustion of organic matter and is also an extensively used monomer in polymer production. The cancer risk estimation of 1,3-butadiene is encumbered with large uncertainties. Extrapolation from tumour frequencies in long-term animal tests has led to a relatively high figure for the risk associated with 1,3-butadiene exposure. This is mainly based on observations of very high tumour incidences in butadiene-exposed mice, which in this respect are about 100 times more sensitive than rats. It has been hypothesized that a high cancer risk from 1,3-butadiene could be associated with its metabolism to the bifunctional 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) which, in comparison with monofunctional epoxides, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB) and 1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol (EBdiol), is a highly effective mutagen, i.e. cancer initiator. Measurement of in vivo doses of DEB is therefore essential for the risk assessment of 1,3-butadiene. Reaction products with hemoglobin ...
Butadiene is a material indispensable to synthetic rubber, and it is currently produced from a byproduct of ethylene that is produced from naphtha. That is, naphtha is vital for the production of butadiene that is an ingredient of tire. As the production cost of shale gas decreases, shale gas will grow more popular as the raw material to produce ethylene. Production of ethylene using shale gas does not produce butadiene. More specifically, growing popularity of shale gas decreases the supply of butadiene and increases the cost of tire production. ...
1,3-Butadiene-Induced Adenine DNA Adducts Are Genotoxic but Only Weakly Mutagenic When Replicated in Escherichia coli of Various Repair and Replication Backgrounds ...
Professional 1,3-Butadiene price market analysis. Echemi provides reliable and worth 1,3-Butadiene price analysis & professional market analysis, helping you to find the best 1,3-Butadiene suppliers.
For seven years of his life Bobby Simon worked at Port Neches butane plant, where he claims he inhaled and absorbed enough carcinogenic emissions to cause him to develop leukemia.
This report describes a study by Dr. Ryan Meng and colleagues to determine the role of stereochemistry in the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of three major butadiene metabolites. This study is a part of HEIs program of research in air toxics; one important aim of that program has been to fill key gaps in risk assessment for some of the most important chemicals. Butadiene is present in motor vehicle exhaust and other emissions and is listed by the U.S.
A series of hexasubstituted butadienes of type A was prepared representing (E,E)-1,2,3,4-tetrachloro-5-methoxy-1,3-pentadienes (7) substituted by different terminal residues R. 1H n.m.r. data of diastereotopic methylene protons served to determine the barriers of rotation around the central CC single bond of the butadienes A. The considerable dependence of this barrier (ΔGmath image = 12.8-21.1 kcal/mole) upon the size of the terminal substituents R ist discussed in terms of a buttressing effect of these groups. ...
The Linde Group and BASF SE intend to cooperate in developing and licensing processes for the on-purpose production of linear butenes and butadiene.
The Linde Group and BASF SE intend to cooperate in developing and licensing processes for the on-purpose production of linear butenes and butadiene.
The Linde Group and BASF SE intend to cooperate in developing and licensing processes for the on-purpose production of linear butenes and butadiene.
[265 Pages Report] Butadiene Market & Its Derivatives (SBR, PBR, ABS, SB Latex, Adiponitrile, NR, & Others) Market report categorizes the global market by Applications & Geography
Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C-C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C-C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability ...
The reaction kinetics of 1,3-butadiene with Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO, CI) was investigated over T = 200-400 K using the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-311G (d, p) level of theory. Reaction pathways involving distinguished conformational addition variants of both the reactants proceeds via a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to form the SOZ. The effect of temperature suggested that, the contribution by the inner-facing TSs decreases, while outer-facing reaction channels become more significant, as the temperature increases. At low pressures, the effect of pressure was more prominent at temperatures close to 200 K. However, at 760 Torr, the effect was insignificant over the complete temperature range ...
68299-05-8 - 2-Propenenitrile, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, 4-ethenylcyclohexene, formaldehyde and phenol - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
A serious fire broke out at TPCs Port Neches, Texas, 425,000 t/yr butadiene (BD) facility on 27 November, prompting shifts in the entire supply chain
1,3-Butadiene, 1,1,4,4-tetrakis(N,N-dimethylamine)- | C12H26N4 | CID 139196 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
We describe the mechanism, substituent effects, and origins of the selectivity of nickel-catalyzed four-component coupling reaction of alkyl fluorides, aryl Grignard reagents, and two molecules of 1,3-butadiene that affords a 1,6-octadiene carbon framework bearing alkyl and aryl groups at 3- and 8-positions,
United States Butadiene Market Report 2016 market report added by qyresearchgroups.com. In this Report includes best market price, trends, Growth, Forecast, Analysis, demand & Overview.
Techno-economic analyses of specific butadiene production processes, presenting capital investment breakdown, raw materials consumed and operating costs. Know …
GBI Research, a leading business intelligence provider, has released its latest research, “Butadiene Market in the Americas to 2020 - Persistent Supply ...
We have been advised of several incidents where cargoes of Butadiene, ex Brindisi have been rejected at the intended discharge port due to excessive dimer content.
Aberrant transforming development aspect-β (TGF-β) has an important function in the introduction of cancer such as for example tumor metastasis and invasion. motility in a variety of malignancy cells were dose-dependently decreased by LY2109761. TGF-β1 increased FN MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in HCC1806 TNBC cells. TGF-β1-induced MMP-9 expression was decreased by both a MEK inhibitor UO126 and a smad3 inhibitor SIS3. Induction of FN and MMP-2 by TGF-β1 was just decreased by SIS3. Overexpression of smad3 significantly increased FN MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Interestingly ZER significantly suppressed TGF-β1-induced FN MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in HCC1806 cells. In addition ZER completely decreased TGF-β1-induced the phosphorylation of smad3. Finally we observed that ZER suppressed the tumorigenecity such as tumor volume weight Ki67 expression and metastasis in TNBC cells xenograft models. Taken together we exhibited that ZER suppresses TGF-β1-induced FN MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression through ...
San Jacinto Elementary and Deer Park Junior High were measured for 1,3 butadiene, benzene, and other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). A monitor at San Jacinto Elementary (which is less than half a mile from the junior high) collected air samples from September 2009 to January 2010, and again from October 2011 to May 2012. While one elevated result of 1,3 butadiene was found in the first round of monitoring, overall results show the toxics being tested were below levels of concern and the EPA will not continue monitoring. ...
Within the framework of the FP7 project CoPIRIDE, funded by the EU, novel process operations have developed in order to enable significant process intensification. High-throughput devices allow a compact, modular process design, so that the whole process can be installed inside a standard container. This concept provides a faster response to the market demands and allows shipping of the containers to places where educts are cheap and available, or the products required [1].. The often used multipurpose batch reactors allow a high number of different chemical reactions, but they are not optimized for a special chemistry and their handling provokes accidents [2]. Thus, stirred tank reactors are not feasible for fast exothermic reactions [3]. Microfluidic reactors are characterized by their enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, which is useful when researching an exothermic reaction [4]. Several working groups, e.g., Bally et al. [5] or Commenge et al. [6] have examined the advantages and the ...
In glassy isopentane at 77 K, 1-phenyl-4-(4-pyridyl)-cis-1,cis-3-butadiene (cc-PPyB) and 1-phenyl-4-(4-pyridyl)-cis-1,trans-3-butadiene (ct-PPyB) can undergo simultaneous two-bond photoisomerization. Under the same conditions ...
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The dramatic increase in butadiene (BD) prices reflects supply shortages in the U.S. and Western Europe and a shift to lighter feedstocks, according to Ed Gartner, Director of the World Petrochemicals.... ...
Looking for Butadiene Rubbers? Find out information about Butadiene Rubbers. divinyl rubbers, a group of synthetic rubbers; products of the polymerization of butadiene. Upon polymerization, butadiene molecules may combine with the... Explanation of Butadiene Rubbers
Press Release issued Jan 11, 2013: Butadiene Europe and Middle East Market to 2020 - North American Supply Shortages to Drive European Exports, which is focused on the demand side of the Europe and Middle East butadiene industry. The report provides the reader with detailed analysis and forecasts of the major economic and market trends affecting the Europe and Middle East butadiene demand in the major countries of the region. It also provides analysis and description of the major drivers and restraints affecting butadiene demand. The Europe and Middle East butadiene demand is assessed in terms of end-user segments, prices and the competitive landscape, at both the regional and national level. Overall, the report presents a comprehensive analysis of the Europe and Middle East butadiene market, covering all major parameters. The report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research, and in-house analysis by GBI Researchs team of industry experts.
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An efficient adsorbent for butadiene was synthesized via soft hydrothermal treatment (2 h in boiling water followed by 1 h calcination at 573 K) of industrial Na-X. The adsorption capacity of the zeolite was studied in the low concentration range (20-300 ppmv). Whereas original Na-X presents a very small adsorption, its treated counterpart shows a large capacity. The characterization of the zeolite suggests that the soft hydrothermal treatment dealuminates the zeolite leaving behind new OH-groups responsible for the adsorption of butadiene on the zeolite lattice. The adsorption isotherms were determined for the hydrothermally treated zeolites and the results were found to be consistent with the Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) model. The adsorption enthalpy of butadiene on the treated Na-X was obtained from the D-A equation and from the modeling of temperature-programmed desorption profiles. Both methods gave a value of −45 kJ mol−1 suggesting chemical interactions of butadiene with the zeolite ...
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Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Global Market to 2020 - Demand for Solution-Styrene Butadiene Rubber (S-SBR) Increasing In-line with Uptake of High-Performance Tires is an in-depth report from GBI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequential cross-coupling of 1,4-bissilylbutadienes. T2 - Synthesis of unsymmetrical 1,4-disubstituted 1,3-butadienes. AU - Denmark, Scott E. AU - Tymonko, Steven A.. PY - 2005/6/8. Y1 - 2005/6/8. N2 - A mild and general and stereospecific cross-coupling reaction of unsymmetrical 1,4-bissilyl-1,3-butadienes has been accomplished. By the use of either a benzyldimethylsilyl or 2-thienyldimethylsilyl unit at one end of the dienylsilanol, a selective cross-coupling could be effected under mildly basic conditions (KOTMS) to afford 4-aryl-1,3-dienylsilanes in excellent yield for a wide range of aryl and alkenyl coupling partners. The second cross-coupling could be effected cleanly by the action of TBAF with electron-rich or electron-poor halides. The sequential process could be telescoped into a one pot procedure with overall excellent yields of the unsymmetrical 1,4-diaryl-1,3-butadienes.. AB - A mild and general and stereospecific cross-coupling reaction of unsymmetrical ...
Malvoisin, E. ; Mercier, Michel ; Roberfroid, Marcel. Enzymatic hydration of butadiene monoxide and its importance in the metabolism of butadiene.. In: Advances in experimental medicine and biology, Vol. 136 Pt A, p. 437-44 (1981 ...
Global Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) Market. In this report, the global Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025.. Global Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue (value) and market share for each manufacturer; the top players ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 3,4-Epoxy-1-butene, a reactive metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, induces somatic mutations in Xpc-null mice. AU - Wickliffe, Jeffrey K.. AU - Galbert, L. A.. AU - Ammenheuser, M. M.. AU - Herring, S. M.. AU - Xie, Jingwu. AU - Masters, O. E.. AU - Friedberg, E. C.. AU - Lloyd, R. S.. AU - Ward, J. B.. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - Xpc-null (Xpc-/-) mice, deficient in the global genome repair subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER-GGR), were exposed by intraperitoneal (IP) injection to a 300 mg/kg mutagenic dose of 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), to investigate NERs potential role in repairing butadiene (BD) epoxide DNA lesions. Mutagenic sensitivity was assessed using the Hprt assay. Xpc-/- mice were significantly more sensitive to EB exposure, exhibiting an average 2.8-fold increase in Hprt mutant frequency (MF) relative to those of exposed Xpc+/+ (wild-type) mice. As a positive control for NER-GGR, additional mice were exposed by IP injection to a 150 mg/kg mutagenic dose of ...
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United States Patent 3,770,787 VINYL FERROCENE BUTADIENE COPGLTMER BURNING RATE CATALYST Jimmy D. Burnett, Arab, Ala, assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army No Drawing. Original application Sept. 17, 1969, Ser. No. 858,896. Divided and this application .luly 19, 1971, Ser. No. 164,143 lint. Cl. (307i 15/02 US. Cl. 260-439 CY 3 Claims ABSTRACT UP THE DISCLOSURE Copolymers of vinyl ferrocene and butadiene are disclosed along with the procedure for preparation. The copolymers are useful as a burning rate catalyst and provide a means for introducing and maintaining a high catalyst concentration in solid propellants inasmuch as the copolymer containing the iron catalyst is capable of serving as the binder replacing part of the normally used binders in solid propellants. Also disclosed is a typical solid propellant composition utilizing the copolymers of this invention as a binder replacement and burning rate catalyst. This application is a division of ...
A group of researchers achieved selective alkylation of internal carbon of butadiene by making use of cheap copper catalysts. With this groups method, it is possible to synthesize high-value terminal olefins by using inexpensive butadiene.
Chandra Asri Petrochemical's Petrokimia Butadiene Indonesia (PBI) subsidiary has been granted a tax holiday for up to 10 years for its investment in Indonesia's first butadiene production facility.
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The mechanism of catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation (OXD) of butenes to 1,3-butadiene over Sn-P-O and Li-Sn-P-O catalysts was investigated in batch recirculation and microcatalytic pulse reactors. Mechanistic features of the reaction were examined using deuterium labeled butene (isotopic tracer technique) and $\sp{18}$O-labeled carbon dioxide (oxygen isotope exchange) experiments. Solid state changes in the catalyst were examined through BET surface area, electron microscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Reaction products include 1,3-butadiene, carbon dioxide, water, and butene isomers.Both Sn-P-O and Li-Sn-P-O catalysts have activity of about 11% conversion and about 98% initial selectivity for butadiene after 15 minutes reaction time at 300$\sp\circ$C. Catalyst deactivation is caused by the formation of coke, which decreases the catalyst surface area. The Sn-P-O catalyst forms coke more readily than the Li-Sn-P-O catalyst. The activity of the aged catalysts ...
Synthetic rubber definition, any of several substances similar to natural rubber in properties and uses, produced by the polymerization of an unsaturated hydrocarbon, as butylene or isoprene, or by the copolymerization of such hydrocarbons with styrene, butadiene, or the like. See more.
Dnsity functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for the highly selective cis-1,4-polymerization of butadiene catalyzed by a cationic rare-earth metal complex bearing an ancillary PNP ligand. It has been found that the chain initiation and propagation of butadiene polymerization occurs via the favorable cis-1,4-insertion route. The trans-1,4 and 1,2-insertion are unfavorable both kinetically and thermodynamically. The chain growth follows the π-allyl-insertion mechanism. The analyses of energy decomposition of transition states indicate that the likelihood of rival insertion pathways is predominantly controlled by the interaction energy of butadiene with a metal center and the deformation energy of butadiene moiety. The electronic factor of the central metal has a decisive influence on the cis- vs. trans-insertion and the regioselectivity (cis-1,4- vs. cis-1,2-insertion) is mainly determined by steric hindrance. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) coordination made monomer insertion less favorable
Benzene enters cells and damages DNA material. As well, benzene is known to cause harmful effects on bone marrow and it can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. Women exposed to the chemical can suffer irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. The FDA has regulated these solvents for decades, but workers, populations living near industrial sources of benzene and butadiene emissions, and the general public continue to be exposed these deadly chemicals. Benzene is still present in a number of products, from petroleum solvents to soft drinks ...
Butadiene, then, describes a compound built with a four-carbon chain containing two double bonds. A chemist would write this structure as CH₂=CHCH=CH₂, where the parallel lines indicate the double bonds. The final part of the name -- the prefix poly- -- tells you that there are many butadiene molecules strung together to form what chemists call a polymer. The polymerization process begins when an unpaired electron on one butadiene subunit steals an electron from an adjacent butadiene subunit, bonding the two together. This sequence of events occurs repeatedly until a long chain of molecules forms.. By itself, polybutadiene doesnt produce an effective material. It becomes gooey at high temperatures and brittle at low temperatures. To transform it into a resilient, stable rubber, Stingley borrowed a page from the lab manual of Charles Goodyear, who discovered that sulfur added to rubber made it flexible and resilient at any temperature. Goodyear called this vulcanization, and Stingley ...
The recently published report titled Global Butadiene Industry 2016 Market Research Report is an in depth study providing complete analysis of the industry...
Butadiene is produced commercially by extractive distillation from crude butylene concentration (C4) stream, a by-product of ethylene and propylene production.
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Laurent Delannoy, Catherine Louis, Trimurthulu Gode, P.S. Reddy, B.M. Reddy, et al.. Au-Cu Nanoparticules supported on Ti02: an efficient catalyst for selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene. 2nd International Symposium on Intermetallic Compounds in Methanol Steam Reforming, Jun 2012, Munich, Germany. 〈hal-01547421〉 ...
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Synthetic rubber, also known as Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR), is a low-cost alternative to natural rubber with high wear resistance.
In 2012, LanzaTech partnered with INVISTA to develop one-step and two-step technologies to convert industrial waste gas carbon monoxide into butadiene. The collaboration will initially focus on the production of butadiene in a 2-step process from LanzaTech CO-derived 2,3-butanediol (2,3 BDO). A direct single step process will be also be developed to produce butadiene directly through a process of gas fermentation. INVISTA and LanzaTech will also collaborate on the joint development of tools that will allow the extension of this technology for the direct production of other industrial chemicals, including nylon intermediates from carbon doxide and hydrogen.. With leading brands including LYCRA®, COOLMAX®, CORDURA®, STAINMASTER® and ANTRON®, INVISTA is one of the worlds largest integrated producers of chemical intermediates, polymers and fibers ...
Alfa Aesar™ 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, 98+% 10g Alfa Aesar™ 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, 98+% Dichlorotol to...
Opening a project to combine the following very similar specifications AMS-P-5315, AMS 7270 and AMS 7271 into one specification.. ...
This report features 27 companies, including Synthos, Nizhnekamskneftekhim, CNOOC Limited, ExxonMobil, Genomatic, Lion Elastomers, Formosa Petrochemical, Repsol
Description:Selective Hydrogenation - Butadiene hydrogenation with 1-Butene isomerization Characteristics:Ready to Use, Pd, Al2O3 Shape:Spheres The high activity and high selectivit
Non-staining, non-discolouring antioxidant stabiliser for use in a wide variety of polymer latices and other elastomeric systems. It is especially recommended for the protection of natural and synthetic polymers based on Isoprene and butadiene ...
The Dräger X-pid 9000/9500 requires no preparation and is ready to use after a brief start-up phase. Selective measurement in Analysis mode takes only a few seconds. A benzene measurement starts with the push of a button and is completed in only 30 seconds. After another 60 seconds, the device is ready to measure for benzene again. Compared with other detection systems, the Dräger X-pid 9000/9500 saves considerable time and enables further monitoring to be undertaken. Simultaneous measurement of other compounds, like benzene and butadiene, further reduces testing times ...
Electronic, Time, Treatment, Molecular Dynamics, Paper, Water, Transfer, Hydrogen, Donor, Electrode, Electron, Electron Transport, Probability, Goal, Methods, Couples, Temperature, Atmosphere, Butadiene, Energy Transfer
1464-53-5 - ZFIVKAOQEXOYFY-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 1,2:3,4-Diepoxybutane - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
May cause respiratory irritation.. P261-P264b-P270-P271-P280-P301+P312-P302+P352-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P312-P330-P332+P313-P362-P501c. H302-H315-H319-H335. TSCA : No. Recommended Storage : Ambient temperatures. ...
The butadiene production method, which was based on aldol condensation of acetaldehyde (1905), was also implemented on ... He had patented more than 20 ways to produce butadiene (buta-1,3-diene), which were implemented industrially in the Soviet ... C to yield butadiene: CH3CH2OH + CH3CHO → CH2=CH-CH=CH2 + 2 H2O This process was used in the United States to produce ... Butadiene. In M. Grayson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed., vol. 4, pp. 313-337. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ...
For instance, the cleavage of cyclohexene to give butadiene and ethylene has been observed, but only at temperatures exceeding ... butadiene Dienophile: N2 > CO2 > naphthalene > benzene, nitriles > methacrylate > maleimides > cyclopentadiene, imines, alkenes ...
1,1-Dibutylstannole is a pale yellow oil prepared from 1,4-dilithio-1,3-butadiene and dibutyltin dichloride 1,1-Dimethyl-2,3,4, ... 1988). "1,4-Dilithio-1,3-butadienes". Organometallics. 7 (8): 1878. doi:10.1021/om00098a034. J.I.G. Cadogan; S.V. Ley; G. ... 5-tetraphenyl-1H-stannole, for example, can be formed by the reaction of 1,4-dilithio-1,2,3,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene and ...
2]dendralene (butadiene) is the only one not cross-conjugated. The name dendralene is pulled together from the words dendrimer ... The ultraviolet absorption maxima equal that of butadiene itself. The dendralenes with an odd number of alkene units are more ... Blomquist, A. T.; Verdol, Joseph A. (1955). "2-Vinyl-1,3-butadiene". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77 (1): 81-83. doi:10.1021/ja01606a025. ... chloride in an oxidative coupling reaction to give the butadiene dimer called [4]dendralene. The gas-phase molecular structure ...
3-sulfolene is mainly valued as a stand-in for butadiene. The in situ production and immediate consumption of 1,3-butadiene ... Sulfolene, or butadiene sulfone is a cyclic organic chemical with a sulfone functional group. It is a white, odorless, ... If neat butadiene is used, special equipment for work under elevated pressure is required. With sulfolene no buildup of ... 1,3-Butadiene (formed in the retro-cheletrophic reaction of 3-sulfolene) reacts with dehydrobenzene (benzyne, obtained by ...
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Miller, Dustin. "Microcellular Plastics Lab - University of Washington". faculty.washington.edu ... "Ultrasound assisted cyclic solid-state foaming for fabricating ultra-low density porous acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene foams ...
Iwamoto, M.; Yuguchi, S. (1966). "Reaction of Butadiene with Ethylene. II. New Catalytic Systems in Synthesis of 1,4-Hexadiene ...
Iwai I, Ide J (1988). "2,3-Diphenyl-1,3-Butadiene". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, 6, p. 531 Calligaris M (2004). " ...
It is the perfluoroanalogue of butadiene. It can be prepared by coupling of C2 compounds such as from chlorotrifluoroethylene ...
Typical VIIs are polyacrylates and butadiene. Antioxidants suppress the rate of oxidative degradation of the hydrocarbon ...
doi:10.1021/om0207865 Iwai, I.; Ide, J. (1988). "2,3-Diphenyl-1,3-Butadiene". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, 6, p. 531 ... 6 NaCl The polymerization of butadiene and styrene is catalyzed by sodium metal. Organopotassium, organorubidium, and ...
ABS Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, a plastic. ABSplus is a stronger, proprietary blend of ABS by Stratasys. PLA Polylactic ...
For instance, magnetic inequivalence is found in 1,4-homodisubstituted butadienes. It might be expected in a molecule such as a ... Synthesis of pseudo-.beta.-DL-gulopyranose from a diacetoxy butadiene. Proton magnetic resonance studies". J. Org. Chem. 33 (7 ...
... , formally referred to as 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C4H4. It ... Dimethylbutadiene readily undergoes Diels-Alder reactions and reacts faster than 1,3-butadiene. Its effectiveness in this ... 3-butadiene". Organic Syntheses. 22: 39.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link); Collective Volume, 3, p. 312 Griesbaum ...
Chlorine adds to 1,3-butadiene to afford a mixture of 3,4-dichlorobut-1-ene and 1,4-dichlorobut-2-ene. The 1,4-dichloro isomer ... This "acetylene process" has been replaced by a process, which adds Cl2 to one of the double bonds in 1,3-butadiene, and ... Chloroprene is produced in three steps from 1,3-butadiene: (i) chlorination, (ii) isomerization of part of the product stream, ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Lynch, Jeremiah (2001-06-01). "Occupational exposure to butadiene, isoprene and ...
... carbenes and butadiene. In particular the procedure described the reaction of 1,3-butadiene with carbenes generated from the ... Addition of dihalocarbenes to 1,3-butadiene". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (10): 2542. doi:10.1021/ja01567a048. Doering, W. von E.; ... Neureiter was instructed to find new uses for the excess butadiene produced from one of the refinery processes. Discussions ...
... butenes and butadiene. Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industrial chemicals and plastics products. Butadiene is ... styrene-butadiene rubber, or a plastic such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) synthetic rubbers - synthetic elastomers ... In 1929, Walter Bock invented synthetic rubber Buna-S which is made up of styrene and butadiene and used to make car tires. In ... 3-butadiene (or buta-1,3-diene) - a diene often used as a monomer or co-monomer for polymerization to elastomers such as ...
Commercial copolymers include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), styrene/butadiene co-polymer (SBR), nitrile rubber, ... The butadiene matrix was stained with osmium tetroxide to provide contrast in the image. The material was made by living ... Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is a common example. Copolymers section of Polymer article Thermoplastic elastomer Tholin ... Examples of commercially relevant random copolymers include rubbers made from styrene-butadiene copolymers and resins from ...
... thermally isomerizes to 1,3-butadiene. This strongly exothermic reaction reflects the dominance of ring strain. In ...
Grafting butadiene to EVA improves its adhesion. Its dielectric properties are poor due to high content of polar groups, the ... Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS), used in high-strength PSA applications. Styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS), used in low-viscosity ... 00069-1 Butadiene grafted ethylene-vinyl acetate hot melt adhesive U.S. Patent 3,959,410 Hot melt glues (Barry L. Ornitz). ...
Sulfolane is more conventionally prepared from butadiene. Both unsubstituted and substituted tetrahydrothiophenes are reported ...
ChemSystems (2004). New York: Nexant (ed.). Styrene Butadiene Rubber / Butadiene Rubber. Feldman & Barbalata 1996, p. 134 Kent ... 3-butadiene monomers to make a much longer polymer chain molecule. In terms of the connectivity of the polymer chain, butadiene ... 1,3-Butadiene is an organic compound that is a simple conjugated diene hydrocarbon (dienes have two carbon-carbon double bonds ... 1,3-butadiene is normally copolymerized with other types of monomers such as styrene and acrylonitrile to form rubbers or ...
1,3-Butadiene Alkene Geilen, Frank M.A.; Stochniol, Guido; Peitz, Stephan; Schulte-Koerne, Ekkehard (2014). "Butenes". ...
It is produced from butadiene in a three-step process. The first step is the liquid- or vapour-phase chlorination of butadiene ... 2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene", in Gerhartz, W.; Yamamoto, Y. S. (eds.), Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, A6 (5th ed ...
In the hydrocyanation reaction of butadiene, the transfer is irreversible. Acetone cyanohydrin is an intermediate en route to ... "Highly selective hydrocyanation of butadiene toward 3-pentenenitrile". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (42): 12622-12623. doi:10.1021/ ...
Butadiene)iron tricarbonyl is isoelectronic with cyclobutadieneiron tricarbonyl. D. Seyferth "(Cyclobutadiene)iron Tricarbonyl ...
2-Butyne Butadiene Cyclobutene Lide, David R. (2008). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 89th Edition. CRC Press. pp. 3-84 ...
Butadiene Cyclopentadiene Isoprene Safety (MSDS) data for piperylene. Retrieved 2007-11-14. Piperylene Archived 2009-05-13 at ...
cis-1-Fluoro-1-propene trans-1-Chloropropene ? cis-1-Chloropropene ? Perfluoro-1,3-butadiene 6-7° Perfluoro-1,2-butadiene ... "1,1,4,4-Tetrafluoro-1,3-butadiene , C4H2F4 , ChemSpider". www.chemspider.com. Schmuck, Arno; Seppelt, Konrad (February 1987). " ... 3-butadiene 384-04-3 1,1,3,4,4,5,5,5-octafluoro-1,2-pentadiene 21972-01-0 This list includes substances that boil just above ... 3-butadiene 381-61-3 trifluormethylcyclopropane 381-74-8 cis-1-fluoro-1-butene 66675-34-1 trans-1-fluoro-1-butene 66675-35-2 2- ...
The alternative emulsion polymerization with styrene-butadiene-styrene or styrene-butadiene copolymers allows fine-tuned ... Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) is often used to toughen epoxies, but using CTBN alone increases the ... Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer is an application of rubber toughening. The properties of this polymer come ... A polystyrene/styrene-butadiene copolymer acts to increase the adhesion between the dispersed and continuous phases. Bucknall, ...
Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene ( ... The styrene/butadiene ratio influences the properties of the polymer: with high styrene content, the rubbers are harder and ... The material was initially marketed with the brand name Buna S. Its name derives Bu for butadiene and Na for sodium (natrium in ... SBR is derived from two monomers, styrene and butadiene. The mixture of these two monomers is polymerized by two processes: ...
Tetraphenyl butadiene (1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene or TPB) is an organic chemical compound used as an electroluminescent ... ISBN 978-0-8493-0594-8. Burton, W. M; Powell, B. A (1973). "Fluorescence of Tetraphenyl-Butadiene in the Vacuum Ultraviolet". ...
Derivatives, Butadiene. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryOrganic ChemicalsHydrocarbonsHydrocarbons, Acyclic ...
Techno-economic analyses of specific butadiene production processes, presenting capital investment breakdown, raw materials ... Understand Butadiene production costs Industrial Process Economics About Butadiene (BD) Reports Coverage of Butadiene Process ... ECONOMICS OF BUTADIENE PRODUCTION FROM CRUDE C4S (BD E62A) It presents the economics of 1,3-Butadiene extraction from a crude ... ECONOMICS OF BIO-BUTADIENE PRODUCTION FROM GLUCOSE (BD E42A) It presents the economics of bio-based 1,3-Butadiene (BD) ...
3-butadiene occurs mainly from breathing contaminated air. Effects on the nervous system and irritations of the eyes, nose, and ... What is 1,3-butadiene?. 1,3-Butadiene is a chemical made from the processing of petroleum. It is a colorless gas with a mild ... How can 1,3-butadiene affect my health?. Breathing high levels of 1,3-butadiene for a short time may cause nausea, dry mouth ... This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about 1,3-Butadiene. For more information, you may call the ...
Butadiene, 1,3-. CAS No: 106-99-0. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Butadiene, 1,3-. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Economic comparison of Butadiene Rubber manufacturing alternatives - raw materials consumed, manufacturing costs and investment ... Butadiene Rubber Production from Butadiene * Pathway 2: Butadiene Rubber Production from Crude C4s * Pathway 3: Butadiene ... Evaluation of Butadiene Rubber Production Processes * 1. Chemicals Production Pathways About Butadiene Rubber (BR) Reports ... AN INTRODUCTION TO BUTADIENE RUBBER KEY TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF EACH BUTADIENE RUBBER PATHWAY * Description * Applications * ...
Toxicological Profile for 1,3-Butadiene. CAS#: 106-99-0. Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ... Toxicological profile for 1,3-Butadiene. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile, 1,3-Butadienepdf icon [CAS® No. 106-99-0] [PDF - 349 KB] ... NIOSH [2016]. Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) value profile: 1,3-butadiene. By Dotson GS, Maier A, Parker A, ... Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Value Profile, 1,3-Butadiene [CAS® No. 106-99-0]. ... 3-butadiene (see Tables 4 and 5), the majority of these estimates are greater than 10% of the lower explosive limit (,10% LEL ...
Other names: «alpha»,«gamma»-Butadiene; Biethylene; Bivinyl; Buta-1,3-diene; Butadiene; Divinyl; Erythrene; Pyrrolylene; ...
2001)‎. 1,3-Butadiene : human health aspects. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42367 ...
Building product manufacturers of Nitrile-Butadiene-Polymer Roofing and their related csi 3-part specs, cad details, and free ... Manufacturers of Nitrile-Butadiene-Polymer Roofing. Browse companies that make Nitrile-Butadiene-Polymer Roofing and view and ... download their free cad details, revit BIM files, specifications and other content relating to Nitrile-Butadiene-Polymer ... CSI DIVISIONS > DIVISION 07 > 07 54 26 - Nitrile-Butadiene-Polymer Roofing. ...
Other names: Iron, («eta»4-1,3-butadiene)tricarbonyl-; (1,3-Butadiene)tricarbonyl iron; Butadiene iron tricarbonyl; Butadiene ... 3-Butadiene iron tricarbonyl; («eta»4-1,3-Butadiene)tricarbonyliron; NSC 58462; («eta»-1,3-butadiene)tricarbonyliron ... Iron, (1,3-butadiene)tricarbonyl-. *Formula: C7H6FeO3 ...
3-Butadiene (BD). The basis for this action is a determination by the Assistant Secretary, based on animal and human data, that ... Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene. A Rule by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration on 11/04/1996. ...
A $40 billion market worldwide, butadiene is widely used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber and nylon. Butadiene is also a ... The partners also plan to build or license additional plants to support the high growth in global butadiene demand. In support ... The integrated technology will form the basis for construction of a commercial-scale biomass-to-butadiene biorefinery. Work to ... Cobalt Signs Strategic Partner and Investor to Commercialize Bio-Based Butadiene Solution Strategic Partnership Opens Pathway ...
... and Industry Roadmap ,, Key Players: JSR Corporation, Kumho ... Global Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Market: Key Insights. The Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber market has grown ... The hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber widely used in automotive industry to manufacture O-rings for air conditioning system ... Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber is the synthetic rubber having retention properties and physical strength after the long ...
Occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene occurs in the production of monomeric 1,3-butadiene and of 1,3-butadiene-based polymers ... including styrene butadiene rubber, polybutadiene, nitrile rubber, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resins and styrene butadiene ... There are conflicting results on whether 1,3-butadiene increases hprt mutations in lymphocytes from 1,3-butadiene-exposed ... 3-butadiene-exposed workers. There are significant species differences in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene both in vitro and in ...
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, Saxalac 320A is an antistatic, high impact resistant and easy flowing ABS injection molding ... Polymer; Thermoplastic; ABS Polymer; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Impact Grade, Molded. Material Notes: Saxalac 320A ... Sax Polymers SAXLAC 320A Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Categories: ...
Acrylonitrile Butadiene (Nbr) Rubber Aromatic Fuel Resistant 65-75 AMS3215A. This specification covers a nitrile (NBR) rubber ...
CDC/ATSDRs Response to Reviewers Comments: Disposition to peer review comments for 1,3-Butadieneword icon [DOC - 54 KB] ... Title: Toxicological Profile for 1,3-Butadiene. Subject of planned Report: The ATSDR toxicological profile succinctly ... Peer Reviewers Comments: 1,3-Butadiene Summary Reportpdf icon [PDF - 109 KB] ... Occupational and environmental disease prevention, arsenic, dioxin, butadiene, styrene, air pollutants, electromagnetic fields ...
The wet-kneaded samples performed best, giving the highest butadiene yield with little ethylene formation. The butadiene yield ... purpose production of butadiene through the Lebedev process presents an attractive solution to projected shortages in butadiene ... Single and mixed oxides have been tested in the gas-phase synthesis of butadiene from ethanol (2% in N2, total gas flow 100 mL/ ... The best result, i.e. a butadiene yield as high as 50%, was achieved over the CuO/WK-AER catalyst (Figure 1), a catalyst ...
Asia-Pacific - Biggest Market of Butadiene. Asia-Pacific is the worlds largest market of butadiene, which consumed more than ... "Styrene Butadiene Rubber - The Biggest and Polybutadiene Rubber - The Fastest Growing" Butadiene Markets ... Subsequently, PBR manufacturers were the second largest consumers of butadiene with a butadiene consumption share difference of ... Demand growth of butadiene in the region is projected to be well above the average growth rate of the market. China and South ...
Butadiene is produced commercially by extractive distillation from crude butylene concentration (C4) stream, a by-product of ... What is butadiene?. How is butadiene used?. What happens to 1, 3-butadiene when it enters the environment?. How are persons ... How is butadiene used?1,2. There are no consumer uses of butadiene. Butadiene is used primarily as a chemical intermediate and ... What is butadiene?. Butadiene, also known as 1, 3-butadiene, is a colorless, non-corrosive gas that condenses to a liquid at ...
Competitive prices from the leading ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) 3D Printer Filaments distributor. Check our stock now ... Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) 3D Printer Filaments product list at Newark. ... ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) 220°C 260°C 1kg Multicomp ABS Filaments ... ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) 225°C 245°C 750g Ultimaker - M2560 Series ...
Benzene and Butadiene Side Effects. Both short and long-term exposure to benzene and butadiene has been shown to cause cancer, ... Benzene & Butadiene Health Risks. Benzene and butadiene are classed by various organizations as being human carcinogens, ... Benzene and Butadiene. Benzene, or benzol, is a clear, flammable liquid hydrocarbon derived from petroleum. It ranks in the top ... Butadiene, like benzene, is a highly flammable, petroleum-based compound that is used to manufacture synthetic rubber, ...
1,3-butadiene. SUMMARY. What is 1,3-butadiene?. What happens to 1,3-butadiene when it enters the environment?. How might I be ... How can 1,3-butadiene affect my health?. How likely is 1,3-butadiene to cause cancer?. Is there a medical test to show whether ... Skin contact with liquid 1,3-butadiene can cause irritation and frostbite. How likely is 1,3-butadiene to cause cancer?. The ... 1,3-butadiene. This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about 1,3-butadiene. For more information, ...
Styrene Butadiene Rubber Methodology - 13 December 2018 This entry was posted on December 20, 2018. by Sarah Creswell. ... Styrene Butadiene Rubber Methodology Consultation 2018 This entry was posted on August 29, 2018. by Sarah Creswell. ... Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Price Forecast Methodology - 25 August 2020 This entry was posted on August 27, 2020. by Sarah ... Styrene Butadiene Rubber Menu. Skip to content ,, Back to Compliance Home Page. ...
... made with ethylidene norbornene or isopropylidene norbornene as the third monomer to conventional general purpose butadiene ... 2) The general purpose butadiene rubber compound may be an emulsion copolymer of butadiene and styrene, an alfin copolymer of ... Adhesive containing a butadiene styrene copolymer. US2739954 *. Jul 18, 1952. Mar 27, 1956. Phillips Petroleum Co. Production ... Made by polymerizing butadiene in a volatile petroleum hydrocarbon solvent at a temperature range of from 150F. to over 200F. ...

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