A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A potent synthetic agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine substitution at residue 6. Nafarelin has been used in the treatments of central PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY and ENDOMETRIOSIS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.

A comparison of three gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues in an in-vitro fertilization programme: a prospective randomized study. (1/216)

The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) has resulted in improved pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles. Traditionally, short-acting analogues have been employed because of concerns over long-acting depot preparations causing profound suppression and luteal phase defects adversely affecting pregnancy and miscarriage rates. We randomized 60 IVF patients to receive a short-acting GnRHa, nafarelin or buserelin, or to receive a depot formulation, leuprorelin, all commenced in the early follicular phase and compared their effects on hormonal suppression and clinical outcome. We found that on day 15 of administration there was a significant difference in the suppression of oestradiol from initial concentrations, when patients on buserelin were compared with patients on nafarelin or leuprorelin (54 versus 72 and 65%; P < 0.05) and also in the number of patients satisfactorily suppressed, (80 versus 90 and 90%; P < 0.05), though there were no differences between the analogues by day 21. Similarly there was no difference in hormonal suppression during the stimulation phase or in implantation, pregnancy or miscarriage rates in comparing the three agonists. We conclude that with nafarelin and leuprorelin, stimulation with gonadotrophins may begin after 2 weeks of suppression and that long-acting GnRHa are as effective as short-acting analogues with no detrimental effects on the luteal phase.  (+info)

The pattern of changes in ovarian stromal and uterine artery blood flow velocities during in vitro fertilization treatment and its relationship with outcome of the cycle. (2/216)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of short-term (2-3 weeks) pituitary suppression and controlled ovarian stimulation on ovarian and uterine artery Doppler measurements during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycle and to compare the pattern of these changes between conception and non-conception cycles as well as between patients with normal and those with polycystic ovaries. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of women undergoing IVF treatment. SUBJECTS: Women using the long-treatment buserelin protocol who did not have uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts or endometrioma. METHODS: Serial transvaginal color and pulsed Doppler measurements of ovarian stromal and uterine artery blood flow velocity were carried out in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, on the day of pituitary suppression and on the day of administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The main outcome measures were the ovarian stromal and uterine artery blood flow peak systolic velocity (PSV) and pulsatility index (PI). RESULTS: A total of 105 patients were recruited but six patients were excluded from the analysis because they had only one stage of the measurements performed. There was a significant decline in mean ovarian stromal artery PSV after 2-3 weeks of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy but no effect on ovarian stromal artery PI. The mean uterine artery PSV or PI did not change significantly after 2-3 weeks of GnRH agonist therapy. There was a significantly higher mean ovarian stromal artery PSV in conception cycles compared to non-conception cycles in the early follicular phase and on the day of pituitary suppression, but not on the day of hCG administration. There were no differences between conception and non-conception cycles in the mean uterine artery PSV or PI. Women with polycystic ovaries had a higher mean ovarian artery PSV on all the three occasions of measurement. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that assessment of ovarian blood flow before commencement of gonadotropin stimulation may play a role in assessing cycles likely to result in pregnancy.  (+info)

Is there a difference in the function of granulosa-luteal cells in patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization either with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist or gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist? (3/216)

Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulates gonadotrophin release. It has been shown that GnRH may have a direct effect on the ovary, as the addition of GnRH to granulosa cell cultures inhibits the production of progesterone and oestradiol. Specific GnRH receptors have been found to be present in rat and human granulosa cells. Desensitization of the pituitary by GnRH agonist has become common in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, usually by a long protocol of 2-3 weeks. With the introduction of GnRH antagonists, which produce an immediate blockage of the GnRH receptors, a much shorter exposure is needed of 3-6 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a GnRH agonist (buserelin) and a GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix) on the function of granulosa cells cultured in vitro from IVF patients. Women were treated by IVF randomized either to have buserelin nasal spray from the luteal phase in the previous cycle or cetrorelix from day 6 of the cycle. Both groups had ovarian stimulation with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) 150 IU daily, i.e. HCG was administered when the follicles were larger than 17 mm, and aspirated 36 h later. Granulosa cells, separated and washed from large follicles containing ova, were pooled. After 48 h of pre-incubation, the granulosa cells were cultured for 4 days in medium with either added testosterone or cAMP with or without HCG, with change of medium after 2 days. The progesterone and oestradiol concentrations in the culture medium were measured by immunological assay, and cellular protein was measured by microprotein assay. The results showed that granulosa cells from women treated with GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix) responded earlier to the in-vitro hormone stimulation in terms of progesterone accumulation than women treated with the GnRH agonist (buserelin). This may have been due to difference in time of exposure to the analogue. The results may indicate that the luteal function is less impaired in GnRH antagonist treatment than in GnRH agonist treatment.  (+info)

A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial to study the efficacy and efficiency of a fixed dose of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (Puregon) in women undergoing ovarian stimulation. (4/216)

A prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicentre (n = 5) study was conducted to compare the influence of either a 100 or 200 IU daily fixed-dose regimen of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the number of oocytes retrieved and the total dose used in down-regulated women undergoing ovarian stimulation. Fertilization was done by intracytoplasmic sperm injection or conventional in-vitro fertilization. A total of 199 women were treated with FSH, 101 subjects with 100 IU and 98 subjects with 200 IU. In subjects of the 200 IU treatment group, significantly more oocytes were retrieved compared to the 100 IU group (10.6 versus 6.2 oocytes, P < 0.001). The total dose needed to develop at least three follicles with a diameter of > or = 17 mm was significantly lower in the 100 IU treatment group (1114 IU versus 1931 IU, P < 0.001). In the low-dose group, significantly lower serum concentrations of oestradiol, progesterone and FSH were observed at the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration. Although more cycle cancellations due to low response were seen in the 100 IU group (n = 24 versus n = 3), the clinical pregnancy rate per started cycle was similar (24.7% in the 100 IU group versus 23.3% in the 200 IU group). In the high-dose group, more side-effects, in particular more cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, were noted. It is concluded that compared to 200 IU, the use of a 100 IU fixed dose is less efficacious in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved, but more efficient as indicated by a lower total dose.  (+info)

Prevention of premenstrual exacerbation of hereditary coproporphyria by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue. (5/216)

A 20-year-old Japanese female needed frequent hospitalization due to premenstrual exacerbation of hereditary coproporphyria (HCP). Intranasal buserelin acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue, was given to suppress her menstrual cycles. Her porphyric symptoms subsided dramatically as she became amenorrhoeic. Urinary excretion of porphyrin derivatives fell significantly. She has been free from recurrent attacks, but suffers a minor porphyric attack once in 5 years. However, borderline osteopenia secondary to hypoestrogenism has been noted. Although these analogues are potent in suppressing estrogen-induced porphyric symptoms, due precautions should be taken to avoid bone demineralization in the long-term use.  (+info)

Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus. (6/216)

The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF.  (+info)

The effect of smoking on oocyte quality and hormonal parameters of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. (7/216)

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of smoking on different parameters such as oocyte count, embryo score, and basal hormone values within the scope of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). METHODS: Eight hundred thirty-four women undergoing IVF-ET treatment were classified as smokers or nonsmokers on the basis of questionnaires. Additionally, we divided them into three groups according to their stimulation protocol--"combined stimulation" [I; clomiphene citrate plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG)], "ultrashort" [II; gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) plus hMG or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)], and "long downregulation protocol" (III)--and further classified again as smokers or nonsmokers within the groups. RESULTS: In general, smoking patients were significantly (P = 0.0195) younger than nonsmokers and showed a significantly (P = 0.0379) lower embryo score and a tendency (P = 0.0931) to produce fewer oocytes. There was no significant difference concerning the number of normally or pathologically fertilized and transferred oocytes and embryos suitable for cryopreservation. Women who smoked had significantly (P = 0.0112) higher basal 17-beta-estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH) (P = 0.0001), and dehydroepian-drosteronesulfate (DHEAS) (P = 0.0039) levels, but their basal human prolactin (HPRL) levels were significantly (P = 0.0033) lower than those of nonsmokers. According to the stimulation protocol used, we found the following results. Smoking patients in group I showed a significantly (P = 0.023) lower embryo score and produced fewer oocytes (P = 0.0113), with fewer of them being fertilized (P = 0.0072) and transferred (P = 0.0067). Women who smoked had significantly (P = 0.0002) higher basal LH levels, but their HPRL levels were significantly (P = 0.031) lower than those of nonsmokers. Furthermore, they had a thinner endometrium on the day of embryo transfer (P = 0.0366). In group II we measured significantly elevated basal E2 levels (P = 0.0089) and higher LH values (P = 0.0092) in smokers. Group III showed a trend (P = 0.0565) toward lower HPRL values in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Although the fertilization rate of oocytes and the pregnancy rate were not significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers, we found significantly alterated hormonal parameters and negatively influenced oocyte parameters, particularly after clomiphene stimulation. So we might consider using only GnRHa protocols for smoking patients. Additionally, we advise our patients to stop smoking before an IVF-ET treatment because of the complex effects of smoking on the reproductive and hormonal system.  (+info)

Involvement of parathyroid hormone-related peptide in cell proliferation activity of human uterine leiomyomas. (8/216)

Uterine leiomyomas develop from uterine smooth muscle cells, which are known to be regulated by estrogen and other growth factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of expression of parathyroid hormone related-peptide (PTHrP) in the growth of uterine leiomyomas treated or untreated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a). Thirty-nine leiomyoma tissues were obtained from 36 patients who had been treated with GnRH-a (n=10) or without GnRH-a (n=29). The intensity of PTHrP immunostaining was categorized into three grades; "negative", "weakly positive", and "positive". Leiomyoma cell growth was estimated by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index (LI) with an image analyser. We also investigated the correlation between PTHrP expression and cell proliferation or histopathological findings. In the GnRH-a-untreated group, LI of the PTHrP "positive" group was significantly higher than that of the PTHrP "negative" group, but the intensity of PTHrP immunostaining did not correlate with LI in the GnRH-a-treated group. PTHrP expression did not correlate with histological findings or clinical parameters (age and phase of menstrual cycle) in either the GnRH-a-treated or the -untreated group. In addition, the expression of mRNA for PTHrP and its receptor was detected in leiomyomas by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results indicate that the expression of PTHrP in leiomyomas correlated positively with cell growth in the GnRH-a-untreated group, suggesting that PTHrP may act as a local cell growth modifier in an autocrine/paracrine fashion on uterine leiomyomas.  (+info)

Buserelin is a synthetic analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH), which is a hormonal drug used in the treatment of various conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and central precocious puberty.

By mimicking the action of natural GnRH, buserelin stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

However, prolonged use of buserelin leads to downregulation of GnRH receptors and a decrease in FSH and LH secretion, resulting in reduced levels of sex hormones. This property is exploited in the treatment of hormone-dependent cancers such as prostate cancer, where reducing testosterone levels can help slow tumor growth.

Buserelin is available in various forms, including nasal sprays, implants, and injectable solutions, and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of hormone levels during treatment.

Female fertility agents are medications or treatments that are used to enhance or restore female fertility. They can work in various ways such as stimulating ovulation, improving the quality of eggs, facilitating the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus, or addressing issues related to the reproductive system.

Some examples of female fertility agents include:

1. Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene): This medication stimulates ovulation by causing the pituitary gland to release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
2. Gonadotropins: These are hormonal medications that contain FSH and LH, which stimulate the ovaries to produce mature eggs. Examples include human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
3. Letrozole (Femara): This medication is an aromatase inhibitor that can be used off-label to stimulate ovulation in women who do not respond to clomiphene citrate.
4. Metformin (Glucophage): This medication is primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes, but it can also improve fertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by regulating insulin levels and promoting ovulation.
5. Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This medication is used to treat infertility caused by hyperprolactinemia, a condition characterized by high levels of prolactin in the blood.
6. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): These include procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). They involve manipulating eggs and sperm outside the body to facilitate fertilization and implantation.

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider or reproductive endocrinologist to determine the most appropriate fertility agent for individual needs, as these medications can have side effects and potential risks.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Menotropins are a preparation of natural follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) derived from the urine of postmenopausal women. They are used in infertility treatment to stimulate the development of multiple follicles in the ovaries, leading to an increased chance of pregnancy through assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Menotropins contain a mixture of FSH and LH in a ratio that is similar to the natural hormone levels found in the human body. The FSH component stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries, while the LH component triggers ovulation when the follicles have matured.

Menotropins are typically administered by subcutaneous injection and are available under various brand names, such as Menopur and Repronex. The use of menotropins requires careful medical supervision to monitor the response of the ovaries and to minimize the risk of complications such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

LHRH (Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of certain cells in the body, most notably in the anterior pituitary gland. These receptors bind to LHRH, a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain.

When LHRH binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the release of two other hormones from the anterior pituitary gland: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones play critical roles in regulating reproductive function, including the development and maturation of sex cells (sperm and eggs), the production of sex steroid hormones (such as testosterone and estrogen), and the regulation of the menstrual cycle in females.

Disorders of the LHRH receptor or its signaling pathway can lead to a variety of reproductive disorders, including precocious puberty, delayed puberty, and infertility.

Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin analog used primarily in veterinary medicine for the treatment and prevention of various conditions. The main therapeutic uses of Cloprostenol include:

1. Induction of parturition (labor) in cows, helping to synchronize calving in managed herds.
2. Termination of pregnancy in cattle, especially in cases where the fetus is nonviable or the pregnancy poses a risk to the animal's health.
3. Treatment of uterine and oviductal disorders, such as pyometra (infection of the uterus) and salpingitis (inflammation of the oviduct), in cattle and pigs.
4. Prevention of postpartum disorders, like endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus) and mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands), by promoting uterine involution and improving overall reproductive performance in cattle.
5. Control of estrus (heat) in cattle, as an aid in estrous synchronization programs for artificial insemination.

Cloprostenol is available in various formulations, such as intramuscular or subcutaneous injectable solutions, and is typically administered by a veterinarian or trained personnel. It is important to note that the use of Cloprostenol and other prostaglandin analogs should be carried out under the guidance and supervision of a veterinary professional, as improper usage can lead to adverse effects or complications.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Nafarelin is a synthetic decapeptide analog of the natural gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). It is primarily used as a nasal spray for the treatment of central precocious puberty in children and endometriosis in adults.

In medical terms, Nafarelin is defined as:

A synthetic decapeptide analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) used in the treatment of central precocious puberty and endometriosis. It acts as a potent agonist of GnRH receptors, leading to an initial increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), followed by downregulation of these receptors and a decrease in FSH and LH secretion. This results in decreased gonadal steroid production, including estrogen and testosterone, which helps to control the symptoms of central precocious puberty and endometriosis.

Nafarelin is available under the brand name Synarel and is administered as a nasal spray. It is important to note that Nafarelin can cause side effects such as hot flashes, headaches, and mood changes, and it may also affect bone growth in children with central precocious puberty. Therefore, it should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

Clomiphene is a medication that is primarily used to treat infertility in women. It is an ovulatory stimulant, which means that it works by stimulating the development and release of mature eggs from the ovaries (a process known as ovulation). Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which means that it binds to estrogen receptors in the body and blocks the effects of estrogen in certain tissues, while enhancing the effects of estrogen in others.

In the ovary, clomiphene works by blocking the negative feedback effect of estrogen on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which results in an increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles grow and mature, they produce increasing amounts of estrogen, which eventually triggers a surge in LH that leads to ovulation.

Clomiphene is typically taken orally for 5 days, starting on the 3rd, 4th, or 5th day of the menstrual cycle. The dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response to treatment. Common side effects of clomiphene include hot flashes, mood changes, breast tenderness, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which is a potentially serious complication characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

It's important to note that clomiphene may not be suitable for everyone, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider. Women with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, thyroid disorders, or uterine fibroids, may not be able to take clomiphene. Additionally, women who become pregnant while taking clomiphene have an increased risk of multiple pregnancies (e.g., twins or triplets), which can pose additional risks to both the mother and the fetuses.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Estrus synchronization is a veterinary medical procedure used in the management of domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep. It is a process of coordinating the estrous cycles of animals so that they can be bred at the same time or have their fertility treatments performed simultaneously. This is achieved through the use of various hormonal therapies, including progestins, prostaglandins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH).

The goal of estrus synchronization is to improve reproductive efficiency in animal production systems by ensuring that a larger number of animals become pregnant during a shorter breeding season. This can lead to more uniform calf or lamb crops, reduced labor and management costs, and increased profitability for farmers and ranchers.

Estrus synchronization is a complex process that requires careful planning and implementation, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the animals' reproductive performance. It is typically performed under the guidance of a veterinarian or animal reproduction specialist.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

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Buserelin is marketed for medical use in both its free base (buserelin) and acetate salt (buserelin acetate) forms. Buserelin ... Buserelin appears to be safe in the event of an overdose. Buserelin is a GnRH agonist, or an agonist of the GnRH receptor. It ... Buserelin is a peptide and an analogue of GnRHTooltip gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Buserelin was first patented in 1974 and ... Buserelin and its metabolites are eliminated in urine and bile, with approximately 50% of buserelin excreted in urine unchanged ...
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Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases involving defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. AIP manifests itself by abdomen pain, neuropathies, and constipation, but, unlike most types of porphyria, patients with AIP do not have a rash.
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Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases involving defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. AIP manifests itself by abdomen pain, neuropathies, and constipation, but, unlike most types of porphyria, patients with AIP do not have a rash.
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  • We investigated the effect of different dispersion methods on release behavior and efficacy onset following microparticle administration of buserelin acetate (BA) sustained-release injection. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Empyema of adults and of intranasal buserelin acetate tear gland is removed, outside the the extent vegetable, and. (com.vn)
  • These dosages of buserelin for both subcutaneous injection and nasal spray have been found to decrease testosterone levels to near-castrate levels in men with prostate cancer, although suppression was more complete with subcutaneous injection presumably due to suboptimal absorption with intranasal administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • For prostate cancer, the dosage of buserelin by subcutaneous injection is 500 μg three times per day (once every 8 hours, 1,500 μg/day total) for one week and then 200 μg once daily thereafter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buserelin is available in the form of a 1 mg/mL solution for use as a nasal spray or subcutaneous injection once every 8 hours (three times per day) and as 6.3 mg and 9.45 mg implants for subcutaneous injection once every two and three months, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fass environmental information for Suprecur (buserelin) from Sanofi AB (downloaded 2020-02-21). (janusinfo.se)
  • Buserelin, sold under the brand name Suprefact among others, is a medication which is used primarily in the treatment of prostate cancer and endometriosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Side effects of buserelin are related to sex hormone deprivation and include symptoms of low testosterone levels and low estrogen levels such as hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, vaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buserelin is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) and works by preventing the production of sex hormones by the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buserelin is a peptide and an analogue of GnRHTooltip gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buserelin is approved for the treatment of hormone-responsive cancers including prostate cancer and premenopausal breast cancer, sex hormone-dependent uterine diseases including endometrial hyperplasia, endometriosis, and uterine fibroids, and in assisted reproduction for female infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • By activating the GnRH receptor in the pituitary gland, buserelin induces the secretion of LH and FSH from the gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary, which travel to the gonads through the bloodstream and activate gonadal sex hormone production as well as stimulate spermatogenesis in men and induce ovulation in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buserelin is a GnRH agonist, or an agonist of the GnRH receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • If buserelin is used as a nasal spray, the dosage for prostate cancer is 800 μg sprayed into the nostrils three times per day (once every 8 hours, 2,400 μg/day total) for one week followed by 400 μg sprayed into the nostrils three times per day (once every 8 hours, 1,200 μg/day total) thereafter. (wikipedia.org)
  • For endometriosis, buserelin is used specifically as a nasal spray and the dosage is the same as that used for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ovulation induction, buserelin is used for pituitary suppression as an adjunct to gonadotropin administration. (wikipedia.org)

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