An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.
Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.
A genus in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, associated with malignancy in birds.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.

Role of Nr13 in regulation of programmed cell death in the bursa of Fabricius. (1/244)

Apoptotic cell death is developmentally regulated in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Although apoptosis is low in the embryonic bursa, cell death increases markedly after hatching. The expression of Bcl2 family cell death antagonists was examined to identify the genes that regulate bursal cell apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-xL, A1, and Mcl1 was detected in both embryos and hatched birds, whereas Nr13 was expressed at high levels in embryonic bursa, and decreased significantly after hatching, correlating inversely with apoptosis. The oncogene v-reland phorbol myristate acetate, two known inhibitors of bursal cell apoptosis, induced Nr13 expression. Overexpression of Nr13 in DT40 bursal lymphoma cells protected them from low serum-induced apoptosis. The mechanism of inhibition of apoptosis by Nr13 is likely to involve a critical BH4 domain and interaction with death agonist Bax. Deletion of the BH4 domain converted Nr13 into a death agonist. Bax coimmunoprecipitated with Nr13 and Bax was induced, whereas Nr13 levels diminished when bursal lymphoblasts were induced to apoptosis by dispersion. Bursal transplantation studies demonstrated that Nr13 could prevent the in vivo programmed elimination of bursal stem cells after hatching, suggesting that Nr13 plays a role in maintaining bursal stem cells.  (+info)

Lysis of myelocytes in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus. (2/244)

In specific-pathogen-free chickens infected with the highly virulent HPS-2 strain or virulent reference GBF-1 strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), pathologic changes of the bone marrow were investigated. On histologic examination, bone marrow lesions were prominent in the HPS-2 group but only mild in the GBF-1 group. The bone marrow of the HPS-2 group showed severe lysis and depletion of heterophil myelocytes with pyknotic nuclear alteration 2-3 days after inoculation. On examination with an electron microscope, heterophil myelocytes were characterized by shrinkage of the cytoplasm and peripheral condensation of nuclear chromatin. IBDV particles were not detected in altered myelocytes. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling method demonstrated a positive reaction in only heterophil myelocytes. In contrast, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HPS-2-infected bone marrow cells was indiscernible by agarose gel electrophoresis. These findings indicate that lysis of bone marrow cells is selectively induced in heterophil myelocytes at an early stage after IBDV infection and independent of virus replication.  (+info)

Infectivity to hosts of the endogenous stages of chicken and murine Cryptosporidium. (3/244)

Five groups of 4 mice each were inoculated with 10(6) Cryptosporidium muris oocysts. They were necropsied on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The stomach mucosa from each group were made into 10% suspension in physiological saline and were orally inoculated to 2 mice each. Recipients given suspension from infected mice on day 6, 8 and 10 shed oocysts from 6, 9 and 6, respectively. Similarly, White Leghorn received 10(6) Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were killed daily between 1 and 6 days. Recipients given bursa of Fabricius or caecum of donor birds on days 4, 5 and 6 shed oocysts. The endogenous stages of murine and chicken Cryptosporidium were able to infect the appropriate host.  (+info)

Effect of thymus extract on immunologic reactivity of chicken vaccinated with infectious bursal disease virus. (4/244)

The effects of crude thymus extract on the immune response and protection against challenge with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were studied in one-day-old chick. Oral administration of thymus extract (1 ml/kg) markedly and significantly increased the total protein, albumin, globulin, Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and the body weight gain in one-day-old chick. In addition, it increased the total lymphocytic count over four weeks after administration. Although vaccination also increased total protein, globulin, T4 and the total lymphocytic count but it significantly decreased the body weight gain of the chick and administration of thymus extract, before, during or after vaccination markedly improved the vaccination effectiveness with significant elevation of the globulin level and body weight gain of the chick. It also prevented the decrease in the relative weights of bursa, spleen and thyroid gland which commonly prevailed during vaccination. Chicken administered thymus extract and vaccinated with infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine showed 100% protection against challenge with IBDV. Meanwhile the vaccinated non-thymus treated group exhibited 80% protection against IBDV challenge. These results indicate a potentiating effect of thymus extract on the immune system in baby chick. These findings are supported by ELISA results that showed a marked increase in antibody titers in thymus treated groups. Additionally, microscopical examination of the bursa and the existent lymphoid hyperplasia in thymus treated groups but not vaccinated group support our findings.  (+info)

Development of B cells expressing surface immunoglobulin molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the avian embryo bursa of fabricius. (5/244)

Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in avian B cell precursors generates surface Ig receptors of limited diversity. It has been proposed that specificities encoded by these receptors play a critical role in B lineage development by recognizing endogenous ligands within the bursa of Fabricius. To address this issue directly we have introduced a truncated surface IgM, lacking variable region domains, into developing B precursors by retroviral gene transfer in vivo. Cells expressing this truncated receptor lack endogenous surface IgM, and the low level of endogenous Ig rearrangements that have occurred within this population of cells has not been selected for having a productive reading frame. Such cells proliferate rapidly within bursal epithelial buds of normal morphology. In addition, despite reduced levels of endogenous light chain rearrangement, those light chain rearrangements that have occurred have undergone variable region diversification by gene conversion. Therefore, although surface expression of an Ig receptor is required for bursal colonization and the induction of gene conversion, the specificity encoded by the prediversified receptor is irrelevant and, consequently, there is no obligate ligand for V(D)J-encoded determinants of prediversified avian cell surface IgM receptor.  (+info)

Efficient antibody diversification by gene conversion in vivo in the absence of selection for V(D)J-encoded determinants. (6/244)

Antibody diversification in the bursa of Fabricius occurs by gene conversion: pseudogene-derived sequences replace homologous sequences in rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Bursal cells expressing a truncated immunoglobulin mu heavy chain, introduced by retroviral gene transfer, bypass normal requirements for endogenous surface immunoglobulin expression. Immunoglobulin light chain rearrangements in such cells undergo gene conversion under conditions where the products are not selected based on their ability to encode a functional protein. The efficiency with which gene conversion maintains a productive reading frame exceeds 97% under such non-selective conditions. By analysis of donor pseudogene usage we demonstrate that bursal cell development is not driven by a restricted set of antigenic specificities. We further demonstrate that gene conversion can restore a productive reading frame to out-of-frame VJ(L) junctions, providing a rationale for the elimination of cells containing non-productive VJ(L) rearrangements prior to the onset of gene conversion in normal bursal cell development.  (+info)

Effects of antioxidants on induction of apoptosis in bursal cells of Fabricius during in vitro cultivation. (7/244)

After physically disrupting cell contacts, apoptosis of bursal cells of Fabricius was induced during in vitro cultivation. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with incubation time and approximately 70% cells represented apoptosis after 6 hr of incubation. The induction of apoptosis was significantly inhibited by treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), but not with trolox, a vitamin E analog. An intense DNA ladder pattern was shown at 6 hr post-isolation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid inhibited the DNA fragmentation, but trolox did not. To monitor the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), the intensity of fluorescence emitted from DCFH-DA was measured. The intensity of fluorescence from cells incubated for 0.5-2 hr was approximately 2-fold higher than that from cells at 0 hr. The relative intensity of fluorescence decreased immediately after the addition of ascorbic acid to the cells. The intensity from the cells treated with ascorbic acid was 20-30% of that from the control cells at each incubation time. For trolox, the intensity was 50-70% of that from the control cells at each 1 to 2 hr incubation time. When ROSs-induced lipid peroxidation was assessed using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule, lipid peroxidation was found to occur in the control cells after isolation of the bursal cells. Treatment of the cells with trolox reduced lipid peroxidation, but treatment with ascorbic acid enhanced peroxidation.  (+info)

Perinatal deletion of B cells expressing surface Ig molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the bursa of Fabricius is not due to intrafollicular competition. (8/244)

During embryonic development, the avian bursa of Fabricius selects B cell precursors that have undergone productive V(D)J recombination for expansion in oligoclonal follicles. During this expansion, Ig diversity is generated by gene conversion. We have used retroviral gene transfer in vivo to introduce surface Ig molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants into B cell precursors. This truncated mu heavy chain supports both B cell expansion within embryo bursal lymphoid follicles and gene conversion. We show that individual follicles can be colonized exclusively by cells expressing the truncated mu chain and lacking endogenous surface IgM, ruling out a requirement for V(D)J-encoded determinants in the establishment of bursal lymphoid follicles. In striking contrast to their normal development in the embryo, bursal cells expressing the truncated mu-chain exhibit reduced rates of cell division and increased levels of apoptosis after hatching. The level of apoptosis in individual follicles reflects the proportion of cells within the follicle that express the truncated mu-chain. In particular, high levels of apoptosis are associated with follicles containing exclusively cells expressing the truncated micro receptor. Thus, apoptotic elimination of such cells is not due to competition within the follicle by cells expressing endogenous surface IgM receptors. This provides the first direct demonstration that the regulation of B cell development in the avian bursa after hatching differs fundamentally from that seen in the embryo. The requirement for intact IgM expression when the bursa is exposed to exogenous Ag implicates a role for Ag in avian B cell development after hatching.  (+info)

A bursa is a synovial-lined sac overlying the bony surfaces at areas of tendon friction. Bursae are located where tendons move against each other or glide over a bony surface. They are classified according to their location: subcutaneous, subfascial, subtendinous, and submucosal.[1] Bursae can also be classified as communicating or noncommunicating. When a bursa is located adjacent to a joint, the synovial membrane of the bursae may communicate with the joint.[2] This bursa is termed a communicating bursa. Some examples are the iliopsoas bursa lateral to the hip and the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa posteromedial to the knee. In certain locations, communication between the joint and the bursa is abnormal. An example is the subacromial-subdeltoid (SASD) bursa that lies superior to the rotator cuff and inferior to the acromion. Most of the bursae are potential spaces and are not normally visualized on imaging.. In pathological conditions such as excessive local friction, infection, ...
Androgenic hormones induce inhibition or regression of the bursa of Fabricius in the chick embryo. The high doses of hormones necessary to this involution raises the question of the processes involved and their putative role in the normal development of the bursa. If androgens play a role it is mediated by receptor sites in target cells. Using an autoradiographic technique, receptor sites for androgenic hormones were localized in mesenchymal cells of the bursa from the primordium (7-day embryo) up to the fully differentiated immune organ (15-day embryo). No target cells containing receptor sites in their nuclei were observed in the endodermic epithelium or the follicles. Oestrogen target cells in very small number are found in the mesenchyme of the bursa, in 15-day embryos. The early presence of receptor sites for steroid hormones in the bursa of Fabricius shows that the normal development may be influenced by androgens, but the actual effects are yet to be demonstrated.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Particles resembling circovirus in the bursa of Fabricius of pigeons.. AU - Shivaprasad, H L. AU - Chin, Richard P. AU - Jeffrey, J. S.. AU - Latimer, K. S.. AU - Nordhausen, R. W.. AU - Niagro, F. D.. AU - Campagnoli, R. P.. PY - 1994/7. Y1 - 1994/7. N2 - Histological examination of the bursae from 12 pigeons under 4 months old revealed basophilic globular inclusion bodies, 5 to 25 microns in diameter, in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of the various bursal follicular cells. Electron microscopy of these inclusions revealed large electron-dense areas containing non-enveloped icosahedral viral particles, 14-19 nm in diameter, either loosely arranged or in paracrystalline array. Similar basophilic globular inclusion bodies were seen in the spleen and cecal tonsils of a few pigeons and in the duodenum of one pigeon. There were various degrees of lymphoid depletion in the bursa, spleen, and bone marrow. The morphology of the inclusions in the bursa and size of the viral particles are ...
A large number of cDNA inserts were sequenced from a high-quality library of chicken bursal lymphocyte cDNAs. Comparisons to public gene databases indicate that the cDNA collection represents more than 2,000 new, full-length transcripts. This resource defines the structure and the coding potential o …
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Sepsis punctum (Fabricius, 1794) -- Discover Life
INFLAMMATION OF THE BURSA Diagnosis: INFLAMMATION OF THE BURSA (Bursitis) Anatomy: On the upper arm there are numerous bursas, reducing the pressure on muscles and tendons, where these lie close to the bone. M. biceps brachii Epikondylus medial
INFLAMMATION OF THE BURSA AT THE ELBOW Diagnosis: INFLAMMATION OF THE BURSA AT THE ELBOW (BURSITIS OLECRANEI) Anatomy: There is a large bursa on the point of the elbow (olecranon) which protects the elbow bone against blows and pressure. Cause:
AccuWeather.com provides cold and flu forecast for Bursa, Turkey. See how the common cold and flu are impacted by your local weather in Bursa, Turkey
Bursa injections can help diagnose the source of pain and provide relief by delivering a local anesthetic and anti-inflammatory steroid medications into specific synovial fluid filled bursa sacs, which are adjacent to joints in the body. This procedure may reduce inflammation, resulting in long-term pain relief.. Procedure Preparation. There is very little preparation needed for this procedure. In fact, you may decide to go ahead with this procedure during your initial consultation in our Midtown Manhattan outpatient clinic. The procedure will be fully explained to you before you decide to proceed. Please bring any previous imaging study results (MRI, CT, x-rays) such as films, reports, or CD-ROMs to your initial appointment. If you do not have current images, we may refer you to have them done prior to the procedure.. It is recommended that if you come by car, you should have someone who will be able to take you home after your appointment. If traveling via subway or taxi, it is safe to leave ...
While some of us are more bony than others, nature has fortunately provided all of us with miniature cushions in specific joints, to help prevent our bones from rubbing against each other. These cushions are called bursa, and are literally small sacs of connective tissue filled with fluid of an egg-white consistency, synovial fluid.. The knee joint is one area well supplied with these bursae. There are two: The pre patellar bursa which is in front of your kneecap, and the suprapatellar bursa, which sits just above and behind your kneecap. There are two bursae in your shoulder too, located deep within the joint, to help cushion the complex arrangement of bones and large range of movement of this joint. Some tendons in the body are also provided with bursa-like sheaths, particularly in areas where there are large numbers of tendons crammed together, increasing the potential for constant friction as within wrists and ankles. The bursae can become inflamed or be damaged as easily as other areas of ...
Inside the body, bursa are sacs filled with a lubricating fluid. They reduce friction between different tissues and provide a cushion against pressure. Bursa are found between bodily structures like...
Hi TE - Ive been riding for over 30 years and am now scheduled for trochanteric bursectomy and IT band release to stop the pain. Ive been through multiple rounds of cortisone injections plus physical therapy, Tylenol and motrin, Percocet, rest. Has anyone else gone through this? My last ride was October 9. It hurts too much to ride now. Thanks for listening. Barb
Good morning coders, surgeon did an arthroscopic subscapular bursectomy which Im going to code using unlisted and comparing to 29826. I need help in
In 1972, Neils K. Jerne stated in the First Annual Report of the Basel Institute for Immunology, For bursa cells and B lymphocytes, it is relatively easy to demonstrate that receptors are antibody-like molecules which enable the cell to recognize antigens. Membrane fluidity permits the receptors to move over the cell and, in certain conditions, to aggregate and to form a cap over one pole of a lymphocyte…. These studies lead up to the question by which mechanism the receptors transmit excitatory or inhibitory signals to the cell, resulting in stimulation or paralysis.. At that time, the burgeoning field of cellular immunology was abuzz with riddles posed by the newly embraced clonal selection paradigm. These ignited intense research activity, including programs aimed at understanding Ag receptor diversity and its genetic basis, as well as efforts concentrated on how this theoretical construct could explain acquired tolerance and immunologic memory. As evidenced by Jernes remarks from the ...
although this character may not be immediately obvious with just a handful of specimens).. Description. Body length 11.1-17.9 mm. Coloration of head and pronotum metallic dark blue-brown. Mouthparts (except mandibles dark brown) and antennae reddish-brown. Ventral surface of head and pronotum dark brown. Elytra dark brown. Legs and abdomen brown except segments VII -VIII orange.. Head ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5 - 8) transverse, with rounded angles, width: length ratio = 1.57, widest near middle. Head with medium-sized punctures distributed evenly on lateral sides, distance between punctures approximately equal to width of punctures; punctures somewhat sparser medially. Neck with few small punctures and micropunctures. Pronotum: head width ratio = 1.31. Pronotum ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 9 - 12) transverse, width: length ratio = 1.26. Pronotum disc concave, appearing like dome. Pronotum on lateral sides with small, shallow dense punctures; distance between punctures equal to width of puncture. Punctures ...
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The main points in the foregoing paper maybe summarised as follows :. (1) A yolk nucleus of the type described by Bambeke, as occurring in the egg of Pholcus, is present in the developing egg of Flustrella hispida.. (2) Segmentation and cell-lineage have been followed out in detail up to the 32-cell stage.. (3) The formation of the endoderm has been traced.. (4) The oral and aboral ectoderm are differentiated as early as the 16-cell stage, and remain quite distinct from that time onwards.. (5) The ciliated ring of the larva is formed by the coalescence of several originally distinct rows of cells, and not by the hypertrophy of a single row.. (6) A stomach, comparable to that of Alcyonidium, is present also in Flustrella.. ...
When to change the clock in Turkey - Bursa in year 2010. Details about the exact time of when to turn clocks forward or back for daylight saving time (spring forward/fall back) or time zone changes.
Nerves, blood vessels, and bursae all play an important role in hip joint health. They all affect the ability to move and maintain good joint health.
M71.01 is a non-billable code, consider using a code with a higher level of specificity for a diagnosis of abscess of bursa, shoulder.
The surgical removal of an elbow bursa sack is an inpatient procedure, meaning that it requires a stay at the hospital, despite the fact that it is simple and does not disturb any muscles or...
Deputy Secretary General Mr. Ali Kurt and General Coordinator Mr. A. Cihangir Isbilir delivered their speeches. At the end of the night two Muslim bands titled Grup Yuruyus and Pir-i Fani gave a short concert for the participants of the youth Gathering. There were other invitees in this opening program as well along with the Youth Gathering participants.. In the second day, we headed for Bursa for three days we stayed in the mountain in a hotel. There we made workshops. There, final declaration of the 4th youth gathering is written. We spent three days in Bursa studying and making workshops and discussions. In our last night in Bursa, we also entertained ourselves. We played duff and sang nasheeds. During those nasheeds and speeches such sincere and friendly environment there was. A press conference was held and the Declaration of the 3 day-workshop was read there.. After spending three days in Bursa, In 16 July, the fifth day of the gathering, MUSIAD was visited. There were also three ...
Anserine bursa definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Pharyngeal bursa definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
error kode 805a0190 pada bursa hp microsoft, Sep 20, 2019 · Jika sudah punya, masukkan akun Microsoft ke HP Windows Phone kalian caranya, Masuk ke Pengaturan (Setting), kemudian masuk ke Akun + Surel (Account + Email), kemudian pilih tambahkan akun (add account), kemudian pilih Akun Microsoft (Microsoft Account), dan isikan email dan password kalian sesuai dengan akun microsoft yang sudah kalian buat tadi.
B lymphocytes or B cells are so designated because the bursa of Fabricius, a lym-phoid organ located close to the caudal end of the gut in birds, play
Physical therapy is an integral component to the multi-faceted team approach of examining and treating hip pain. The importance of physical therapy at the center for Hip Preservation is to assist in gaining an understanding of the underlying causes of hip pain and then to collaborate with a team of physicians in order to design a comprehensive treatment approach. Rehabilitation is useful in many ways. It may be used as a non-invasive approach to treatment, whereby surgery for the patient is not or no longer indicated. The hip joint is a very deep joint surrounded by almost 30 muscles. Physical therapy aims to strengthen these muscles, increase flexibility, maintain range of motion of the joint, and decrease the associated inflammation. In the case of a labral tear, physical therapy will not heal the tear. With the appropriate muscular training and activity modification, however, the condition may become asymptomatic and therefore require no surgery. If operative treatment is inevitable, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development. T2 - Examining Leãos legacy. AU - Hartings, Jed A.. AU - Shuttleworth, C. William. AU - Kirov, Sergei A. AU - Ayata, Cenk. AU - Hinzman, Jason M.. AU - Foreman, Brandon. AU - Andrew, R. David. AU - Boutelle, Martyn G.. AU - Brennan, Kc. AU - Carlson, Andrew P.. AU - Dahlem, Markus A.. AU - Drenckhahn, Christoph. AU - Dohmen, Christian. AU - Fabricius, Martin. AU - Farkas, Eszter. AU - Feuerstein, Delphine. AU - Graf, Rudolf. AU - Helbok, Raimund. AU - Lauritzen, Martin. AU - Major, Sebastian. AU - Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I.. AU - Richter, Frank. AU - Rosenthal, Eric S.. AU - Sakowitz, Oliver W.. AU - Sánchez-Porras, Renán. AU - Santos, Edgar. AU - Schöll, Michael. AU - Strong, Anthony J.. AU - Urbach, Anja. AU - Westover, M. Brandon. AU - Winkler, Maren K.L.. AU - Witte, Otto W.. AU - Woitzik, Johannes. AU - Dreier, Jens P.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - A modern understanding of how ...
Larval abdomen (L1), of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius). A dorsal aspect B ventral aspect. Abdominal segments A-7 through A-10; and cerci and pygidium. Scal
Kadej, M. 2018. Larva and pupa of Ctesias (s. str.) serra (Fabricius, 1792) with remarks on biology and economic importance, and larval comparison of co-occurring genera (Coleoptera, Dermestidae). ZooKeys 758: 115-135. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.758.24477. ...
It is in all things better to understand few subjects well than many imperfectly; knowledge may be extensive, but it cannot be sound, if it is at the same time imperfect; and, applying this observation to the present article, it becomes as desirable, where necessary, to illustrate an insect known to Linnæus, as to regard only the accession of new species.. The two insects figured were received from Jamaica by my friend Dr. Leach, and there can be no doubt they are the sexes of one species. The upper is a male, and agrees with Drurys figure and description; the lower insect is a female, of which no representation has been published: as for Cramers figure, if intended for the former, it is really so bad that it can hardly be quoted as an authority, and it appears to have misled Fabricius, in thinking that the female insect had a brown stripe on the anterior wings, whereas that character is more applicable to the male.. The insects I propose retaining under this genus are such as have the body ...
Age structure and spatial distribution of Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787) on a sandy beach from the south coast of Brazil (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae) ...
The jurys still out on how the US government views the decision by the South African Parliament to amend the Constitution to allow expropriation of land without compensation. By PETER FABRICIUS.
Ductus bursae - even width with evenly dispersed granulation (vs) narrows gradually towards bursa and abruptly towards ostium, granualtion strongest on one side at widest section of ductus ...
*ADEVARUL *Basescu, intrebat daca el crede ca ar trebui sa demisioneze Kovesi: Nu cred nimic. La Biserica se crede Fostul presedinte Traian Basescu a declarat marti ca nu a vazut inregistrarile facute de deputatul Vlad Cosma si acuzatiile aduse Departamentului National Anticoruptie DNA. Intrebat daca el crede ca Laura Codruta Kovesi ar trebui sa demisioneze, Basescu a raspuns ca nu crede nimic, pentru ca doar la Biserica se crede.
Banca centrala a Rusiei a declarat ca intentioneaza sa utilizeze fonduri proprii pentru a deveni investitor major al Otkritie, potrivit CNBC. Otkritie este cel mai mare creditor privat al tarii si respectiv a saptea cea mai mare banca a tarii, dupa active, conform datelor din trimestrul al doilea furnizate de Interfax.
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Bursa TURAN&TURAN Sağlık Grubu, Ortopedi ve Travmatoloji alanlarında deneyimli uzmanları ile birlikte dünya ile eş düzeyde hizmet veren sağlık grubudur.
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Looking for online definition of bursa-dependent lymphocytes in the Medical Dictionary? bursa-dependent lymphocytes explanation free. What is bursa-dependent lymphocytes? Meaning of bursa-dependent lymphocytes medical term. What does bursa-dependent lymphocytes mean?
What are they?. A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac. The body contains lots of bursae - they minimise friction between tissues and help the gliding action of skin, muscle or tendons over bony surfaces. Direct trauma to these structures will result in painful swelling (bursitis).. Similarly, a wound that punctures a bursa will cause an infection and result in a septic bursitis. The bursae most commonly associated with clinical problems are those in the knee (carpal bursa), hock (calcanean bursa), shoulder (bicipital bursa), elbow (olecranon bursa) and foot (navicular bursa). Wounds over the front of the knee and shoulder and the point of the hock should be carefully checked.. The navicular bursa is contained within the hoof capsule and the most common cause of septic navicular bursitis is a penetrating foreign body, such as a nail.. Diagnosis and treatment. Radiography and ultrasonography are extremely useful in the early detection of septic bursitis and you need to call the vet urgently if it ...
Looking for online definition of His bursa in the Medical Dictionary? His bursa explanation free. What is His bursa? Meaning of His bursa medical term. What does His bursa mean?
HIERONYMUS FABRICUS ab Aquapendente (ca. 1533-1619). De visione, voce, auditu. 3 parts in 1 volume. Venice: Per Franciscum Bolzettam, 1600.. One of the great Paduan anatomists and teachers, pupil of Fallopius, teacher of Harvey, and friend of Galileo, Fabricius built the first anatomical theater for public dissections at Padua, which is still preserved intact.. De visione voce, auditu was the first anatomy book with clearly scientific illustrations and set a precedent for future anatomists. Prior to this, anatomical illustrations often combined illustration with art such as Vesalius carefully composed skeletons.. During his long life, Fabricus produced a number of important works on anatomy, embryology, and physiology, characterized by numerous large, clear copperplate illustrations. The major portion of this work on the organs of vision, speech, and hearing is devoted to the eye, and it is clear that Fabricius was one of the first to grasp the true form and proper location of the lens. ...
Other articles where Subcutaneous bursa is discussed: bursa: Subcutaneous bursas ordinarily are ill-defined clefts at the junction of subcutaneous tissue and deep fasciae (sheets of fibrous tissue); these bursas acquire a distinct wall only when they become abnormal, and they are sometimes classified as adventitious. Synovial bursas are thin-walled sacs that are interposed…
Status as species: Linnaeus, 1767: 964; De Geer, 1773: 604; Fabricius, 1775: 395; Fabricius, 1782: 493; Retzius, 1783: 76; Fabricius, 1787: 310; Gmelin, 1790: 2802; Christ, 1791: 516; Olivier, 1792: 499; Fabricius, 1793: 362; Latreille, 1802c: 222; Fabricius, 1804: 421; Gravenhorst, 1807: 287; Jurine, 1807: 274 (in text); Latreille, 1809: 129; Leach, 1815: 147; Lamarck, 1817: 97; Latreille, 1818b: 224; Lund, 1831a: 118; Pohl & Kollar, 1832: 14; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 176; Guérin-Méneville, 1844a: 422; Smith, F. 1858b: 180; Roger, 1863b: 35; Mayr, 1863: 437; Mayr, 1865: 81 (redescription); Mayr, 1884: 37; Emery, 1892b: 162; Dalla Torre, 1893: 151; Emery, 1894k: 57; Forel, 1895b: 138; Forel, 1899c: 32; Forel, 1905b: 157; Wheeler, W.M. 1905b: 130; Wheeler, W.M. 1907a: 274; Forel, 1908b: 40; Forel, 1909a: 249; Forel, 1912e: 179; Emery, 1913b: 259; Mann, 1916: 453; Wheeler, W.M. 1916c: 11; Wheeler, W.M. 1916d: 326; Crawley, 1916b: 372; Forel, 1921b: 134; Mann, 1922: 51; Wheeler, W.M. ...
The knee joint is surrounded by two major bursae or spaces. These are structures that allow soft tissues to glide over a given joint and are lined with specialised tissue to joint lining (synovium). At the tip of the knee, over the kneecap bone, is the prepatellar bursa, just below is the infratellar bursa. This bursa can become inflamed (prepatellar bursitis) from direct trauma to the front of the knee. This commonly occurs when maintaining a prolonged kneeling position. It has been referred to as housemaids knee, roofers knee, and carpet layers knee, based on the patients associated occupational histories. It can lead to varying degrees of swelling, warmth, tenderness, and redness in the overlying area of the knee. As compared with knee joint inflammation (arthritis), it is usually only mildly painful. It is usually associated with significant pain when kneeling but can cause stiffness and pain with walking. Also, in contrast to problems within the knee joint, the range of motion of ...
Bhagat, K.C.; Masoodi, M.A., 1988: Natural enemies of mealy plum aphid hyalopterus arundinis fabricius aphididae homoptera in kashmir india
Courtship and mating behavior in the sugpo or giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, are described. These are divided into three phases: parallel swimming of male and female; male turns ventral side up to female; and, male turns perpendicular to female, curves body around female and flicks both head and tail. Comparison with observations on P. japonicus and P. stylirostris is made.
Read, G. (2017). Nephthys caeca (Fabricius, 1780). In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2017). World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=340525 on 2017-12- ...
Hip bursitis is caused by inflammation of one or more of the bursa(s) surrounding the hip joint. Bursas are small fluid-filled sacks located throughout the body, where they act as cushions to prevent friction between bone and the overlying soft tissue (tendons and muscles). Since the primary function of bursas is to allow moving muscles to slide smoothly over bone, activity can intensify the pain associated with an inflamed bursa. The trochanteric bursa, which cushions the bony prominence on the outside of the hip joint, is the most commonly inflamed bursa in the hip. It can be injured due to direct trauma or friction.. When treating hip bursitis, our first objective is to determine the cause of the pain and discomfort. Muscle imbalances, poor movement patterns, and overuse may all contribute to inflammation of the bursa. Applying direct pressure to a bursa can further irritate the area, therefore, we apply manual therapy techniques to surrounding tissues rather than the bursa itself. Once the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic and phenotypic correlations between antibody responses to Escherichia coli, infectious bursa disease virus (IBDV), and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), in broiler lines selected on antibody response to Escherichia coli. AU - Yunis, R.. AU - Ben-David, A.. AU - Heller, E. D.. AU - Cahaner, A.. PY - 2002/3. Y1 - 2002/3. N2 - The genetic control of antibody (Ab) response to Escherichia coli (EC), infectious bursa disease virus, and Newcastle disease virus and the genetic and phenotypic correlation between these Ab responses, were evaluated under farm conditions in which chicks were simultaneously exposed to these antigens. The experimental population comprised five groups: two lines divergently selected for high (HH) or low (LL) Ab response to EC vaccination; a commercial broiler dam-line (CC), from which HH and LL had been derived; and the HH x CC and LL x CC hybrid groups (HC and LC, respectively). Lines LL and HH expressed similar symmetric divergence to all three antigens. ...
We determined the host range of the parasitoid Trichomalus perfectus (Walker), a candidate for classical biological control of cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), an important pest of canola in Canada. Studies were conducted in Europe and in North America. In laboratory experiments, the levels of parasitism (acceptance) of Ceutorhynchus turbatus Schultze, C. cardariae Korotyaev, C. omissusFall and C. querceti (Gyllenhal) by T. perfectus were not significantly different than of the target host C. obstrictus. Although C. typhae (Herbst), C. pallidactylus (Marsham), C. americanus Buchanan, C. neglectusBlatchely and Ceutorhynchus sp. nr. nodipennis were parasitised by T. perfectus, the levels of parasitism were significantly lower on these species than on C. obstrictus. Ceutorhynchus peyerimhoffi Hustache, C. erysimi (Fabricius), C. alliariae H. Brisout, C. roberti Gyllenhal, Mogulones borraginis (Fabricius),Mononychus vulpeculus (Fabricius) and the leaf-mining fly Scaptomyza ...
Atlanta Bursa Injections 1-800-ORTHO-11 - Ortho Sport & Spine Physicians offers relief from bursitis pain with bursa injection treatments.
Hip Bursa. Learn more about Hip Bursa. Twin Boro Physical Therapy offers sports rehab and PT Services throughout New Jersey from 19 convenient locations.
Knee Bursa. Learn more about Knee Bursa. Twin Boro Physical Therapy offers sports rehab and PT Services throughout New Jersey from 19 convenient locations.
Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa or bursae (more than one bursa), small fluid-filled sacs that cushion areas of friction around joints. Bursae contain synovial fluid that lubricates the joints. Bursitis typically occurs as a result of overuse during physical activities or infection of the synovial fluid. If a bursa becomes infected or irritated from repetitive stress, it will cause pain and limited movement. Bursitis is most common in the shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, or heel.. ...
In retrospect, it seems obvious that effective immunity requires the coordinated activities of many cell types. Given their functional specialization and differences in lifespans, it makes sense that different kinds of lymphocytes are initially generated and then replenished in separate sites. There were tantalizing clues to this in the early 1960s, but a remarkable convergence of clinical findings and studies with experimental animals was needed to delineate clearly the origins of what now are known as B and T cells. Using a chicken model, Max Cooper first showed that the cells that derived from the bursa of Fabricius were responsible for Ab production, whereas the thymus-derived cells were the effectors of delayed-type hypersensitivity and graft vs host reactions (1, 2).. Modifying methods developed by Glick, Warner, and others (3, 4), Cooper combined surgical thymectomy and/or bursectomy of posthatched chickens with sublethal irradiation. This novel strategy effectively eliminated lymphocytes ...
Ayres MP, Pena R, Lombardo JA, Lombardero MJ. 2014. Host use patterns by the European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in its native and invaded range. PLoS ONE 9: e90321.. Bedding RA. 1972. Biology of Deladenus siricidicola (Neotylenchidae), an entomophagous nematode parasitic in siricid woodwasps. Nematologica 18: 482-493.. Borchert D, Newton L, Culliney T, Hartzog H, Ahern R, Garrett L. 2011. Risk assessment of the movement of firewood within the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Services, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Plant Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Laboratory, Raleigh, NC. (24 October 2016). Dodds KJ, de Groot P, Orwig DA. 2010. The impact of Sirex noctilio in Pinus resinosa and Pinus sylvestrisstands stands in New York and Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 212-223.. Evans AM. 2016. The speed of invasion: Rates of spread for thirteen exotic forest insects and diseases. Forests : ...
A bursectomy is done with a procedure called arthroscopy. Small, buttonhole-sized incisions are made by the joint. A small tube-like device called an arthroscope is inserted into the holes. The scope has a light and camera that allows the doctor to see the bursa. Specialized surgical instruments are placed through other incisions and passed to the area. The instruments can detach bursa from local tissue and remove the bursa and any scar tissue. After the arthroscope is removed from the joint, the holes will be stitched closed. A compression bandage will be applied over the dressing to control swelling and prevent blood clots. If appropriate a brace or sling will be placed to help support the joint.. ...
Other articles where Ulu Mosque is discussed: Bursa: Among its mosques, Ulu Mosque (1421) is a vast building with 20 domes, noted for the variety and fineness of its calligraphic ornamentation. Yeşil Mosque (1421) marked the beginning of a purely Turkish style; it includes a theological college, library, and ablution fountain. Nearby is the Yeşil Mausoleum,…
Do not panic.. they just look really really bad.. A bursa is when there is swelling around the elbow that begins as a fluid pocket may develop into a rough spot of skin.. *** Please do not let the vet drain a bursa ever! It will just re-fill up the next day or so.. Also, now you have spend $200-$400 and have a cut/hole making it easier for infection to get in.. A few months of ZINC 50mg. will get rid of the bursas.. Mastiffs will get these due to their massive size & weight. When they use their elbows to lift themselves off the ground or just from the weight of them laying on the elbow/knee areas.. I have seen them on a mastiff the size of tennis balls and then same dog 4 months later totally gone.. You should try to make them lay on a soft dog bed or thick blanket to avoid bursas.. I have also talked to many breeders on this and if you give 50 mg. of ZINC a day it will help them go down. But it takes months so do not expect it to work in a few weeks.. ...
Definition of interosseous bursa of elbow. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Tulisan ini merupakan tulisan pembuka dari seri tulisan bubble dan crash bursa saham. Dari abad pertengahan sampai dengan saat ini bubble dan crash merupakan fenomena yang seringkali terjadi. Sangat menarik untuk membahas mengenai hal ini. Selamat menikmati :) Tidak dapat disangkal bahwa tulip bulb mania merupakan cikal bakal dari bubble ekonomi di dunia modern. Tulip…
This blog publishes market news relating to the companies listed in Bursa Malaysia, as well as business news in general. You can search and find all the past market and business news by searching within this Blog.. ...
Jual Beli Mobil, Mobil Bekas, Bursa Mobil Bekas Murah , Mobil Bekas Jakarta, Jual Beli Mobil Bekas Jakarta Surabaya Bogor Depok Bekasi Honda Toyota
B lymphocytes, named after their site of origin in the bursa of Fabricius in birds or in the bone marrow in humans, form the basis for humoral immunity by their production of immunoglobulins. B-cell disorders are divided into defects of B-cell development/immunoglobulin production (immunodeficiencies) and excessive/uncontrolled proliferation ...
B lymphocytes, named after their site of origin in the bursa of Fabricius in birds or in the bone marrow in humans, form the basis for humoral immunity by their production of immunoglobulins. B-cell disorders are divided into defects of B-cell development/immunoglobulin production (immunodeficiencies) and excessive/uncontrolled proliferation ...
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies. Additionally, B cells present antigen (they are also classified as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)) and secrete cytokines. In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, which is at the core of most bones. In birds, B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ. (The B from B cells comes from the name of this organ, where it was first discovered by Chang and Glick, and not from bone marrow as commonly believed). B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes, T cells and natural killer cells, express B cell receptors (BCRs) on their cell membrane. BCRs allow the B cell to bind to a specific antigen, against which it will initiate an antibody response. B cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that originate from bone marrow. HSCs first differentiate into ...
Bursitis involves inflammation or irritation of the bursa of a joint. The word bursitis comes from the word bursa and itis which means inflammation.. A bursa is a small, synovial fluid containing sac surrounded by a membrane. These sacs act as cushions for the joints. Located in areas that are subject to friction, as when a muscle or tendon is pulling around a corner or over a bone, their purpose is to cushion and lubricate the tissues.Bibliography item acr not found.,Bibliography item jhwhite not found.. Continue Reading » What is Bursitis? Its Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention. ...
Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that cushions and reduces friction between tissues of the body. The major bursae (plural of bursa) are found near the tendons and large joints, such as the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees.
In this paper, two methods for assessing the degree of melanization of pupal exuviae from the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis, Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini) are compared. In the first method, which was qualitative, the exuviae were classified by scoring the degree of melanization, whereas in the second method, which was quantitative, the exuviae were classified by optical density followed by analysis with appropriate software. The heritability (h2) of the degree of melanization was estimated by regression and analysis of variance. The estimates of h2 were similar with both methods, indicating that the qualitative method could be particularly suitable for field work. The low estimates obtained for heritability may have resulted from the small sample size (n = 7-18 broods, including the parents) or from the allocation-priority hypothesis in which pupal color would be a lower priority trait compared to morphological traits and adequate larval development ...
Larvae of 10 African trogid species (five Trox Fabricius and five Omorgus Erichson), the first from the continent, are descriptionbed. The species (T. rhyparoides Harold, T. fascicularis rowe; Scholtz, T. consimilis Haaf, T. squamiger Roth, T. capensis Scholtz and O. squalidus (Olivier), O. melancholicus (FAhraeus), O. radula (Erichson), O. asperulatus (Harold), O. frey; (Haaf) belong to endemic subgenera Trox (Phoberus) MacLeay and Omorgus (Afromorgus) Scholtz, which were based on adult characters. Larval morphology supports the uniqueness of these taxa. Furthermore, the African larvae differ from those of other geographical regions in several phylogenetically important respects.
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Arthropoda • Subphylum: Hexapoda • Classis: Insecta • Subclassis: Pterygota • Infraclassis: Neoptera • Superordo: Endopterygota • Ordo: Lepidoptera • Familia: Pyralidae • Subfamilia: Galleriinae • Genus: Achroia • Species: Achroia grisella (Fabricius, 1794) ...
Chaetopteryx villosa (Fabricius, 1798) Chaetopteryx villosa is one of 40 members of the Family Limnephilidae found in Ireland, and the sole member of the genus Chaetopteryx. It is a species whose larvae can be found in rivers, streams and small upland lakes. Its substratum preference includes particulate organic matter, and stony material from gravel to…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recording, analysis, and interpretation of spreading depolarizations in neurointensive care. T2 - Review and recommendations of the COSBID research group. AU - Dreier, Jens P.. AU - Fabricius, Martin. AU - Ayata, Cenk. AU - Sakowitz, Oliver W.. AU - William Shuttleworth, C.. AU - Dohmen, Christian. AU - Graf, Rudolf. AU - Vajkoczy, Peter. AU - Helbok, Raimund. AU - Suzuki, Michiyasu. AU - Schiefecker, Alois J.. AU - Major, Sebastian. AU - Winkler, Maren K.L.. AU - Kang, Eun Jeung. AU - Milakara, Denny. AU - Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I.. AU - Reiffurth, Clemens. AU - Revankar, Gajanan S.. AU - Sugimoto, Kazutaka. AU - Dengler, Nora F.. AU - Hecht, Nils. AU - Foreman, Brandon. AU - Feyen, Bart. AU - Kondziella, Daniel. AU - Friberg, Christian K.. AU - Piilgaard, Henning. AU - Rosenthal, Eric S.. AU - Westover, M. Brandon. AU - Maslarova, Anna. AU - Santos, Edgar. AU - Hertle, Daniel. AU - Sánchez-Porras, Renán. AU - Jewell, Sharon L.. AU - Balança, Baptiste. AU - Platz, ...
Fabricius, J.C., 1787. Mantissa insectorum, sistens eorum species nuper detectas adiectis characteribus genericis, differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus. Vol. 1: 348 pp. Christ. Gottl. Proft, Hafniae. BHL reference page ...
Her initially stage general performance came at the age of eighteen, when she commenced singing tunes from her first album, which had been produced by the assistance of Orhan Gencebay. These 1st stepping stones into the audio industry would sooner or later make her be certainly one of Turkeys most well known Arabesque artists. The achievements to her songs would bring about her to become An effective artist within this style, as her voice has also turn out to be very well familiar for Turks of all generations ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM M71.0 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Diagnosis Code M71.079 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Nucleus Medical Media is a U.S. business that creates and licenses medical illustrations and animations. For a free proposal on your next medical project of any size, contact the company with the largest staff of graduate-degreed medical animators in the world.
FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNION BAŞKAN DAN Recep Altepe Marmara Belediyeler Birliği ve Bursa Büyükşehir Belediye Başkanı President of Union of municipalities of marmara and mayor of Bursa metropolitan
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Glick, B.; Chang, T.S.; Jaap, R.G. (1956). "The bursa of Fabricius and antibody production". Poultry Science. 35: 224-225. doi: ... Bursa cells were termed B-cells for Bursa to differentiate them from thymus derived T-cells. The chicken embryo is a unique ... Chickens missing their bursa, an organ with an unknown function at the time, could not be induced to make antibodies. Through ... these experiments, Bruce Glick, correctly deduced that bursa was responsible for making the cells that produced antibodies. ...
5% in unvaccinated flocks; (4) Potential nerve enlargement; (5) Interfollicular tumors in the bursa of Fabricius; (6) CNS ... the humoral immunity conferred by the B-cell lines from the Bursa of Fabricius also shuts down, thus resulting in birds that ...
The bursa of fabricius, also known as the cloacal bursa, is a lymphoid organ which aids in the production of B lymphocytes ... The bursa of fabricius is a circular pouch connected to the superior dorsal side of the cloaca . The bursa is composed of many ... The bursa of fabricius is present during juvenile stages but curls up, and in the sparrow is not visible after the sparrow ... "Development of the follicle-associated epithelium and the secretory dendritic cell in the bursa of fabricius of the guinea fowl ...
In addition, other abdominal organs and the bursa of Fabricius are often infected. Lymphoid leukosis has a worldwide ... and neoplasia of the bursa. The disease is also characterized by an enlarged liver due to infiltration of cancerous lymphoid ...
The central organ for B cell development in birds is the Bursa of Fabricius. The function of the bursa was discovered when it ... The Bursa of Fabricius is an organ that is unique to birds and is the only site for B cell differentiation and maturation. ... Each population differentiates from a primary lymphoid organ: T cells in the thymus and B cells in the Bursa of Fabricius. ... This is often measured by weight of the Bursa of Fabricius, improved resistance to disease and earlier appearance of IgA. ...
It causes severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius, and causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Initially, the virus ...
A different study of early pathogenesis in chicks infected with virus one day after birth displayed that the bursa of Fabricius ... bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. When young chickens are experimentally infected with avian reovirus, it is spread rapidly ...
... the bursa). After ingestion, the virus destroys the lymphoid follicles in the bursa of Fabricius as well as the circulating B- ... Young birds at around two to eight weeks of age that have highly active bursa of Fabricius are more susceptible to disease. ... Necropsy examination will usually show changes in the bursa of Fabricius such as swelling, oedema, haemorrhage, the presence of ... Low-attenuated vaccine strains may cause damage to the bursa of Fabricius and immunosuppression in susceptible chicks. ...
Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ... Embryotoxicity Embryonic death and impaired embryonic development of the bursa of Fabricius in chicken by aflatoxin B1 has been ...
Unusual lesions have been observed in other organs of turkey such as the bursa of Fabricius, lungs, and kidneys. Currently, no ... "Systemic Histomoniasis Associated with High Mortality and Unusual Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius, Kidneys, and Lungs in ...
Because the virus also affects the thymus and Bursa of Fabricius, slowing lymphocyte production, immunosuppression occurs and ... and bursa of Fabricius; while the capsid antigen of BFDV is found in the spleen, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid and bone marrow. ...
... and bursa of Fabricius. DVH-1 replicates in the mucus membranes of bird's esophagus and cloaca, the two primary entrances of ... Typically viral replication begins in the digestive track and moves to bursa of Fabricuis, thymus, spleen, and liver. Anatid ...
It is a neoplastic disease caused by a virus, which may take the form of a tumor of the bursa of Fabricius and may metastasize ... Symptoms include enlargement of abdomen, bursa, weight loss, weakness and emaciation, and depression. The disease is more ...
The adults of these parasites occur in the bursa of Fabricius, caecum, cloaca, liver, oviduct and sometimes even under the ...
This is correlated with smaller bursa of Fabricius, glands associated with antibody production, and a lower fecundity of the ...
The first Guyana specimen, collected on July 24, 2004, had a smooth ovary measuring 4x3 mm, a bursa of Fabricius measuring 3x3 ...
In birds, B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ where they were first discovered by Chang and Glick, which ... is why the 'B' stands for bursa and not bone marrow as commonly believed. B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes ...
... bursa of fabricius MeSH A15.382.520.604.250 - germinal center MeSH A15.382.520.604.250.200 - dendritic cells, follicular MeSH ...
... "bursa-derived" referring to the bursa of Fabricius. However, in humans (who do not have that organ), the bone marrow makes B ... B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ where they were first discovered by Chang and Glick, (B for bursa) ... T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells) are the major cellular components of the adaptive ...
... but it is a mere coincidence since B cells were first studied in the chicken's bursa of Fabricius and it is from this bursa ...
... bursa of fabricius MeSH A10.549.250 - germinal center MeSH A10.549.250.200 - dendritic cells, follicular MeSH A10.549.400 - ...
BNAber Body odor Bone marrow-derived macrophage Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius ...
The Bursa Fabricii (the site of hematopoiesis in birds) is named after Fabricius. A manuscript entitled De Formatione Ovi et ... It contains the first description of the bursa. Fabricius contributed much to the field of surgery. Though he never actually ... Glick, Bruce (1991). "Historical perspective: the bursa of Fabricius and its influence on B-cell development, past and present ... Fabricius' description of the tracheotomy procedure is similar to that used today. Julius Casserius published his own writings ...
Ethiopia Bursa (genus), a genus of gastropods Bursa of Fabricius, a lymphatic organ in birds Bursa Tumbler, a breed of domestic ... Bursa is a large city in Turkey Bursa may also refer to: Bursa Province, Asian Turkey, named after its above capital Bursa ( ... also known as The Bursa Bursa (Romanian newspaper), published in Bucharest Bursa (Star Wars), a fictional creature SS Bursa, a ... Bursa Efek Jakarta or Jakarta Stock Exchange Bursa Efek Surabaya or Surabaya Stock Exchange Bursa Malaysia, the Malaysian stock ...
Bursae or bursas is its plural form. Bursa of Fabricius (a lymphatic organ in birds) Bursectomy Knee bursae Shoulder joint# ... A synovial bursa (plural bursae or bursas) is a small fluid-filled sac lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer ... Infection or irritation of a bursa leads to bursitis (inflammation of a bursa). The general term for disease of bursae is " ... Bursae are found around most major joints of the body. There are four types of bursa: adventitious, subcutaneous, synovial, and ...
In birds, the bursa of Fabricius (Latin: Bursa cloacalis or Bursa fabricii) is the site of hematopoiesis, a specialized organ ... The bursa is present in the cloaca of birds and is named after Hieronymus Fabricius, who described it in 1621. The bursa is an ... Fabricius Glick, B; Chang, TS; Jaap, RG (1 January 1956). "The Bursa of Fabricius and Antibody Production". Poultry Science. 35 ... Glick, B. (1983). The bursa of Fabricius. In "Avian Biology" Vol. 7 (D.S. Farner, J.R. King, and K.C.Parkes, Eds.). New York: ...
... referring to the bursa of Fabricius.[1] However, in humans (who do not have that organ), the bone marrow makes B cells, and the ... T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells[a]) are the major cellular components of the adaptive ... B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in humans is the GALT, which is thought to be located in the ... The process of B-cell maturation was elucidated in birds and the B most likely means "bursa-derived" ...
... referring to the bursa of Fabricius. "B Cell". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Encyclopedia Brittanica. Vaadatud 28. oktoober 2011. ... The process of B-cell maturation was elucidated in birds and the B most likely means "bursa-derived" ... ladina bursa Fabricii),[7] millest tuleneb ka B-rakkude nimetus. Imetajatel diferentseeruvad B-rakud luuüdis. ...
Hemmingsson EJ, Aim GV (1973) Migration of haemopoietic cells from the yolk sac to the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius in the ...
The ostium bursae, or genital opening, of the female is angled to the left. There are 23 accepted species. Four species are ... Fabricius, 1775) - hummingbird clearwing Hemaris tityus (Linnaeus, 1758) - narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth Hemaris venata (Felder ...
Unusual lesions have been observed in other organs of turkey such as the bursa of Fabricius, lungs, and kidneys.[10] ... "Systemic Histomoniasis Associated with High Mortality and Unusual Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius, Kidneys, and Lungs in ...
Hieronymus Fabricius, Operationes chirurgicae, 1685. ವೈಜ್ಞಾನಿಕ ಯುಗದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಆಧುನಿಕ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆಯು ಶೀಘ್ರದಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ...
... referring to the bursa of Fabricius.[1] However, in humans (who do not have that organ), the bone marrow makes B cells, and the ... T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells[a]) are the major cellular components of the adaptive ... B cells mature into B lymphocytes in the bursa equivalent, which in humans is the GALT, which is thought to be located in the ... The process of B-cell maturation was elucidated in birds and the B most likely means "bursa-derived" ...
After completion of surgery, the patient is transferred to the post anesthesia care unit and closely monitored. When the patient is judged to have recovered from the anesthesia, he/she is either transferred to a surgical ward elsewhere in the hospital or discharged home. During the post-operative period, the patient's general function is assessed, the outcome of the procedure is assessed, and the surgical site is checked for signs of infection. There are several risk factors associated with postoperative complications, such as immune deficiency and obesity. Obesity has long been considered a risk factor for adverse post-surgical outcomes. It has been linked to many disorders such as obesity hypoventilation syndrome, atelectasis and pulmonary embolism, adverse cardiovascular effects, and wound healing complications.[11] If removable skin closures are used, they are removed after 7 to 10 days post-operatively, or after healing of the incision is well under way. It is not uncommon for surgical ...
Fabricius, 1780. ........... ........... Stramonita haemastoma. Linné, 1766. Caracol púrpura de boca vermella. ........... En ... Bursa scrobilator. Linné, 1758. ........... ........... En Wikimedia Commons: Category:Bursidae Bythinia tentaculata. Linné, ...
... bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. When young chickens are experimentally infected with avian reovirus, it is spread rapidly ... A different study of early pathogenesis in chicks infected with virus one day after birth displayed that the bursa of Fabricius ...
Ragnhild Fabricius Gjellerup: First female judge in Denmark (1934) Ingeborg Hansen: First female lawyer to practice before the ... upon her appointment to the Bursa Civil Court of First Instance in 1932) [Adana Province, Turkey] Sema Aksoy: First female to ...
... historian Gaius Fabricius Luscinus - consul Marcus Fadius Gallus - friend of Cicero Gaius Fannius - consul Annia Galeria ... consul Titus Munatius Plancus Bursa - tribune Pompeius Planta - prefect Aulus Platorius Nepos - consul Plautia Urgulanilla - ... writer Aulus Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiento - consul Velius Longus - scholar Velleius Paterculus - historian Venantius ...
... signum in the corpus bursae and in several taxa with an appendix bursae attached to the corpus bursae. Due to these ... Fabricius) (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera)". Indian Journal of Entomology. 26 (2): 176-183. Bras, Audrey; Avtzis, Dimitrios N.; Kenis ... and the female genitalia's ductus bursae with a weak sclerotization or a granulose texture. The moths are furthermore ...
... a synonym for Capsella bursa-pastoris, the shepherd's purse, a species native to eastern Europe and Asia Minor but naturalized ... of the rose chafer Cetonia elegans Fabricius, 1781, a synonym for Heterorrhina elegans, a species (Goliathini) found in India ...
Bursa (1335-1365): Derived from the Latin word "bursa", meaning "purse." Turkmenistan: Ashgabat (1918-1919; 1927-present): ... and German historian Dionysius Fabricius (1610) confirms the origin of Riga from rija. Another theory could be that Riga was ...
By 6 hours, levels on the female bursa copulatrix decrease dramatically. Vitellogenin (VG), an egg yolk precursor protein, is ... "tobacco budworm - Heliothis virescens (Fabricius)". entnemdept.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-25. Pogue, Michael G. (2013). " ...
In birds, the bursa of Fabricius (Latin: Bursa cloacalis or Bursa fabricii) is the site of hematopoiesis, a specialized organ ... The bursa is present in the cloaca of birds and is named after Hieronymus Fabricius, who described it in 1621. The bursa is an ... Fabricius Glick, B; Chang, TS; Jaap, RG (1 January 1956). "The Bursa of Fabricius and Antibody Production". Poultry Science. 35 ... Glick, B. (1983). The bursa of Fabricius. In "Avian Biology" Vol. 7 (D.S. Farner, J.R. King, and K.C.Parkes, Eds.). New York: ...
The bursa of Fabricius is the site of primary B cell development in birds, and has been reviewed extensively elsewhere1-3. It ... O. Lassila, Emigration of B cells from the chicken bursa of Fabricius, Eur. J. Immunol. 19: 955 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... The bursa of Fabricius is the site of primary B cell development in birds, and has been reviewed extensively elsewhere1-3. It ... J.D. Reynolds, Mitotic rate maturation in the Peyers patches of fetal sheep and in the bursa of Fabricius of the chick embryo ...
Analysis of gene expression during myc oncogene-induced lymphomagenesis in the bursa of Fabricius. Paul E. Neiman, Alanna ... 3-5). Experimental induction of B-cell lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens provides one model tumor system in which ... In follicles of the chicken bursa of Fabricius, myc induction of B-cell neoplasia requires a target cell population present ... Analysis of gene expression during myc oncogene-induced lymphomagenesis in the bursa of Fabricius ...
... morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. One hundred and ... It was concluded that Met deficiency restrained the development of the bursae of Fabricius and affected the humoral immunity of ... The relative weight of bursae was decreased with Met deficiency when compared to that of the control group. Lesions were also ... Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bursae were significantly increased in Met-deficient birds (P , 0.01). ...
Loss of surface immunoglobulin expression precedes B cell death by apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius.. E Paramithiotis, K A ... The vast majority of lymphocytes generated daily in the chicken bursa of Fabricius do not emigrate to the periphery but die in ... Loss of surface immunoglobulin expression precedes B cell death by apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius. ... Apoptotic cells in the bursa can be readily detected by the presence of fragmented DNA and by the large numbers of condensed ...
The bursa of Fabricius of the chicken embryo: localization and ontogenic evolution of sex-steroid target cells ... The bursa of Fabricius of the chicken embryo: localization and ontogenic evolution of sex-steroid target cells ... The bursa of Fabricius of the chicken embryo: localization and ontogenic evolution of sex-steroid target cells ... The bursa of Fabricius of the chicken embryo: localization and ontogenic evolution of sex-steroid target cells ...
In this study, the responses of chicken bursa of Fabricius infected with two different strains of velogenic NDV, namely AF2240 ... chemokine as well as lower IL10 expression which subsequently led to a high rate of apoptosis in the chicken bursa of Fabricius ... Depletion of IgM+ cells was further confirmed with increased cell death and apoptosis of the cells in AF2240 infected bursa as ... The results of our study demonstrated that infection of NDV strains AF2240 and IBS002 caused apoptosis in bursa IgM+ cells and ...
3 from total RNA samples prepared from the quail bursa of Fabricius (BF) and Harderian gland (HG) by RT-PCR. As a result, f-1 ... localization and functional analysis of antimicrobial peptides in the quail Harderian gland and bursa of Fabricius.. Research ...
"Particles resembling circovirus in the bursa of Fabricius of pigeons.",. abstract = "Histological examination of the bursae ... Particles resembling circovirus in the bursa of Fabricius of pigeons.. H L Shivaprasad, Richard P Chin, J. S. Jeffrey, K. S. ... Particles resembling circovirus in the bursa of Fabricius of pigeons. / Shivaprasad, H L; Chin, Richard P; Jeffrey, J. S.; ... Particles resembling circovirus in the bursa of Fabricius of pigeons. Avian Diseases. 1994 Jul;38(3):635-641. ...
What is bursas of Fabricius? Meaning of bursas of Fabricius medical term. What does bursas of Fabricius mean? ... Looking for online definition of bursas of Fabricius in the Medical Dictionary? bursas of Fabricius explanation free. ... bursa of Fabricius. (redirected from bursas of Fabricius). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. bursa. [bur´sah] (pl. bur´ ... Synonym(s): bursa of Fabricius. bursa of Fabricius. (fə-brĭsh′ē-əs, -brĭsh′əs). n.. A lymphoid gland in birds that is connected ...
The bursa of fabricius, also known as the cloacal bursa, is a lymphoid organ which aids in the production of B lymphocytes ... The bursa of fabricius is a circular pouch connected to the superior dorsal side of the cloaca . The bursa is composed of many ... The bursa of fabricius is present during juvenile stages but curls up, and in the sparrow is not visible after the sparrow ... "Development of the follicle-associated epithelium and the secretory dendritic cell in the bursa of fabricius of the guinea fowl ...
The avian immune system lacks lymph nodes and has a distinct organ producing B-lymphocytes, namely the bursa Fabricius. The ... The avian immune system lacks lymph nodes and has a distinct organ producing B-lymphocytes, namely the bursa Fabricius. The ... Bursa Fabricius. The avian bursa Fabricius played an important role in the development of understanding of immune functioning. ... Glick, B., Timothy, S., Chang, T. S., and Jaap, R. G. (1956). The Bursa of Fabricius and antibody production. Poult. Sci. 35, ...
Zhang, R., Yu, Q., Shi, G. et al. Erratum to: chTLR4 pathway activation by Astragalus polysaccharide in bursa of Fabricius. BMC ... Erratum to: chTLR4 pathway activation by Astragalus polysaccharide in bursa of Fabricius. *Ruili Zhang1. , ... chTLR4 pathway activation by Astragalus polysaccharide in bursa of Fabricius. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:119. ...
... bursa fabricii explanation free. What is bursa fabricii? Meaning of bursa fabricii medical term. What does bursa fabricii mean? ... Looking for online definition of bursa fabricii in the Medical Dictionary? ... bursa fabricii. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. bur·sa fa·bri·ci·i. the bursa of Fabricius in poultry, a blind ... bursa of Fabricius - Synonym(s): bursa fabricii. Fabricius ship - the outlines of the sphenoid, occipital, and frontal bones, ...
Two sRNA libraries (bursa of Fabricius in JCH and NH-P) were constructed using Small RNA Sample Pre Kit (Illumina, San Diego, ... The bursa of Fabricius, with many B cells, is one of essential immune organs [4]. The mature B cells can synthesis ... Keywords: Bursa of Fabricius; MiRNAs; Genetically Disparate Breeds; Gene Ontology; KEGG; Duck ... The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is a central humoral immune organ belonging specifically to avians. Recent studies had suggested ...
bursa of Fabricius; mixed; other; brain; thymus; spleen; embryonic tissue; liver; small intestine; limb; heart; uncharacterized ...
Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Bangladesh / Bursa of Fabricius / Aging / Chick Embryo / ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Bangladesh / Bursa of Fabricius / Aging / Chick Embryo / ... The bursa of Fabricius of deshi chicken from prenatal ED15 to postnatal D90 were studied. The growth and development at each ... Effects of age in the structure of the bursa of Fabricius of deshi chicken of Bangladesh. ...
Bursa of Fabricius current Any Age Most useful in waterfowl CA Calendar current AHY Intended for use with AHY (instead of ...
Bursa of Fabricius. Inoculated. 5/5. 5/5. 0/5. 0/5. 1/5. ...
The molecular mechanism of cell cycle arrest in the Bursa of Fabricius in chick exposed to Aflatoxin B 1 *Ping Hu ... Rights & permissionsfor article The molecular mechanism of cell cycle arrest in the Bursa of Fabricius in chick exposed to ...
Bursa of Fabricius / cytology* * Bursa of Fabricius / metabolism * Cell Line * Chickens / genetics* ...
Experimental studies on the development of the bursa of Fabricius. Develop. Biol. 14: 40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Functional deficiency of autologous implants of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens. Transplantation 11: 71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Lymphocyte fine structure in the bursa of Fabricius, the thymus, and the germinal centers. Lab. Invest. 16: 407.PubMedGoogle ... Immune globulin production by the bursa of Fabricius of young chickens. Immunology 15: 123.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The Bursa of Fabricius in Lymphocyte Maturation * Introduction * Early History of the Bursa of Fabricius ... Antibody Production Requires Thymus-Derived and Bone Marrow (Bursa)-Derived Lymphocyte Interactions * Introduction ...
... bursa of Fabricius or bursa equivalent organs). The bursa is involved in the differentiation of B lymphocytes. ... So named as they were initially found in the Bursa of Fabricius, B cells produce antibodies and are associated with humoral ... It is comprised of primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, Bursa of Fabricius, the foetal liver and the thymus) which are ... The Bursa of Fabricus is a primary lymphoid organ found in birds. The bursa was the first place that a certain subset of ...
The bursa of Fabricius and antibody production. Poultry Science. 1956;35(1):224-225.. View this article via: CrossRef Google ... In addition to the thymus, birds have the bursa of Fabricius, a hindgut lymphoid organ that had been shown to contribute to ... The functions of the thymus system and the bursa system in the chicken. J Exp Med. 1966;123(1):75-102.. View this article via: ... The findings, published in 1968 (6, 7), elucidated the emerging model of thymus- and bursa-specific functions, delineating two ...
Production of Specific Antibody by Lymphocytes of the Bursa of Fabricius. By Pierson J. Van Alten, Hilaire J. Meuwissen ...
bone marrow or bursa of fabricius (avian) (b-cells), Thymus (t-cells), Peyers patches (B-cells, in all mammals but especially ... Bone marrow/ Bursa of Fabricius). - site of early ____ development in ____ and _____ (T cells migrate to _____, B cell receptor ... What are the dark areas surroudning these cells of the Bursa of Fabricius? Why does it get less dense as it gets toward the ... Bone marrow and bursa are also _____ organs. - If excessive blood cell production is demanded (injury), the ____ and ____ can ...
There was mild to moderate lymphoid depletion in the bursa of Fabricius. Reovirus was isolated from the heart of the turkey ...
Bursa of Fabricius. In birds, the bursa of Fabricius is the site of hematopoiesis, a specialized organ that, as first ... Bursa of Fabricius. In birds, the bursa of Fabricius is the site of hematopoiesis, a specialized organ that, as first ... The abbreviation "B", in B cell, comes from the bursa of Fabricius. ... The fact that bone and bursa both start with the letter B is a coincidence.. B cell-related pathology. Aberrant antibody ...
Bursa of Fabricius. C. *Cancer immunotherapy. *Central tolerance. *Class switch recombination. *Clonal selection ...
  • In contrast, removal of the bursa in adult chickens has little effect on the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was a serendipitous discovery that came about when a fellow graduate, Timothy S. Chang, who was teaching a course on antibody production obtained chickens from Glick that had been bursectomised (removal of the bursa). (wikipedia.org)
  • When these chickens failed to produce antibody in response to an immunization with Staphylococcus bacteria, the two students realized that the bursa is necessary for antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental induction of B-cell lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens provides one model tumor system in which deregulated overexpression of c- myc drives an apparently multistaged neoplastic process in which the normal target cell population and a preneoplastic cell population, as well as fully developed clonal tumors and derivative cell lines, have been identified and can be conveniently obtained for analysis (reviewed in ref. 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • It was concluded that Met deficiency restrained the development of the bursae of Fabricius and affected the humoral immunity of the chickens. (mdpi.com)
  • Liu, X. Pathology of Bursae of Fabricius in Methionine-Deficient Broiler Chickens. (mdpi.com)
  • Wu B, Cui H, Peng X, Fang J, Cui W, Liu X. Pathology of Bursae of Fabricius in Methionine-Deficient Broiler Chickens. (mdpi.com)
  • Chickens missing their bursa, an organ with an unknown function at the time, could not be induced to make antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • 215. Infectious bursal disease (IBD, Gumboro) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection in chickens manifested by inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius, various degrees of nephroso-nephritis and immunosuppression. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • IBD could however be observed as long as chickens have a functioning bursa (up to the age of 16 weeks). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In chickens younger than 3 weeks, IBD could be subclinical, but injured bursa leads to immunosuppression. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • IBDV can infect immature B-lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius ( 1 ) and result in vaccination failure and susceptibility of chickens to pathogens ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This avian virus infects the bursa of Fabricius (specialised bird immune organ) in young chickens, and can cause high mortality rates. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Working with chickens, Cooper showed that an avian organ called the bursa of Fabricius is where B cells mature and characterized the different stages of B cell development. (genengnews.com)
  • In follicles of the chicken bursa of Fabricius, myc induction of B-cell neoplasia requires a target cell population present during early bursal development and progresses through preneoplastic transformed follicles to metastatic lymphomas. (pnas.org)
  • The vast majority of lymphocytes generated daily in the chicken bursa of Fabricius do not emigrate to the periphery but die in situ. (rupress.org)
  • Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was reported to cause rapid depletion of chicken bursa of Fabricius. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, the responses of chicken bursa of Fabricius infected with two different strains of velogenic NDV, namely AF2240 and IBS002, were investigated by observing cell population changes, oxidative stress, viral replication and cytokine expression in the organ. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, apoptosis of enriched bursal IgM+ cells was determined to help us elucidate possible host pathogen relationships between the chicken bursa of Fabricius and NDV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This might be due to the high level of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines/chemokine as well as lower IL10 expression which subsequently led to a high rate of apoptosis in the chicken bursa of Fabricius although the detected viral load of AF2240 was lower than IBS002. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Localization of immunoglobulins in the developing chicken bursa of Fabricius. (springer.com)
  • In birds, the bursa of Fabricius (Latin: Bursa cloacalis or Bursa fabricii) is the site of hematopoiesis, a specialized organ that, as first demonstrated by Bruce Glick and later by Max Dale Cooper and Robert Good, is necessary for B cell (part of the immune system) development in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bursa is an epithelial and lymphoid organ that is found only in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using an autoradiographic technique, receptor sites for androgenic hormones were localized in mesenchymal cells of the bursa from the primordium (7-day embryo) up to the fully differentiated immune organ (15-day embryo). (biologists.org)
  • An organ in the cloacal-hind gut junction birds found to be important in the maturation of B lymphocytes (B for bursa). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The avian immune system lacks lymph nodes and has a distinct organ producing B-lymphocytes, namely the bursa Fabricius . (frontiersin.org)
  • The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is a central humoral immune organ belonging specifically to avians. (ajas.info)
  • Compared with mammals, avains have a specific central humoral immune organ which is named the bursa of Fabricius (BF) and plays an important role in immune resistance [ 1 , 2 ]. (ajas.info)
  • However, it was immediately obvious that there must be an organ in mammals with function comparable to the bursa of Fabricius. (jimmunol.org)
  • The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is the acknowledged central humoral immune organ in birds. (koreamed.org)
  • A dorsal outpocketing of the cloaca, the bursa of Fabricius , controls antibody-mediated immunity in young birds. (britannica.com)
  • The birds ages were determined by the look of tertiary flight feathers, wing covers, and the size of bursa Fabricii [9,18]. (media.pl)
  • M.J.H. Ratcliffe, and L. Tkalec, Cross-linking of the surface immunoglobulin on lymphocytes from the bursa of Fabricius results in second messenger generation. (springer.com)
  • This novel strategy effectively eliminated lymphocytes produced before the time of surgery and generated the first definitive evidence for distinct roles for cells derived from the bursa vs those derived from the thymus ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 2014). Moreover, heat stress has been reported to influence the relative weight (RW) of immune organs such as the bursa of Fabricius, spleen and thymus due to decrease in number of lymphocytes and lymphoid follicle (Aengwanich, 2008). (scielo.org.za)
  • The bursa is present in the cloaca of birds and is named after Hieronymus Fabricius, who described it in 1621. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1621, the bursa was originally described by Hieronymus Fabricius [ 3 ]. (ajas.info)
  • We thought that it might be clear what the thymus and bursa were doing if we could eliminate cells that had developed before the chicks hatched, and then removed the bursa or the thymus at that time, and see what immune system capabilities would develop afterward," Cooper recalled. (genengnews.com)
  • Lymphoid stem cells migrate from the fetal liver to the bursa during ontogeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • They differ from the developmentally regulated stem cell population of normal bursal follicles, which disappears shortly after hatching, by persisting in the posthatching bursa and by progressing to form invasive bursal lymphomas that metastasize to liver and other organs. (pnas.org)
  • relative weights of liver, kidneys and bursa of Fabricius. (scialert.net)
  • Adenoviral DNA was detected in the liver, spleen, kidney, gizzard, intestine, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of every examined dead and euthanized chicken from groups I and II between the third and fourth week postinfection. (springer.com)
  • The bursa is active in young birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1956, Bruce Glick showed that removal of the bursa in newly hatched chicks severely impaired the ability of the adult birds to produce antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, the virus attacks the bursa of young birds, preventing development of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bursa of Fabricius is the site of primary B cell development in birds, and has been reviewed extensively elsewhere 1-3 . (springer.com)
  • bursa of Fabricius an epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in chick embryos, which develops in a manner similar to that of the thymus in mammals, atrophying after 5 or 6 months and persisting as a fibrous remnant in sexually mature birds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present communication discusses examples from the following systems where birds differ from mammals: gastrointestinal tract and specifically the crop and ceca, immune system and specifically the bursa Fabricius and spleen and female reproduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • In some birds, the bursa of Fabricius is atrophied, in others: neoplastic. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In birds surviving the acute stage of the disease, the bursa is progressively atrophying. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Sex steroid hormones also influence the immune response in part via the thymus in rodents and the bursa of Fabricius in birds through specific androgen and estrogen binding sites ( 21 , 47 ). (physiology.org)
  • The abbreviation "B", in B cell, comes from the bursa of Fabricius in birds, where they mature. (medicalxpress.com)
  • E. Paramithiotis, K.A. Jacobsen, and M.J.H. Ratcliffe, Loss of surface immunoglobulin expression precedes B cell death by apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of methionine (Met) deficiency on immune function by determining the relative weight, morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Loss of surface immunoglobulin expression precedes B cell death by apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius. (rupress.org)
  • Consequently, loss of surface Ig expression precedes bursal cell death by apoptosis in vivo, suggesting that maintenance of a threshold level of surface Ig may be a requirement for the continued progression of chicken B lymphocyte development in the bursa. (rupress.org)
  • Depletion of IgM+ cells was further confirmed with increased cell death and apoptosis of the cells in AF2240 infected bursa as compared to IBS002. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of our study demonstrated that infection of NDV strains AF2240 and IBS002 caused apoptosis in bursa IgM+ cells and its severity was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine, macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress as the infection duration was prolonged. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, of the two viruses, we observed that NDV AF2240 induced a greater magnitude of apoptosis in chicken bursa IgM+ cells in comparison to IBS002. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For instance, through establishing and comparing small RNA libraries derived from the bursa and spleen of embryonic chicks at days 15 and 20, Hicks et al [ 8 ] found that many identified differentially expressed miRNAs displayed dynamic expression patterns and some of them can regulate lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, such as miR-221 and miR-17-5p [ 8 ]. (ajas.info)
  • The bursa develops as a dorsal diverticulum of the proctadael region of the cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were various degrees of lymphoid depletion in the bursa, spleen, and bone marrow. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, significant increase was recorded in carcass yield, kidney, spleen, bursa, thymus and intestine density (weight/length) with treated groups as compared to control group. (scielo.br)
  • 50,000) of B lineage committed precursors which undergo immunoglobulin gene rearrangements either prior to their migration to the bursa or within the bursal rudiment during a short window of time in embryonic development. (springer.com)
  • Histological examination of the bursae from 12 pigeons under 4 months old revealed basophilic globular inclusion bodies, 5 to 25 microns in diameter, in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of the various bursal follicular cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Body weight, bursal weight and bursa to body weight measurements were also taken. (academicjournals.org)
  • The depletion of IgM+ cells and infiltration of macrophages were observed to be higher in bursa infected with AF2240 as compared to IBS002. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was mild to moderate lymphoid depletion in the bursa of Fabricius. (usda.gov)
  • Androgenic hormones induce inhibition or regression of the bursa of Fabricius in the chick embryo. (biologists.org)
  • Removal of the bursa wiped out humoral immunity, wiped out plasma cells and antibody production entirely, although the thymus and its dependent system was still intact. (genengnews.com)
  • Fine structural analysis of pinocytosis in lymphoid follicle-associated epithelium in chick bursa and rabbit appendix. (springer.com)
  • There are two primary immune tissues in the chick - the thymus and the bursa of fabricius. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Through these experiments, Bruce Glick, correctly deduced that bursa was responsible for making the cells that produced antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies, immunoglobulin genes and the bursa of Fabricius in chicken B cell development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lymphocyte fine structure in the bursa of Fabricius, the thymus, and the germinal centers. (springer.com)
  • Area of lymphatic nodule and lymphoid follicle in caecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius increased in HS-Pro, HS-Zn30-Pro and HS-Zn60-Pro groups compared to HS group. (scielo.org.za)
  • Particles resembling circovirus in the bursa of Fabricius of pigeons. (elsevier.com)
  • Preliminary studies on the bursae of two pigeons were negative for psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) viral antigen and nucleic acid by immunoperoxidase staining, DNA in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction techniques, suggesting that this virus differs from PBFD virus. (elsevier.com)
  • Gumboro Disease attacks and destroys the bursa, so chicks which have contracted it will have a very poor immune system. (fwi.co.uk)
  • In spite of the intensive and varied vaccination procedures to control Infectious Bursa Disease (IBD), the emergence of a very virulent (vv) IBD pathotype in Ghana has led to high economic losses in the poultry industry. (academicjournals.org)
  • In the bursa, these stem cells acquire the characteristics of mature, immunocompetent B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptotic cells in the bursa can be readily detected by the presence of fragmented DNA and by the large numbers of condensed cellular nuclei observed by electron microscopy. (rupress.org)
  • Oestrogen target cells in very small number are found in the mesenchyme of the bursa, in 15-day embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Antigen binding cells in embryonic chicken bursa and thymus. (springer.com)
  • Using a chicken model, Max Cooper first showed that the cells that derived from the bursa of Fabricius were responsible for Ab production, whereas the thymus-derived cells were the effectors of delayed-type hypersensitivity and graft vs host reactions ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • IBDV replicates specifically in developing B-lymphoid cells, resulting in the destruction of the precursors of antibody-producing B cells in the bursa of Fabricius, and consequently, the immunosuppression, which leads to vaccination failures and susceptibility to other infections and diseases ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • So basically, that was a starting point that led us to realize that there were two lineages-one thymus dependent T cells, the other bursa-dependent B cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Identification, localization and functional analysis of antimicrobial peptides in the quail Harderian gland and bursa of Fabricius. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We intended to obtain cDNAs encoding precursor for antimicrobial peptide fowlicidin (f)-1, -2, and -3 from total RNA samples prepared from the quail bursa of Fabricius (BF) and Harderian gland (HG) by RT-PCR. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Bruce Glick was honored posthumously for his discovery of the purpose of the bursa of Fabricius gland in the posterior of geese. (aaas.org)
  • Also, the significance of the primary lymphoid organs exemplified by thymus, Peyer's patches, and bursa of Fabricius should have been included. (ajtmh.org)
  • 1999): Histological and Histometrical Investigations on Bursa of Fabricius and Thymus of Native Geese.Tr. (siirt.edu.tr)
  • We developed a chicken immune system cDNA microarray to analyze broad changes in gene expression that occur during normal embryonic B-cell development and during myc -induced neoplastic transformation in the bursa. (pnas.org)
  • The neoplastic changes begin always from the bursa of Fabricius, where various-sized lymphomas are detected (transverse section through neo-plastically grown bursa -fixed preparation). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Overexpression of the c- myc oncogene induces multistaged neoplastic progression leading to B-cell lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 219. IBD virus has a lymphocidic effect and the most severe injuries are in the lymph follicles of the bursa of Fabricius. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The morphology of the inclusions in the bursa and size of the viral particles are most consistent with circovirus. (elsevier.com)
  • The high doses of hormones necessary to this involution raises the question of the processes involved and their putative role in the normal development of the bursa. (biologists.org)
  • The early presence of receptor sites for steroid hormones in the bursa of Fabricius shows that the normal development may be influenced by androgens, but the actual effects are yet to be demonstrated. (biologists.org)
  • The intermediate-plus (hot) IBD vaccine elicited the highest antibody titers but caused reduction in the size of the bursa of Fabricius. (academicjournals.org)
  • The luminal (interior) surface of the bursa is plicated with as many as 15 primary and 7 secondary plicae or folds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopically, an atrophy of follicles into the bursa is observed secondary to inflammatory and dystrophic necrobiotic alterations. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • pl. bursae, bursas [L.] a small fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, higher pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine gene expression such as chicken CXCLi2, IL-18 and IFN-γ were observed in AF2240 infected bursa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S. Ekino, Role of environmental antigens in B cell proliferation in the bursa of Fabricius at neonatal stage. (springer.com)