An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.
Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.
A genus in the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, associated with malignancy in birds.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.

Role of Nr13 in regulation of programmed cell death in the bursa of Fabricius. (1/244)

Apoptotic cell death is developmentally regulated in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Although apoptosis is low in the embryonic bursa, cell death increases markedly after hatching. The expression of Bcl2 family cell death antagonists was examined to identify the genes that regulate bursal cell apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-xL, A1, and Mcl1 was detected in both embryos and hatched birds, whereas Nr13 was expressed at high levels in embryonic bursa, and decreased significantly after hatching, correlating inversely with apoptosis. The oncogene v-reland phorbol myristate acetate, two known inhibitors of bursal cell apoptosis, induced Nr13 expression. Overexpression of Nr13 in DT40 bursal lymphoma cells protected them from low serum-induced apoptosis. The mechanism of inhibition of apoptosis by Nr13 is likely to involve a critical BH4 domain and interaction with death agonist Bax. Deletion of the BH4 domain converted Nr13 into a death agonist. Bax coimmunoprecipitated with Nr13 and Bax was induced, whereas Nr13 levels diminished when bursal lymphoblasts were induced to apoptosis by dispersion. Bursal transplantation studies demonstrated that Nr13 could prevent the in vivo programmed elimination of bursal stem cells after hatching, suggesting that Nr13 plays a role in maintaining bursal stem cells.  (+info)

Lysis of myelocytes in chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus. (2/244)

In specific-pathogen-free chickens infected with the highly virulent HPS-2 strain or virulent reference GBF-1 strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), pathologic changes of the bone marrow were investigated. On histologic examination, bone marrow lesions were prominent in the HPS-2 group but only mild in the GBF-1 group. The bone marrow of the HPS-2 group showed severe lysis and depletion of heterophil myelocytes with pyknotic nuclear alteration 2-3 days after inoculation. On examination with an electron microscope, heterophil myelocytes were characterized by shrinkage of the cytoplasm and peripheral condensation of nuclear chromatin. IBDV particles were not detected in altered myelocytes. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling method demonstrated a positive reaction in only heterophil myelocytes. In contrast, nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HPS-2-infected bone marrow cells was indiscernible by agarose gel electrophoresis. These findings indicate that lysis of bone marrow cells is selectively induced in heterophil myelocytes at an early stage after IBDV infection and independent of virus replication.  (+info)

Infectivity to hosts of the endogenous stages of chicken and murine Cryptosporidium. (3/244)

Five groups of 4 mice each were inoculated with 10(6) Cryptosporidium muris oocysts. They were necropsied on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The stomach mucosa from each group were made into 10% suspension in physiological saline and were orally inoculated to 2 mice each. Recipients given suspension from infected mice on day 6, 8 and 10 shed oocysts from 6, 9 and 6, respectively. Similarly, White Leghorn received 10(6) Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were killed daily between 1 and 6 days. Recipients given bursa of Fabricius or caecum of donor birds on days 4, 5 and 6 shed oocysts. The endogenous stages of murine and chicken Cryptosporidium were able to infect the appropriate host.  (+info)

Effect of thymus extract on immunologic reactivity of chicken vaccinated with infectious bursal disease virus. (4/244)

The effects of crude thymus extract on the immune response and protection against challenge with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were studied in one-day-old chick. Oral administration of thymus extract (1 ml/kg) markedly and significantly increased the total protein, albumin, globulin, Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and the body weight gain in one-day-old chick. In addition, it increased the total lymphocytic count over four weeks after administration. Although vaccination also increased total protein, globulin, T4 and the total lymphocytic count but it significantly decreased the body weight gain of the chick and administration of thymus extract, before, during or after vaccination markedly improved the vaccination effectiveness with significant elevation of the globulin level and body weight gain of the chick. It also prevented the decrease in the relative weights of bursa, spleen and thyroid gland which commonly prevailed during vaccination. Chicken administered thymus extract and vaccinated with infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine showed 100% protection against challenge with IBDV. Meanwhile the vaccinated non-thymus treated group exhibited 80% protection against IBDV challenge. These results indicate a potentiating effect of thymus extract on the immune system in baby chick. These findings are supported by ELISA results that showed a marked increase in antibody titers in thymus treated groups. Additionally, microscopical examination of the bursa and the existent lymphoid hyperplasia in thymus treated groups but not vaccinated group support our findings.  (+info)

Development of B cells expressing surface immunoglobulin molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the avian embryo bursa of fabricius. (5/244)

Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in avian B cell precursors generates surface Ig receptors of limited diversity. It has been proposed that specificities encoded by these receptors play a critical role in B lineage development by recognizing endogenous ligands within the bursa of Fabricius. To address this issue directly we have introduced a truncated surface IgM, lacking variable region domains, into developing B precursors by retroviral gene transfer in vivo. Cells expressing this truncated receptor lack endogenous surface IgM, and the low level of endogenous Ig rearrangements that have occurred within this population of cells has not been selected for having a productive reading frame. Such cells proliferate rapidly within bursal epithelial buds of normal morphology. In addition, despite reduced levels of endogenous light chain rearrangement, those light chain rearrangements that have occurred have undergone variable region diversification by gene conversion. Therefore, although surface expression of an Ig receptor is required for bursal colonization and the induction of gene conversion, the specificity encoded by the prediversified receptor is irrelevant and, consequently, there is no obligate ligand for V(D)J-encoded determinants of prediversified avian cell surface IgM receptor.  (+info)

Efficient antibody diversification by gene conversion in vivo in the absence of selection for V(D)J-encoded determinants. (6/244)

Antibody diversification in the bursa of Fabricius occurs by gene conversion: pseudogene-derived sequences replace homologous sequences in rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Bursal cells expressing a truncated immunoglobulin mu heavy chain, introduced by retroviral gene transfer, bypass normal requirements for endogenous surface immunoglobulin expression. Immunoglobulin light chain rearrangements in such cells undergo gene conversion under conditions where the products are not selected based on their ability to encode a functional protein. The efficiency with which gene conversion maintains a productive reading frame exceeds 97% under such non-selective conditions. By analysis of donor pseudogene usage we demonstrate that bursal cell development is not driven by a restricted set of antigenic specificities. We further demonstrate that gene conversion can restore a productive reading frame to out-of-frame VJ(L) junctions, providing a rationale for the elimination of cells containing non-productive VJ(L) rearrangements prior to the onset of gene conversion in normal bursal cell development.  (+info)

Effects of antioxidants on induction of apoptosis in bursal cells of Fabricius during in vitro cultivation. (7/244)

After physically disrupting cell contacts, apoptosis of bursal cells of Fabricius was induced during in vitro cultivation. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with incubation time and approximately 70% cells represented apoptosis after 6 hr of incubation. The induction of apoptosis was significantly inhibited by treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), but not with trolox, a vitamin E analog. An intense DNA ladder pattern was shown at 6 hr post-isolation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Treatment of the cells with ascorbic acid inhibited the DNA fragmentation, but trolox did not. To monitor the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), the intensity of fluorescence emitted from DCFH-DA was measured. The intensity of fluorescence from cells incubated for 0.5-2 hr was approximately 2-fold higher than that from cells at 0 hr. The relative intensity of fluorescence decreased immediately after the addition of ascorbic acid to the cells. The intensity from the cells treated with ascorbic acid was 20-30% of that from the control cells at each incubation time. For trolox, the intensity was 50-70% of that from the control cells at each 1 to 2 hr incubation time. When ROSs-induced lipid peroxidation was assessed using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule, lipid peroxidation was found to occur in the control cells after isolation of the bursal cells. Treatment of the cells with trolox reduced lipid peroxidation, but treatment with ascorbic acid enhanced peroxidation.  (+info)

Perinatal deletion of B cells expressing surface Ig molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the bursa of Fabricius is not due to intrafollicular competition. (8/244)

During embryonic development, the avian bursa of Fabricius selects B cell precursors that have undergone productive V(D)J recombination for expansion in oligoclonal follicles. During this expansion, Ig diversity is generated by gene conversion. We have used retroviral gene transfer in vivo to introduce surface Ig molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants into B cell precursors. This truncated mu heavy chain supports both B cell expansion within embryo bursal lymphoid follicles and gene conversion. We show that individual follicles can be colonized exclusively by cells expressing the truncated mu chain and lacking endogenous surface IgM, ruling out a requirement for V(D)J-encoded determinants in the establishment of bursal lymphoid follicles. In striking contrast to their normal development in the embryo, bursal cells expressing the truncated mu-chain exhibit reduced rates of cell division and increased levels of apoptosis after hatching. The level of apoptosis in individual follicles reflects the proportion of cells within the follicle that express the truncated mu-chain. In particular, high levels of apoptosis are associated with follicles containing exclusively cells expressing the truncated micro receptor. Thus, apoptotic elimination of such cells is not due to competition within the follicle by cells expressing endogenous surface IgM receptors. This provides the first direct demonstration that the regulation of B cell development in the avian bursa after hatching differs fundamentally from that seen in the embryo. The requirement for intact IgM expression when the bursa is exposed to exogenous Ag implicates a role for Ag in avian B cell development after hatching.  (+info)

The Bursa of Fabricius is a lymphoid organ located in the cloaca of birds. It plays a crucial role in the development of the bird's immune system, specifically in the maturation and differentiation of B cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies to fight off infections.

The Bursa of Fabricius is named after the Italian anatomist Hieronymus Fabricius (1537-1619), who first described it in 1621. It is a sac-like structure that is lined with epithelial cells and contains lymphoid follicles, which are clusters of B cells at various stages of development.

In chickens, the Bursa of Fabricius begins to develop around the 5th day of incubation and reaches its maximum size by the time the bird is about 3 weeks old. After this point, it gradually involutes and disappears by the time the bird reaches adulthood.

It's worth noting that the Bursa of Fabricius has no direct equivalent in mammals, including humans. While mammals also have lymphoid organs such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and tonsils, these organs serve different functions and are not directly involved in the maturation of B cells.

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion between bones and other moving parts, such as muscles, tendons, or skin. A synovial bursa is a type of bursa that contains synovial fluid, which is produced by the synovial membrane that lines the inside of the bursa. Synovial bursae are found in various locations throughout the body, particularly near joints that experience a lot of movement or friction. They help to reduce wear and tear on the bones and other tissues, and can become inflamed or irritated due to overuse, injury, or infection, leading to a condition called bursitis.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious avian virus that primarily affects the bursa of Fabricius in young chickens, leading to an immunosuppressive disease known as Gumboro disease. The bursa of Fabricius is a vital organ for the development and maturation of B cells, which are crucial for the immune system's response to infections.

IBDV is a non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family. It has two serotypes, with serotype 1 being responsible for the majority of outbreaks and being highly pathogenic, while serotype 2 is less virulent and causes mild or asymptomatic infections.

The virus targets and destroys the B cells in the bursa, leading to a weakened immune system that makes the affected chickens more susceptible to secondary bacterial and viral infections. The disease can cause significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to high mortality rates, decreased feed conversion efficiency, and reduced egg production.

Vaccination is an effective prevention strategy against IBDV, with both live and inactivated vaccines available for use in chickens. Good biosecurity measures, such as strict sanitation practices and limiting the movement of birds and people between farms, can also help prevent the spread of the virus.

Bursitis is the inflammation or irritation of the bursa, a small fluid-filled sac that provides a cushion between bones and muscles, tendons, or skin around a joint. The bursae help to reduce friction and provide smooth movement of the joints. Bursitis can occur in any joint but is most common in the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and heel.

The inflammation of the bursa can result from various factors, including repetitive motions, injury or trauma to the joint, bacterial infection, or underlying health conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout. The symptoms of bursitis include pain and tenderness in the affected area, swelling, warmth, and redness. Treatment for bursitis typically involves resting and immobilizing the affected joint, applying ice to reduce swelling, taking anti-inflammatory medications, and undergoing physical therapy exercises to improve strength and flexibility. In severe cases, corticosteroid injections or surgery may be necessary to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

Birnaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several species known to cause infections in animals, including birds and fish. The most well-known member of this family is the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), which primarily affects young chickens and causes a highly contagious disease known as Gumboro disease.

Infection with IBDV can result in a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, depression, ruffled feathers, and decreased appetite. In severe cases, the virus can cause significant mortality in infected flocks. Other members of the Birnaviridae family include viruses that infect salmonids (such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus) and other bird species.

Transmission of Birnaviridae viruses typically occurs through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, as well as through contaminated food and water sources. Prevention and control measures for these infections include good biosecurity practices, vaccination, and proper nutrition and management.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Diptera is an order of insects that includes flies, mosquitoes, and gnats. The name "Diptera" comes from the Greek words "di," meaning two, and "pteron," meaning wing. This refers to the fact that all members of this order have a single pair of functional wings for flying, while the other pair is reduced to small knob-like structures called halteres, which help with balance and maneuverability during flight.

Some common examples of Diptera include houseflies, fruit flies, horseflies, tsetse flies, and midges. Many species in this order are important pollinators, while others can be significant pests or disease vectors. The study of Diptera is called dipterology.

Entomology is the scientific study of insects, including their behavior, classification, and evolution. It is a branch of zoology that deals with the systematic study of insects and their relationship with humans, animals, and the environment. Entomologists may specialize in various areas such as medical entomology, agricultural entomology, or forensic entomology, among others. Medical entomology focuses on the study of insects that can transmit diseases to humans and animals, while agricultural entomology deals with insects that affect crops and livestock. Forensic entomology involves using insects found in crime scenes to help determine the time of death or other relevant information for legal investigations.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments over time. It is a crucial part of the medical record and helps healthcare professionals understand the patient's health status and inform their care plans.

On the other hand, "16th century" refers to a specific period in history, spanning from 1501 to 1600 AD.

There isn't a direct medical definition for 'History, 16th Century.' However, if you are interested in learning about the medical advancements and practices during that time, I would be happy to provide some information. The 16th century was marked by significant developments in anatomy, surgery, and pharmacology, thanks to pioneers like Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Paré, and William Shakespeare, who incorporated medical themes into his plays.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

Avian leukosis is a group of viral diseases that primarily affect chickens and other birds. It is caused by retroviruses known as avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) and leads to a variety of clinical signs, including immunosuppression, growth retardation, and the development of tumors in various organs. The disease can be transmitted both horizontally (through direct contact with infected birds or their secretions) and vertically (from infected hens to their offspring through the egg).

There are several subgroups of ALVs, each associated with specific types of tumors and clinical manifestations. For example:

1. ALV-J (Japanese strain): This subgroup is responsible for myelocytomatosis, a condition characterized by the proliferation of immature blood cells in the bone marrow, leading to anemia, leukopenia, and enlarged spleens and livers.
2. ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-C (American strains): These subgroups are associated with various types of lymphoid tumors, such as B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, which can affect the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and other organs.
3. ALV-E (European strain): This subgroup is linked to erythroblastosis, a condition in which there is an excessive proliferation of red blood cell precursors, resulting in the formation of tumors in the bone marrow and other organs.

Avian leukosis poses significant economic challenges for the poultry industry due to its impact on growth, feed conversion efficiency, and mortality rates. Additionally, some countries have regulations in place to prevent the spread of avian leukosis viruses through the trade of infected birds or their products. Prevention measures include strict biosecurity protocols, vaccination programs, and rigorous screening and eradication strategies for infected flocks.

"Saccharum" is not a medical term, but a genus name in botany. It refers to the sugarcane plant (*Saccharum officinarum*), which is a tall perennial grass native to tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The sap of this plant contains high amounts of sucrose and has been used as a sweetener for thousands of years.

In a medical context, "saccharum" might be encountered in the form of sugar-based ingredients, such as dextrose (glucose) or sucrose, which are derived from sugarcane or other sugar-rich plants. These substances can be used in various medical applications, including intravenous fluids and nutritional supplements.

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

Marek's disease is a highly contagious viral infection that primarily affects chickens and other members of the Galliformes order (which includes turkeys, quails, and pheasants). The disease is caused by the alphaherpesvirus known as Gallid herpesvirus 2 or Marek's disease virus (MDV).

The infection primarily targets the chicken's immune system, leading to various clinical manifestations such as:

1. T-cell lymphomas (cancerous growths) in the peripheral nerves, visceral organs, and skin. These tumors can cause paralysis, especially in the legs, and affect the bird's mobility and overall health.
2. Enlarged, pale, or discolored spleens and livers due to the proliferation of infected lymphocytes.
3. Lesions on the feather follicles, skin, and eyes (such as iritis, conjunctivitis, and blindness) caused by viral replication in these areas.
4. Immunosuppression, which makes affected birds more susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections, leading to a decline in overall health and production.

Marek's disease is primarily transmitted through the inhalation of dust particles containing infected dander or feather follicle epithelium. The virus can also be spread via contaminated equipment, clothing, and transportation vehicles.

Vaccination is an effective method to control Marek's disease in commercial poultry operations. However, the continuous evolution of more virulent strains poses a challenge for long-term protection and eradication efforts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mardivirus" is not a recognized term in medical or scientific literature. It seems like there might be a spelling mistake or it could be a term that is specific to certain context which I am not aware of. If you have more information or context about where this term came from, I would be happy to help you further.

Heteroptera is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in zoology. It refers to a suborder of insects within the order Hemiptera, also known as true bugs. This group includes a wide variety of species, such as bed bugs, assassin bugs, and stink bugs. While Heteroptera is not directly related to human health or medicine, some species can have medical importance as disease vectors or pests.

Reoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Reoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses are widespread and can infect a variety of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The infection typically causes mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms in humans, such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and diarrhea. In some cases, Reoviridae infections may also lead to more severe diseases, such as meningitis or encephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, it's worth noting that many Reoviridae infections are asymptomatic and do not cause any noticeable illness.

Reoviridae viruses include several genera, such as Orthoreovirus, Rotavirus, Coltivirus, and Orbivirus, among others. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Rotaviruses, which are a leading cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children worldwide, and Orthoreoviruses, which can cause respiratory illnesses.

Treatment for Reoviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms such as fever, dehydration, and pain. Antiviral medications are not typically used to treat these infections. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, as well as vaccination against specific Reoviridae viruses, such as Rotavirus vaccines.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

I must clarify that the term 'pupa' is not typically used in medical contexts. Instead, it is a term from the field of biology, particularly entomology, which is the study of insects.

In insect development, a pupa refers to a stage in the life cycle of certain insects undergoing complete metamorphosis. During this phase, the larval body undergoes significant transformation and reorganization within a protective casing called a chrysalis (in butterflies and moths) or a cocoon (in other insects). The old larval tissues are broken down and replaced with new adult structures. Once this process is complete, the pupal case opens, and the adult insect emerges.

Since 'pupa' is not a medical term, I couldn't provide a medical definition for it. However, I hope this explanation helps clarify its meaning in the context of biology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lepidoptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order that includes moths and butterflies, which are insects known for their distinctive wing scales. This term is used in the field of biology, not medicine.

Lymphoid tissue is a specialized type of connective tissue that is involved in the immune function of the body. It is composed of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying infected or cancerous cells. Lymphoid tissue can be found throughout the body, but it is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches in the small intestine.

Lymphoid tissue provides a site for the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes, which are critical components of the adaptive immune response. It also serves as a filter for foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that may enter the body through various routes. The lymphatic system, which includes lymphoid tissue, helps to maintain the health and integrity of the body by protecting it from infection and disease.

"Hevea" is the genus name for the rubber tree, specifically *Hevea brasiliensis*, which is the primary source of natural rubber. The sap from this tree, known as latex, is collected and processed to produce raw rubber. This material can then be used in a wide variety of applications, including medical devices, tires, and various other products.

It's worth noting that some people may have allergic reactions to proteins found in natural rubber latex, which can cause symptoms ranging from mild skin irritation to severe respiratory problems. As such, it's important for healthcare providers and others who work with medical equipment to be aware of the potential risks associated with Hevea-derived products.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

The thymus gland is an essential organ of the immune system, located in the upper chest, behind the sternum and surrounding the heart. It's primarily active until puberty and begins to shrink in size and activity thereafter. The main function of the thymus gland is the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells), which are crucial for cell-mediated immunity, helping to protect the body from infection and cancer.

The thymus gland provides a protected environment where immune cells called pre-T cells develop into mature T cells. During this process, they learn to recognize and respond appropriately to foreign substances while remaining tolerant to self-tissues, which is crucial for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Additionally, the thymus gland produces hormones like thymosin that regulate immune cell activities and contribute to the overall immune response.

In birds, the bursa of Fabricius (Latin: bursa cloacalis or bursa fabricii) is the site of hematopoiesis. It is a specialized ... The bursa is present in the cloaca of birds and is named after Hieronymus Fabricius, who described it in 1621. The bursa is an ... Bursa+of+Fabricius at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Photo of diseased organ Citation ... Glick, Bruce (1983). "Bursa of Fabricius". In Farner, Donald S.; King, James R.; Parkes, Kenneth C. (eds.). Avian Biology. pp. ...
In birds, B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ where they were first discovered by Chang and Glick, which ... Glick, Bruce; Chang, Timothy S.; Jaap, R. George (1956-01-01). "The Bursa of Fabricius and Antibody Production". Poultry ... is why the 'B' stands for bursa and not bone marrow as commonly believed. B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes ...
Glick, B.; Chang, T.S.; Jaap, R.G. (1956). "The bursa of Fabricius and antibody production". Poultry Science. 35: 224-225. doi: ... Bursa cells were termed B-cells for Bursa to differentiate them from thymus derived T-cells. The chicken embryo is a unique ... Chickens missing their bursa, an organ with an unknown function at the time, could not be induced to make antibodies. Through ... these experiments, Bruce Glick, correctly deduced that bursa was responsible for making the cells that produced antibodies. ...
5% in unvaccinated flocks; Potential nerve enlargement; Interfollicular tumors in the bursa of Fabricius; CNS involvement; ... the humoral immunity conferred by the B-cell lines from the Bursa of Fabricius also shuts down, thus resulting in birds that ...
Inspired by a report that the bursa of Fabricius (or the bursa) in chickens may be responsible for producing antibodies, he ... Glick, Bruce; Chang, Timothy S.; Jaap, R. George (1956). "The Bursa of Fabricius and Antibody Production". Poultry Science. 35 ... He removed the thymus or the bursa from chicks and irradiated them with X-ray to kill lymphocytes that may have been produced ... The lymphocytes produced by the bursa are known as B cells. Again working on chickens, Cooper also made a contribution to ...
Anatomical Theatre of Padua Bursa of Fabricius Andreas Vesalius Galen Westfall, Richard S. "Fabrici [Fabricius, Fabrizi], ... The Bursa Fabricii (the site of hematopoiesis in birds) is named after Fabricius. A manuscript entitled De Formatione Ovi et ... It contains the first description of the bursa. Fabricius contributed much to the field of surgery. Though he never actually ... Glick, Bruce (1991). "Historical perspective: the bursa of Fabricius and its influence on B-cell development, past and present ...
The central organ for B cell development in birds is the Bursa of Fabricius. The function of the bursa was discovered when it ... The Bursa of Fabricius is an organ that is unique to birds and is the only site for B cell differentiation and maturation. ... The Bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes all develop when haematopoetic stem cells enter the bursal or thymic ... The Bursa of Fabricius is a globular or spherical epithelial and lymphoid organ. The inner surface is littered with folds, ...
In addition, other abdominal organs and the bursa of Fabricius are often infected. Lymphoid leukosis has a worldwide ... and neoplasia of the bursa. The disease is also characterized by an enlarged liver due to infiltration of cancerous lymphoid ...
December 1998). "BASH, a novel signaling molecule preferentially expressed in B cells of the bursa of Fabricius". Journal of ...
It causes severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius, and causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Initially, the virus ...
A different study of early pathogenesis in chicks infected with virus one day after birth displayed that the bursa of Fabricius ... bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. When young chickens are experimentally infected with avian reovirus, it is spread rapidly ...
... the bursa). After ingestion, the virus destroys the lymphoid follicles in the bursa of Fabricius as well as the circulating B- ... Young birds at around two to eight weeks of age that have highly active bursa of Fabricius are more susceptible to disease. ... Necropsy examination will usually show changes in the bursa of Fabricius such as swelling, oedema, haemorrhage, the presence of ... Low-attenuated vaccine strains may cause damage to the bursa of Fabricius and immunosuppression in susceptible chicks. ...
The bursa of fabricius is a circular pouch connected to the superior dorsal side of the cloaca . The bursa is composed of many ... The bursa of fabricius, also known as the cloacal bursa, is a lymphoid organ which aids in the production of B lymphocytes ... The bursa of fabricius is present during juvenile stages but curls up, and in the sparrow is not visible after sexual maturity ... "Development of the follicle-associated epithelium and the secretory dendritic cell in the bursa of fabricius of the guinea fowl ...
Sur, E; Celik, İ (2003). "Effects of aflatoxin B1on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid ... Embryotoxicity Embryonic death and impaired embryonic development of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens by aflatoxin B1 has ...
Unusual lesions have been observed in other organs of turkey such as the bursa of Fabricius, lungs, and kidneys. Currently, no ... "Systemic Histomoniasis Associated with High Mortality and Unusual Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius, Kidneys, and Lungs in ...
Because the virus also affects the thymus and Bursa of Fabricius, slowing lymphocyte production, immunosuppression occurs and ... and bursa of Fabricius; while the capsid antigen of BFDV is found in the spleen, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid and bone marrow. ...
Bursae or bursas is its plural form. Bursa of Fabricius (a lymphatic organ in birds) Bursectomy Knee bursae Shoulder joint# ... A synovial bursa, usually simply bursa (PL: bursae or bursas), is a small fluid-filled sac lined by synovial membrane with an ... Infection or irritation of a bursa leads to bursitis (inflammation of a bursa). The general term for disease of bursae is " ... A subtendinous bursa is found between a tendon and a bone. Examples include the subacromial bursa that protects the tendon of ...
... and bursa of Fabricius. DVH-1 replicates in the mucus membranes of bird's esophagus and cloaca, the two primary entrances of ... Typically viral replication begins in the digestive track and moves to bursa of Fabricuis, thymus, spleen, and liver. Anatid ...
The adults of these parasites occur in the bursa of Fabricius, caecum, cloaca, liver, oviduct and sometimes even under the ...
This is correlated with smaller bursa of Fabricius, glands associated with antibody production, and a lower fecundity of the ...
... chicks infected with the Avian leukosis virus will begin to form tumours that will begin to appear in their bursa of Fabricius ...
It is a neoplastic disease caused by a virus, which may take the form of a tumor of the bursa of Fabricius and may metastasize ... bursa, weight loss, weakness and emaciation, and depression. The disease is more likely to affect chicken around five to eight ...
Ethiopia Bursa (genus), a genus of gastropods Bursa of Fabricius, a lymphatic organ in birds Bursa Tumbler, a breed of domestic ... Look up Bursa or bursa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Bursa is a large city in Turkey Bursa may also refer to: Bursa ... "bursa" on Wikipedia. All pages with titles containing bursa or bursas All pages with titles beginning with Bursa Bursar Bourse ... published in Bucharest Bursa (Star Wars), a fictional creature SS Bursa, a British tanker in service 1946-1961 Bursa, a 1946 ...
... bursa of fabricius MeSH A15.382.520.604.250 - germinal center MeSH A15.382.520.604.250.200 - dendritic cells, follicular MeSH ...
... "bursa-derived" referring to the bursa of Fabricius. However, in humans (who do not have that organ), the bone marrow makes B ... B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ where they were first discovered by Chang and Glick, (B for bursa) ... T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone marrow- or bursa-derived cells) are the major cellular components of the adaptive ...
... but it is a mere coincidence since B cells were first studied in the chicken's bursa of Fabricius and it is from this bursa ...
... bursa of fabricius MeSH A10.549.250 - germinal center MeSH A10.549.250.200 - dendritic cells, follicular MeSH A10.549.400 - ...
BNAber Body odor Bone marrow-derived macrophage Breakthrough infection Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies Bursa of Fabricius ...
The ostium bursae, or genital opening, of the female is angled to the left. There are 23 accepted species. Four species are ... Fabricius, 1775) - hummingbird clearwing Hemaris tityus (Linnaeus, 1758) - narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth Hemaris venata (Felder ...
Furthermore, in the female genitalia of this subfamily the ductus seminalis originates in the corpus bursae. A useful character ... with Tinea sinuella Fabricius, 1794 as type species.: 219 Phycidea is nowadays considered a synonym of the genus Homoeosoma. ...
In birds, the bursa of Fabricius (Latin: bursa cloacalis or bursa fabricii) is the site of hematopoiesis. It is a specialized ... The bursa is present in the cloaca of birds and is named after Hieronymus Fabricius, who described it in 1621. The bursa is an ... Bursa+of+Fabricius at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Photo of diseased organ Citation ... Glick, Bruce (1983). "Bursa of Fabricius". In Farner, Donald S.; King, James R.; Parkes, Kenneth C. (eds.). Avian Biology. pp. ...
Bursa of Fabricius. Inoculated. 5/5. 5/5. 0/5. 0/5. 1/5. ...
PERSENTASE PENYAKIT INFEKSI BURSA FABRICIUS (GUMBORO) PADA AYAM BURAS TERSANGKA DI KABUPATEN BLITAR YANG DIDIAGNOSA BERDASARKAN ... patologi anatomi dan histopatologi bursa Fabricius serta taraf kejadian penyakit dan perbedaan antara ketiga metode diagnosa di ... PUDJI ASTUTI, NIM.: 068811422 (1993) PERSENTASE PENYAKIT INFEKSI BURSA FABRICIUS (GUMBORO) PADA AYAM BURAS TERSANGKA DI ... Berdasarkan pemeriksaan patologi anatomi dan histopatologi bursa Fabricius, kejadian penyakit stadium awal sebesar 23,08 persen ...
On the contrary, in the brain, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius, the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were ... In the bursa of Fabricius, the expression level of TLR3 was markedly downregulated when induced by both viruses. The expression ... In particular, TLR7 expression remained low and was no longer visible in the bursa of Fabricius when triggered by both viruses ... However, the expression level of TLR7 in the brain, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius showed different expression patterns when ...
Expression of the ephrin receptor B2 in the embryonic chicken bursa of Fabricius (Peer Reviewed Journal) (25-Sep-15) ...
In addition to these lesions there was lymphofollicular atrophy in bursa of Fabricius. Several developmental stage of ... bursa of Fabricius and small intestine of 454 broiler chicks, 1 to 45 days of age, were examined for Cryptosporidium sp. and ... In this study, bursa of Fabricius and small intestine of 454 broiler chicks, 1 to 45 days of age, were examined for ... In addition to these lesions there was lymphofollicular atrophy in bursa of Fabricius. Several developmental stage of ...
Ratcliffe, M.J.H.; Härtle, S. B Cells, the Bursa of Fabricius and the Generation of Antibody Repertoires. In Avian Immunology, ...
Bursa of Fabricius (Bursa) is an immune organ unique to avian species that produces antibodies in response to pathogen invasion ... The bursa of fabricius and antibody production. Poult. Sci., 35: 224-225.. CrossRefDirect Link ... lower bursa weight at 21 days of age, retarded lymphoid development at 21 days of age and lowered disease resistance10. Feed ...
IBDV infects B cells in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), causing immunosuppression and morbidity in young chickens. In addition to ... There was no difference in peak viral replication in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), but the expression of chicken IFNα, IFNβ, MX1 ... and Wnt signaling in the bursa compared to line 15I. Primary bursal cell populations isolated from uninfected line W birds ...
The size of the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius was decreased in all OTA-treated groups (p , 0.05), whereas reduced spleen ... We also evaluated other immunological parameters (thymus, bursa of Fabricius, and spleen weights and leukocyte profiles) at day ...
Systemic Histomoniasis Associated with High Mortality and Unusual Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius, Kidneys, and Lungs in ...
The protein is named BASP because it is found in an organ of chickens called the bursa of Fabricius which produces bursal cells ...
... whereas B-cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius. ...
To find the bursa of Fabricius, cut through the cloaca and look for a grape-like structure towards the rear of the bird. The ... The bursa diminishes in size as the bird reaches sexual maturity. *Cut the bursa in half. It should have wrinkles running ... older the bird-the smaller the bursa. ...
In their research, the birds fed an organic acid supplemented diet had heavier immune organs (bursa of Fabricius and the thymus ... organs including the bursa of Fabricius and the thymus. They concluded that prebiotics may improve bird immunity through ...
... named after their site of origin in the bursa of Fabricius in birds or in the bone marrow in humans, form the basis for humoral ... B lymphocytes, named after their site of origin in the bursa of Fabricius in birds or in the bone marrow in humans, form the ...
... an avian bursa of Fabricius data set consisting of 5198 proteins [6], and 2) a Hodgkins lymphoma model data set consisting of ... the avian bursa of Fabricius. Proteomics 2006,6(9):2759-2771. 10.1002/pmic.200500648 ... We use the two classifiers described above for the avian bursa dataset and the Hodgkins lymphoma model dataset to demonstrate ... For example, consider the features selected for the avian bursa classifier. Prolines tend to break alpha helices and prolines ...
... vaccination against Hymenolepis diminuta and role of the bursa of Fabricius in rejection of Raillietina cesticillus. PhD thesis ...
... another organ called the bursa of fabricius that is the organ for B cells that parallels the thymus in T cells- began to ...
reported that there were local lesions in the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius (BF) observed in ducks infected with DuCV [ ... From each duck, tissue samples, including lung, liver, spleen, heart, intestine, brain, and bursa of Fabricius were collected ...
... as shown in the development of the bursa of Fabricius. As a result, pullet robustness and resilience to invading pathogens is ...
Microscopically, bursa of Fabricius was the most severely afîected organ. In this organ, lesions varying from slight hyperemia ... In necropsies, while the bursa Fabricius (bF) of the chickens from the single (G), duplicate (GR, GA), triplicate (GRA) ... Gruplara göre değişmekle birlikte bursa Fabricius dışmda karaciğer, timus, pankreas, bağırsaklar ve akciğerler etkilenen diğer ... Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi Tezleri / Bursa Uludag University Thesis. *Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü / Institute of Medical Sciences ...
Bursa of Fabricius Genitourinary system Urinary system Reproductive system Musculoskeletal system Bones ...
Examples of primary lymphoid organs include the thymus, the bone marrow, the fetal liver, and the avian bursa of Fabricius.. ...
Bursa of Fabricius (0) * Cloaca (0) * Comb and Wattles (0) * Compound Eye, Arthropod (0) ...
Adriatic Sea for Sycon ciliatum (Fabricius, 1780) Adriatic Sea for Sycon humboldti Risso, 1827 Adriatic Sea for Sycon raphanus ... Adriatic Sea for Suberites bursa Schmidt, 1862 Adriatic Sea for Suberites crambe Schmidt, 1862 Adriatic Sea for Suberites ...
  • T-cells are programmed in the thymus, whereas B-cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius. (
  • 1991. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls with Ah receptor affinity on lymphoid development in the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius on chick embryos in ovo and in mouse thymus anlagen in vitro . (
  • Examples of primary lymphoid organs include the thymus, the bone marrow , the fetal liver, and the avian bursa of Fabricius. (
  • The bursa is located near the terminal portion of the cloaca and, like the thymus, is a lymphoepithelial organ. (
  • In the thymus, bursa of fabricius, spleen, gland Gardar, lymphoid apparatus blind guts chicks and ducks detected massive disintegration of lymphocytes type karyorhexis and karyopyknosis, swelling of loose connective tissue infiltration by mononuclear leukocytes and pseudoeosinophils. (
  • Development of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen was significantly depressed in the 8% protein group compared to the other two treatments. (
  • The bursa is an epithelial and lymphoid organ that is found only in birds. (
  • Lymphoid stem cells migrate from the fetal liver to the bursa during ontogeny. (
  • Lymphoid cells in the bursa of Fabricius are the target cells of IBDV infection. (
  • Some lymphoid cells develop and mature within the bone mar-row and are referred to as B cells (B for bursa of Fabricius , or bone marrow). (
  • The bursa is present in the cloaca of birds and is named after Hieronymus Fabricius, who described it in 1621. (
  • The bursa develops as a dorsal diverticulum of the proctadael region of the cloaca. (
  • The general relations of the bursa to the cloaca are shown in the two accompanying figures. (
  • Conversely, some taxa such as many Dendronotina may lack a receptaculum but possess a bursa . (
  • In contrast, removal of the bursa in adult chickens has little effect on the immune system. (
  • This was a serendipitous discovery that came about when a fellow graduate, Timothy S. Chang, who was teaching a course on antibody production obtained chickens from Glick that had been bursectomised (removal of the bursa). (
  • When these chickens failed to produce antibody in response to an immunization with Staphylococcus bacteria, the two students realized that the bursa is necessary for antibody production. (
  • The protein is named BASP because it is found in an organ of chickens called the bursa of Fabricius which produces bursal cells that make antibodies. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of phytogenic additives and glutamine plus glutamic acid , associated or not, on histomorphometry of bursa of Fabricius and small intestine , oocyst count and lesion scores, and carbon turnover of duodenal mucosa of broiler chickens infected with Eimeria acervulina. (
  • A total of 30 bursa of Fabricius samples from young chickens that presented with clinical signs suggestive of IBD were examined. (
  • In birds, the bursa of Fabricius (Latin: bursa cloacalis or bursa fabricii) is the site of hematopoiesis. (
  • The bursa is active in young birds. (
  • In 1956, Bruce Glick showed that removal of the bursa in newly hatched chicks severely impaired the ability of the adult birds to produce antibodies. (
  • Typically, the virus attacks the bursa of young birds, preventing development of the immune system. (
  • B lymphocytes, named after their site of origin in the bursa of Fabricius in birds or in the bone marrow in humans, form the basis for humoral immunity by their production of immunoglobulins. (
  • Higher percentage of cortical area from bursa follicles was observed in birds fed diets supplemented with Gln/Glu and PA at 7, 14 and 21 days of age. (
  • The function of bursa of Fabricius in birds is played by bone marrow in humans. (
  • RNA-Seq analysis revealed that more severe disease in line W was associated with significant up-regulation of pathways involved in inflammation, cytoskeletal regulation by Rho GTPases, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling, and Wnt signaling in the bursa compared to line 15I. (
  • Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa , which results in pain, tenderness, and stiffness and in some cases, swelling and redness. (
  • When compared to more 'classical' strains, it has the capacity to create extensive and persistent depletion of the follicles and consequently, dramatically reduce the size of the bursa. (
  • In the bursa, these stem cells acquire the characteristics of mature, immunocompetent B cells. (
  • infects the precursors of antibody-producing B cells in the bursa of Fabricius. (
  • In addition to these lesions there was lymphofollicular atrophy in bursa of Fabricius. (
  • AVIGUARD favored faster maturation of the gut microbiota and of the immune system, as shown in the development of the bursa of Fabricius . (
  • Additionally, early feeding has a positive effect on the bursa of Fabricius development. (
  • Images from "An atlas of normal and Myc-induced neoplastic development in the bursa of fabricius. (
  • Sampel tersebut kemudian diamati gejala klinis yang tampak, patologi anatomi dari organ-organ dan dibuat preparat histologi dari jaringan bursa Fabricius untuk diperiksa perubahan-perubahannya. (
  • Mikroskobide deney gruplarında en fazla etkilenen organ bursa Fabricius'tu. (
  • IBDV+Adenovirusun verilen grupta en belirgin lezyon karaciğerdeki kanamalardı. (
  • IBDV) that is most readily isolated from the bursa of Fabricius but may be isolated from other organs. (
  • In this study, bursa of Fabricius and small intestine of 454 broiler chicks, 1 to 45 days of age, were examined for Cryptosporidium sp. (
  • The luminal (interior) surface of the bursa is plicated with as many as 15 primary and 7 secondary plicae or folds. (
  • The virus is also easily isolated from fecal samples as well as tissue samples from the intestine, liver, and occasionally the bursa of Fabricius. (
  • A bursa may be present deep to coracobrachialis tendon. (
  • Max Cooper founds that antibody production in chicken requires an organ called the bursa of Fabricius in the 1960s. (
  • Antibody production was inhibited after the surgical removal of the bursa. (
  • The cells that are responsible for antibodies production were called bursa derived or B cells. (
  • 7. Effects of Senna occidentalis on chick bursa of Fabricius. (
  • VAXXITEK ® vaccines start where they're most essential-protecting the bursa of Fabricius against infectious bursal disease (IBD). (
  • The findings indicated 100% detection rate (n = 10) of IBDV genome from infected bursa of Fabricius samples. (
  • B cell or B lymphocyte (bursa-derived cells) is a key player of the adaptive immune response that is responsible for humoral immunity in mammals. (
  • Large numbers of bursa follicles with no differentiation into cortex and medulla indicated that B cell development was arrested at the early stage. (
  • Flow cytometry analysis further confirmed that ALV-J blocked the differentiation of CD117 + chB6 + B cell progenitors in the bursa of Fabricius. (
  • AVIGUARD favored faster maturation of the gut microbiota and of the immune system, as shown in the development of the bursa of Fabricius . (