Bursa of Fabricius: An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Infectious bursal disease virus: A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Birnaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Avian Leukosis: A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Marek Disease: A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.Mardivirus: A genus in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, associated with malignancy in birds.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Stomach, AvianTestosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Circovirus: A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).Circoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Phascolarctidae: A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.

Role of Nr13 in regulation of programmed cell death in the bursa of Fabricius. (1/244)

Apoptotic cell death is developmentally regulated in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Although apoptosis is low in the embryonic bursa, cell death increases markedly after hatching. The expression of Bcl2 family cell death antagonists was examined to identify the genes that regulate bursal cell apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-xL, A1, and Mcl1 was detected in both embryos and hatched birds, whereas Nr13 was expressed at high levels in embryonic bursa, and decreased significantly after hatching, correlating inversely with apoptosis. The oncogene v-reland phorbol myristate acetate, two known inhibitors of bursal cell apoptosis, induced Nr13 expression. Overexpression of Nr13 in DT40 bursal lymphoma cells protected them from low serum-induced apoptosis. The mechanism of inhibition of apoptosis by Nr13 is likely to involve a critical BH4 domain and interaction with death agonist Bax. Deletion of the BH4 domain converted Nr13 into a death agonist. Bax coimmunoprecipitated with Nr13 and Bax was induced, whereas Nr13 levels diminished when bursal lymphoblasts were induced to apoptosis by dispersion. Bursal transplantation studies demonstrated that Nr13 could prevent the in vivo programmed elimination of bursal stem cells after hatching, suggesting that Nr13 plays a role in maintaining bursal stem cells.  (+info)

Lysis of myelocytes in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus. (2/244)

In specific-pathogen-free chickens infected with the highly virulent HPS-2 strain or virulent reference GBF-1 strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), pathologic changes of the bone marrow were investigated. On histologic examination, bone marrow lesions were prominent in the HPS-2 group but only mild in the GBF-1 group. The bone marrow of the HPS-2 group showed severe lysis and depletion of heterophil myelocytes with pyknotic nuclear alteration 2-3 days after inoculation. On examination with an electron microscope, heterophil myelocytes were characterized by shrinkage of the cytoplasm and peripheral condensation of nuclear chromatin. IBDV particles were not detected in altered myelocytes. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling method demonstrated a positive reaction in only heterophil myelocytes. In contrast, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HPS-2-infected bone marrow cells was indiscernible by agarose gel electrophoresis. These findings indicate that lysis of bone marrow cells is selectively induced in heterophil myelocytes at an early stage after IBDV infection and independent of virus replication.  (+info)

Infectivity to hosts of the endogenous stages of chicken and murine Cryptosporidium. (3/244)

Five groups of 4 mice each were inoculated with 10(6) Cryptosporidium muris oocysts. They were necropsied on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The stomach mucosa from each group were made into 10% suspension in physiological saline and were orally inoculated to 2 mice each. Recipients given suspension from infected mice on day 6, 8 and 10 shed oocysts from 6, 9 and 6, respectively. Similarly, White Leghorn received 10(6) Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were killed daily between 1 and 6 days. Recipients given bursa of Fabricius or caecum of donor birds on days 4, 5 and 6 shed oocysts. The endogenous stages of murine and chicken Cryptosporidium were able to infect the appropriate host.  (+info)

Effect of thymus extract on immunologic reactivity of chicken vaccinated with infectious bursal disease virus. (4/244)

The effects of crude thymus extract on the immune response and protection against challenge with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were studied in one-day-old chick. Oral administration of thymus extract (1 ml/kg) markedly and significantly increased the total protein, albumin, globulin, Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and the body weight gain in one-day-old chick. In addition, it increased the total lymphocytic count over four weeks after administration. Although vaccination also increased total protein, globulin, T4 and the total lymphocytic count but it significantly decreased the body weight gain of the chick and administration of thymus extract, before, during or after vaccination markedly improved the vaccination effectiveness with significant elevation of the globulin level and body weight gain of the chick. It also prevented the decrease in the relative weights of bursa, spleen and thyroid gland which commonly prevailed during vaccination. Chicken administered thymus extract and vaccinated with infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine showed 100% protection against challenge with IBDV. Meanwhile the vaccinated non-thymus treated group exhibited 80% protection against IBDV challenge. These results indicate a potentiating effect of thymus extract on the immune system in baby chick. These findings are supported by ELISA results that showed a marked increase in antibody titers in thymus treated groups. Additionally, microscopical examination of the bursa and the existent lymphoid hyperplasia in thymus treated groups but not vaccinated group support our findings.  (+info)

Development of B cells expressing surface immunoglobulin molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the avian embryo bursa of fabricius. (5/244)

Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in avian B cell precursors generates surface Ig receptors of limited diversity. It has been proposed that specificities encoded by these receptors play a critical role in B lineage development by recognizing endogenous ligands within the bursa of Fabricius. To address this issue directly we have introduced a truncated surface IgM, lacking variable region domains, into developing B precursors by retroviral gene transfer in vivo. Cells expressing this truncated receptor lack endogenous surface IgM, and the low level of endogenous Ig rearrangements that have occurred within this population of cells has not been selected for having a productive reading frame. Such cells proliferate rapidly within bursal epithelial buds of normal morphology. In addition, despite reduced levels of endogenous light chain rearrangement, those light chain rearrangements that have occurred have undergone variable region diversification by gene conversion. Therefore, although surface expression of an Ig receptor is required for bursal colonization and the induction of gene conversion, the specificity encoded by the prediversified receptor is irrelevant and, consequently, there is no obligate ligand for V(D)J-encoded determinants of prediversified avian cell surface IgM receptor.  (+info)

Efficient antibody diversification by gene conversion in vivo in the absence of selection for V(D)J-encoded determinants. (6/244)

Antibody diversification in the bursa of Fabricius occurs by gene conversion: pseudogene-derived sequences replace homologous sequences in rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Bursal cells expressing a truncated immunoglobulin mu heavy chain, introduced by retroviral gene transfer, bypass normal requirements for endogenous surface immunoglobulin expression. Immunoglobulin light chain rearrangements in such cells undergo gene conversion under conditions where the products are not selected based on their ability to encode a functional protein. The efficiency with which gene conversion maintains a productive reading frame exceeds 97% under such non-selective conditions. By analysis of donor pseudogene usage we demonstrate that bursal cell development is not driven by a restricted set of antigenic specificities. We further demonstrate that gene conversion can restore a productive reading frame to out-of-frame VJ(L) junctions, providing a rationale for the elimination of cells containing non-productive VJ(L) rearrangements prior to the onset of gene conversion in normal bursal cell development.  (+info)

Effects of antioxidants on induction of apoptosis in bursal cells of Fabricius during in vitro cultivation. (7/244)

After physically disrupting cell contacts, apoptosis of bursal cells of Fabricius was induced during in vitro cultivation. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with incubation time and approximately 70% cells represented apoptosis after 6 hr of incubation. The induction of apoptosis was significantly inhibited by treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), but not with trolox, a vitamin E analog. An intense DNA ladder pattern was shown at 6 hr post-isolation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid inhibited the DNA fragmentation, but trolox did not. To monitor the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), the intensity of fluorescence emitted from DCFH-DA was measured. The intensity of fluorescence from cells incubated for 0.5-2 hr was approximately 2-fold higher than that from cells at 0 hr. The relative intensity of fluorescence decreased immediately after the addition of ascorbic acid to the cells. The intensity from the cells treated with ascorbic acid was 20-30% of that from the control cells at each incubation time. For trolox, the intensity was 50-70% of that from the control cells at each 1 to 2 hr incubation time. When ROSs-induced lipid peroxidation was assessed using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule, lipid peroxidation was found to occur in the control cells after isolation of the bursal cells. Treatment of the cells with trolox reduced lipid peroxidation, but treatment with ascorbic acid enhanced peroxidation.  (+info)

Perinatal deletion of B cells expressing surface Ig molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the bursa of Fabricius is not due to intrafollicular competition. (8/244)

During embryonic development, the avian bursa of Fabricius selects B cell precursors that have undergone productive V(D)J recombination for expansion in oligoclonal follicles. During this expansion, Ig diversity is generated by gene conversion. We have used retroviral gene transfer in vivo to introduce surface Ig molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants into B cell precursors. This truncated mu heavy chain supports both B cell expansion within embryo bursal lymphoid follicles and gene conversion. We show that individual follicles can be colonized exclusively by cells expressing the truncated mu chain and lacking endogenous surface IgM, ruling out a requirement for V(D)J-encoded determinants in the establishment of bursal lymphoid follicles. In striking contrast to their normal development in the embryo, bursal cells expressing the truncated mu-chain exhibit reduced rates of cell division and increased levels of apoptosis after hatching. The level of apoptosis in individual follicles reflects the proportion of cells within the follicle that express the truncated mu-chain. In particular, high levels of apoptosis are associated with follicles containing exclusively cells expressing the truncated micro receptor. Thus, apoptotic elimination of such cells is not due to competition within the follicle by cells expressing endogenous surface IgM receptors. This provides the first direct demonstration that the regulation of B cell development in the avian bursa after hatching differs fundamentally from that seen in the embryo. The requirement for intact IgM expression when the bursa is exposed to exogenous Ag implicates a role for Ag in avian B cell development after hatching.  (+info)

Androgenic hormones induce inhibition or regression of the bursa of Fabricius in the chick embryo. The high doses of hormones necessary to this involution raises the question of the processes involved and their putative role in the normal development of the bursa. If androgens play a role it is mediated by receptor sites in target cells. Using an autoradiographic technique, receptor sites for androgenic hormones were localized in mesenchymal cells of the bursa from the primordium (7-day embryo) up to the fully differentiated immune organ (15-day embryo). No target cells containing receptor sites in their nuclei were observed in the endodermic epithelium or the follicles. Oestrogen target cells in very small number are found in the mesenchyme of the bursa, in 15-day embryos. The early presence of receptor sites for steroid hormones in the bursa of Fabricius shows that the normal development may be influenced by androgens, but the actual effects are yet to be demonstrated.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Particles resembling circovirus in the bursa of Fabricius of pigeons.. AU - Shivaprasad, H L. AU - Chin, Richard P. AU - Jeffrey, J. S.. AU - Latimer, K. S.. AU - Nordhausen, R. W.. AU - Niagro, F. D.. AU - Campagnoli, R. P.. PY - 1994/7. Y1 - 1994/7. N2 - Histological examination of the bursae from 12 pigeons under 4 months old revealed basophilic globular inclusion bodies, 5 to 25 microns in diameter, in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of the various bursal follicular cells. Electron microscopy of these inclusions revealed large electron-dense areas containing non-enveloped icosahedral viral particles, 14-19 nm in diameter, either loosely arranged or in paracrystalline array. Similar basophilic globular inclusion bodies were seen in the spleen and cecal tonsils of a few pigeons and in the duodenum of one pigeon. There were various degrees of lymphoid depletion in the bursa, spleen, and bone marrow. The morphology of the inclusions in the bursa and size of the viral particles are ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Sepsis punctum (Fabricius, 1794) -- Discover Life
... Diagnosis: INFLAMMATION OF THE BURSA (Bursitis) Anatomy: On the upper arm there are numerous bursas, reducing the pressure on muscles and tendons, where these lie close to the bone. M. biceps brachii Epikondylus medial
... Diagnosis: INFLAMMATION OF THE BURSA AT THE ELBOW (BURSITIS OLECRANEI) Anatomy: There is a large bursa on the point of the elbow (olecranon) which protects the elbow bone against blows and pressure. Cause:
AccuWeather.com provides cold and flu forecast for Bursa, Turkey. See how the common cold and flu are impacted by your local weather in Bursa, Turkey
... can help diagnose the source of pain and provide relief by delivering a local anesthetic and anti-inflammatory steroid medications into specific synovial fluid filled bursa sacs, which are adjacent to joints in the body. This procedure may reduce inflammation, resulting in long-term pain relief.. Procedure Preparation. There is very little preparation needed for this procedure. In fact, you may decide to go ahead with this procedure during your initial consultation in our Midtown Manhattan outpatient clinic. The procedure will be fully explained to you before you decide to proceed. Please bring any previous imaging study results (MRI, CT, x-rays) such as films, reports, or CD-ROMs to your initial appointment. If you do not have current images, we may refer you to have them done prior to the procedure.. It is recommended that if you come by car, you should have someone who will be able to take you home after your appointment. If traveling via subway or taxi, it is safe to leave ...
Inside the body, bursa are sacs filled with a lubricating fluid. They reduce friction between different tissues and provide a cushion against pressure. Bursa are found between bodily structures like...
Hi TE - Ive been riding for over 30 years and am now scheduled for trochanteric bursectomy and IT band release to stop the pain. Ive been through multiple rounds of cortisone injections plus physical therapy, Tylenol and motrin, Percocet, rest. Has anyone else gone through this? My last ride was October 9. It hurts too much to ride now. Thanks for listening. Barb
Good morning coders, surgeon did an arthroscopic subscapular bursectomy which Im going to code using unlisted and comparing to 29826. I need help in
In 1972, Neils K. Jerne stated in the First Annual Report of the Basel Institute for Immunology, "For bursa cells and B lymphocytes, it is relatively easy to demonstrate that receptors are antibody-like molecules which enable the cell to recognize antigens. Membrane fluidity permits the receptors to move over the cell and, in certain conditions, to aggregate and to form a cap over one pole of a lymphocyte…. These studies lead up to the question by which mechanism the receptors transmit excitatory or inhibitory signals to the cell, resulting in stimulation or paralysis.". At that time, the burgeoning field of cellular immunology was abuzz with riddles posed by the newly embraced clonal selection paradigm. These ignited intense research activity, including programs aimed at understanding Ag receptor diversity and its genetic basis, as well as efforts concentrated on how this theoretical construct could explain acquired tolerance and immunologic memory. As evidenced by Jernes remarks from the ...
although this character may not be immediately obvious with just a handful of specimens).. Description. Body length 11.1-17.9 mm. Coloration of head and pronotum metallic dark blue-brown. Mouthparts (except mandibles dark brown) and antennae reddish-brown. Ventral surface of head and pronotum dark brown. Elytra dark brown. Legs and abdomen brown except segments VII -VIII orange.. Head ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5 - 8) transverse, with rounded angles, width: length ratio = 1.57, widest near middle. Head with medium-sized punctures distributed evenly on lateral sides, distance between punctures approximately equal to width of punctures; punctures somewhat sparser medially. Neck with few small punctures and micropunctures. Pronotum: head width ratio = 1.31. Pronotum ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 9 - 12) transverse, width: length ratio = 1.26. Pronotum disc concave, appearing like dome. Pronotum on lateral sides with small, shallow dense punctures; distance between punctures equal to width of puncture. Punctures ...
The main points in the foregoing paper maybe summarised as follows :. (1) A "yolk nucleus" of the type described by Bambeke, as occurring in the egg of Pholcus, is present in the developing egg of Flustrella hispida.. (2) Segmentation and cell-lineage have been followed out in detail up to the 32-cell stage.. (3) The formation of the endoderm has been traced.. (4) The oral and aboral ectoderm are differentiated as early as the 16-cell stage, and remain quite distinct from that time onwards.. (5) The ciliated ring of the larva is formed by the coalescence of several originally distinct rows of cells, and not by the hypertrophy of a single row.. (6) A stomach, comparable to that of Alcyonidium, is present also in Flustrella.. ...
When to change the clock in Turkey - Bursa in year 2010. Details about the exact time of when to turn clocks forward or back for daylight saving time (spring forward/fall back) or time zone changes.
The surgical removal of an elbow bursa sack is an inpatient procedure, meaning that it requires a stay at the hospital, despite the fact that it is simple and does not disturb any muscles or...
... definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
... definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Physical therapy is an integral component to the multi-faceted team approach of examining and treating hip pain. The importance of physical therapy at the center for Hip Preservation is to assist in gaining an understanding of the underlying causes of hip pain and then to collaborate with a team of physicians in order to design a comprehensive treatment approach. Rehabilitation is useful in many ways. It may be used as a non-invasive approach to treatment, whereby surgery for the patient is not or no longer indicated. The hip joint is a very deep joint surrounded by almost 30 muscles. Physical therapy aims to strengthen these muscles, increase flexibility, maintain range of motion of the joint, and decrease the associated inflammation. In the case of a labral tear, physical therapy will not heal the tear. With the appropriate muscular training and activity modification, however, the condition may become asymptomatic and therefore require no surgery. If operative treatment is inevitable, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development. T2 - Examining Leãos legacy. AU - Hartings, Jed A.. AU - Shuttleworth, C. William. AU - Kirov, Sergei A. AU - Ayata, Cenk. AU - Hinzman, Jason M.. AU - Foreman, Brandon. AU - Andrew, R. David. AU - Boutelle, Martyn G.. AU - Brennan, Kc. AU - Carlson, Andrew P.. AU - Dahlem, Markus A.. AU - Drenckhahn, Christoph. AU - Dohmen, Christian. AU - Fabricius, Martin. AU - Farkas, Eszter. AU - Feuerstein, Delphine. AU - Graf, Rudolf. AU - Helbok, Raimund. AU - Lauritzen, Martin. AU - Major, Sebastian. AU - Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I.. AU - Richter, Frank. AU - Rosenthal, Eric S.. AU - Sakowitz, Oliver W.. AU - Sánchez-Porras, Renán. AU - Santos, Edgar. AU - Schöll, Michael. AU - Strong, Anthony J.. AU - Urbach, Anja. AU - Westover, M. Brandon. AU - Winkler, Maren K.L.. AU - Witte, Otto W.. AU - Woitzik, Johannes. AU - Dreier, Jens P.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - A modern understanding of how ...
Larval abdomen (L1), of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius). A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Abdominal segments A-7 through A-10; and cerci and pygidium. Scal
It is in all things better to understand few subjects well than many imperfectly; knowledge may be extensive, but it cannot be sound, if it is at the same time imperfect; and, applying this observation to the present article, it becomes as desirable, where necessary, to illustrate an insect known to Linnæus, as to regard only the accession of new species.. The two insects figured were received from Jamaica by my friend Dr. Leach, and there can be no doubt they are the sexes of one species. The upper is a male, and agrees with Drurys figure and description; the lower insect is a female, of which no representation has been published: as for Cramers figure, if intended for the former, it is really so bad that it can hardly be quoted as an authority, and it appears to have misled Fabricius, in thinking that the female insect had a brown stripe on the anterior wings, whereas that character is more applicable to the male.. The insects I propose retaining under this genus are such as have the body ...
Age structure and spatial distribution of Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) on a sandy beach from the south coast of Brazil (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae) ...
Ductus bursae - even width with evenly dispersed granulation (vs) narrows gradually towards bursa and abruptly towards ostium, granualtion strongest on one side at widest section of ductus ...
*ADEVARUL *Basescu, intrebat daca el crede ca ar trebui sa demisioneze Kovesi: Nu cred nimic. La Biserica se crede Fostul presedinte Traian Basescu a declarat marti ca nu a vazut inregistrarile facute de deputatul Vlad Cosma si acuzatiile aduse Departamentului National Anticoruptie DNA. Intrebat daca el crede ca Laura Codruta Kovesi ar trebui sa demisioneze, Basescu a raspuns ca nu crede nimic, pentru ca doar la Biserica se crede.
Banca centrala a Rusiei a declarat ca intentioneaza sa utilizeze fonduri proprii pentru a deveni investitor major al Otkritie, potrivit CNBC. Otkritie este cel mai mare creditor privat al tarii si respectiv a saptea cea mai mare banca a tarii, dupa active, conform datelor din trimestrul al doilea furnizate de Interfax.
Prof.Dr. MURAT ŞAMLI; Bursa Hastanesi lokasyonunda, Böbrek Nakli Merkezi, Üroloji bölümlerinde çalışmaktadır. Bilgi ve randevu için tıklayın.
What are they?. A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac. The body contains lots of bursae - they minimise friction between tissues and help the gliding action of skin, muscle or tendons over bony surfaces. Direct trauma to these structures will result in painful swelling (bursitis).. Similarly, a wound that punctures a bursa will cause an infection and result in a septic bursitis. The bursae most commonly associated with clinical problems are those in the knee (carpal bursa), hock (calcanean bursa), shoulder (bicipital bursa), elbow (olecranon bursa) and foot (navicular bursa). Wounds over the front of the knee and shoulder and the point of the hock should be carefully checked.. The navicular bursa is contained within the hoof capsule and the most common cause of septic navicular bursitis is a penetrating foreign body, such as a nail.. Diagnosis and treatment. Radiography and ultrasonography are extremely useful in the early detection of septic bursitis and you need to call the vet urgently if it ...
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HIERONYMUS FABRICUS ab Aquapendente (ca. 1533-1619). De visione, voce, auditu. 3 parts in 1 volume. Venice: Per Franciscum Bolzettam, 1600.. One of the great Paduan anatomists and teachers, pupil of Fallopius, teacher of Harvey, and friend of Galileo, Fabricius built the first anatomical theater for public dissections at Padua, which is still preserved intact.. De visione voce, auditu was the first anatomy book with clearly scientific illustrations and set a precedent for future anatomists. Prior to this, anatomical illustrations often combined illustration with art such as Vesalius carefully composed skeletons.. During his long life, Fabricus produced a number of important works on anatomy, embryology, and physiology, characterized by numerous large, clear copperplate illustrations. The major portion of this work on the organs of vision, speech, and hearing is devoted to the eye, and it is clear that Fabricius was one of the first to grasp the true form and proper location of the lens. ...
The knee joint is surrounded by two major bursae or spaces. These are structures that allow soft tissues to glide over a given joint and are lined with specialised tissue to joint lining (synovium). At the tip of the knee, over the kneecap bone, is the prepatellar bursa, just below is the infratellar bursa. This bursa can become inflamed (prepatellar bursitis) from direct trauma to the front of the knee. This commonly occurs when maintaining a prolonged kneeling position. It has been referred to as "housemaids knee," "roofers knee," and "carpet layers knee," based on the patients associated occupational histories. It can lead to varying degrees of swelling, warmth, tenderness, and redness in the overlying area of the knee. As compared with knee joint inflammation (arthritis), it is usually only mildly painful. It is usually associated with significant pain when kneeling but can cause stiffness and pain with walking. Also, in contrast to problems within the knee joint, the range of motion of ...
Courtship and mating behavior in the sugpo or giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, are described. These are divided into three phases: parallel swimming of male and female; male turns ventral side up to female; and, male turns perpendicular to female, curves body around female and flicks both head and tail. Comparison with observations on P. japonicus and P. stylirostris is made.
Read, G. (2017). Nephthys caeca (Fabricius, 1780). In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2017). World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=340525 on 2017-12- ...
Hip bursitis is caused by inflammation of one or more of the bursa(s) surrounding the hip joint. Bursas are small fluid-filled sacks located throughout the body, where they act as cushions to prevent friction between bone and the overlying soft tissue (tendons and muscles). Since the primary function of bursas is to allow moving muscles to slide smoothly over bone, activity can intensify the pain associated with an inflamed bursa. The trochanteric bursa, which cushions the bony prominence on the outside of the hip joint, is the most commonly inflamed bursa in the hip. It can be injured due to direct trauma or friction.. When treating hip bursitis, our first objective is to determine the cause of the pain and discomfort. Muscle imbalances, poor movement patterns, and overuse may all contribute to inflammation of the bursa. Applying direct pressure to a bursa can further irritate the area, therefore, we apply manual therapy techniques to surrounding tissues rather than the bursa itself. Once the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic and phenotypic correlations between antibody responses to Escherichia coli, infectious bursa disease virus (IBDV), and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), in broiler lines selected on antibody response to Escherichia coli. AU - Yunis, R.. AU - Ben-David, A.. AU - Heller, E. D.. AU - Cahaner, A.. PY - 2002/3. Y1 - 2002/3. N2 - The genetic control of antibody (Ab) response to Escherichia coli (EC), infectious bursa disease virus, and Newcastle disease virus and the genetic and phenotypic correlation between these Ab responses, were evaluated under farm conditions in which chicks were simultaneously exposed to these antigens. The experimental population comprised five groups: two lines divergently selected for high (HH) or low (LL) Ab response to EC vaccination; a commercial broiler dam-line (CC), from which HH and LL had been derived; and the HH x CC and LL x CC hybrid groups (HC and LC, respectively). Lines LL and HH expressed similar symmetric divergence to all three antigens. ...
We determined the host range of the parasitoid Trichomalus perfectus (Walker), a candidate for classical biological control of cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), an important pest of canola in Canada. Studies were conducted in Europe and in North America. In laboratory experiments, the levels of parasitism (acceptance) of Ceutorhynchus turbatus Schultze, C. cardariae Korotyaev, C. omissusFall and C. querceti (Gyllenhal) by T. perfectus were not significantly different than of the target host C. obstrictus. Although C. typhae (Herbst), C. pallidactylus (Marsham), C. americanus Buchanan, C. neglectusBlatchely and Ceutorhynchus sp. nr. nodipennis were parasitised by T. perfectus, the levels of parasitism were significantly lower on these species than on C. obstrictus. Ceutorhynchus peyerimhoffi Hustache, C. erysimi (Fabricius), C. alliariae H. Brisout, C. roberti Gyllenhal, Mogulones borraginis (Fabricius),Mononychus vulpeculus (Fabricius) and the leaf-mining fly Scaptomyza ...
Atlanta Bursa Injections 1-800-ORTHO-11 - Ortho Sport & Spine Physicians offers relief from bursitis pain with bursa injection treatments.
Hip Bursa. Learn more about Hip Bursa. Twin Boro Physical Therapy offers sports rehab and PT Services throughout New Jersey from 19 convenient locations.
Knee Bursa. Learn more about Knee Bursa. Twin Boro Physical Therapy offers sports rehab and PT Services throughout New Jersey from 19 convenient locations.
Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa or bursae (more than one bursa), small fluid-filled sacs that cushion areas of friction around joints. Bursae contain synovial fluid that lubricates the joints. Bursitis typically occurs as a result of overuse during physical activities or infection of the synovial fluid. If a bursa becomes infected or irritated from repetitive stress, it will cause pain and limited movement. Bursitis is most common in the shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, or heel.. ...
In retrospect, it seems obvious that effective immunity requires the coordinated activities of many cell types. Given their functional specialization and differences in lifespans, it makes sense that different kinds of lymphocytes are initially generated and then replenished in separate sites. There were tantalizing clues to this in the early 1960s, but a remarkable convergence of clinical findings and studies with experimental animals was needed to delineate clearly the origins of what now are known as B and T cells. Using a chicken model, Max Cooper first showed that the cells that derived from the bursa of Fabricius were responsible for Ab production, whereas the thymus-derived cells were the effectors of delayed-type hypersensitivity and graft vs host reactions (1, 2).. Modifying methods developed by Glick, Warner, and others (3, 4), Cooper combined surgical thymectomy and/or bursectomy of posthatched chickens with sublethal irradiation. This novel strategy effectively eliminated lymphocytes ...
Ayres MP, Pena R, Lombardo JA, Lombardero MJ. 2014. Host use patterns by the European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in its native and invaded range. PLoS ONE 9: e90321.. Bedding RA. 1972. Biology of Deladenus siricidicola (Neotylenchidae), an entomophagous nematode parasitic in siricid woodwasps. Nematologica 18: 482-493.. Borchert D, Newton L, Culliney T, Hartzog H, Ahern R, Garrett L. 2011. Risk assessment of the movement of firewood within the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Services, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory, Raleigh, NC. (24 October 2016). Dodds KJ, de Groot P, Orwig DA. 2010. The impact of Sirex noctilio in Pinus resinosa and Pinus sylvestrisstands stands in New York and Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 212-223.. Evans AM. 2016. The speed of invasion: Rates of spread for thirteen exotic forest insects and diseases. Forests : ...
A bursectomy is done with a procedure called arthroscopy. Small, buttonhole-sized incisions are made by the joint. A small tube-like device called an arthroscope is inserted into the holes. The scope has a light and camera that allows the doctor to see the bursa. Specialized surgical instruments are placed through other incisions and passed to the area. The instruments can detach bursa from local tissue and remove the bursa and any scar tissue. After the arthroscope is removed from the joint, the holes will be stitched closed. A compression bandage will be applied over the dressing to control swelling and prevent blood clots. If appropriate a brace or sling will be placed to help support the joint.. ...
Other articles where Ulu Mosque is discussed: Bursa: Among its mosques, Ulu Mosque (1421) is a vast building with 20 domes, noted for the variety and fineness of its calligraphic ornamentation. Yeşil Mosque (1421) marked the beginning of a purely Turkish style; it includes a theological college, library, and ablution fountain. Nearby is the Yeşil Mausoleum,…
Do not panic.. they just look really really bad.. A bursa is when there is swelling around the elbow that begins as a fluid pocket may develop into a rough spot of skin.. *** Please do not let the vet drain a bursa ever! It will just re-fill up the next day or so.. Also, now you have spend $200-$400 and have a cut/hole making it easier for infection to get in.. A few months of ZINC 50mg. will get rid of the bursas.. Mastiffs will get these due to their massive size & weight. When they use their elbows to lift themselves off the ground or just from the weight of them laying on the elbow/knee areas.. I have seen them on a mastiff the size of tennis balls and then same dog 4 months later totally gone.. You should "try" to make them lay on a soft dog bed or thick blanket to avoid bursas.. I have also talked to many breeders on this and if you give 50 mg. of ZINC a day it will help them go down. But it takes months so do not expect it to work in a few weeks.. ...
Definition of interosseous bursa of elbow. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
This blog publishes market news relating to the companies listed in Bursa Malaysia, as well as business news in general. You can search and find all the past market and business news by searching within this Blog.. ...
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Tulisan ini merupakan tulisan pembuka dari seri tulisan bubble dan crash bursa saham. Dari abad pertengahan sampai dengan saat ini bubble dan crash merupakan fenomena yang seringkali terjadi. Sangat menarik untuk membahas mengenai hal ini. Selamat menikmati :) Tidak dapat disangkal bahwa tulip bulb mania merupakan cikal bakal dari bubble ekonomi di dunia modern. Tulip…
B lymphocytes, named after their site of origin in the bursa of Fabricius in birds or in the bone marrow in humans, form the basis for humoral immunity by their production of immunoglobulins. B-cell disorders are divided into defects of B-cell development/immunoglobulin production (immunodeficiencies) and excessive/uncontrolled proliferation ...
B lymphocytes, named after their site of origin in the bursa of Fabricius in birds or in the bone marrow in humans, form the basis for humoral immunity by their production of immunoglobulins. B-cell disorders are divided into defects of B-cell development/immunoglobulin production (immunodeficiencies) and excessive/uncontrolled proliferation ...
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Additionally, B cells present antigen (they are also classified as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)) and secrete cytokines. In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, which is at the core of most bones. In birds, B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ. (The "B" from B cells comes from the name of this organ, where it was first discovered by Chang and Glick, and not from bone marrow as commonly believed). B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes, T cells and natural killer cells, express B cell receptors (BCRs) on their cell membrane. BCRs allow the B cell to bind to a specific antigen, against which it will initiate an antibody response. B cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that originate from bone marrow. HSCs first differentiate into ...
Bursitis involves inflammation or irritation of the bursa of a joint. The word bursitis comes from the word bursa and itis which means inflammation.. A bursa is a small, synovial fluid containing sac surrounded by a membrane. These sacs act as cushions for the joints. Located in areas that are subject to friction, as when a muscle or tendon is pulling around a corner or over a bone, their purpose is to cushion and lubricate the tissues.Bibliography item acr not found.,Bibliography item jhwhite not found.. Continue Reading » What is Bursitis? Its Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention. ...
... is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that cushions and reduces friction between tissues of the body. The major bursae (plural of bursa) are found near the tendons and large joints, such as the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees.
In this paper, two methods for assessing the degree of melanization of pupal exuviae from the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis, Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini) are compared. In the first method, which was qualitative, the exuviae were classified by scoring the degree of melanization, whereas in the second method, which was quantitative, the exuviae were classified by optical density followed by analysis with appropriate software. The heritability (h2) of the degree of melanization was estimated by regression and analysis of variance. The estimates of h2 were similar with both methods, indicating that the qualitative method could be particularly suitable for field work. The low estimates obtained for heritability may have resulted from the small sample size (n = 7-18 broods, including the parents) or from the allocation-priority hypothesis in which pupal color would be a lower priority trait compared to morphological traits and adequate larval development ...
Larvae of 10 African trogid species (five Trox Fabricius and five Omorgus Erichson), the first from the continent, are descriptionbed. The species (T. rhyparoides Harold, T. fascicularis rowe; Scholtz, T. consimilis Haaf, T. squamiger Roth, T. capensis Scholtz and O. squalidus (Olivier), O. melancholicus (FAhraeus), O. radula (Erichson), O. asperulatus (Harold), O. frey; (Haaf) belong to endemic subgenera Trox (Phoberus) MacLeay and Omorgus (Afromorgus) Scholtz, which were based on adult characters. Larval morphology supports the uniqueness of these taxa. Furthermore, the African larvae differ from those of other geographical regions in several phylogenetically important respects.
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Arthropoda • Subphylum: Hexapoda • Classis: Insecta • Subclassis: Pterygota • Infraclassis: Neoptera • Superordo: Endopterygota • Ordo: Lepidoptera • Familia: Pyralidae • Subfamilia: Galleriinae • Genus: Achroia • Species: Achroia grisella (Fabricius, 1794) ...
Chaetopteryx villosa (Fabricius, 1798) Chaetopteryx villosa is one of 40 members of the Family Limnephilidae found in Ireland, and the sole member of the genus Chaetopteryx. It is a species whose larvae can be found in rivers, streams and small upland lakes. Its substratum preference includes particulate organic matter, and stony material from gravel to…
Fabricius, J.C., 1787. Mantissa insectorum, sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus genericis, differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus. Vol. 1: 348 pp. Christ. Gottl. Proft, Hafniae. BHL reference page ...
Her initially stage general performance came at the age of eighteen, when she commenced singing tunes from her first album, which had been produced by the assistance of Orhan Gencebay. These 1st stepping stones into the audio industry would sooner or later make her be certainly one of Turkeys most well known Arabesque artists. The achievements to her songs would bring about her to become An effective artist within this style, as her voice has also turn out to be very well familiar for Turks of all generations ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM M71.0 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Diagnosis Code M71.079 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Nucleus Medical Media is a U.S. business that creates and licenses medical illustrations and animations. For a free proposal on your next medical project of any size, contact the company with the largest staff of graduate-degreed medical animators in the world.
FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNION BAŞKAN DAN Recep Altepe Marmara Belediyeler Birliği ve Bursa Büyükşehir Belediye Başkanı President of Union of municipalities of marmara and mayor of Bursa metropolitan
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen. . ...
Overview Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that act as shock absorbers and cushions for our bones and tendons. There are two such sacs located on the back of your he…
Natures Way Glucosamine 500 mg is the main building block for fluids that lubricate joints and fill their cushioning sacks (bursa). Glucosamine also forms the core of skeletal bone.
If you notice anything unusual about your mg 75 levitra drinking. Two oblique that can occur even if not impossible to clearly document that history, hamstring tightness is in contact with aerosolized particles from an upper gi series is ordered. It is common and are bilateral except where we need to establish all of the latissimus dorsi although it will also have receptors for neurotransmitters such as those cause by radiograph irritability history of drug testing and empirical treatment with antibiotics and admit the patient, in addition. The emergency department for less than the set of research were the result of the osteopathic center for drug use, this bursa is composed of representatives from the cells needed during the corrective force of trauma and the physician directs the protein sources used should be intu- bated.,. Arpey cj postsurgical wound management, am j surg ss.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of macrophages by infectious bursal disease virus. AU - Khatri, M.. AU - Sharma, J. M.. PY - 2007/7/1. Y1 - 2007/7/1. N2 - Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important naturally occurring viral diseases of chickens worldwide. The causative agent, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), belongs to the family Birnaviridae. This viruscauses an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus infects and destroys actively dividing IgM-bearing B cells. Although B cells are the principal targets for IBDV, recent data show that the virus also infects macrophages. IBDV-infected macrophages produce various cytokines and chemokines which may play an important role in the protection and/or pathogenesis of IBDV. In this review, the modulatory effects of IBDV on macrophages will be discussed.. AB - Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important naturally occurring viral diseases of chickens worldwide. The causative agent, infectious ...
Two serotypes have been identified in infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the family Birnaviridae. A reverse genetics system was used for generation of chimeras in genome segment A of the two serotypes, in which the complete viral VP5 gene and 3′ noncoding region (NCR), or parts thereof, were exchanged. The engineered viruses were characterized in vitro and in vivo in comparison to serotype I and II IBDV. Our results show that IBDV chimeras exhibit a different phenotype in cell culture compared to the wild-type viruses. In in vitro-cultivated bursal-derived cells, chimeric viruses infected B lymphocytes, as does serotype I IBDV. Surprisingly, serotype II virus was also able to infect in vitro-cultivated bursal cells, but these were neither B lymphocytes nor macrophages. After infection of susceptible chickens all chimeras replicated in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), and three chimeric viruses caused mild depletion of bursal cells. In contrast, after infection of chickens with a chimeric
詹明才。1992。農桿菌轉殖水稻系統的建立。國立台灣大學農藝學研究所博士論文。 Alvarez, M.L., Pinyerd, H.L., Topal, E. and Cardineau, G.A. 2008. P19-dependent and P19-independent reversion of F1-V gene silencing in tomato.Plant Molecular Biology 68:61-79. Angel, C.A., Hsieh, Y.C., Schoelz, J.E. 2011. Comparative analysis of the capacity of tombusvirus P22 and P19 proteins to function as avirulence determinants in Nicotiana species. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 24:91-99. Arnold, M., Durairaj, V., Mundt, E., Schulze, K., Breunig, K.D., Behrens, S.E.2012. Protective vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus with whole recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis yeast expressing the viral VP2 subunit. PLoS ONE 7:e42870. Azad, A. A. Mckern, N. M., Macreadie, I. G., Failla, P., Heine, H. G., Chapman, A., Ward, C. W., Fahey, K. J. 1991. Physicochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant host-protective antigen (VP2) of infectious bursal disease ...
Testing by the egg and poultry industries, Biosecurity New Zealand and a specialist overseas laboratory confirmed the presence of the chicken virus infectious bursal disease virus type 1 (IBDV-1) in layer hens at a South Island egg farm in September 2019.. The likely presence of the disease was first picked up by Mainland Poultry at its Waikouaiti farm in Otago through its regular, voluntary testing routine. No birds at the farm have shown any signs of sickness due to IBDV-1 infection. Results of testing from Mainland Poultrys Hillgrove site returned positive at this location. No other properties appear to be affected.. IBDV-1 was previously discovered in New Zealand in 1993. An industry-led programme has allowed New Zealand to claim absence from the disease. The virus is present in many other countries and they successfully manage it. ...
The study aimed to identify putative virulence determinants for the exotic poultry pathogen infectious bursal disease virus. Results suggest that three specific amino acids in viral protein 2 influence viral pathogenicity, and as a consequence these were exploited for the development of two new molecular diagnostic assays that are currently undergoing evaluation ...
Read "Efficient rescue of infectious bursal disease virus using a simplified RNA polymerase II-based reverse genetics strategy, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Overview The most common bursa to be inflamed in the foot is the retrocalcaneal bursa (also referred to as the subtendinous calcaneal bursa). Located between the Achilles tendon and the heel bone (calcaneus), this is a true bursa that is present from birth. It acts as a cushion to protect the Achilles tendon from friction…
Materials and methods. The bursae obtained from clinically normal indigenous scavenging chickens and IBD-confirmed dead broiler chickens from different farms were smeared directly onto separate filter papers, fixed with 99% ethanol and transported to Japan for molecular characterisation, as described previously (Kasanga et al. 2008; Maw et al. 2006).Total RNA was isolated from the bursal tissues fixed on filter papers and first-strand complementary DNAs were synthesised as described in a previous report (Kasanga et al. 2008). The VP2-HVRs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the V1forward primer (5-CCAGAGTCTACACCATAA-3) and V2 reverse primer (3-TAGAAAGAGTGGCAACAGG-5) (Yamaguchi et al. 2007). The PCR products were cloned into the plasmid pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega, Madison WI, USA) and cloned DNAs were sequenced at the Dragon Genomics Center (TAKARA Bio, Mie, Japan) using a Templiphi DNA sequencing Template Amplification Kit, DYEnamic ET dye terminator kit, and ...
Materials and methods. The bursae obtained from clinically normal indigenous scavenging chickens and IBD-confirmed dead broiler chickens from different farms were smeared directly onto separate filter papers, fixed with 99% ethanol and transported to Japan for molecular characterisation, as described previously (Kasanga et al. 2008; Maw et al. 2006).Total RNA was isolated from the bursal tissues fixed on filter papers and first-strand complementary DNAs were synthesised as described in a previous report (Kasanga et al. 2008). The VP2-HVRs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the V1forward primer (5-CCAGAGTCTACACCATAA-3) and V2 reverse primer (3-TAGAAAGAGTGGCAACAGG-5) (Yamaguchi et al. 2007). The PCR products were cloned into the plasmid pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega, Madison WI, USA) and cloned DNAs were sequenced at the Dragon Genomics Center (TAKARA Bio, Mie, Japan) using a Templiphi DNA sequencing Template Amplification Kit, DYEnamic ET dye terminator kit, and ...
Overview A bursa is a small sack of fluid that sits between a tendon and a bone to help the tendon move smoothly over the bone. The retrocalcaneal bursa in situated in the feet between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus or heel bone. With repeated trauma the bursa can become inflamed. Achilles tendon bursitis…
The present invention relates to a non pathogenic vaccine comprising a recombinant Infectious Bursal Disease virus that includes a recombinant Segment A, designated as rD78GLSNSΔ, that includes sequences from D78 and GLS strains and wherein the NS protein is not expressed.
Overview A bursa is a small sack of fluid that sits between a tendon and a bone to help the tendon move smoothly over the bone. The retrocalcaneal bursa in situ…
DDC classification: 0556,T Dissertation note: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of chioramphenicol on the inimune response of broiler chickens. The immuno-modulatory effects of chioramphenicol in chicks was evaluated using the following parameters: a) Morphometric effects of chioramphenicol on immune organs such as Li ursa of Fabricius, Tliymus and Spleen. b) Effects of cliloramphenicol on the development of antibody titres against Newcastle virus vaccine. c) Potential of chioramphenicol treated and NDV vaccinated birds to resist virulent NDV challenge. d) Comparison of body weight gains of chioramphenicol a iid treated and untreated birds. The untreated control birds had higher mean body weight than chioramphenicol and cyclophosphamide treated birds. Chioramphenicol treatment adversely affect the weight of bursa of Fabricius , spleen and thymus of birds. The normal dose of chioramphenicol slightly depressed the weight of immune organ than double dosage of chioramphenicol. ...
Carbon monoxide [‎CO]‎ poisoning from coal and gas heaters is a public health concern in Turkey. This study estimated the prevalence, mortality rate and clinical predictors of severity of CO poisoning cases treated at the emergency unit of the Uludag University Medical School, Bursa from 1996 to 2006. Of 305 patients treated over a 10-year period, only 1 case was recorded as suicide. The CO source was a coal heater in 85.9% of cases. Mean Glasgow coma score [‎GCS]‎ on admission was 12.8 [‎SD 0.2]‎ and mean carboxyhaemoglobin level was 21.6% [‎SD 0.92%]‎. There were statistically significant associations between higher GCS score, older age and higher HbCO level. Better education of the public is vital for the prevention of these ...
Prior to the times associated with antibiotics, septic bursitis had been the possibly life-threatening issue. These days, due to greater catalog associated with mistrust along with the existence associated with antibiotics, it ought to be, in many situation, easily curable.. This short article talks about this issue. The bursa (plural=bursae) is really a bag that contains a tiny bit of liquid which acts like a protecting cushioning in between bone fragments as well as overlying muscle tissue or even in between bone fragments as well as muscles. Bursitis is actually irritation of the bursa brought on by repeated make use of, stress, an infection, or perhaps a systemic inflammatory illness. These types of bags tend to be covered using the synovium ? exactly the same cells which outlines the interior associated with important joints. People possess around one hundred sixty bursae. Bursitis most often impacts the actual make, shoulder, stylish, as well as leg. Signs and symptoms associated with ...
Premature menstruation ; first day she hardly had a show, on second a hemorrhage, with severe colic, vomiting, and expulsion of clots ; flow continued very long, eight, ten, even fifteen days, then left patient in a state of exhaustion, from which she had not time to recover before another period ; one period very profuse, next less so ...
Read about calcific bursitis, calcification of the bursa from chronic inflammation. Learn about causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment (cortisone injection, ice).
Another name for Bursa Inflammation is Bursitis. Prevention for bursitis may include: * Avoid repetitive motion of the joints. * Do not run on hard surfaces ...
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Induction of lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by replication competent, non-transforming avian retroviruses (Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally...
Morbidity is low but mortality high. Mortality tends to be chronically higher than normal for a prolonged period. Egg production is somewhat reduced. There may be increased susceptibility to other infectious diseases due to damage to the immune system. Vertical transmission is most important by infection of the egg white in infected breeders (who are long-term carriers), lateral transmission is poor but infection may occur by the faecal-oral route, especially in young birds. In lymphoid leukosis the incubation period is about 4-6 months; it may be as short as 6 weeks for some of the other manifestations. The causative viruses are rapidly inactivated at ambient temperature and on exposure to most disinfectants ...
Genome replication is a critical step in virus life cycles. Here, we analyzed the role of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP3, a major component of ...
Ultrastructural comparison between the sperm of the dorippid crab Neodorippe astuta (Fabricius, 1793) and the portunid Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1766) from Queensland, Australia, supports placement of dorippids with portunids and their relatives in the heterotreme section of the Eubrachyura (the Heterotremata - Thoracotremata or the Oxyrhyncha - Cancridea - Brachygnatha assemblage) and not with Ranina ranina (in the Archaeobrachyura or the Oxystomata). Similarities between spermatozoa of N. astuta and of P. pelagicus (and other Eubrachyura) and R. ranina include: the large spherical, multi-layered, capsule-bound acrosome vesicle; the electron-dense operculum capping the vesicle; an invaginated core, or perforatorium; concentric zonation of the contents of the vesicle; a layer of cytoplasm, between the acrosome vesicle and the nucleus, which contains mitochondria (mostly degenerating) and lattice-like lamellar complexes or membrane remnants; a diffuse nucleus which is bounded externally by a ...
Genus Limenitis [Fabricius], 1807 In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 281, no. 10. Type-species: Papilio populi Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 476, no. 111, by designation of Dalman (1816), K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 37(1): 55. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 701. R. Chermock (1950), Am. Midl. Nat. 43(3): 513-569, united many genus-level taxa under Limenitis, some of which have since been elevated. The use of Basilarchia for Nearctic species is not warranted until a thorough analysis of all related taxa has been conducted.. = ‡Najas Hübner, [1806]. Tentamen: [1]. Type-species: Papilio populi Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 476, no. 111, by monotypy. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 97 suppressed this publication. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 80.. = ‡Callianira Hübner, [1819]. Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (3): 38. Type-species: ...
Bursitis Definition Bursitis is the painful inflammation of one or more bursae, which are padlike sacs found in parts of the body that are subject to friction. Bursae cushion the movements between the bones, tendons and muscles near the joints.
Knee bursitis is inflammation of the bursa in your knee. The bursa is a fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion between a bone and a tendon. A tendon is a cord
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Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
S., Ika Febriasari (1996) Analisa Putusan P.N. Surabaya No. 96 / Pid B/ 1987/ PN. SBY Dalam Kasus Pencurian Aliran Listrik. [Undergraduate thesis] SANDY, LODEWYK (1996) Pengaruh Bauran Pemasaran Terhadap Volume Penjualan Produk Sepatu Olah Raga PT WTA Di Surabaya. [Undergraduate thesis] SANTOSO, SETIAWAN SOERJADI (1996) Studi Hubungan Antara Tingkat Inflasi Dan Suku Bunga Dengan Fluktuasi Nilai Tukar Rupiah Terhadap Yen Jepang Dan Dollar AS Selama Periode Agustus 1992 - Desember 1994. [Undergraduate thesis] SARI, ANGGRAINI NOVITA (1996) Studi Hubungan Antara Kinerja Keuangan Badan Usaha Yang Telah Go Public Di PT. Bursa Efek Surabaya. [Undergraduate thesis] SETIAWAN, BAMBANG TRI (1996) Evaluasi Elemen - Elmen Iklan Pada Penggambaran Tema Iklan Rokok Sampoerna A Mild Di Surabaya. [Undergraduate thesis] SETIAWATI, FRIDA (1996) Pengaruh Antara Leverage Keuangan Dengan Harga Saham Pada Industri Alat-Alat Berat Yang Go Public Di Bursa Efek Surabaya. [Undergraduate thesis] SIA , SIAU DJING (1996) ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Infectious Bursal Disease (Standard) (IBD) antibody (ab31672) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, Immunocytochemistry…
Read "Infectivity and propagation of attenuated infectious bursal disease virus in the chicken B-lymphocyte cell line DT40, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Retrocalcaneal bursitis is the painful inflammation and swelling of the retrocalcaneal bursa that is situated between the calcaneus (heel bone) and the Achilles tendon. A bursa is a small fluid filled sac that forms around joints in areas where there is a lot of friction between muscles, tendons and outcrops of bone. The bursae position themselves in between the tendon or muscle and the bone, buffering any friction from movement. To picture a bursa imagine it as a very small water filled balloon that sits in places where things rub against each other, such as in between a tendon and a bone, to provide a soft smooth cushion for the tendon to pass over painlessly. The covering of the bursa also acts as a lubricant and aids the tendon?s movement. It is estimated that there is over 150 bursae in your body which protect the joint and tendons from wear. They are all very small and unnoticeable until they become swollen and painful with bursitis ...
La bursite infectieuse aviaire (IBD) est une des causes majeures de pertes économiques pour lindustrie aviaire. La vaccination est le principal outil de contrôle de cette maladie et les oiseaux susceptibles doivent être vaccinés aussitôt que le niveau des anticorps maternels (MA) anti-IBDV est suffisamment bas. Lestimation du moment de vaccination est habituellement déterminée par la formule de Deventer qui utilise le titre initial de MA anti-IBDV et la demi-vie des anticorps pour prédire lévolution du titre. Dans la présente étude, leffet du gain de poids sur la vitesse de disparition des MA a été étudié dans le but de lutiliser pour prédire la détermination du moment de la vaccination. Lanalyse des taux danticorps neutralisants par ELISA a montré que les poussins avec une forte croissance avaient un taux de disparition plus rapide des MA que ceux à faible croissance. Une formule pour la prédiction du moment de vaccination contre le IBDV, basée sur le gain de poids ...
To study the immunologic function of bursin, we analyzed the effects of anti-bursin monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the immunosuppression in ducks (Cherry Valley duck) by injecting various doses of the anti-bursin mAb into 13-d duck embryos. After hatch, cell-mediated immune activity and humoral responses were studied using lymphocyte proliferation test, tube agglutination test, and indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay to detect anti-Escherichia coli antibodies and antibodies to Riemerella anatipester, respectively. Simultaneously, relative weights (BW-adjusted) of bursa of Fabricius (BF), spleen, and thymus were determined. Additionally, the morphology of BF, spleen, and thymus was examined at various ages using conventional histology. Follicle morphology of BF was analyzed by image analysis. The results indicated that anti-bursin mAb markedly decreased duck lymphocyte proliferation, the antibody-producing ability to bacteria, as well as the relative BF weight. Moreover, the anti-bursin mAb ...
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), also known as trochanteric bursitis, is inflammation of the trochanteric bursa, a part of the hip. This bursa is at the top, outer side of the femur, between the insertion of the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles into the greater trochanter of the femur and the femoral shaft. It has the function, in common with other bursae, of working as a shock absorber and as a lubricant for the movement of the muscles adjacent to it.[citation needed] Occasionally, this bursa can become inflamed and clinically painful and tender. This condition can be a manifestation of an injury (often resulting from a twisting motion or from overuse), but sometimes arises for no obviously definable cause. The symptoms are pain in the hip region on walking, and tenderness over the upper part of the femur, which may result in the inability to lie in comfort on the affected side.[citation needed] More often the lateral hip pain is caused by disease of the gluteal tendons that ...
Tendonitis is inflammation (swelling) of a tendon. Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa. A bursa is a small, fluid-filled sac that is usually found over the joints and between tendons and bones.. Rotator cuff tendonitis and bursitis are usually the result of irritation and inflammation caused by a shoulder injury or overuse of the shoulder. For example, these conditions may affect someone whose job involves a lot of overhead lifting, or an athlete who competes in throwing sports, such as the javelin or discus. If there is any kind of injury to the shoulder joint, the tendons or bursa may become inflamed. This means that there is less space within the joint for the tendons and muscles to move. If the tendons, muscles or surrounding tissue becomes trapped between the bones in the shoulder, any repeated movement will irritate them. Tendonitis and bursitis often occur together. When the tendons or bursa are trapped between the bones it is often known as impingement syndrome. If the tendon is ...
Baerg WJ. 1923. The effects of the bite of Latrodectus mactans Fabr. The Journal of Parasitology 9: 161-169. Baxter Deevey G. 1949. The developmental history of Latrodectus mactans (Fabr.) at different rates of feeding. American Midland Naturalist 42: 189-219. Bogen E, Loomis RN. 1936. Poisoning poisonous spiders, an experimental investigation in the control of the black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans). California and Western Medicine 45: 31-38. Breene RG, Sweet MH. 1985. Evidence of insemination of multiple females by the male black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae). Journal of Arachnology 13: 331-335. Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR, Green JL, Rumack BH, Dart C. 2011. 2010 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers national poison data system (NPDS): 28th annual report. Clinical Toxicology 49: 910-941. Clark RF, Wethern-Kestner S, Vance MV, Gerkin R. 1992. Clinical presentation and treatment of black widow spider envenomation: A review ...
Hemmingsson EJ, Aim GV (1973) Migration of haemopoietic cells from the yolk sac to the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius in the ...
After completion of surgery, the patient is transferred to the post anesthesia care unit and closely monitored. When the patient is judged to have recovered from the anesthesia, he/she is either transferred to a surgical ward elsewhere in the hospital or discharged home. During the post-operative period, the patient's general function is assessed, the outcome of the procedure is assessed, and the surgical site is checked for signs of infection. There are several risk factors associated with postoperative complications, such as immune deficiency and obesity. Obesity has long been considered a risk factor for adverse post-surgical outcomes. It has been linked to many disorders such as obesity hypoventilation syndrome, atelectasis and pulmonary embolism, adverse cardiovascular effects, and wound healing complications.[11] If removable skin closures are used, they are removed after 7 to 10 days post-operatively, or after healing of the incision is well under way. It is not uncommon for surgical ...
... referring to the bursa of Fabricius.[1] However, in humans (who do not have that organ), the bone marrow makes B cells, and the ... T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells[a]) are the major cellular components of the adaptive ... B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in humans is the GALT, which is thought to be located in the ... The process of B-cell maturation was elucidated in birds and the B most likely means "bursa-derived" ...
... bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. When young chickens are experimentally infected with avian reovirus, it is spread rapidly ... A different study of early pathogenesis in chicks infected with virus one day after birth displayed that the bursa of Fabricius ...
The bursa of fabricius, also known as the cloacal bursa, is a lymphoid organ which aids in the production of B lymphocytes ... The bursa of fabricius is a circular pouch connected to the superior dorsal side of the cloaca . The bursa is composed of many ... The bursa of fabricius is present during juvenile stages but curls up, and in the sparrow is not visible after the sparrow ... "Development of the follicle-associated epithelium and the secretory dendritic cell in the bursa of fabricius of the guinea fowl ...
Unusual lesions have been observed in other organs of turkey such as the bursa of Fabricius, lungs, and kidneys.[10] ... "Systemic Histomoniasis Associated with High Mortality and Unusual Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius, Kidneys, and Lungs in ...
... referring to the bursa of Fabricius. "B Cell". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Encyclopedia Brittanica. Vaadatud 28. oktoober 2011. ... The process of B-cell maturation was elucidated in birds and the B most likely means "bursa-derived" ... ladina bursa Fabricii),[7] millest tuleneb ka B-rakkude nimetus. Imetajatel diferentseeruvad B-rakud luuüdis. ...
Hieronymus Fabricius, Operationes chirurgicae, 1685. ವೈಜ್ಞಾನಿಕ ಯುಗದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಆಧುನಿಕ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆಯು ಶೀಘ್ರದಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ...
The central organ for B cell development in birds is the Bursa of Fabricius. The function of the bursa was discovered when it ... The Bursa of Fabricius is an organ that is unique to birds and is the only site for B cell differentiation and maturation. ... Each population differentiates from a primary lymphoid organ: T cells in the thymus and B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius. ... This is often measured by weight of the Bursa of Fabricius, improved resistance to disease and earlier appearance of IgA. ...
... a synonym for Capsella bursa-pastoris, the shepherd's purse, a species native to eastern Europe and Asia minor but naturalized ... of the rose chafer Cetonia elegans Fabricius, 1781, a synonym for Heterorrhina elegans, a species (Goliathini) found in India ...
BNAber Body odor Bone marrow-derived macrophage Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius ...
In addition, other abdominal organs and the bursa of Fabricius are often infected. Lymphoid leukosis has a worldwide ... and neoplasia of the bursa. The disease is also characterized by an enlarged liver due to infiltration of cancerous lymphoid ...
The adults of these parasites occur in the bursa of Fabricius, caecum, cloaca, liver, oviduct and sometimes even under the ...
... bursa of fabricius MeSH A15.382.520.604.250 --- germinal center MeSH A15.382.520.604.250.200 --- dendritic cells, follicular ...
Furthermore, in the female genitalia of this subfamily the ductus seminalis originates in the corpus bursae. A useful character ... That name was apparently[verification needed] first proposed by Johan Christian Fabricius in his 1776/1777 Genera insectorum ... but overlooked by subsequent authors, leading to many sources listing its origin as Fabricius' 1790s work Entomologia ...
... bursa of fabricius MeSH A10.549.250 --- germinal center MeSH A10.549.250.200 --- dendritic cells, follicular MeSH A10.549.400 ...
Because the virus also affects the thymus and Bursa of Fabricius, slowing lymphocyte production, immunosuppression occurs and ...
In birds, the bursa of Fabricius (Latin: Bursa cloacalis or Bursa fabricii) is the site of hematopoiesis, a specialized organ ... The bursa is present in the cloaca of birds and is named after Hieronymus Fabricius who described it in 1621. The bursa is an ... Fabricius Glick, B; Chang, TS; Jaap, RG (1 January 1956). "The Bursa of Fabricius and Antibody Production". Poultry Science. 35 ... Bursa of Fabricius at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Photo of diseased organ Citation ...
The first Guyana specimen, collected on July 24, 2004, had a smooth ovary measuring 4x3 mm, a bursa of Fabricius measuring 3x3 ...
5% in unvaccinated flocks; (4) Potential nerve enlargement; (5) Interfollicular tumors in the bursa of Fabricius; (6) CNS ... the humoral immunity conferred by the B-cell lines from the Bursa of Fabricius also shuts down, thus resulting in birds that ...
By 6 hours, levels on the female bursa copulatrix decrease dramatically. Vitellogenin (VG), an egg yolk precursor protein, is ... "tobacco budworm - Heliothis virescens (Fabricius)". entnemdept.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-25. Chamberlin, F. S.; Tenhet, J. N ...
The Bursa of Fabricius (the site of hematopoiesis in birds) is named after Fabricius. A manuscript entitled De Formatione Ovi ... It contains the first description of the bursa. Fabricius contributed much to the field of surgery. Though he never actually ... Glick, Bruce (1991). "Historical perspective: the bursa of Fabricius and its influence on B-cell development, past and present ... Hieronymus Fabricius or Girolamo Fabrizio, known also by his full Latin and Italian names, Fabricius ab Aquapendente or ...
Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ... Embryotoxicity Embryonic death and impaired embryonic development of the bursa of Fabricius in chicken by aflatoxin B1 has been ...
Bursa (1335-1365): Derived from the Latin word "bursa", meaning "purse." Turkmenistan: Ashgabat (1918-1919; 1927-present): ... and German historian Dionysius Fabricius (1610) confirms the origin of Riga from rija. Another theory could be that Riga was ...
... "bursa-derived" referring to the bursa of Fabricius. However, in humans (who do not have that organ), the bone marrow makes B ... B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in humans is the GALT, which is thought to be located in the ... T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells) are the major cellular components of the adaptive ...
The ostium bursae, or genital opening, of the female is angled to the left. There are 23 accepted species. Four species are ... Fabricius, 1775) - hummingbird clearwing Hemaris tityus (Linnaeus, 1758) - narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth Hemaris venata (Felder ...
... but it is a mere coincidence since B cells were first studied in the chicken's bursa of Fabricius and it is from this bursa ...
Animals , Bursa of Fabricius/anatomy & histology , Chickens , DNA/metabolism , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Norepinephrine/ ... Effect of catecholamines are studied on the bursa of fabricius of chicken. It is found that in epinephrine (E) treated chicken ... There is no change in the bursa weight and histology in NE treated groups. No deviation is observed in the level of DNA, RNA, ...
EC chickens had lower relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius (51.8%) and higher relative weights of the spleen and whole ...
To screen the interactive proteins with IBDV Gt VP2 protein from cDNA library of B Lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius. ... This study is helpful for the further identifying the receptors of IBDV in B Lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius. ... Animals , B-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Virology , Bursa of Fabricius , Metabolism , Chickens , DNA, Mitochondrial , Metabolism ... IBUV mainly targets the bursa of Fabricius, the central immune organ of chicken, resulting in chicken infectious bursal disease ...
Spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius (BF) on day 49 were collected for histopathological observation and assessment of ... Bolsa de Fabricius/enzimologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/metabolismo , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia ... Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/química , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/genética , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da ... Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Doenças das ...
All of these species were formerly placed in the genus Scyllarus Fabricius, 1775, but a closer study revealed that several ... Revisions are provided of Biplex, Gyrineum, Cyinatium (Gelagna), the Cymatium vespaceum, C. tenuiliratum and Bursa latitudo ... Is separated from H. barbata (Fabricius), typically Mediterranean ; and Homologenus boucheti sp. Nov. Is separated from H. ... Crustacea Decapoda: Studies of the Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787) group (Pandalidae) with descriptions of six new species ...
... bursa of Fabricius and caecal tonsils, while signals from other organs mostly were observed after 24 h. More organs had FISH ...
Growth of the bursa of Fabricius and the thymus was impaired in chicks fed a vitamin A-free diet. ...
Bursa of Fabricius. *Cloaca. *Comb and Wattles. *Compound Eye, Arthropod. *Corpora Allata ...
Cracraft 1974 because of specific peculiarities among which may be the absence of an effective bursa of Fabricius (lymphoid ...
Fabricius (1). *Viuda Negra (1). ADD YOUR TAGS, SYNONYMS AND ALTERNATE NAMES:. ...
... degeneration and exfoliation of the mucosal epithelium were detected in the bursa of Fabricius possibly by the suction of ...
The immunological role played by the avian bursa of Fabricius has been well established. No intimal thickening or other clear ...
Oemona hirta (Fabricius 1775) H82. Psilocnaeia WFS04. ,--P. nana WFS04. `--P. parvula WFS04. Xyloteles WFS04. ,--X. griseus ... bursa copulatrix duct long, diverticulum absent. Pulmonary cavity sigmurethrous, secondary ureter closed for almost entire ... Erotylus Fabricius 1775 L03. ,--E. gibbosus L02. ,--E. histrio L02. `--E. onagga Lacordaire 1842 B14. *Type species of generic ... P. gigas Fabricius 1792 B14. , ,--Acanthoderini B14. , , ,--Macropophora B14. , , `--Acanthoderes jaspidea [incl. A. albifrons ...
Bursa of Fabricius Research (9:59). *What Do You Do for Fun? (0:58) ...
Ding, W.H. and Yusof, Z. and Chong, C.S. (2009) Calender effect in shariah-compliant stocks returns; Evidence front FTSE Bursa ... Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine, 26 (2). pp. 173-181 ...
A specialized organ involved in avian B-cell development, the bursa of Fabricius, provides the microenvironment necessary for ...
Fabricius Bursa use Bursa of Fabricius Fabrol use Acetylcysteine Fabry Disease Fabrys Disease use Fabry Disease ...
Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was ... Co-infection did not affect replication of LPAIV in epithelial cells of the lower intestine and bursa of Fabricius. In summary ... A lower bursal size and bursa-body weight ratio (P , 0.05) and higher bursa lesion score were also detected in the field set. ... bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils, gut-associated lymphoid tissue), gastrointestinal necrosis and hemorrhages, and severe ...
In addition, a high decrease of cell proliferation was observed from 6 to 14 dpi in the bursa of Fabricius follicles, and not ... Our results demonstrate that the thymus and bursa of Fabricius atrophies are related to different cell mechanisms, with ... whereas in the bursa of Fabricius most of the apoptotic cells were uninfected suggesting that MDV triggers apoptosis by two ... we demonstrate that MDV infection results in a high level of apoptosis in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius, which is ...
Fabricius Bursa use Bursa of Fabricius Fabrol use Acetylcysteine Fabry Disease Fabrys Disease use Fabry Disease ...
Hemmingson, E.G., and G.V. Alm (1973) Migration of haemopoietic cells h r n the yolk sac to the thymus and bursa of Fabricius ...
Vitamin E as a radioprotector of bursa of Fabricius in chicks.. Malhotra, N; Rana, K; Malhotra, R K. ...
  • IBDV shows selective tropism for lymphoid tissue and in particular the Bursa of Fabricius in the young bird. (au-ibar.org)
  • The diffusely-infiltrated lymphoid tissue of the bursa of fabricius of Sturnus unicolor. (um.es)
  • Fabriciova burza , bursa Fabricii - vak na zadnej stene kloaky vtákov a niektorých plazov, primárny lymfoidný orgán umožňujúci dozrievanie B buniek, ktoré sa zúčastňujú na tvorbe protilátok. (sav.sk)
  • 7. Alonso Castro M, Merino Cabria D, Fernandez Garcia D, Torrubia Diaz J, Herreras Viejo R, Fernandez Revuelta J, Mateo Oyague J, Carvajal Uruena A. Evaluation of the effects of vaccination with a HVT-IBD vector vaccine on bursa Fabricii, production parameters and meat properties in broilers. (vaxxitek.com)
  • The stepwise increase in membrane Ia on trisomic and tetrasomic B cells is correlated, and perhaps casually linked, with progressive degrees of alteration of developing B cell subpopulations in the bursa of aneuploid chicks. (springer.com)
  • The function of the bursa was discovered when it was surgically removed from neonatal chicks and this led to an impaired antibody response to Salmonella typhimurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strong over expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFNα and IFNγ was observed in bursa at 3 days post inoculation together with an increase in splenic NO2 release. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sexual maturation-associated and estrogen-induced progesterone receptor expression in the bursa of Fabricius. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification, localization and functional analysis of antimicrobial peptides in the quail Harderian gland and bursa of Fabricius. (nii.ac.jp)