An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.
Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Compression of the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa between the humeral head and structures that make up the coracoacromial arch and the humeral tuberosities. This condition is associated with subacromial bursitis and rotator cuff (largely supraspinatus) and bicipital tendon inflammation, with or without degenerative changes in the tendon. Pain that is most severe when the arm is abducted in an arc between 40 and 120 degrees, sometimes associated with tears in the rotator cuff, is the chief symptom. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes and Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)
The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.
A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere.
A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
The lateral extension of the spine of the SCAPULA and the highest point of the SHOULDER.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.
Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.
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Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.

Synovial chondromatosis of the subcoracoid bursa. (1/59)

Synovial chondromatosis, is the chondroid metaplasia of the synovial membrane. Large joints such as the knee and hip are most commonly involved. Extraarticular involvement is rarely described. Synovial chondromatosis may be associated with impingement syndrome of the shoulder. We report a case of synovial chondromatosis of the subcoracoid bursa, which resulted in impingement symptoms.  (+info)

Bursal sporotrichosis: case report and review. (2/59)

We describe a patient whose prepatellar bursa was infected with Sporothrix schenckii. The infection persisted despite itraconazole therapy and cure was achieved only after surgical excision of the bursa. A review of treatments for bursal sporotrichosis is presented.  (+info)

Early reactions after reimplantation of the tendon of supraspinatus into bone. A study in rabbits. (3/59)

In 14 rabbits we determined the origin of the cells effecting healing of the tendon of supraspinatus inserted into a bony trough. After two weeks both the cellularity of the underlying bone and the thickness of the subacromial bursa were significantly increased in the operated compared with the control shoulders. The cellularity of the stump of the tendon, however, was significantly decreased in the operated shoulders. In this model, both the underlying bone and the subacromial bursa but not the stump of the tendon contributed to the process of repair. We conclude that the medial stump should be debrided judiciously but that cutting back to bleeding tissue is not necessary during repair of the rotator cuff. Moreover, great care should be taken to preserve the subacromial bursa since it seems to play an important role in the healing process.  (+info)

The anatomy of the metacarpo-phalangeal joints, with observations of the aetiology of ulnar drift. (4/59)

One hundred normal fingers were dissected and arthrographs obtained by injection of chromopaque-gelatin mixture, allowing comparison between the radiographic and macroscopic configuration of the synovial capsule. Synovial recesses protruding from each side of every metacarpo-phalangeal joint were found in relation to the collateral ligaments and corresponding exactly with the site of radiological erosions. A group of bursae lying on the superficial aspect of collateral ligaments were also demonstrated. A rudimentary intra-articular meniscus was found. The results of examination of the insertions of the interossei showed differences from traditional descriptions. The cause of rheumatoid deformity was suggested to be the rheumatoid process arising in the lateral recesses and lateral bursae, weakening the collateral ligaments, which give way in the directions of the deforming forces. These are derived from the long flexor tendons, which were shown to exert an ulnar and volar strain on the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of every finger during grip.  (+info)

Popliteal cysts in children. The case against surgery. (5/59)

The natural history of 120 popliteal cysts in children has been reviewed. Of seventy untreated cysts fifty-one disappeared spontaneously during a mean period of one year and eight months. Of fifty cysts submitted to operation, twenty-one recurred in a mean period of seven months. Three children with recurrences had more than one further operation. Most popliteal cysts in children disappear spontaneously, and operation without very good reason is unjustified.  (+info)

Pediatric septic bursitis: case report of retrocalcaneal infection and review of the literature. (6/59)

Septic bursitis in children is rarely discussed in the medical literature. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations and management of 10 cases of septic bursitis involving patients aged <16 years. In every case in this series, acute trauma was the predisposing condition. Group A streptococci were frequently isolated from the infected bursa. Septic bursitis, an underappreciated infection in children, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of common childhood conditions.  (+info)

Interleukin-1-induced subacromial synovitis and shoulder pain in rotator cuff diseases. (7/59)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-1 receptor antagonists (IL-1ra) in the subacromial bursa and shoulder pain in rotator cuff diseases. METHODS: Synovial specimens were analysed using various methods including reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and in situ RT-PCR. Thirty-nine patients with rotator cuff diseases were candidates. The degree of their shoulder pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. RESULTS: The mRNA expression levels of the cytokines were significantly correlated with the degree of pain [IL-1beta: r=0.782; secreted IL-1ra (sIL-1ra): r=0.756; intracellular IL-1ra (icIL-1ra): r=0.806, P<0.001, respectively]. The combined results of immunohistochemistry and in situ RT-PCR analysis indicated that both synovial lining and sublining cells produce IL-1beta, while synovial lining cells predominantly produce icIL-1ra and sublining cells secrete sIL-1ra. CONCLUSIONS: The differential regulation of the two forms of IL-1ra mRNAs may play an important role in shoulder pain in rotator cuff diseases, regulating IL-1-induced subacromial synovitis.  (+info)

Immunolocalization of cytokines and growth factors in subacromial bursa of rotator cuff tear patients. (8/59)

Inflammation in the subacromial bursa causes pain in patients suffering from rotator cuff tear, with this long-lasting inflammation leading to fibrosis and thickening of the subacromial bursa. Both inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress, and impingement in the subacromial space, might induce and worsen this inflammation. However, little is known of the mechanism of this inflammation. In this study, we used immunohistological staining to demonstrate the expression of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in subacromial bursa derived from the patients suffering from rotator cuff tear. On the other hand the expression of these inflammatory cytokines and growth factors were little detected only to a small degree in patients with anterior shoulder instability who did not have severe shoulder pain and impingement in the subacromial space. Our findings suggest that those inflammatory cytokines and growth factors may play an important role in inflammation of the subacromial bursa. Controlling the expression of these cytokines and growth factors might be important for treating patients suffering from shoulder pain due to rotator cuff tear.  (+info)

The Bursa of Fabricius is a lymphoid organ located in the cloaca of birds. It plays a crucial role in the development of the bird's immune system, specifically in the maturation and differentiation of B cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies to fight off infections.

The Bursa of Fabricius is named after the Italian anatomist Hieronymus Fabricius (1537-1619), who first described it in 1621. It is a sac-like structure that is lined with epithelial cells and contains lymphoid follicles, which are clusters of B cells at various stages of development.

In chickens, the Bursa of Fabricius begins to develop around the 5th day of incubation and reaches its maximum size by the time the bird is about 3 weeks old. After this point, it gradually involutes and disappears by the time the bird reaches adulthood.

It's worth noting that the Bursa of Fabricius has no direct equivalent in mammals, including humans. While mammals also have lymphoid organs such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and tonsils, these organs serve different functions and are not directly involved in the maturation of B cells.

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion between bones and other moving parts, such as muscles, tendons, or skin. A synovial bursa is a type of bursa that contains synovial fluid, which is produced by the synovial membrane that lines the inside of the bursa. Synovial bursae are found in various locations throughout the body, particularly near joints that experience a lot of movement or friction. They help to reduce wear and tear on the bones and other tissues, and can become inflamed or irritated due to overuse, injury, or infection, leading to a condition called bursitis.

Bursitis is the inflammation or irritation of the bursa, a small fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion between bones and muscles, tendons, or skin around a joint. The bursae help to reduce friction and provide smooth movement of the joints. Bursitis can occur in any joint but is most common in the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and heel.

The inflammation of the bursa can result from various factors, including repetitive motions, injury or trauma to the joint, bacterial infection, or underlying health conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout. The symptoms of bursitis include pain and tenderness in the affected area, swelling, warmth, and redness. Treatment for bursitis typically involves resting and immobilizing the affected joint, applying ice to reduce swelling, taking anti-inflammatory medications, and undergoing physical therapy exercises to improve strength and flexibility. In severe cases, corticosteroid injections or surgery may be necessary to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious avian virus that primarily affects the bursa of Fabricius in young chickens, leading to an immunosuppressive disease known as Gumboro disease. The bursa of Fabricius is a vital organ for the development and maturation of B cells, which are crucial for the immune system's response to infections.

IBDV is a non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family. It has two serotypes, with serotype 1 being responsible for the majority of outbreaks and being highly pathogenic, while serotype 2 is less virulent and causes mild or asymptomatic infections.

The virus targets and destroys the B cells in the bursa, leading to a weakened immune system that makes the affected chickens more susceptible to secondary bacterial and viral infections. The disease can cause significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to high mortality rates, decreased feed conversion efficiency, and reduced egg production.

Vaccination is an effective prevention strategy against IBDV, with both live and inactivated vaccines available for use in chickens. Good biosecurity measures, such as strict sanitation practices and limiting the movement of birds and people between farms, can also help prevent the spread of the virus.

Birnaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several species known to cause infections in animals, including birds and fish. The most well-known member of this family is the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), which primarily affects young chickens and causes a highly contagious disease known as Gumboro disease.

Infection with IBDV can result in a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, depression, ruffled feathers, and decreased appetite. In severe cases, the virus can cause significant mortality in infected flocks. Other members of the Birnaviridae family include viruses that infect salmonids (such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus) and other bird species.

Transmission of Birnaviridae viruses typically occurs through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, as well as through contaminated food and water sources. Prevention and control measures for these infections include good biosecurity practices, vaccination, and proper nutrition and management.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome is a common cause of shoulder pain, characterized by pinching or compression of the rotator cuff tendons and/or bursa between the humeral head and the acromion process of the scapula. This often results from abnormal contact between these structures due to various factors such as:

1. Bony abnormalities (e.g., bone spurs)
2. Tendon inflammation or thickening
3. Poor biomechanics during shoulder movements
4. Muscle imbalances and weakness, particularly in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers
5. Aging and degenerative changes

The syndrome is typically classified into two types: primary (or structural) impingement, which involves bony abnormalities; and secondary impingement, which is related to functional or muscular imbalances. Symptoms often include pain, especially during overhead activities, weakness, and limited range of motion in the shoulder. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, patient history, and imaging studies such as X-rays or MRI scans. Treatment may involve activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroid injections, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons that attach to the shoulder blade (scapula) and help stabilize and move the shoulder joint. These muscles are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. The rotator cuff helps to keep the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) centered in the glenoid fossa (shoulder socket), providing stability during shoulder movements. It also allows for rotation and elevation of the arm. Rotator cuff injuries or conditions, such as tears or tendinitis, can cause pain and limit shoulder function.

Trichostrongyloidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes several medically and veterinarily important genera. These parasites primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts, which can include humans, ruminants, equids, and other animals.

The life cycle of Trichostrongyloidea species typically involves eggs being passed in the feces of an infected host, hatching into larvae in the environment, and then infecting a new host through ingestion or skin penetration. The parasites then mature into adults in the host's gastrointestinal tract, where they feed on blood or tissue and cause various symptoms depending on the species and the severity of the infection.

Some common genera of Trichostrongyloidea include:
- Trichostrongylus (barber pole worm)
- Necator (human hookworms)
- Ancylostoma (hookworms that infect both humans and animals)
- Haemonchus (barber pole worm)
- Ostertagia (brown stomach worm)

Symptoms of Trichostrongyloidea infections can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and protein deficiency. Treatment typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to kill the parasites. Prevention measures include good sanitation and hygiene practices, as well as regular deworming of animals in veterinary settings.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

Avian leukosis is a group of viral diseases that primarily affect chickens and other birds. It is caused by retroviruses known as avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) and leads to a variety of clinical signs, including immunosuppression, growth retardation, and the development of tumors in various organs. The disease can be transmitted both horizontally (through direct contact with infected birds or their secretions) and vertically (from infected hens to their offspring through the egg).

There are several subgroups of ALVs, each associated with specific types of tumors and clinical manifestations. For example:

1. ALV-J (Japanese strain): This subgroup is responsible for myelocytomatosis, a condition characterized by the proliferation of immature blood cells in the bone marrow, leading to anemia, leukopenia, and enlarged spleens and livers.
2. ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-C (American strains): These subgroups are associated with various types of lymphoid tumors, such as B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, which can affect the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and other organs.
3. ALV-E (European strain): This subgroup is linked to erythroblastosis, a condition in which there is an excessive proliferation of red blood cell precursors, resulting in the formation of tumors in the bone marrow and other organs.

Avian leukosis poses significant economic challenges for the poultry industry due to its impact on growth, feed conversion efficiency, and mortality rates. Additionally, some countries have regulations in place to prevent the spread of avian leukosis viruses through the trade of infected birds or their products. Prevention measures include strict biosecurity protocols, vaccination programs, and rigorous screening and eradication strategies for infected flocks.

The Achilles tendon, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus). It plays a crucial role in enabling activities such as walking, running, and jumping by facilitating the movement of the foot downward, which is called plantar flexion. Injuries to the Achilles tendon, such as tendinitis or ruptures, can be quite painful and impact mobility.

Reoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Reoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses are widespread and can infect a variety of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The infection typically causes mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms in humans, such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and diarrhea. In some cases, Reoviridae infections may also lead to more severe diseases, such as meningitis or encephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, it's worth noting that many Reoviridae infections are asymptomatic and do not cause any noticeable illness.

Reoviridae viruses include several genera, such as Orthoreovirus, Rotavirus, Coltivirus, and Orbivirus, among others. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Rotaviruses, which are a leading cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children worldwide, and Orthoreoviruses, which can cause respiratory illnesses.

Treatment for Reoviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms such as fever, dehydration, and pain. Antiviral medications are not typically used to treat these infections. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, as well as vaccination against specific Reoviridae viruses, such as Rotavirus vaccines.

The calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone in the human foot, and it is commonly known as the heel bone. It articulates with the cuboid bone anteriorly, the talus bone superiorly, and several tendons and ligaments that help to form the posterior portion of the foot's skeletal structure. The calcaneus plays a crucial role in weight-bearing and movement, as it forms the lower part of the leg's ankle joint and helps to absorb shock during walking or running.

The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the most mobile joint in the human body. It is a ball and socket synovial joint that connects the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade). The shoulder joint allows for a wide range of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. It is surrounded by a group of muscles and tendons known as the rotator cuff that provide stability and enable smooth movement of the joint.

The acromion is a part of the shoulder blade (scapula). It is the bony process that forms the highest point of the shoulder and articulates with the clavicle (collarbone) to form the acromioclavicular joint. The acromion serves as an attachment site for several muscles and ligaments in the shoulder region.

The thymus gland is an essential organ of the immune system, located in the upper chest, behind the sternum and surrounding the heart. It's primarily active until puberty and begins to shrink in size and activity thereafter. The main function of the thymus gland is the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells), which are crucial for cell-mediated immunity, helping to protect the body from infection and cancer.

The thymus gland provides a protected environment where immune cells called pre-T cells develop into mature T cells. During this process, they learn to recognize and respond appropriately to foreign substances while remaining tolerant to self-tissues, which is crucial for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Additionally, the thymus gland produces hormones like thymosin that regulate immune cell activities and contribute to the overall immune response.

Marek's disease is a highly contagious viral infection that primarily affects chickens and other members of the Galliformes order (which includes turkeys, quails, and pheasants). The disease is caused by the alphaherpesvirus known as Gallid herpesvirus 2 or Marek's disease virus (MDV).

The infection primarily targets the chicken's immune system, leading to various clinical manifestations such as:

1. T-cell lymphomas (cancerous growths) in the peripheral nerves, visceral organs, and skin. These tumors can cause paralysis, especially in the legs, and affect the bird's mobility and overall health.
2. Enlarged, pale, or discolored spleens and livers due to the proliferation of infected lymphocytes.
3. Lesions on the feather follicles, skin, and eyes (such as iritis, conjunctivitis, and blindness) caused by viral replication in these areas.
4. Immunosuppression, which makes affected birds more susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections, leading to a decline in overall health and production.

Marek's disease is primarily transmitted through the inhalation of dust particles containing infected dander or feather follicle epithelium. The virus can also be spread via contaminated equipment, clothing, and transportation vehicles.

Vaccination is an effective method to control Marek's disease in commercial poultry operations. However, the continuous evolution of more virulent strains poses a challenge for long-term protection and eradication efforts.

A Synovial Cyst is a type of benign cyst that typically develops in the synovium, which is the membrane that lines and lubricates joint capsules. These cysts are filled with synovial fluid, which is the same lubricating fluid found inside joints. They usually form as a result of degenerative changes, trauma, or underlying joint diseases such as osteoarthritis.

Synovial cysts commonly occur in the spine (particularly in the facet joints), but they can also develop in other areas of the body, including the knees, hips, and hands. While synovial cysts are generally not harmful, they may cause discomfort or pain if they press on nearby nerves or restrict movement in the affected joint. Treatment options for synovial cysts range from conservative measures like physical therapy and pain management to surgical intervention in severe cases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Turkey" is not a medical term. It is a common name for the country located in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, as well as a type of large bird native to North America that is often eaten as a holiday meal. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

"Adnexa uteri" is a medical term that refers to the structures closely related to or associated with the uterus. These structures include:

1. The fallopian tubes (also known as oviducts or salpinges): paired tubular structures that transport the egg from the ovary to the uterus during ovulation and provide a site for fertilization.
2. The ovaries (also known as gonads): paired reproductive organs that produce eggs (oocytes) and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone.
3. The broad ligaments: large, double-layered folds of peritoneum (the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity) that extend from the sides of the uterus and enclose and support the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding blood vessels.
4. The suspensory ligaments of the ovaries: these are extensions of the broad ligament that suspend the ovaries from the pelvic wall.
5. The round ligaments: these are fibromuscular bands that extend from the uterus to the labia majora and help maintain the position of the uterus within the pelvis.

Anomalies, inflammation (e.g., salpingitis, oophoritis), or other pathologies affecting the adnexa uteri may lead to various gynecological conditions and symptoms, such as pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy.

'Gene rearrangement in B-lymphocytes, light chain' refers to the biological process that occurs during the development of B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow. Specifically, it relates to the rearrangement of genes that code for the light chains of immunoglobulins, which are antibodies that help the immune system recognize and fight off foreign substances.

During gene rearrangement, the variable region genes of the light chain locus (which consist of multiple gene segments, including V, D, and J segments) undergo a series of DNA recombination events to form a functional variable region exon. This process allows for the generation of a vast diversity of antibody molecules with different specificities, enabling the immune system to recognize and respond to a wide range of potential threats.

Abnormalities in this gene rearrangement process can lead to various immunodeficiency disorders or malignancies such as B-cell lymphomas.

A synovial bursa, usually simply bursa (PL: bursae or bursas), is a small fluid-filled sac lined by synovial membrane with an ... Bursae or bursas is its plural form. Bursa of Fabricius (a lymphatic organ in birds) Bursectomy Knee bursae Shoulder joint# ... Bursa Diagram of elbow with olecranon bursa Betts, J. Gordon (2013). "9.4 Synovial joints". Anatomy & physiology. Houston, ... Infection or irritation of a bursa leads to bursitis (inflammation of a bursa). The general term for disease of bursae is " ...
The subcoracoid bursa or subcoracoid bursa of Collas is a synovial bursa located in the shoulder. It is located anterior to the ... The subcoracoid bursa does not communicate with the glenohumeral joint under normal circumstances, but may communicate with the ... As such, contrast fluid injected into the glenohumeral joint during an arthrogram that extends into the subcoracoid bursa is ... "An anatomical study of the role of the long thoracic nerve and the related scapular bursae in the pathogenesis of local ...
The subacromial bursa is the synovial cavity located just below the acromion, which communicates with the subdeltoid bursa in ... "Subacromial Bursa". Retrieved 2007-12-02. (Articles with TA98 identifiers, Synovial bursae, Upper limb anatomy). ... Subacromial bursitis Subcoracoid bursa Supra-acromial bursa Jarjavay JF. Sur la luxation du tendon de la longue portion du ... Since then, histologic studies have documented that synovial membrane may undergo inflammatory and/or degenerative changes and ...
Repetitive kneeling can cause prepatellar inflammation of synovial bursa. Physical examination of the knee begins by observing ... inflammation of anserine bursa. Lateral joint line tenderness is associated with lateral compartment osteoarthritis, lateral ...
The bursae are thin-walled, and filled with synovial fluid. They represent the weak point of the joint, but also provide ... The knee bursae are the fluid-filled sacs and synovial pockets that surround and sometimes communicate with the knee joint ... ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Image at nlm.nih.gov (Articles using infobox templates with no data rows, Synovial bursae, Lower limb ... In front there are five bursae: the suprapatellar bursa or recess between the anterior surface of the lower part of the femur ...
They are lined with a synovial membrane that secretes a lubricating synovial fluid. There are more than 150 bursae in the human ... Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (fluid filled sacs) of synovial fluid in the body. ... The bursa should be aspirated to rule out an infectious process. Bursae that are not infected can be treated symptomatically ... The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone. Healthy bursae ...
Quite often they are associated with synovial pockets or bursae. About 5% of people with rheumatoid arthritis have such nodules ... A hyperplastic synovial lining layer can be caused by the expansion of synovial fibroblast and macrophage cells. This expansion ... Rheumatoid arthritis involves chronic inflammation of synovial membranes, which leads to degradation of articular cartilage and ... of the synovial membrane, sometimes referred to as "pannus", can lead to bony erosions and cartilage degradation at the site of ...
Bursectomy is the removal of a bursa, a small sac filled with synovial fluid. Cardiectomy is the removal of the cardia of the ... Synovectomy is the removal of the synovial membrane of a synovial joint. Thrombectomy is the removal of thrombi (blood clots). ...
Non-communicating bursae: The subcutaneous prepatellar bursa is located in front of the patella. The [deep] infrapatellar bursa ... Between these, the synovial membrane passes in front of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, why these ligaments are ... Communicating bursae: The suprapatellar bursa, the largest bursa, extends the joint space anteriorly and proximally. The ... The numerous bursae surrounding the knee joint can be divided into the communicating and the non-communicating bursae: ...
The ischial bursa is a synovial bursa located between gluteus maximus muscle and ischial tuberosity. When in a seated position ... Ischial bursitis (also known as weaver's bottom) is inflammation of the synovial bursa located between gluteus maximus muscle ... Friction from exercise can lead to inflammation of the ischial bursa, known as bursitis. Ischial bursitis is usually diagnosed ... the ischial bursa is put under the highest amount of pressure, which is most significant against a hard surface. ...
... or particles within the excess synovial fluid.: p. 20 In human anatomy, a bursa is a small pouch filled with synovial fluid. ... 607-8 The prepatellar bursa and the olecranon bursa are the two bursae that are most likely to become infected, or septic. ... 22 Along with the pes anserine bursa, the prepatellar bursa is one of the most common bursae to cause knee pain when inflamed. ... The prepatellar bursa is one of several bursae of the knee joint, and is located between the patella and the skin. Prepatellar ...
Some patients have intra-articular bodies resting in stable positions within joint recesses or bursae. These patients may be ... Synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) (synonyms include synovial chondromatosis, primary synovial chondromatosis, synovial ... Also, they can deposit in the synovial lining, reestablish a blood supply, and become replaced by bone. On occasion, synovial ... Degenerative joint disease with detached spur Synovial proliferation: Pigmented villonodular synovitis Neoplastic: Synovial ...
In November 2011, she underwent a synovial bursa operation and returned to training in January 2012. She withdrew from the 2012 ...
A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac made of white fibrous tissue and lined with synovial membrane. Bursa may also be formed by ... It provides a cushion between bones and tendons or muscles around a joint; bursa are filled with synovial fluid and are found ... Synovial joints, joints that are not directly joined, are lubricated by a solution called synovial fluid that is produced by ... the synovial membranes. This fluid lowers the friction between the articular surfaces and is kept within an articular capsule, ...
The prepatellar bursa is a frontal bursa of the knee joint. It is a superficial bursa with a thin synovial lining located ... Synovial bursae, Lower limb anatomy, Knee, All stub articles, Musculoskeletal system stubs). ... and is due to inflammation of the prepatellar bursa. It is common in people who frequently kneel, such as roofers, plumbers, ...
A bursectomy is the removal of a bursa, which is a small sac filled with synovial fluid that cushions adjacent bone structures ... v t e (Orthopedic surgical procedures, Synovial bursae, All stub articles, Medical treatment stubs). ...
At US, an abnormal bursa may show fluid distension, synovial proliferation, and/or thickening of the bursal walls. In any case ... The inflammatory process causes synovial cells to multiply, increasing collagen formation and fluid production within the bursa ... Inflammatory bursitis is usually the result of repetitive injury to the bursa. In the subacromial bursa, this generally occurs ... The subacromial bursa helps the motion of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff in activities such as overhead work. ...
... is bursitis (inflammation of synovial sac) of bursa situated above the insertion of tendon to calcaneus. It ...
v t e (Synovial bursae, Upper limb anatomy, Soft tissue, Musculoskeletal system, All stub articles, Musculoskeletal system ... The bicipitoradial bursa is one of the two bursae in the cubital fossa, the other being the interosseous bursa. Inflammation of ... In severe cases, the bursa is distended by synovial debris and can cause compression of the posterior interosseous nerve. " ... The bicipitoradial bursa is a bursa located between the distal tendon of the biceps brachii muscle and the anterior part of the ...
The iliopectineal bursa or the iliopsoas bursa is a large synovial bursa that separates the external surface of the hip joint ... CS1 Danish-language sources (da), CS1 German-language sources (de), Synovial bursae, Lower limb anatomy, Soft tissue, ... Dihlmann W, Peters A, Tillmann B (2008). "Bursa iliopectinea - morphologisch-computertomographische Studie" [The bursa ... The iliopectineal bursa passes across the front of the capsule of the hip joint and extends distally downwards almost as far as ...
... is inflammation of a bursa (synovial sac) lying between iliopsoas muscle and hip joint, lateral to femoral ...
... the lower fourth is separated from the muscle by the intervention of the synovial membrane of the knee-joint and a bursa; from ...
The underlying mechanism involves the flow of synovial fluid from the knee joint to the gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursa, ... The synovial sac of the knee joint can, under certain circumstances, produce a posterior bulge, into the popliteal space, the ... Most Baker's cysts maintain this direct communication with the synovial cavity of the knee, but sometimes, the new cyst pinches ... although if needed and there is no suspicion of a popliteal artery aneurysm then aspiration of synovial fluid from the cyst may ...
... (/saɪˈnoʊviəl/) may refer to: Synovial fluid Synovial joint Synovial membrane Synovial bursa This disambiguation page ... lists articles associated with the title Synovial. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
The common synovial sheath for the flexor tendons or the ulnar bursa is a synovial sheath in the carpal tunnel of the human ... ISBN 0-8018-5652-3. Ulnar bursa or common flexor.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "The wrist joint ...
Signs and symptoms of water on the knee depend on the cause of excess synovial fluid build-up in the knee joint. These may ... It has many common causes, including arthritis, injury to the ligaments or meniscus, or fluid collecting in the bursa, a ... Knee effusion, informally known as water on the knee, occurs when excess synovial fluid accumulates in or around the knee joint ...
As tendons pass near bony prominences, they are protected by a fluid filled synovial structure, either a tendon sheath or a sac ... called a bursa. Tendons are easily damaged if placed under too much strain, which can result in a painful, and possibly career- ...
... articular cartilage and bursa. The synovial sac is a thin tissue that lines the joint. It is filled with a fluid that works ... The synovial sac is one of the seven parts of a joint located in the body, along with muscle, tendon, ligament, bone, ...
Youso missed three weeks of the 1965 season due to a synovial bursa and missed about half of the 1965 season after suffering a ...
ISBN 978-87-628-0307-7. v t e (CS1 Danish-language sources (da), Articles with TA98 identifiers, Synovial bursae, Lower limb ... The anserine bursa (tibial intertendinous bursa) is a sub muscular bursa located deep to the pes anserinus on the anteromedial ... Pes anserine bursitis is a common inflammatory condition of the anserine bursa. Bojsen-Møller, Finn; Simonsen, Erik B.; Tranum- ...
A synovial bursa, usually simply bursa (PL: bursae or bursas), is a small fluid-filled sac lined by synovial membrane with an ... Bursae or bursas is its plural form. Bursa of Fabricius (a lymphatic organ in birds) Bursectomy Knee bursae Shoulder joint# ... Bursa Diagram of elbow with olecranon bursa Betts, J. Gordon (2013). "9.4 Synovial joints". Anatomy & physiology. Houston, ... Infection or irritation of a bursa leads to bursitis (inflammation of a bursa). The general term for disease of bursae is " ...
Synovial cysts in the humeral head. Lost of convexity of the tendon and bursa ... Even if the channel cannot be always identified, the presence of contrast medium in the subdeltoid-subacromial bursa signs the ... Even if the channel cannot be always identified, the presence of contrast medium in the subdeltoid-subacromial bursa signs the ... This image depicts the channel between the articular capsule and the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa in a complete rotator cuff ...
a synovial membrane that forms the outer part of the bursa. *tendons on each side of the joint that attaches to muscles and ... bursae in the body. In bursitis, a bursa enlarges and fills with fluid, and any movement that causes direct pressure upon it ... The compression of the bursa can trigger an inflammatory reaction resulting in the swelling of the bursa. ... having the bursa drained if swollen. A person may also require surgery if symptoms do not improve after 6-12 months of using ...
The fluid collects mainly in the suprapatellar bursa. Persisting excess synovial fluid accelerates the degeneration of joint ... Evaluation of the Effect of Excess Synovial Fluid on Knee Joint Pain in Patients with Osteoarthritis. ...
This illustration shows a section on the knee (A, Femur; B, Tibia; C, Patella; D, Synovial sac; E, bursæ).… ...
If the bursa or joint is aspirated for this or other reasons, analysis of the fluid may include a cell count, assessment of ... At least 1 case of chronic pes anserine bursitis manifested as a solid, inflammatory synovial mass. One report describes tibial ... Fluid-filled anserine bursae have been reported with a prevalence of 5% in asymptomatic knees; consequently, the diagnosis of ... Sonoanatomic variation of pes anserine bursa. Korean J Pain. 2013 Jul. 26(3):249-54. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ...
It is not uncommon for there to be a mere 5ml of synovial fluid in a severely irritated frozen shoulder, partly related to the ... Above the Glenohumeral joint is the subacromial (subdeltoid) bursa. When irritated, as in a frozen shoulder (capsulitis), the ... The capsule of the glenohumeral joint contains between 70 to 90ml of synovial fluid; this fluid is generated and replenished by ... unimpeded articulation of the cartilaginous surfaces which literally squeeze synovial fluid into the capsular space. ...
Bursitis is when bursae, fluid filled sacs, become inflamed. Find out how to treat it. ... The fluid inside a bursa (called synovial cells) also lubricates these areas. ... Bursae are fluid filled sacs found in your body where bones or joints might rub together. They act to cushion the surfaces. ... Sometimes bursa become inflamed - especially in patients who perform repetitive activities. This is called bursitis. Areas of ...
Bursa: A small fluid-filled sac made of white fibrous tissue and lined with synovial membrane. It provides a cushion between ...
A multi-centre study of synovial sepsis of the calcaneal bursae in horses treated by endoscopic lavage. Isgren CM, Salem SE, ...
Study Joints flashcards from Miranda Holder's College of Naturopathic Medicine class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
... synovial edema, and synovial necrosis. Histopathologic findings include chronic interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cell ... In chronic cases, soft-tissue calcification involving joint capsules, tendon sheaths, and bursae is not uncommon. Severe ... Lesions in joints are characterized by thickening of the joint capsule and marked proliferation of synovial villi. ... Microscopic features of articular lesions include synovial cell hyperplasia, subsynovial mononuclear cell infiltration, villous ...
... synovial edema, and synovial necrosis. Histopathologic findings include chronic interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cell ... In chronic cases, soft-tissue calcification involving joint capsules, tendon sheaths, and bursae is not uncommon. Severe ... Lesions in joints are characterized by thickening of the joint capsule and marked proliferation of synovial villi. ... Microscopic features of articular lesions include synovial cell hyperplasia, subsynovial mononuclear cell infiltration, villous ...
Joint mobility exercise stimulates and circulates the synovial fluid in the bursa, which washes the joint. The joints have no ... direct blood supply and are nourished by this synovial fluid, which simultaneously removes waste products. Joint salts, or ...
Synovial bursa. *See "Synovial joints" in "Joints.". Fascia. * Definition: a thin layer of connective tissue that separates ...
Vietnam Veteran - Persons who served on active duty for more than 180 days, and was discharged or released there from with other than a dishonorable discharge, if any part of such active duty occurred in the Republic of Vietnam between February 28, 1961, and May 7, 1975, or between August 5, 1964, and May 7, 1975, in all other cases. The term also refers to person who was discharged or released from active duty for a service-connected disability if any part of such active duty was performed in the Republic of Vietnam between February 28, 1961, and May 7, 1975 or between August 5, 1964, and May 7, 1975, in all other cases ...
... of synovial cells, excess synovial fluid, and the development of fibrous tissue (pannus) in the synovium.The pathology of the ... Olecranon bursal involvement is common, as are rheumatoid nodules in the bursa and along the extensor surface of the ulna. ... Synovial effusion (demonstrated with patellar tap by fixing the knee fingers and thumb of left hand, then sharply tapping the ... Knee effusions and synovial thickening are common and are easily detected during the early course of the disease. Persistent ...
... popliteal cysts are often associated with knee joint pathology and have a communicating neck between the bursa and the synovial ... 4. Synovial Osteo Chondromatosis. Synovial osteochondromatosis is a disorder of the synovial lining characterized by cartilage ... Synovial Sarcoma: Gadolinium enhancement, with areas of low-, iso- and hyper-intense signal to fat on T2. Synovial- ... 3. Synovial Sarcoma. Synovial sarcoma accounts for approximately 10% of soft tissue sarcomas. Men and women are affected ...
... since inflammation in the bursa can often be seen. ... The loss of synovial fluid and deterioration of the bursa cause ... Bursa degeneration in all its forms is normal and universal in the major joints of the body. Most cases are not painful and ... Elbow bursitis is one of the most obvious forms of the condition, since inflammation in the bursa can often be seen in abnormal ...
Bursa, and Tendon Disorders - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Bursae are flat sacs containing joint (synovial) fluid. They reduce friction in areas where skin, muscles, tendons, and ... Often, muscles, bursae, and tendons are injured during sports activities Overview of Sports Injuries Sports injuries are common ... Baker cysts Baker Cysts Baker cysts are small sacs filled with joint (synovial) fluid that form in an extension of the joint ...
... and excess fluid build up behind the knee joint and eventually form into this lovely little sac known as a synovial bursa. ...
... also studied the subacromial bursa as a potential source for MSCs and found that the synovial cells found in the bursa were a ...
... fascia and bursa, except hand Includes: operations on synovial membrane and tendon sheaths. Excludes: hand (82); diaphram (34 ... 82 Operations on muscle, tendon and fascia of hand Includes: operations on synovial membrane and tendon sheath 83 Operations on ... and synovial membrane Excludes: cartilage of ear (18); nose (21); and joints of face (76) CLASSIFICATION OF OPERATIONS AND NON- ...
Synovial membranes of the radial and ulnar bursas that surround the extrinsic finger flexor tendons also are compressed by ... Repeated compression may cause synovial inflammation and swelling, compressing the median nerve inside the carpal tunnel. When ...
Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a progressive synovial lesion of uncertain aetiology associated with synovial-lined tissues ... of the joints, tendon sheaths and bursae. The incidence... READ MORE ...
bursa small sacs of synovial fluid, facilitate movement and ease friction * pivot joint ...
The bursa sac consists of a thin-walled membrane (called the synovial membrane or synovium) that produces and contains fluid ( ... On your Achilles: The other bursa, known as the retroachilles bursa, sits between your Achilles tendon and the skin at the back ... Foot bursitis is a condition that involves inflammation and fluid buildup of the bursa sac. A bursa is a small slippery fluid- ... known as, you guessed it, synovial fluid). The bursa can become irritated and inflamed due to excessive repetitive joint motion ...
Bursitis is an Acute or chronic inflammation in a bursa. Bursae are thin-walled sacs lined with synovial fluid and function to ...
... in which the synovial lining of the shoulder joint or the bicipital tendon bursa undergo a nodular cartilaginous metaplasia, ... SHOULDER SYNOVIAL OSTEOCHONDROMATOSIS. Shoulder synovial osteochondromatosis (or synovial chondrometaplasia) is a rare disease ... Osteochondrosis, Synovial Chondromatosis and Dysplasia of the Shoulder Joint World Small Animal Veterinary Association World ... 8. Flo (G.L), Rus (L.S), Dunstan (R.W) Synovial chondrometaplasia in five dogs J.A.V.M.A . 1987, 191, 11, 1417-1422 ...
Theres one, a bursa thats deep inside the knee and thats called the Infrapatellar bursa. When it swells, its not the joint ... Now, the ligament sends a message to the brain that says, Protect me, and the brain sends a message to the synovial membrane ... 0:29:25.8 DB: Theres also a prepatellar bursa, on top of the kneecap, and the infrapatellar bursa. Those I would definitely ... Another one is called a Prepatellar bursa, and thats right on top of your kneecap, and that can just sort of swell. But it ...
  • A synovial bursa, usually simply bursa (PL: bursae or bursas), is a small fluid-filled sac lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of viscous synovial fluid (similar in consistency to that of a raw egg white). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bursa: A small fluid-filled sac made of white fibrous tissue and lined with synovial membrane. (disabled-world.com)
  • The bursa sac consists of a thin-walled membrane (called the synovial membrane or synovium) that produces and contains fluid (known as, you guessed it, synovial fluid). (footankleinstitute.com)
  • The synovial membrane might be associated with the proliferation of the loose bodies by means of expressing cluster of differentiation 105 (CD105) and CD90 [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For stage II and III, it is generally recommended to remove the diseased synovial membrane or remove the loose bodies [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dark, crescentic area is the opening of the bursa , from which the covering membrane is temporarily withdrawn. (wiktionary.org)
  • They have a synovial membrane and are filled with synovial fluid. (norsefoundation.com)
  • [ 33 , 34 ] On MRI, the pes anserine bursa is observed between the pes anserinus (ie, the insertion of the conjoined gracilis, semitendinosus, and sartorius tendons into the anteromedial proximal tibia) and the upper tibial metaphysis. (medscape.com)
  • The muscles, bursae, tendons, and bones must be healthy and functioning correctly for the body to move normally. (msdmanuals.com)
  • although covered here, is thought to be a central pain syndrome, not a disorder of muscles, bursae, or tendons. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Synovial membranes of the radial and ulnar bursas that surround the extrinsic finger flexor tendons also are compressed by forces in both flexed and extended wrists. (cdc.gov)
  • Bursae are thin-walled sacs lined with synovial fluid and function to lubricate and ease the movement of the tendons and muscles over bony prominences. (ecopolitan.com)
  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign proliferative condition affecting synovial membranes of joints, bursae or tendons, resulting from possibly neoplastic synovial proliferation with villous and nodular projections and haemosiderin deposition. (sicot.org)
  • They may also have fluid-filled sacs (- bursae ), commonly- located between tendons and underly-ing bony prominences such as in the knee or elbow. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Bursae are small fluid filled sacs that decrease friction between tendons and bone or skin. (emog.net)
  • Bursae are found around most major joints of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • While arthritis affects bones and cartilage of joints, bursitis affects the bursa - fluid-filled sacs lubricating connective tissues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While bursitis originates from the bursa in between joints, arthritis originates in the joints. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bursae are fluid filled sacs found in your body where bones or joints might rub together. (nuffieldhealth.com)
  • The joints have no direct blood supply and are nourished by this synovial fluid, which simultaneously removes waste products. (mikemahler.com)
  • Bursa degeneration in all its forms is normal and universal in the major joints of the body. (cure-back-pain.org)
  • There are also bursae sacs near the joints of your toes that help cushion the bone. (footankleinstitute.com)
  • They can also be structurally- grouped according to the type of tissue -binding them at their junctions such as fibrous, carti-laginous, and synovial joints. (pharmacy180.com)
  • In general, fibrous joints are immovable, whereas synovial joints are freely movable. (pharmacy180.com)
  • The bursae are small, fluid-filled sacs found near joints Dupa toata ziua asta i caruselul acesta de emo?ii, gandul ca noi suntem ca?tigatorii America Express este cople?itor', a spus Catalin Bordea. (the-green-button.com)
  • Infection or irritation of a bursa leads to bursitis (inflammation of a bursa). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bursitis is the inflammation or swelling of the bursae. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Infections can spread from surrounding tissues and invade a bursa, causing inflammation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Elbow bursitis is one of the most obvious forms of the condition, since inflammation in the bursa can often be seen in abnormal swelling at skin level. (cure-back-pain.org)
  • Basically what happens is that inflammation and excess fluid build up behind the knee joint and eventually form into this lovely little sac known as a synovial bursa . (dane101.com)
  • Repeated compression may cause synovial inflammation and swelling, compressing the median nerve inside the carpal tunnel. (cdc.gov)
  • Foot bursitis is a condition that involves inflammation and fluid buildup of the bursa sac. (footankleinstitute.com)
  • Bursitis is an Acute or chronic inflammation in a bursa. (ecopolitan.com)
  • Invasion of the cracks by synovial fluid, thus coming into contact with subchondral bone also promotes inflammation. (vin.com)
  • Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa , which results in pain, tenderness, and stiffness and in some cases, swelling and redness. (wiktionary.org)
  • Bursitis is inflammation of the bursa. (norsefoundation.com)
  • Bursitis is an inflammation of the bursae. (the-green-button.com)
  • Soft tissue ganglia are fluid-filled sacs containing mucinous material which have a thin connective tissue capsule but no synovial lining. (radsource.us)
  • Bursae are small closed sacks made of connective tissue. (norsefoundation.com)
  • In bursitis, a bursa enlarges and fills with fluid, and any movement that causes direct pressure upon it will result in pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A diagnostic or therapeutic lidocaine or lidocaine-corticosteroid injection into the area of the pes anserine bursa may help the clinician to determine the contribution of pes anserine bursitis to a patient's overall knee pathology, as well as possibly alleviate the patient's symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • The appearance of pes anserine bursitis on MRI is characterized by increased signal intensity and fluid formation around the area of the pes anserinus bursa. (medscape.com)
  • In severe cases symptoms may include fever, chills, broken skin over the bursa or infection under the skin (called septic bursitis). (nuffieldhealth.com)
  • When a toe joint gets bigger because of a bunion, the bursa can become painful and swollen, resulting in bursitis. (footankleinstitute.com)
  • The symptoms of bursitis vary according to which bursa is affected. (norsefoundation.com)
  • The normal cause of bursitis is repetitive stress, performing the same movement many times, causing irritation, thus the bursa fills with a greater volume of fluid resulting in pain. (norsefoundation.com)
  • With bursitis, the bursa becomes irritated and swollen with extra fluid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The loss of synovial fluid and deterioration of the bursa cause increased friction inside the joint, typically worsened by specific movements. (cure-back-pain.org)
  • This bursa reduces friction and pressure from your heel bone on your Achilles tendon when you're standing. (footankleinstitute.com)
  • The function of a bursa is to reduce friction and cushion between a tendon and the hard tissues of the body, for example bone. (norsefoundation.com)
  • The fluid inside a bursa (called synovial cells) also lubricates these areas. (nuffieldhealth.com)
  • Bursae contain special cells called synovial cells that secrete a lubricating fluid. (emog.net)
  • The epiphyseal cartilage is avascular, so that it only receives its nutrition via osmosis from the synovial fluid. (vin.com)
  • Synovial chondromatosis is a benign tumor-like lesion of soft tissue cartilage such as joint synovium, which can lead to the formation of multiple cartilage nodules or loose bodies [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examples include the subacromial bursa that protects the tendon of shoulder muscle as it passes under the acromion of the scapula, and the suprapatellar bursa that separates the tendon of the large anterior thigh muscle from the distal femur just above the knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluid collects mainly in the suprapatellar bursa. (iasp-pain.org)
  • With this approach, the needle enters the suprapatellar bursa. (medscape.com)
  • Remember that in 10% of the population, the suprapatellar bursa does not communicate with the knee joint. (medscape.com)
  • Joint aspiration showed bloody coloured synovial fluid. (sicot.org)
  • Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare benign disease that occurs in the joint mucosa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The initial diagnosis of bilateral elbow synovial chondromatosis was performed by physical examination and imaging report. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Histopathology reports confirmed synovial chondromatosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The report introduced a case about synovial chondromatosis in bilateral elbow found in a 14-year-old girl, which is rarely involved in bilateral elbow and rarely found in adolescents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, synovial chondromatosis can be found intra-articular as well as extra-articular (like the extensor digitorum longus tendon), which were still relatively rare in the literature [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although Henderson [ 6 ] reported the first elbow synovial chondromatosis in 1918, the etiology of synovial chondromatosis was currently uncertain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, relative studies had reported that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) or transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) were responsible for the formation of cartilaginous loose bodies and involved in the pathogenesis of synovial chondromatosis [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the value of arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJSC). (bvsalud.org)
  • Before operation and at follow-up, @*CONCLUSIONS@#Arthroscopy is essential in the diagnosis and treatment of TMJ synovial chondromatosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Synovial chondromatosis (CS) is a benign lesion that is rare and clinically quite nonspecific. (bvsalud.org)
  • A subcutaneous bursa is located between the skin and an underlying bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • A submuscular bursa is found between a muscle and an underlying bone, or between adjacent muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A subtendinous bursa is found between a tendon and a bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axial images are particularly helpful for differentiating fluid in the pes anserine bursa from other medial fluid collections, such as Baker and meniscal cysts, bone cysts, and fluid in the semimembranosus bursa. (medscape.com)
  • The bursa can become irritated and inflamed due to excessive repetitive joint motion, injury, a bone deformity, and even due to underlying medical conditions like arthritis. (footankleinstitute.com)
  • The retrocalcaneal bursa is located in the back of your heel bone between the bone and the Achilles tendon. (footankleinstitute.com)
  • A Sub-calcaneal bursa is located between the heel bone and the plantar fascia (the thick ligament that connects your heel to the front part of your foot). (footankleinstitute.com)
  • this fluid is generated and replenished by unimpeded articulation of the cartilaginous surfaces which literally squeeze synovial fluid into the capsular space. (positivehealth.com)
  • Though the etiology is not clear, they may represent a synovial herniation or coalescence of small degenerative cysts arising from the tendon sheath, joint capsule, or bursae. (radsource.us)
  • The differential diagnosis of posterior knee lesions is broad and includes cystic lesions (other bursae, meniscal cysts, ganglion cysts and popliteal cysts). (scirp.org)
  • In this article, we review the chief US and MR characteristics of popliteal cysts and some biopsy proven cases of mimics of popliteal cysts in each of the broad categories of cystic tumors, vascular lesions and synovial based cystic lesions. (scirp.org)
  • 1 Although they are histologically distinct from synovial cysts, which have a true synovial lining, these entities are typically indistinguishable on imaging. (radsource.us)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of adolescent bilateral elbow joint synovial chondropathy, and the patient is a gymnast with a particular occupation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This capsule surrounds the elbow joint and contains lubricating fluid called synovial fluid. (emog.net)
  • This image depicts the channel between the articular capsule and the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa in a complete rotator cuff tear. (medscape.com)
  • Even if the channel cannot be always identified, the presence of contrast medium in the subdeltoid-subacromial bursa signs the presence of a complete rotator cuff tear. (medscape.com)
  • Above the Glenohumeral joint is the subacromial (subdeltoid) bursa. (positivehealth.com)
  • Examples include the prepatellar bursa located over the kneecap and the olecranon bursa at the tip of the elbow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synovial Sarcoma: Gadolinium enhancement, with areas of low-, iso- and hyper-intense signal to fat on T2. (scirp.org)
  • The histology of PVNS can look similar to some aggressive neoplasms (rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma) and imaging therefore has an important role for definitive diagnosis [2]. (sicot.org)
  • Synovial osteochondromatosis consists of a synovial metaplasia which affects 1 per 100 000 people. (bvsalud.org)
  • Due to the lack of specificity of the signs and symptoms and X-Ray images, imaging tests such as nuclear magnetic resonance or computerized tomography are frequently needed for diagnosis.We report a case of a ten-year-old female patient with a six months history of pain and deformity of left patella which was diagnosed with synovial osteochondromatosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Evaluation of the Effect of Excess Synovial Fluid on Knee Joint Pain in Patients with Osteoarthritis. (iasp-pain.org)
  • This bursa is at the front of the knee joint, it is superficial and between the skin and the patella. (norsefoundation.com)
  • Bursa is Medieval Latin for "purse", so named for the resemblance of an anatomical bursa to a purse. (wikipedia.org)
  • La osteocondromatosis sinovial es una metaplasia benigna de la membrana sinovial que afecta a 1 de cada 100 000 personas, en su mayoría adultos, y es extremadamente infrecuente en edad pediátrica. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bursa of Fabricius (a lymphatic organ in birds) Bursectomy Knee bursae Shoulder joint#Bursae Wikimedia Commons has media related to Synovial bursae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large submuscular bursa, the trochanteric bursa, is found at the lateral hip, between the greater trochanter of the femur and the overlying gluteus maximus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bursa Diagram of elbow with olecranon bursa Betts, J. Gordon (2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • MRI is the best approach showing the masslike synovial proliferation with lobulated margins, with low signal intensity and "blooming" artifact on gradient echo due to haemosiderin deposition [4]. (sicot.org)
  • A timely biopsy of such lesions will facilitate early management, especially lesions such as synovial sarcomas that are asymptomatic early in the course of the disease. (scirp.org)
  • This bursa is found just below the kneecap and it sits around the patella tendon. (norsefoundation.com)
  • Infections of the pes anserine bursa are very rare and occur primarily in immunocompromised patients. (medscape.com)
  • The compression of the bursa can trigger an inflammatory reaction resulting in the swelling of the bursa. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pain is provoked by compression, direct pressure over a localised swelling causes pain then it is likely to be a bursa problem. (norsefoundation.com)
  • The other bursa, known as the retroachilles bursa, sits between your Achilles tendon and the skin at the back of your heel. (footankleinstitute.com)
  • Stretch the skin over the insertion site, and insert the needle briskly into the joint space while gently aspirating until synovial fluid enters the syringe (in an adult of average size, this usually occurs at 1-2 cm). (medscape.com)