A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE-containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from L-GLUTAMATE to N-formimidoyl-L-glutamate and TETRAHYDROFOLATE. This enzyme may also catalyze formyl transfer from 5-formyltetrahydrofolate to L-GLUTAMATE. This enzyme was formerly categorized as EC 2.1.2.6.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).
A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express T-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, LARGE-CELL, IMMUNOBLASTIC), this group's unique features warrant separate treatment.
A systemic, large-cell, non-Hodgkin, malignant lymphoma characterized by cells with pleomorphic appearance and expressing the CD30 ANTIGEN. These so-called "hallmark" cells have lobulated and indented nuclei. This lymphoma is often mistaken for metastatic carcinoma and MALIGNANT HISTIOCYTOSIS.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*11 allele family.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An aromatic perennial plant species that has been used to treat migraines, arthritis, and as a febrifuge. It contains TANNINS, volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), and sesquiterpene lactones, especially parthenolide.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
An extranodal neoplasm, usually possessing an NK-cell phenotype and associated with EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. These lymphomas exhibit a broad morphologic spectrum, frequent necrosis, angioinvasion, and most commonly present in the midfacial region, but also in other extranodal sites.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (1/1897)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Differential expression and phosphorylation of CTCF, a c-myc transcriptional regulator, during differentiation of human myeloid cells. (2/1897)

CTCF is a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc gene. Although CTCF has been characterized in some detail, there is very little information about the regulation of CTCF activity. Therefore we investigated CTCF expression and phosphorylation during induced differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. We found that: (i) both CTCF mRNA and protein are down-regulated during terminal differentiation in most cell lines tested; (ii) CTCF down-regulation is retarded and less pronounced than that of c-myc; (iii) CTCF protein is differentially phosphorylated and the phosphorylation profiles depend on the differentiation pathway. We concluded that CTCF expression and activity is controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.  (+info)

Involvement of wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein in B-cell cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase pathway. (3/1897)

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been shown to play a role in normal B-lymphocyte development. Defective expression of Btk leads to human and murine immunodeficiencies. However, the exact role of Btk in the cytoplasmic signal transduction in B cells is still unclear. This study represents a search for the substrate for Btk in vivo. We identified one of the major phosphoproteins associated with Btk in the preB cell line NALM6 as the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), the gene product responsible for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, which is another hereditary immunodeficiency with distinct abnormalities in hematopoietic cells. We demonstrated that WASP was transiently tyrosine-phosphorylated after B-cell antigen receptor cross-linking on B cells, suggesting that WASP is located downstream of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. An in vivo reconstitution system demonstrated that WASP is physically associated with Btk and can serve as the substrate for Btk. A protein binding assay suggested that the tyrosine-phosphorylation of WASP alters the association between WASP and a cellular protein. Furthermore, identification of the phosphorylation site of WASP in reconstituted cells allowed us to evaluate the catalytic specificity of Btk, the exact nature of which is still unknown.  (+info)

Analysis of the interaction of monoclonal antibodies with surface IgM on neoplastic B-cells. (4/1897)

In vitro studies identified three Burkitts lymphoma cell lines, Ramos, MUTU-I and Daudi, that were growth inhibited by anti-IgM antibody. However, only Ramos and MUTU-I were sensitive to monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing the Fc region of surface IgM (anti-Fc mu). Experiments using anti-Fc mu mAb (single or non-crossblocking pairs), polyclonal anti-mu Ab, and hyper-crosslinking with a secondary layer of Ab, showed that growth inhibition of B-cell lines was highly dependent on the extent of IgM crosslinking. This was confirmed by using Fab', F(ab')2 and F(ab')3 derivatives from anti-Fc mu mAb, where increasing valency caused corresponding increases in growth arrest and apoptosis, presumably as a result of more efficient BCR-crosslinking on the cell surface. The ability of a single mAb to induce growth arrest was highly dependent on epitope specificity, with mAb specific for the Fc region (C mu2-C mu4 domains) being much more effective than those recognizing the Fab region (anti-L chain, anti-Id and anti-Fd mu, or C mu1). Only when hyper-crosslinked with polyclonal anti-mouse IgG did the latter result in appreciable growth inhibition. Binding studies showed that these differences in function were not related to differences in the affinity, but probably related to intrinsic crosslinking capacity of mAb.  (+info)

Differential responses to CD40 ligation among Burkitt lymphoma lines that are uniformly responsive to Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1. (5/1897)

Ligation of CD40 on the surface of B cells induces multiple phenotypic effects, many of which are mimicked by the EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) through its interaction with downstream components of the CD40 signaling pathway. Because the effects of LMP1 have been most closely studied in human Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) cell lines retaining a tumor biopsy-like phenotype in vitro, we have examined the response of a panel of such lines to CD40 ligation. Two distinct patterns of response were observed that were unrelated to the surface level of CD40 or to the EBV genome status of the lines. Following exposure to either CD40-specific mAbs or the soluble trimeric ligand (sCD40L), high responder (HR) lines showed rapid aggregation, activation of NF-kappa B, up-regulation of cell surface markers ICAM-1/CD54 and Fas/CD95, and growth inhibition. Aggregation was seen at lower doses than those required to elicit the other effects. By contrast, low responder (LR) lines showed no detectable response to CD40 mAbs, while their responses to sCD40L were limited to activation of NF-kappa B and up-regulation of CD95 only. However, in transfection experiments, LMP1 uniformly induced the full spectrum of phenotypic effects in both HR and LR lines. We conclude that some BL cell lines show a highly restricted response to CD40 ligation but remain fully susceptible to LMP1.  (+info)

Restricted low-level human antibody responses against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 in a subgroup of patients with EBV-associated diseases. (6/1897)

Human antibody responses to latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related disease syndromes were analyzed in detail. Only by immunoblot analysis with purified recombinant LMP1 and by IFA on recombinant LMP1-expressing insect cells could human antibodies directed against LMP1 be detected. Low serum levels of LMP1-directed antibodies could be detected in 3 of 8 EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease patients, 3 of 40 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, 2 of 23 Burkitt's lymphoma patients, and 1 of 27 non-Burkitt's lymphoma patients. No LMP1-directed antibodies could be detected in healthy EBV carriers, infectious mononucleosis patients, or patients with chronic EBV disease. All sera contained significant levels of EBV antibodies directed against the immunodominant EBV proteins and peptides. From this study, it can be concluded that LMP1 is a protein with a very low immunogenicity for the humoral immune response in humans.  (+info)

Induction of lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in EBV-associated malignancies using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo. (7/1897)

The consistent presence of EBV genomes in certain tumor types (in particular, AIDS-related central nervous system lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas) may allow novel, EBV-based targeting strategies. Tumors contain the latent (transforming) form of EBV infection. However, expression of either of the EBV immediate-early proteins, BZLF1 and BRLF1, is sufficient to induce lytic EBV infection, resulting in death of the host cell. We have constructed replication-deficient adenovirus vectors expressing the BZLF1 or BRLF1 immediate-early genes and examined their utility for killing latently infected lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that both the BZLF1 and BRLF1 vectors efficiently induce lytic EBV infection in Jijoye cells (an EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma cell line). Furthermore, lytic EBV infection converts the antiviral drug, ganciclovir (GCV), into a toxic (phosphorylated) form, which inhibits cellular as well as viral DNA polymerase. When Jijoye cells are infected with the BZLF1 or BRLF1 adenovirus vectors in the presence of GCV, viral reactivation is induced, but virus replication is inhibited (thus preventing the release of infectious EBV particles); yet cells are still efficiently killed. Finally, we demonstrate that the BZLF1 and BRLF1 adenovirus vectors induce lytic EBV infection when they are directly inoculated into Jijoye cell tumors grown in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that induction of lytic EBV infection in tumors, in combination with GCV, may be an effective strategy for treating EBV-associated malignancies.  (+info)

Deregulation of the proto-oncogene c-myc through t(8;22) translocation in Burkitt's lymphoma. (8/1897)

In Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells the proto-oncogene c-myc is juxtaposed to one of the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci on chromosomes 2, 14, or 22. The c-myc gene becomes transcriptionally activated as a consequence of the chromosomal translocation and shows preferential usage of promoter P1 over P2, a phenomenon referred to as promoter shift. In order to define the responsible regulatory elements within the Ig lambda locus, we studied the effect of the human Ig lambda enhancer (HuE lambda) on c-myc expression after stable transfection into BL cells. A 12 kb genomic fragment encompassing HuE lambda, but not HuE lambda alone, strongly activated c-myc expression and induced the promoter shift. To identify additional elements involved in c-myc deregulation, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive sites within the 12 kb lambda fragment on the construct. Besides one hypersensitive site corresponding to HuE lambda, three additional sites were detected. Two of these elements displayed enhancer activity after transient transfection. The third element did not activate c-myc transcription, but was required for full c-myc activation and promoter shift. Deletion analyses of the c-myc promoter identified the immediate promoter region as sufficient for activation by the Ig lambda. locus, but also revealed that induction of the promoter shift requires additional upstream elements.  (+info)

Burkitt lymphoma is a type of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which is a cancer that originates in the lymphatic system. It is named after Denis Parsons Burkitt, an Irish surgeon who first described this form of cancer in African children in the 1950s.

Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by the rapid growth and spread of abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which can affect various organs and tissues, including the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.

There are three main types of Burkitt lymphoma: endemic, sporadic, and immunodeficiency-associated. The endemic form is most common in equatorial Africa and is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The sporadic form occurs worldwide but is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all NHL cases in the United States. Immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma is seen in individuals with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS or immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation.

Burkitt lymphoma typically presents as a rapidly growing mass, often involving the jaw, facial bones, or abdominal organs. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a biopsy of the affected tissue, followed by immunohistochemical staining and genetic analysis to confirm the presence of characteristic chromosomal translocations involving the MYC oncogene.

Treatment for Burkitt lymphoma typically involves intensive chemotherapy regimens, often combined with targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The prognosis is generally good when treated aggressively and promptly, with a high cure rate in children and young adults. However, the prognosis may be poorer in older patients or those with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

B-cell lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the B-lymphocytes, which are a part of the immune system and play a crucial role in fighting infections. These cells can develop mutations in their DNA, leading to uncontrolled growth and division, resulting in the formation of a tumor.

B-cell lymphomas can be classified into two main categories: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. B-cell lymphomas are further divided into subtypes based on their specific characteristics, such as the appearance of the cells under a microscope, the genetic changes present in the cancer cells, and the aggressiveness of the disease.

Some common types of B-cell lymphomas include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma. Treatment options for B-cell lymphomas depend on the specific subtype, stage of the disease, and other individual factors. Treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. It involves the abnormal growth and proliferation of malignant lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), leading to the formation of tumors in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other organs. NHL can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of lymphocyte involved and its characteristics.

The symptoms of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include:

* Painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
* Persistent fatigue
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Itchy skin

The exact cause of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well understood, but it has been associated with certain risk factors such as age (most common in people over 60), exposure to certain chemicals, immune system deficiencies, and infection with viruses like Epstein-Barr virus or HIV.

Treatment for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the stage and subtype of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and manage any potential long-term side effects of treatment.

Large B-cell lymphoma, diffuse is a type of cancer that starts in cells called B-lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. "Large B-cell" refers to the size and appearance of the abnormal cells when viewed under a microscope. "Diffuse" means that the abnormal cells are spread throughout the lymph node or tissue where the cancer has started, rather than being clustered in one area.

This type of lymphoma is typically aggressive, which means it grows and spreads quickly. It can occur almost anywhere in the body, but most commonly affects the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

Treatment for large B-cell lymphoma, diffuse typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, stem cell transplantation or targeted therapy may also be recommended. The prognosis varies depending on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

T-cell lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells, which are a specific type of white blood cell responsible for immune function. These lymphomas develop from mature T-cells and can be classified into various subtypes based on their clinical and pathological features.

T-cell lymphomas can arise in many different organs, including the lymph nodes, skin, and other soft tissues. They often present with symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma typically involves a biopsy of the affected tissue, followed by immunophenotyping and genetic analysis to determine the specific subtype.

Treatment for T-cell lymphomas may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation, depending on the stage and aggressiveness of the disease. The prognosis for T-cell lymphoma varies widely depending on the subtype and individual patient factors.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 4, Human" (Epstein-Barr Virus)

"Herpesvirus 4, Human," also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and is one of the most common human viruses. It is primarily transmitted through saliva and is often referred to as the "kissing disease."

EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. The virus can also cause other diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Once a person becomes infected with EBV, the virus remains in the body for the rest of their life, residing in certain white blood cells called B lymphocytes. In most people, the virus remains dormant and does not cause any further symptoms. However, in some individuals, the virus may reactivate, leading to recurrent or persistent symptoms.

EBV infection is diagnosed through various tests, including blood tests that detect antibodies against the virus or direct detection of the virus itself through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. There is no cure for EBV infection, and treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and not sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or drinking glasses.

Follicular lymphoma is a specific type of low-grade or indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It develops from the B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell found in the lymphatic system. This lymphoma is characterized by the presence of abnormal follicles or nodules in the lymph nodes and other organs. The neoplastic cells in this subtype exhibit a distinct growth pattern that resembles normal follicular centers, hence the name "follicular lymphoma."

The majority of cases involve a translocation between chromosomes 14 and 18 [t(14;18)], leading to an overexpression of the BCL-2 gene. This genetic alteration contributes to the cancer cells' resistance to programmed cell death, allowing them to accumulate in the body.

Follicular lymphoma is typically slow-growing and may not cause symptoms for a long time. Common manifestations include painless swelling of lymph nodes, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats. Treatment options depend on various factors such as the stage of the disease, patient's age, and overall health. Watchful waiting, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches may be used to manage follicular lymphoma.

AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system and is associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by the infection of the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which weakens the immune system and makes individuals more susceptible to developing lymphoma.

There are two main types of AIDS-related lymphomas: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL). DLBCL is the most common type and tends to grow rapidly, while BL is a more aggressive form that can also spread quickly.

Symptoms of AIDS-related lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and decreased appetite. Diagnosis typically involves a biopsy of the affected lymph node or other tissue, followed by various imaging tests to determine the extent of the disease.

Treatment for AIDS-related lymphoma usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, along with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to manage HIV infection. The prognosis for ARL varies depending on several factors, including the type and stage of the disease, the patient's overall health, and their response to treatment.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of cells. In humans, there are typically 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs, with one member of each pair coming from each parent. The six pairs of chromosomes numbered 6 through 12, along with the X chromosome, are part of these 23 pairs and are referred to as autosomal chromosomes and a sex chromosome.

Human chromosome 6 is one of the autosomal chromosomes and contains an estimated 170 million base pairs and around 1,500 genes. It plays a role in several important functions, including immune response, cell signaling, and nervous system function.

Human chromosome 7 is another autosomal chromosome that contains approximately 159 million base pairs and around 1,200 genes. Chromosome 7 is best known for containing the gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, whose mutations can lead to cystic fibrosis.

Human chromosome 8 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 146 million base pairs and approximately 900 genes. Chromosome 8 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Smith-Magenis syndrome and 8p deletion syndrome.

Human chromosome 9 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 139 million base pairs and approximately 950 genes. Chromosome 9 has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Hereditary Spherocytosis and CHARGE syndrome.

Human chromosome 10 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 135 million base pairs and approximately 800 genes. Chromosome 10 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Dyschondrosteosis and Melanoma.

Human chromosome 11 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 135 million base pairs and approximately 800 genes. Chromosome 11 has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Wilms tumor and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

Human chromosome 12 is an autosomal chromosome that contains around 133 million base pairs and approximately 750 genes. Chromosome 12 has been associated with several genetic disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP).

The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The X chromosome contains around 155 million base pairs and approximately 1,000 genes. It has been linked to several genetic disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Fragile X syndrome.

The Y chromosome is the other sex chromosome in humans. Males have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome contains around 59 million base pairs and approximately 70 genes. It is primarily responsible for male sexual development and fertility.

In summary, the human genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes, including 22 autosomal pairs and one sex chromosome pair (XX in females and XY in males). The total length of the human genome is approximately 3 billion base pairs, and it contains around 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins called histones, which help to package the DNA into a compact structure. The chromosomes contain genetic information that is passed down from parents to their offspring through reproduction.

B-cell marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a type of indolent (slow-growing) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It arises from B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell found in the lymphatic system. MZLs typically involve the marginal zone of lymphoid follicles, which are structures found in lymph nodes and other lymphatic tissues.

There are three subtypes of MZL: extranodal MZL (also known as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or MALT lymphoma), nodal MZL, and splenic MZL. Extranodal MZL is the most common form and can occur at various extranodal sites, such as the stomach, lungs, skin, eyes, and salivary glands. Nodal MZL involves the lymph nodes without evidence of extranodal disease, while splenic MZL primarily affects the spleen.

MZLs are typically low-grade malignancies, but they can transform into more aggressive forms over time. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Common treatments include watchful waiting, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens (EBV NA) are proteins found inside the nucleus of cells that have been infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a type of herpesvirus that is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis (also known as "mono" or "the kissing disease").

There are two main types of EBV NA: EBNA-1 and EBNA-2. These proteins play a role in the replication and survival of the virus within infected cells. They can be detected using laboratory tests, such as immunofluorescence assays or Western blotting, to help diagnose EBV infection or detect the presence of EBV-associated diseases, such as certain types of lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

EBNA-1 is essential for the maintenance and replication of the EBV genome within infected cells, while EBNA-2 activates viral gene expression and modulates the host cell's immune response to promote virus survival. Both proteins are considered potential targets for the development of antiviral therapies and vaccines against EBV infection.

Human chromosomes 13-15 are part of a set of 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the cells of the human body. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, or DNA, that is inherited from each parent. They are responsible for the development and function of all the body's organs and systems.

Chromosome 13 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 114 million base pairs of DNA. It is associated with several genetic disorders, including cri du chat syndrome, which is caused by a deletion on the short arm of the chromosome. Chromosome 13 also contains several important genes, such as those involved in the production of enzymes and proteins that help regulate growth and development.

Chromosome 14 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 107 million base pairs of DNA. It is known to contain many genes that are important for the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, as well as genes involved in the production of immune system proteins. Chromosome 14 is also associated with a number of genetic disorders, including Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which is caused by a deletion on the short arm of the chromosome.

Chromosome 15 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 102 million base pairs of DNA. It is associated with several genetic disorders, including Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, which are caused by abnormalities in the expression of genes on the chromosome. Chromosome 15 also contains important genes involved in the regulation of growth and development, as well as genes that play a role in the production of neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers of the brain.

It is worth noting that while chromosomes 13-15 are important for normal human development and function, abnormalities in these chromosomes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders and developmental issues.

Glutamate Formimidoyltransferase (FTCD) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of histidine, one of the essential amino acids. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a formimidoyl group from the derivative of histidine, formiminoglutamate (FIGLU), to the amino group of glutamate, forming formiminoglutamic acid and freeing up tetrahydrofolate in the process.

The reaction catalyzed by FTCD is as follows:

formiminoglutamate + glutamate -> formiminoglutamic acid + glutamate

This enzyme is found in various organisms, including humans, and is located in the mitochondria. A deficiency in FTCD can lead to an accumulation of FIGLU and may be associated with certain neurological disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Genes, myc" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation. It seems like there might be a misunderstanding or a missing word in the request. "Myc" could refer to the Myc family of transcription factors that are involved in cell growth and division, and are often deregulated in cancer. However, without more context, it's difficult to provide an accurate definition. If you could provide more information or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further!

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Myc, are crucial regulators of normal cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When proto-oncogenes undergo mutations or alterations in their regulation, they can become overactive or overexpressed, leading to the formation of oncogenes. Oncogenic forms of c-Myc contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can ultimately result in cancer development.

The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor that binds to specific DNA sequences, influencing the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes, such as:

1. Cell cycle progression: c-Myc promotes the expression of genes required for the G1 to S phase transition, driving cells into the DNA synthesis and division phase.
2. Metabolism: c-Myc regulates genes associated with glucose metabolism, glycolysis, and mitochondrial function, enhancing energy production in rapidly dividing cells.
3. Apoptosis: c-Myc can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cellular context and the presence of other regulatory factors.
4. Differentiation: c-Myc generally inhibits differentiation by repressing genes that are necessary for specialized cell functions.
5. Angiogenesis: c-Myc can induce the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, promoting the formation of new blood vessels to support tumor growth.

Dysregulation of c-Myc is frequently observed in various types of cancer, making it an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, also known as infectious mononucleosis or "mono," is a viral infection that most commonly affects adolescents and young adults. The virus is transmitted through saliva and other bodily fluids, and can cause a variety of symptoms including fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, and skin rash.

EBV is a member of the herpesvirus family and establishes lifelong latency in infected individuals. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate later in life, causing symptoms such as fatigue and swollen lymph nodes. In some cases, EBV infection has been associated with the development of certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

The diagnosis of EBV infections is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms and laboratory tests, such as blood tests that detect the presence of EBV antibodies or viral DNA. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at alleviating symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral therapy for EBV infections.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which is a cancer of the lymphatic system. Specifically, MCL arises from abnormal B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) that typically reside in the "mantle zone" of the lymph node. The malignant cells in MCL tend to have a characteristic genetic abnormality where the cyclin D1 gene is translocated to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus, resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1 protein. This leads to uncontrolled cell division and proliferation.

Mantle cell lymphoma often presents with advanced-stage disease, involving multiple lymph nodes, bone marrow, and sometimes extranodal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, and abdominal pain or discomfort.

Treatment for MCL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and sometimes targeted therapy or stem cell transplantation. However, the prognosis for MCL is generally less favorable compared to other types of NHL, with a median overall survival of around 5-7 years.

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a type of cancer that affects T-cells, a specific group of white blood cells called lymphocytes. These cells play a crucial role in the body's immune system and help protect against infection and disease. In CTCL, the T-cells become malignant and accumulate in the skin, leading to various skin symptoms and lesions.

CTCL is a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), which refers to a group of cancers that originate from lymphocytes. Within NHL, CTCL is categorized as a type of extranodal lymphoma since it primarily involves organs or tissues outside the lymphatic system, in this case, the skin.

The two most common subtypes of CTCL are mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome:

1. Mycosis fungoides (MF): This is the more prevalent form of CTCL, characterized by patches, plaques, or tumors on the skin. The lesions may be scaly, itchy, or change in size, shape, and color over time. MF usually progresses slowly, with early-stage disease often confined to the skin for several years before spreading to lymph nodes or other organs.
2. Sézary syndrome (SS): This is a more aggressive form of CTCL that involves not only the skin but also the blood and lymph nodes. SS is characterized by the presence of malignant T-cells, known as Sézary cells, in the peripheral blood. Patients with SS typically have generalized erythroderma (reddening and scaling of the entire body), pruritus (severe itching), lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes), and alopecia (hair loss).

The diagnosis of CTCL usually involves a combination of clinical examination, skin biopsy, and immunophenotyping to identify the malignant T-cells. Treatment options depend on the stage and subtype of the disease and may include topical therapies, phototherapy, systemic medications, or targeted therapies.

Hodgkin disease, also known as Hodgkin lymphoma, is a type of cancer that originates in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It typically affects the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. The disease is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal cell, known as a Reed-Sternberg cell, within the affected lymph nodes.

The symptoms of Hodgkin disease may include painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin; fever; night sweats; weight loss; and fatigue. The exact cause of Hodgkin disease is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and infectious factors.

Hodgkin disease is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and extent of the disease. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for Hodgkin disease is generally very good, with a high cure rate. However, long-term side effects of treatment may include an increased risk of secondary cancers and other health problems.

T-cell peripheral lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. This type of lymphoma is called "peripheral" because it typically develops in T-cells that have matured and are found in various tissues and organs outside of the bone marrow, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, skin, and digestive tract.

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are relatively rare and can be aggressive, with a tendency to spread quickly throughout the body. They can arise from different types of T-cells, leading to various subtypes of PTCL that may have different clinical features, treatment options, and prognoses.

Some common subtypes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma include:

1. PTCL, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype, accounting for about 25-30% of all PTCL cases. It includes cases that do not fit into any specific category or have features of more than one subtype.
2. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL): ALCL can be further divided into two groups: systemic ALCL and cutaneous ALCL. Systemic ALCL is a more aggressive form, while cutaneous ALCL tends to be less aggressive and primarily affects the skin.
3. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL): AITL is an aggressive subtype that often involves the lymph nodes and can affect other organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. It frequently presents with B symptoms (fever, night sweats, and weight loss) and abnormal blood tests.
4. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL): EATL is a rare but aggressive subtype that primarily affects the intestines, particularly in individuals with a history of celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.
5. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL): ATLL is caused by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and primarily affects adults from regions where HTLV-1 is endemic, such as Japan, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa.

Treatment for PTCL depends on the specific subtype, stage, and individual patient factors. Common treatment options include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Clinical trials are also available for eligible patients to test new therapies and combinations.

Large cell anaplastic lymphoma is a type of cancer that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. It is classified as a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a subtype of NHL characterized by the presence of large cancer cells that look abnormal under a microscope. These cells are called "anaplastic" because they lack many of the usual features of mature lymphocytes.

ALCL can occur in many different parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, skin, lungs, and soft tissues. It is typically an aggressive form of NHL that grows and spreads quickly.

ALCL is further divided into two main subtypes based on the presence or absence of a genetic abnormality involving a protein called ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase). ALK-positive ALCL tends to occur in younger patients and has a better prognosis than ALK-negative ALCL.

Treatment for large cell anaplastic lymphoma typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. In some cases, stem cell transplantation may also be recommended.

Human chromosome pair 14 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of human cells, which contain genetic material in the form of DNA and proteins. Each member of the pair contains a single very long DNA molecule that carries an identical set of genes and other genetic elements, totaling approximately 105 million base pairs. These chromosomes play a crucial role in the development, functioning, and reproduction of human beings.

Chromosome 14 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning it is not involved in determining the sex of an individual. It contains around 800-1,000 genes that provide instructions for producing various proteins responsible for numerous cellular functions and processes. Some notable genes located on chromosome 14 include those associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, cancer susceptibility, and immune system regulation.

Human cells typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, including 22 autosomal pairs (numbered 1-22) and one pair of sex chromosomes (XX for females or XY for males). Chromosome pair 14 is the eighth largest autosomal pair in terms of its total length.

It's important to note that genetic information on chromosome 14, like all human chromosomes, can vary between individuals due to genetic variations and mutations. These differences contribute to the unique characteristics and traits found among humans.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

A germinal center is a microanatomical structure found within the secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. It is a transient structure that forms during the humoral immune response, specifically during the activation of B cells by antigens.

Germinal centers are the sites where activated B cells undergo rapid proliferation, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination to generate high-affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. These processes help to refine the immune response and provide long-lasting immunity against pathogens.

The germinal center is composed of two main regions: the dark zone (or proliferation center) and the light zone (or selection area). The dark zone contains rapidly dividing B cells, while the light zone contains follicular dendritic cells that present antigens to the B cells. Through a process called affinity maturation, B cells with higher-affinity antibodies are selected for survival and further differentiation into plasma cells or memory B cells.

Overall, germinal centers play a critical role in the adaptive immune response by generating high-affinity antibodies and providing long-term immunity against pathogens.

Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. They can do this by promoting cell growth and division (cellular proliferation), preventing cell death (apoptosis), or enabling cells to invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). Oncogenes can be formed when normal genes, called proto-oncogenes, are mutated or altered in some way. This can happen as a result of exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or through inherited genetic mutations. When activated, oncogenes can contribute to the development of cancer by causing cells to divide and grow in an uncontrolled manner.

Monoclonal murine-derived antibodies are a type of laboratory-produced antibody that is identical in structure, having been derived from a single clone of cells. These antibodies are created using mouse cells and are therefore composed entirely of mouse immune proteins. They are designed to bind specifically to a particular target protein or antigen, making them useful tools for research, diagnostic testing, and therapeutic applications.

Monoclonal antibodies offer several advantages over polyclonal antibodies (which are derived from multiple clones of cells and can recognize multiple epitopes on an antigen). Monoclonal antibodies have a consistent and uniform structure, making them more reliable for research and diagnostic purposes. They also have higher specificity and affinity for their target antigens, allowing for more sensitive detection and measurement.

However, there are some limitations to using monoclonal murine-derived antibodies in therapeutic applications. Because they are composed entirely of mouse proteins, they can elicit an immune response in humans, leading to the production of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) that can neutralize their effectiveness. To overcome this limitation, researchers have developed chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies that incorporate human protein sequences, reducing the risk of an immune response.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

CD20 is not a medical definition of an antigen, but rather it is a cell surface marker that helps identify a specific type of white blood cell called B-lymphocytes or B-cells. These cells are part of the adaptive immune system and play a crucial role in producing antibodies to fight off infections.

CD20 is a protein found on the surface of mature B-cells, and it is used as a target for monoclonal antibody therapies in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Rituximab is an example of a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 and is used to treat conditions such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and rheumatoid arthritis.

While CD20 itself is not an antigen, it can be recognized by the immune system as a foreign substance when a monoclonal antibody such as rituximab binds to it. This binding can trigger an immune response, leading to the destruction of the B-cells that express CD20 on their surface.

Human chromosomes are the thread-like structures located in the nucleus of human cells, which carry genetic information in the form of DNA. Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. The first 22 pairs are called autosomes, and the last pair are the sex chromosomes, X and Y.

Chromosomes 1-3 are the largest human chromosomes, and they contain a significant portion of the human genome. Here is a brief overview of each:

1. Chromosome 1: This is the largest human chromosome, spanning about 8% of the human genome. It contains approximately 2,800 genes that are responsible for various functions such as cell growth and division, nerve function, and response to stimuli.
2. Chromosome 2: The second largest human chromosome, spanning about 7% of the human genome. It contains approximately 2,300 genes that are involved in various functions such as metabolism, development, and immune response.
3. Chromosome 3: This is the third largest human chromosome, spanning about 6% of the human genome. It contains approximately 1,900 genes that are responsible for various functions such as DNA repair, cell signaling, and response to stress.

It's worth noting that while these chromosomes contain a large number of genes, they also have significant amounts of non-coding DNA, which means that not all of the genetic material on these chromosomes is responsible for encoding proteins or other functional elements.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains (IgH) are proteins that make up the framework of antibodies, which are crucial components of the adaptive immune system. These heavy chains are produced by B cells and plasma cells, and they contain variable regions that can bind to specific antigens, as well as constant regions that determine the effector functions of the antibody.

The genes that encode for immunoglobulin heavy chains are located on chromosome 14 in humans, within a region known as the IgH locus. These genes undergo a complex process of rearrangement during B cell development, whereby different gene segments (V, D, and J) are joined together to create a unique variable region that can recognize a specific antigen. This process of gene rearrangement is critical for the diversity and specificity of the antibody response.

Therefore, the medical definition of 'Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain' refers to the set of genetic elements that encode for the immunoglobulin heavy chain proteins, and their complex process of rearrangement during B cell development.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Immunophenotyping is a medical laboratory technique used to identify and classify cells, usually in the context of hematologic (blood) disorders and malignancies (cancers), based on their surface or intracellular expression of various proteins and antigens. This technique utilizes specific antibodies tagged with fluorochromes, which bind to the target antigens on the cell surface or within the cells. The labeled cells are then analyzed using flow cytometry, allowing for the detection and quantification of multiple antigenic markers simultaneously.

Immunophenotyping helps in understanding the distribution of different cell types, their subsets, and activation status, which can be crucial in diagnosing various hematological disorders, immunodeficiencies, and distinguishing between different types of leukemias, lymphomas, and other malignancies. Additionally, it can also be used to monitor the progression of diseases, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, and detect minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up care.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are proteins that make up the framework of antibodies, which are Y-shaped immune proteins. These heavy chains, along with light chains, form the antigen-binding sites of an antibody, which recognize and bind to specific foreign substances (antigens) in order to neutralize or remove them from the body.

The heavy chain is composed of a variable region, which contains the antigen-binding site, and constant regions that determine the class and function of the antibody. There are five classes of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) that differ in their heavy chain constant regions and therefore have different functions in the immune response.

Immunoglobulin heavy chains are synthesized by B cells, a type of white blood cell involved in the adaptive immune response. The genetic rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes during B cell development results in the production of a vast array of different antibodies with unique antigen-binding sites, allowing for the recognition and elimination of a wide variety of pathogens.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes, which are large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds derived from isoprene, a five-carbon molecule. Sesquiterpenes are composed of three isoprene units, making them 15-carbon structures. They are synthesized in plants, fungi, and some insects, and can be found in various essential oils, resins, and other natural products.

Guaiane is a subclass of sesquiterpenes characterized by a particular carbon skeleton structure. Guaiane-type sesquiterpenes contain a unique bicyclic ring system with a five-membered ring fused to a seven-membered ring. This class of compounds includes various natural products, some of which have been found to exhibit biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects.

Examples of guaiane sesquiterpenes include:

1. Guaiol: A compound found in the wood of the guaiacum tree, it has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties.
2. Bulnesin: A compound isolated from the bulnesia sarmientoi tree, it has shown potential as an anticancer agent.
3. Elephantopusin: A compound found in elephantopus mollis, it has been studied for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

It is important to note that while these compounds have demonstrated biological activities, further research is necessary to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications.

Leukemia, B-cell is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by an overproduction of abnormal B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia, infection, and bleeding.

B-cells are a type of lymphocyte that plays a crucial role in the immune system by producing antibodies to help fight off infections. In B-cell leukemia, the cancerous B-cells do not mature properly and accumulate in the bone marrow, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

There are several types of B-cell leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). ALL is more common in children and young adults, while CLL is more common in older adults. Treatment options for B-cell leukemia depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

"Gene rearrangement" is a process that involves the alteration of the order, orientation, or copy number of genes or gene segments within an organism's genome. This natural mechanism plays a crucial role in generating diversity and specificity in the immune system, particularly in vertebrates.

In the context of the immune system, gene rearrangement occurs during the development of B-cells and T-cells, which are responsible for adaptive immunity. The process involves breaking and rejoining DNA segments that encode antigen recognition sites, resulting in a unique combination of gene segments and creating a vast array of possible antigen receptors.

There are two main types of gene rearrangement:

1. V(D)J recombination: This process occurs in both B-cells and T-cells. It involves the recombination of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments to form a functional antigen receptor gene. In humans, there are multiple copies of V, D, and J segments for each antigen receptor gene, allowing for a vast number of possible combinations.
2. Class switch recombination: This process occurs only in mature B-cells after antigen exposure. It involves the replacement of the constant (C) region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene with another C region, resulting in the production of different isotypes of antibodies (IgG, IgA, or IgE) that have distinct effector functions while maintaining the same antigen specificity.

These processes contribute to the generation of a diverse repertoire of antigen receptors, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond effectively to a wide range of pathogens.

Eudesmane is a subclass of sesquiterpenes, which are organic compounds consisting of three isoprene units and having the molecular formula C15H24. Sesquiterpenes are derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) in the mevalonate pathway and are biosynthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions.

Eudesmane sesquiterpenes are characterized by a unique carbon skeleton with a cyclohexane ring fused to a bicyclic system consisting of a cyclopentane and a cyclobutane ring. They can be found in various plants, fungi, and insects, and some eudesmane derivatives have been shown to possess biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties.

Eudesmane sesquiterpenes can exist in different forms, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters, depending on the functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton. Some examples of eudesmane sesquiterpenes include α-eudesmol, β-eudesmol, and eudesma-1,4-diene.

Human chromosome pair 8 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell of the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure known as a chromatin.

Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Pair 8 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning that it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y). Each member of chromosome pair 8 has a similar size, shape, and banding pattern, and they are identical in males and females.

Chromosome pair 8 contains several genes that are essential for various cellular functions and human development. Some of the genes located on chromosome pair 8 include those involved in the regulation of metabolism, nerve function, immune response, and cell growth and division.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 8 can lead to genetic disorders such as Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which is caused by a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, or partial trisomy 8, which results from an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 8. Both of these conditions are associated with developmental delays, intellectual disability, and various physical abnormalities.

Neprilysin (NEP), also known as membrane metallo-endopeptidase or CD10, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidney, brain, heart, and vasculature. Neprilysin plays a crucial role in the breakdown and regulation of several endogenous bioactive peptides, such as natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and angiotensin II. By degrading these peptides, neprilysin helps maintain cardiovascular homeostasis, modulate inflammation, and regulate neurotransmission. In the context of heart failure, neprilysin inhibitors have been developed to increase natriuretic peptide levels, promoting diuresis and vasodilation, ultimately improving cardiac function.

Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that deals with the study of chromosomes and their structure, function, and abnormalities. It involves the examination of chromosome number and structure in the cells of an organism, usually through microscopic analysis of chromosomes prepared from cell cultures or tissue samples. Cytogenetic techniques can be used to identify chromosomal abnormalities associated with genetic disorders, cancer, and other diseases.

The process of cytogenetics typically involves staining the chromosomes to make them visible under a microscope, and then analyzing their number, size, shape, and banding pattern. Chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes) can be detected through cytogenetic analysis.

Cytogenetics is an important tool in medical genetics and has many clinical applications, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and identification of genetic disorders. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), have improved the resolution and accuracy of chromosome analysis and expanded its clinical applications.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Large B-cell lymphoma, immunoblastic variant, is a type of cancer that starts in the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. It is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which is an aggressive (fast-growing) lymphoma.

Immunoblastic large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by the presence of large, immunoblastic cells that have a specific appearance under the microscope. These cells are typically found in the lymph nodes or other lymphoid tissues, such as the spleen or bone marrow.

This type of lymphoma can be aggressive and may require prompt treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for immunoblastic large B-cell lymphoma varies depending on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, and the specific features of the tumor.

It is important to note that a medical definition may vary based on different medical sources or guidelines, and it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

HLA-A11 antigen is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) serotype that is part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule. The HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-A11 antigen is encoded by the HLA-A gene located on chromosome 6. It is a type of MHC class I molecule that presents peptides to CD8+ T cells, which are a type of immune cell that can destroy infected or damaged cells.

The HLA-A11 antigen is expressed in a small percentage of the population and has been associated with certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and narcolepsy. However, its role in these diseases is not fully understood and further research is needed to determine the exact mechanisms involved.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight mistake in your question. There is no single gene or genetic concept known as "myb." Instead, "MYB" refers to a family of genes that are involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

The MYB gene family is named after the first member of this family to be discovered, c-Myb, which was initially identified as an oncogene in birds. These genes encode transcription factors that contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the MYB domain. This domain consists of up to four repeats of a helix-turn-helix structure that recognizes and binds to specific DNA sequences.

The MYB gene family is divided into three subfamilies based on the number of MYB domains they contain: 1-MYB, 2-MYB, and 3-MYB. Each subfamily has distinct functions and expression patterns in different tissues. For example, c-Myb (a member of the 3-MYB subfamily) is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells and plays a crucial role in their development and proliferation.

Therefore, if you are looking for information on a specific MYB gene or family member, please let me know, and I would be happy to provide more details!

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 are a group of proteins that play a role in regulating cell death (apoptosis). The c-bcl-2 gene produces one of these proteins, which helps to prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis. This protein is located on the membrane of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and it can inhibit the release of cytochrome c, a key player in the activation of caspases, which are enzymes that trigger apoptosis.

In normal cells, the regulation of c-bcl-2 protein helps to maintain a balance between cell proliferation and cell death, ensuring proper tissue homeostasis. However, when the c-bcl-2 gene is mutated or its expression is dysregulated, it can contribute to cancer development by allowing cancer cells to survive and proliferate. High levels of c-bcl-2 protein have been found in many types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinomas, and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

Bcl-2 is a family of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating cell death (apoptosis), which is a normal process that eliminates damaged or unnecessary cells from the body. Specifically, Bcl-2 proteins are involved in controlling the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

The bcl-2 gene provides instructions for making one member of this protein family, called B-cell lymphoma 2 protein. This protein is located primarily on the outer membrane of mitochondria and helps to prevent apoptosis by inhibiting the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm.

In healthy cells, the balance between pro-apoptotic (promoting cell death) and anti-apoptotic (inhibiting cell death) proteins is critical for maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. However, in some cancers, including certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, the bcl-2 gene is abnormally overexpressed, leading to an excess of Bcl-2 protein that disrupts this balance and allows cancer cells to survive and proliferate.

Therefore, understanding the role of bcl-2 in apoptosis has important implications for developing new therapies for cancer and other diseases associated with abnormal cell death regulation.

A plasmacytoma is a discrete tumor mass that is composed of neoplastic plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. Plasmacytomas can be solitary (a single tumor) or multiple (many tumors), and they can develop in various locations throughout the body.

Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare cancer that typically affects older adults, and it usually involves a single bone lesion, most commonly found in the vertebrae, ribs, or pelvis. In some cases, solitary plasmacytomas can also occur outside of the bone (extramedullary plasmacytoma), which can affect soft tissues such as the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, or skin.

Multiple myeloma is a more common and aggressive cancer that involves multiple plasmacytomas in the bone marrow, leading to the replacement of normal bone marrow cells with malignant plasma cells. This can result in various symptoms such as bone pain, anemia, infections, and kidney damage.

The diagnosis of plasmacytoma typically involves a combination of imaging studies, biopsy, and laboratory tests to assess the extent of the disease and determine the appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options for solitary plasmacytoma may include surgery or radiation therapy, while multiple myeloma is usually treated with chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.

Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including leukemias and lymphomas. Its chemical name is cytosine arabinoside, and it works by interfering with the DNA synthesis of cancer cells, which ultimately leads to their death.

Cytarabine is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and may be administered through various routes, such as intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous injection, or orally. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health status.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, cytarabine can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It may also cause more serious side effects, such as damage to the liver, kidneys, or nervous system, and it is important for patients to be closely monitored during treatment to minimize these risks.

It's important to note that medical treatments should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and this information should not be used as a substitute for medical advice.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Tanacetum parthenium, also known as feverfew, is an herbaceous plant native to the Balkan region of Europe. It has been used traditionally in folk medicine for its potential health benefits, particularly for treating migraines and headaches. The active components of feverfew include parthenolide, which may help prevent the inflammatory processes that contribute to migraine pain.

However, it is essential to note that while some studies suggest feverfew might be helpful in managing migraines, others have not found significant benefits. Moreover, feverfew can cause side effects such as mouth ulcers and digestive issues, and its long-term safety has not been established. Therefore, individuals should consult their healthcare provider before starting to use feverfew or any other herbal supplement for medicinal purposes.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

Virus latency, also known as viral latency, refers to a state of infection in which a virus remains dormant or inactive within a host cell for a period of time. During this phase, the virus does not replicate or cause any noticeable symptoms. However, under certain conditions such as stress, illness, or a weakened immune system, the virus can become reactivated and begin to produce new viruses, potentially leading to disease.

One well-known example of a virus that exhibits latency is the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox in children. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains dormant in the nervous system for years or even decades. In some cases, the virus can reactivate later in life, causing shingles, a painful rash that typically occurs on one side of the body.

Virus latency is an important concept in virology and infectious disease research, as it has implications for understanding the persistence of viral infections, developing treatments and vaccines, and predicting the risk of disease recurrence.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

Inhibitors of Differentiation (ID) proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators that play crucial roles in controlling cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They belong to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein family and function as negative regulators of differentiation in various cell types.

ID proteins lack the DNA-binding domain required for specific interactions with DNA, but they contain a highly conserved HLH region that enables them to form heterodimers with other bHLH transcription factors. By doing so, ID proteins prevent these partner bHLH factors from binding to their target DNA sequences and thus inhibit the differentiation programs driven by those factors.

There are four members in the ID protein family: ID1, ID2, ID3, and ID4. These proteins exhibit distinct expression patterns during embryonic development and in adult tissues, reflecting their diverse roles in regulating cell fate decisions and homeostasis. Dysregulation of ID protein function has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize foreign substances such as pathogens or toxins. They are composed of four polypeptide chains: two heavy chains and two light chains, which are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains contain loops that form the antigen-binding site, allowing each Ig molecule to recognize a specific epitope (antigenic determinant) on an antigen.

Genes encoding immunoglobulins are located on chromosome 14 (light chain genes) and chromosomes 22 and 2 (heavy chain genes). The diversity of the immune system is generated through a process called V(D)J recombination, where variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments are randomly selected and assembled to form the variable regions of the heavy and light chains. This results in an enormous number of possible combinations, allowing the immune system to recognize and respond to a vast array of potential threats.

There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with distinct functions and structures. For example, IgG is the most abundant class in serum and provides long-term protection against pathogens, while IgA is found on mucosal surfaces and helps prevent the entry of pathogens into the body.

Chromosome banding is a technique used in cytogenetics to identify and describe the physical structure and organization of chromosomes. This method involves staining the chromosomes with specific dyes that bind differently to the DNA and proteins in various regions of the chromosome, resulting in a distinct pattern of light and dark bands when viewed under a microscope.

The most commonly used banding techniques are G-banding (Giemsa banding) and R-banding (reverse banding). In G-banding, the chromosomes are stained with Giemsa dye, which preferentially binds to the AT-rich regions, creating a characteristic banding pattern. The bands are numbered from the centromere (the constriction point where the chromatids join) outwards, with the darker bands (rich in A-T base pairs and histone proteins) labeled as "q" arms and the lighter bands (rich in G-C base pairs and arginine-rich proteins) labeled as "p" arms.

R-banding, on the other hand, uses a different staining procedure that results in a reversed banding pattern compared to G-banding. The darker R-bands correspond to the lighter G-bands, and vice versa. This technique is particularly useful for identifying and analyzing specific regions of chromosomes that may be difficult to visualize with G-banding alone.

Chromosome banding plays a crucial role in diagnosing genetic disorders, identifying chromosomal abnormalities, and studying the structure and function of chromosomes in both clinical and research settings.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Methotrexate is a medication used in the treatment of certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. It is an antimetabolite that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, essential components of DNA and RNA. By blocking this enzyme, methotrexate interferes with cell division and growth, making it effective in treating rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer treatment, methotrexate is also used to manage autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In these conditions, methotrexate modulates the immune system and reduces inflammation.

It's important to note that methotrexate can have significant side effects and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function, and kidney function is necessary during treatment with methotrexate.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a variety of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling cascade or changing the cell's metabolism. Receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including communication between cells, regulation of immune responses, and perception of senses.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the adaptive immune system, specifically by B-cells and T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as microorganisms (like bacteria, viruses, or fungi), pollen, dust mites, or even components of our own cells (for instance, in autoimmune diseases). An antigen's ability to stimulate an immune response is determined by its molecular structure and whether it can be recognized by the receptors on immune cells.

3. B-Cell: B-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system, particularly in humoral immunity. They originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens. Each B-cell has receptors on its surface called B-cell receptors (BCRs) that can recognize a unique antigen. When a B-cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated, undergoes proliferation, and differentiates into plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that are present in all cells and play crucial roles in regulating cell growth, division, and death. They code for proteins that are involved in signal transduction pathways that control various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. When these genes undergo mutations or are activated abnormally, they can become oncogenes, which have the potential to cause uncontrolled cell growth and lead to cancer. Oncogenes can contribute to tumor formation through various mechanisms, including promoting cell division, inhibiting programmed cell death (apoptosis), and stimulating blood vessel growth (angiogenesis).

Leukemia, lymphoid is a type of cancer that affects the lymphoid cells, which are a vital part of the body's immune system. It is characterized by the uncontrolled production of abnormal white blood cells (leukocytes or WBCs) in the bone marrow, specifically the lymphocytes. These abnormal lymphocytes accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are two main types of lymphoid leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia progresses rapidly, while chronic lymphocytic leukemia has a slower onset and progression.

Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia may include fatigue, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors but often involve chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Extranodal NK-T-cell lymphoma is a rare and aggressive type of lymphoma that typically involves the nasal area and other extranodal sites. It is characterized by the proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells or T-cells, specifically those that express the CD56 surface antigen and are positive for cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon.

The tumor cells in this type of lymphoma often produce large amounts of cytokines, leading to extensive tissue destruction and necrosis at the site of involvement. The disease can also involve the skin, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and other organs.

Extranodal NK-T-cell lymphoma is more prevalent in Asians and Latin Americans than in other populations. It tends to affect middle-aged adults and has a poor prognosis, with a high rate of relapse and a low survival rate. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes stem cell transplantation.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Chaperonin Containing TCP-1 (CCT) is a protein complex that assists in the folding of other proteins in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. It is composed of two rings, each containing eight different subunits (designated as CCTα, CCTβ, CCTγ, CCTδ, CCTε, CCTζ, CCTη, and CCTθ or TCP-1, TCP-2, TCP-3, TCP-4, TCP-5, TCP-6, TCP-7, and TCP-8). CCT plays a crucial role in the proper folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and helps maintain protein homeostasis within the cell.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hybrid cells" is not a standard medical term with a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "hybrid" is used in various scientific and medical contexts to describe combinations or mixtures of different elements, such as hybridoma cells (a type of fusion cell used in research, created by combining a B cell and a tumor cell) or hybridization (in genetics, the process of combining DNA from two different sources).

Without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition for "hybrid cells." If you could provide more information about the context in which this term was used, I would be happy to help you further!

Viral activation, also known as viral reactivation or virus reactivation, refers to the process in which a latent or dormant virus becomes active and starts to replicate within a host cell. This can occur when the immune system is weakened or compromised, allowing the virus to evade the body's natural defenses and cause disease.

In some cases, viral activation can be triggered by certain environmental factors, such as stress, exposure to UV light, or infection with another virus. Once activated, the virus can cause symptoms similar to those seen during the initial infection, or it may lead to new symptoms depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response.

Examples of viruses that can remain dormant in the body and be reactivated include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is important to note that not all viruses can be reactivated, and some may remain dormant in the body indefinitely without causing any harm.

... of lymphoma cases can be attributed to Burkitt lymphoma. The peak incidence for endemic Burkitt lymphoma is from ages 4 to 7 ... Burkitt lymphoma is uncommon in adults, in whom it has a worse prognosis. Burkitt lymphoma can be divided into three main ... EBV infection is associated with Burkitt lymphoma. EBV is found in virtually all instances of endemic Burkitt lymphoma. The ... "Burkitt Lymphoma and Burkitt-like Lymphoma: Practice Essentials, Background, Etiology and Pathophysiology". 29 June 2017. ...
Books Burkitt, D. P.; Wright, D. H. (1970). Burkitt's Lymphoma. Livingstone. ISBN 0443007004. LCCN 72021505. Burkitt, D. P.; ... Denis P. Burkitt, "Discovering Burkitt's Lymphoma" in Paul H. Levine, Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Disease (Humana Press 1987) ... Burkitt, together with Dennis Wright, published a book titled Burkitt's Lymphoma in April 1970. His second major contribution ... Biography Dennis Wright Archived 26 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine Burkitt, D. P; Wright, Dennis H (1970). Burkitt's lymphoma ...
These include AIDS-associated lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, ... Burkitt lymphoma is named after the British surgeon Denis Burkitt. Burkitt identified this disease in 1956 in children in ... AIDS-associated lymphoma Angioimmunoblastic lymphoma Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) Some of ... diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ...
Denis Burkitt in describing the pathology of Burkitt lymphoma. Wright became a leading expert on lymphomas. In 1964 he ... Burkitt, Denis P.; Wright, Dennis H. (1970). Burkitt's Lymphoma. Edinburgh: Livingstone. ISBN 0443007004. LCCN 72021505; xi+251 ... He received in 1973 the Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize for his research on the pathology of Burkitt lymphoma. He ... he and his coworkers were among the first to describe T-cell lymphomas associated with enteropathy and to describe lymphomas of ...
... causing excessive proliferation observed as Burkitt's lymphoma. Burkitt's lymphoma commonly affects the jaw bone, forming a ... Burkitt's lymphoma is a type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and is most common in equatorial Africa and is co-existent with the ... Nasopharyngeal cancer Several Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, including Burkitt's lymphoma and primary cerebral lymphoma Post- ... Burkitt's lymphoma, and Epstein-Barr virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified); 2) non-lymphoid ...
MAOA Burkitt's lymphoma; 113970; MYC Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome; 166700; LEMD3 C syndrome; 211750; CD96 C5 deficiency; 609536 ... FOXC2 Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; 605027; PRF1 Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin, somatic; 605027; RAD54L Lymphoproliferative syndrome, EBV- ... GNE Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, somatic; 605027; CASP10 Nonsmall cell lung cancer, response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; ... HMGCS2 Hodgkin's lymphoma; 236000; KLHDC8B Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency; 253270; HLCS Holoprosencephaly-2; 157170; ...
"Peter Saint John". Burkitt's Lymphoma Society. October 23 - December 12, 2013. Archived from the original on June 9, 2017. "In ...
Burkitt, D. P. (1971). "Epidemiology of Burkitt's Lymphoma". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 64 (9): 909-910. doi ... During his lifetime, Haddow's most prominent work was considered to be that on yellow fever and Burkitt's lymphoma. The Zika ... Other notable work included relating the incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma to climatic conditions and the discovery of several ...
Peng SL, Cheng CN, Chang KC (2007). "Burkitt lymphoma with Azzopardi phenomenon". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 131 (5): 682-3. doi: ...
Burkitt lymphoma (BL); Hodgkin lymphoma (HL); plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL); and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) (also termed ... Burkitt lymphoma occurs in three forms. Epidemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is common in Africa, the Middle East, Brazil, Papua New ... Two extremely rare types of the intravascular lymphomas, intravascular NK-cell lymphoma and intravascular T- cell lymphoma, are ... angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive or negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma ( ...
PULVERTAFT, JV (1 February 1964). "Cytology of Burkitt's Tumour (African Lymphoma)". Lancet. 1 (7327): 238-40. doi:10.1016/ ... established from a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma following Hodgkin lymphoma". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 43 (11): 2179- ... "Characteristics of new cell lines derived from Burkitt lymphomas". Cancer. 23 (1): 64-79. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(196901)23:1. ... "An EBV-genome-negative cell line established from an American Burkitt lymphoma; receptor characteristics. EBV infectibility and ...
Denis Parsons Burkitt first describes Burkitt's lymphoma. February 7 - Discovery of "Deep Skull" in Niah Caves in Sarawak by ... synd/2511 at Who Named It? Burkitt, D. (1958). "A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children". The British Journal of ...
Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma). Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have a role in this process. ... of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. Splicing of these W repeat transcripts produces a short intron and a long intron (Fig. 1), both ... "An Epstein-Barr Virus Anti-Apoptotic Protein Constitutively Expressed in Transformed Cells and Implicated in Burkitt ...
Anthony Yeo, 60, Singaporean counsellor, Burkitt's lymphoma. Gilda Galán, 92, Puerto Rican actress. Lorena Gale, 51, Canadian ... Alan Berkman, 63, American physician and activist, lymphoma. Fleur Cowles, 101, American writer, editor and artist. Baciro Dabó ... Luo Jing, 48, Chinese news presenter, lymphoma. Adilgerei Magomedtagirov, 53, Russian general, Interior Minister for the ... Fred Travalena, 66, American comedian and impressionist, non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lucia Lauria Vigna, 113, Italian ...
Treated for breast cancer and Burkitt's lymphoma; pending remission from both cancers. Dorothy Hamill (born 1956), American ...
Burkitt lymphoma; large B cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified; diffuse large B cell lymphoma associated with chronic ... Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which are defined as being all lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphoma, are more common than Hodgkin lymphoma ... Hodgkin lymphoma Classical Hodgkin lymphomas: Nodular sclerosis form of Hodgkin lymphoma Most common type of Hodgkin lymphoma ... large B-cell lymphoma ALK+ large B-cell lymphoma Plasmablastic lymphoma Primary effusion lymphoma Large B-cell lymphoma arising ...
Achong's role in the discovery of EBV was to prepare and examine cultured cells prepared from Burkitt lymphoma samples by ... Epstein, M.A; Achong, B.G; Barr, Y.M (1964). "Virus Particles in Cultured Lymphoblasts from Burkitt's Lymphoma". The Lancet. ... Epstein, Anthony (2012-03-01). "Burkitt lymphoma and the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus". British Journal of Haematology. 156 ... "Morphological and Biological Studies on a Virus in Cultured Lymphoblasts from Burkitt's Lymphoma". Journal of Experimental ...
Epstein MA, Achong BG, Barr YM (March 1964). "Virus Particles in Cultured Lymphoblasts from Burkitt's Lymphoma". Lancet. 1 ( ...
... she was treated for Burkitt's lymphoma. She was treated with aggressive chemotherapy including intrathecal chemotherapy at City ... The cause of lymphoma was prior chemotherapy from 2008 for breast cancer. In 2013, Gujral was in remission from both cancers. ... Lisa Tsering (2013-08-06). "Actress fights lymphoma Urges Community Awareness". India West. Archived from the original on 2013- ...
Epstein, M. A.; Achong, B. G.; Barr, Y. M. (1964-03-28). "Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma". ...
Overexpression of QSER1 was noted in Burkitt's Lymphoma. QSER1 expression also increases with increasing Gleason score (more ... Altered expression of QSER1 is noted in pathological cardiomyopathy, Burkitt's Lymphoma, prostate cancer, and some breast ...
Nick Venet, 61, American record producer, Burkitt's lymphoma. Wayne Ambler, 82, American baseball player. Essie Coffey, 56, ... Sally Purcell, 53, British poet and translator, lymphoma of brain cells. Mae Questel, 89, American actress (Betty Boop), ... Junior Wells, 63, American blues vocalist and harmonica player, lymphoma. Gayane C'ebotaryan, 79, Armenian composer and ...
In 1964 Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr identified the first human oncovirus from Burkitt's lymphoma cells. A ... Epstein MA, Achong BG, Barr YM (March 1964). "Virus Particles in Cultured Lymphoblasts from Burkitt's Lymphoma". Lancet. 1 ( ... Infectious causes of cancer Carcinogen Oncogenic Oncogene Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma Cancer bacteria Oncolytic virus, a ... B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancer". World Journal of Hepatology. 7 (3): 327-343. doi:10.4254/wjh.v7.i3.327. PMC 4381161 ...
Other types are Burkitt's lymphomas and immunoblastic lymphomas). Primary CNS lymphoma is highly associated with Epstein-Barr ... Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also termed primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous ... Primary CNS Lymphoma~treatment at eMedicine Omuro A, Correa DD, DeAngelis LM, Moskowitz CH, Matasar MJ, Kaley TJ, et al. ( ... Primary CNS Lymphoma at eMedicine Scott BJ, Douglas VC, Tihan T, Rubenstein JL, Josephson SA (March 2013). "A systematic ...
... including Burkitt's lymphoma, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Hodgkin's lymphoma, stomach cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma ... 2014). "The role of EBV in the pathogenesis of Burkitt's Lymphoma: an Italian hospital based survey". Infectious Agents and ... Epstein MA, Achong BG, Barr YM (March 1964). "Virus Particles in Cultured Lymphoblasts from Burkitt's Lymphoma". Lancet. 1 ( ... and hydroa vacciniforme as well as malignant lymphoproliferative diseases such as Epstein-Barr virus-positive Burkitt lymphoma ...
... primary leptomeningeal lymphoma, diffuse large cell lymphoma,[non-primary source needed] MALT lymphoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma ... Shimano S, Murata N, Tsuchiya J (July 1997). "[Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia terminating in Burkitt's lymphoma]". Rinsho ... Campbell JK, Prince HM, Juneja SK, Seymour JF, Slavin M (April 2001). "Diffuse large cell lymphoma and t(8;22) (q24;q11) in a ... Lymphoma. 41 (3-4): 421-3. doi:10.3109/10428190109057998. PMID 11378556. S2CID 23366810. Longo F, Hébuterne X, Michiels JF, ...
He was the first to describe a type of cancer that now bears his name Burkitt's lymphoma. This type of cancer was endemic in ... ISBN 978-1-904455-03-5. Bornkamm GW (April 2009). "Epstein-Barr virus and the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma: more ... Magrath I (September 2009). "Lessons from clinical trials in African Burkitt lymphoma". Current Opinion in Oncology. 21 (5): ... In an attempt to find a cause for the cancer, Burkitt sent cells from the tumour to Anthony Epstein (b. 1921) a British ...
Burkitt lymphoma. Arthur Burns, 87, British historian. Joe Christopher, 87, American baseball player (Pittsburgh Pirates, New ...
He died on 2 January 1998 of Burkitt's lymphoma. Just over one month before Beach Boy Carl Wilson. He was survived by his wife ... Deaths from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 20th-century American businesspeople, Deaths from cancer in California). ...
In February 2012, Couchey was diagnosed with Burkitt's lymphoma. The aggressive cancer took hold quickly, and Couchey died on ...
... of lymphoma cases can be attributed to Burkitt lymphoma. The peak incidence for endemic Burkitt lymphoma is from ages 4 to 7 ... Burkitt lymphoma is uncommon in adults, in whom it has a worse prognosis. Burkitt lymphoma can be divided into three main ... EBV infection is associated with Burkitt lymphoma. EBV is found in virtually all instances of endemic Burkitt lymphoma. The ... "Burkitt Lymphoma and Burkitt-like Lymphoma: Practice Essentials, Background, Etiology and Pathophysiology". 29 June 2017. ...
... is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... B-cell lymphoma; High-grade B-cell lymphoma; Small noncleaved cell lymphoma; Burkitts lymphoma ... Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. ... Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/lymphoma/hp/adult-nhl-treatment- ...
... or small noncleaved cell lymphoma) is one of the highly aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) that is characterized by ... the translocation and deregulation of the c-myc gene on chromosome 8. Malignant small noncleaved lymphoma, a historical term, ... encoded search term (Burkitt Lymphoma and Burkitt-like Lymphoma) and Burkitt Lymphoma and Burkitt-like Lymphoma What to Read ... Lymphoblastic lymphoma may be histologically similar to Burkitt lymphoma (BL), however, it is a T-cell lymphoma that expresses ...
Materials and Methods: We have adapted the Burkitts lymphoma line Ramos to a serum-free medium that supports long-term ... Materials and Methods: We have adapted the Burkitts lymphoma line Ramos to a serum-free medium that supports long-term ... Materials and Methods: We have adapted the Burkitts lymphoma line Ramos to a serum-free medium that supports long-term ... Identification of genes deregulated during serum-free medium adaptation of a Burkitts lymphoma cell line. *Mark ...
Burkitt Lymphoma - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Classic Burkitt lymphoma is endemic in central Africa and constitutes 30% of childhood lymphomas in the US. The form endemic to ... Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurring in children and adults. Endemic (African), sporadic ( ... in endemic lymphoma; however, it is uncertain whether Epstein-Barr virus plays an etiologic role. Burkitt lymphoma occurs ...
Burkitts Like lymphoma, Burkitts lymphoma or Diffuse Large B-Cell lymphoma? * "You have Burkitts lymphoma, but it is one of ... Burkitts Lymphoma Society. We are a support and advocacy non-profit organization for Burkitts Lymphoma patients and ... Little did we know we would know the words Burkitts Lymphoma very well, very soon. Brian was diagnosed with Burkitts February ... This entry was posted in Burkitts Lymphoma Society in the News, Memorials on 11/05/2016. by posted by site admin. Andrew, My ...
Read all about Erasmus Medisch Centrum and their involvement with the Burkitt Lymphoma Network. ... A non-profit organisation created to increase understanding of Burkitt Lymphoma and to produce effective research projects and ... Burkitt Lymphoma Network Meeting at ASH San Diego 2023 * Burkitt Lymphoma Network meeting at ICML 2023 - June 14th ... Launch of Burkitt Lymphoma Network * Dual CART19-BCMA for Burkitt Lymphoma patients ...
What studies are recommended by the NCCN to establish a diagnosis of the Burkitt lymphoma form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)? ... What are the NCCN recommendations for follow-up in patients with the Burkitt lymphoma form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)? ... What are the variants of the Burkitt lymphoma (BL) form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) identified by the 2008 WHO classification ... What are the age and race risk factors for the Burkitt lymphoma form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)? ...
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive B-cell malignancy, occurring with increased frequency among patients infected with ... Burkitt lymphoma, AIDS, HIV, rituximab, chemoimmunotherapy, myc Each article is made available under the terms of the Creative ... Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive B-cell malignancy, occurring with increased frequency among patients infected with ... investigators began to apply the same chemotherapeutic regimens used as a gold standard in HIV-negative non-Hodgkin lymphoma ( ...
We treated the human Burkitt- Lymphoma-derived cells lines Ramos and Raji with DZNep and examined HACE1 mRNA expression by RT- ... on HACE1 expression in human Burkitt- Lymphoma-derived cells to investigate fundamental molecular mechanisms that control its ... These results highlight the heterogeneity of HACE1 regulation in B-lymphoma and suggest that successful drug-induced ... a promising therapeutic compound for the treatment of human B-Lymphoma. Histone methylation (both H3K9me2 and H3K27me3) of the ...
Palavras-chave : Burkitt Lymphoma; Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin; Mouth Neoplasms.. · resumo em Português · texto em Português · pdf em ... Burkitts lymphoma is characterized as being a non-Hodgkins Lymphoma undifferentiated B cells with highly aggressive character ... In this paper we aim to report a case of Burkitts lymphoma in a child of 4 years old, explaining its clinical, tomographic and ... Clinical and tomographic findings of Burkitts lymphoma in pediatric patients - case report. Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo- ...
Data from the three preceding studies on the possible relationship of HL-A type with Burkitts lymphoma were combined to see ... Combined analysis of three studies of patients with Burkitts lymphoma. Bodmer JG., Bodmer WF., Pickbourne P., Degos L., ... Data from the three preceding studies on the possible relationship of HL-A type with Burkitts lymphoma were combined to see ... Burkitt Lymphoma, Female, Genetic Linkage, HLA Antigens, Histocompatibility Antigens, Histocompatibility Testing, Humans, Male ...
Classical Burkitts lymphoma. Reddy RS, Lavanya R, Ravikanth M, Ramesh T, John T, Singh TR. Reddy RS, et al. Among authors: ...
Lymphoma, Burkitt (or equivalent term). Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term). Lymphoma, primary, of brain ...
What studies are recommended by the NCCN to establish a diagnosis of the Burkitt lymphoma form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)? ... What are the NCCN recommendations for follow-up in patients with the Burkitt lymphoma form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)? ... What are the variants of the Burkitt lymphoma (BL) form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) identified by the 2008 WHO classification ... What are the age and race risk factors for the Burkitt lymphoma form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)? ...
View other providers who treat Burkitts Lymphoma Cancer * View other providers who treat Cancer ...
Burkitts lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive, fast growing, mature B-cell non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL) and has one of the ... Oro-facial manifestations of Burkitts lymphoma: an analysis of 680 cases from Malawi.. Mlotha, J; Naidoo, S. SADJ ; 66(2): 77- ... Linfoma de Burkitt/complicações Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico Criança Pré-Escolar Feminino Humanos Incidência ... Neoplasias Abdominais/epidemiologia Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia Neoplasias Maxilomandibulares/epidemiologia Neoplasias ...
Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis and therapeutic targets from structural and functional genomics. Nature. 2012;490(7418):116-120. ... A) Karyotype of E-MycCdk4+/+ lymphoma. Trisomy of chr 6 and/or chr 5 was evident in most lymphomas. (B) Abnormal karyotypes are ... Lymphoma transplantation assay. Lymphoma cells (3 × 105) were injected into the tail veins of 6- to 8-week-old Cdk4+/+ female ... CDK4 expression is repressed in subtypes of non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma. (A) The CDK4 gene copy number in human B cell lymphoma ...
Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Burkitts lymphoma and lymphoblastic lymphoma in middle Norway 1985-2004 (106 Online Views) ... Aberrant somatic hypermutation in transformation of follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia to diffuse large B- ... cell lymphoma (343 Online Views) D Rossi, E Berra, M Cerri, C Deambrogi, C Barbieri, S Franceschetti, M Lunghi, A Conconi, M ...
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children. Lymphoma - non-Hodgkin - children; Lymphoblastic lymphoma - children; Burkitt lymphoma - ... non-Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - children; Mature B cell lymphoma - children; Anaplastic large ... Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/lymphoma/hp/child-nhl- ... What is Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children? www.cancer.org/cancer/childhood-non-hodgkin-lymphoma/about/non-hodgkin-lymphomain- ...
Categories: Burkitt Lymphoma Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 4 ...
Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma and other hematologic cancers. ... Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma and other hematologic cancers. ... c-Myc gene is highly expressed in Burkitts leukemia/lymphoma ... It can also eliminate circulating blast cells and prolong survival in models of Burkitts leukemia/lymphoma. GT19715 also ... Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are a diverse group of rare and aggressive lymphoma types that have not benefited from newer ...
EBV is linked to a variety of human tumors, including lymphoid (Burkitts lymphoma, Hodgkins disease, B cell lymphomas) and ... Rymo, L. (1979). Identification of transcribed regions of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in Burkitt lymphoma-derived cells. J. Virol. ... EBV was described more than 50 years ago in patients with Burkitts lymphoma and was the first virus linked to cancer in humans ... Burkitts lymphoma, NPC and EBVaGC, showing significantly higher overall expression in epithelial cancers NPC and EBVaGC in ...
After reaching remission after a three month battle with Burkitts Lymphoma in July, 2015, Jacks disease relapsed a month ... After Jack succumbed to Burkitts Lymphoma, his pack has pivoted to funding a cure. ... Baldricks Scholar grant for Lisa Roth, M.D. These researchers are developing better treatments for lymphomas.. ...
  • Among peripheral B-cell lymphomas, the major difficulty is to differentiate BL from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) , lymphoblastic lymphoma , and blastic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) . (medscape.com)
  • In the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system, these are referred to as "B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Bayesian penalized likelihood PET reconstruction impact on quantitative metrics in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (mayoclinic.org)
  • They frequently treat conditions like Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia along with other conditions at varying frequencies. (healthline.com)
  • Burkitt lymphoma can be divided into three main clinical variants: the endemic, the sporadic, and the immunodeficiency-associated variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sporadic type of Burkitt lymphoma (also known as "non-African") is the most common variant found in places where malaria is not endemic such as North America and parts of Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In sporadic (non-African) Burkitt lymphoma , abdominal disease predominates, often arising in the region of the ileocecal valve or the mesentery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Malignant lymphoma in African children. (medscape.com)
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of disorders involving malignant monoclonal proliferation of lymphoid cells in lymphoreticular sites, including lymph nodes, bone marrow, the. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Burkitt lymphoma is the most rapidly growing human tumor, and pathology reveals a high mitotic rate, a monoclonal proliferation of B cells, and a "starry-sky" pattern of benign macrophages that have engulfed apoptotic malignant lymphocytes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Burkitt's lymphoma in a patient with adenosine deaminase deficiency-severe combined immunodeficiency treated with polyethylene glycol-adenosine deaminase. (medscape.com)
  • Burkitt's lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and differential diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Materials and Methods: We have adapted the Burkitt's lymphoma line Ramos to a serum-free medium that supports long-term survival and studied gene expression changes that occurred during the adaptation process. (lu.se)
  • Burkitt's lymphoma is characterized as being a non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma undifferentiated B cells with highly aggressive character. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this paper we aim to report a case of Burkitt's lymphoma in a child of 4 years old, explaining its clinical, tomographic and histopathological. (bvsalud.org)
  • The couple discovered the correlation between EBV and Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and mononucleosis. (nasonline.org)
  • Oro-facial manifestations of Burkitt's lymphoma: an analysis of 680 cases from Malawi. (bvsalud.org)
  • Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive, fast growing, mature B- cell non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and has one of the highest proliferation rates of any human tumour. (bvsalud.org)
  • B-cell maturation stages of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines according to Epstein-Barr virus status and type of chromosome translocation. (wikidata.org)
  • Lymphoblastic lymphoma may be histologically similar to Burkitt lymphoma (BL), however, it is a T-cell lymphoma that expresses T-cell markers in addition to TdT, which are usually negative in BL cases. (medscape.com)
  • Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurring in children and adults. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The major types are Hodgkin lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma See table Comparison of Hodgkin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies of different biology and prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • Chapter 80 *Pediatric Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas*, in the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Eighth Edition (2017) published by Springer International Publishing. (cancer.gov)
  • Lymphoma Australia is the only incorporated charity in Australia dedicated to solely providing education, support, awareness and advocacy initiatives for Australians touched by lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (lymphoma.org.au)
  • p53 mutations in human lymphoid malignancies: association with Burkitt lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (cornell.edu)
  • The tumor cells have a similar appearance to the those of the classical endemic Burkitt lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endemic variant of Burkitt lymphoma is in almost all cases associated with EBV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the almost ubiquitous presence of the virus in the endemic variant of Burkitt lymphoma suggests that it contributes to the development and/or progression of this variant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classic Burkitt lymphoma is endemic in central Africa and constitutes 30% of childhood lymphomas in the US. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This type of translocation is seen in 15% of cases of Burkitt lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of translocation is involved in about 5% of cases of Burkitt lympohoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • DLBCL typically has larger cells, but some Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cases might have centroblast-like (large) cells intermixed with the more common medium-sized monoclonal lymphocytes, resulting in some degree of a diagnostic dilemma, especially when considering that up to 15% of DLBCL cases might test positive for the c- myc translocation. (medscape.com)
  • Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is often present at diagnosis or with relapsing lymphoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The differential diagnosis is made with other B immunophenotype of high grade lymphomas. (bvsalud.org)
  • Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overview of Lymphoma Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors arising in the reticuloendothelial and lymphatic systems. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The National Cancer Institute's Working Formulation, originally proposed in 1982, classified and grouped lymphomas by morphology and clinical behavior (ie, low, intermediate, or high grade) with 10 subgroups labeled A to J. (medscape.com)
  • The Working Formulation, originally proposed in 1982, classified and grouped lymphomas by morphology and clinical behavior (ie, low, intermediate, or high grade) with 10 subgroups labeled A to J.{Ref 1} In 1994, the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification attempted to apply immunophenotypic and genetic features in identifying distinct clinicopathologic NHL entities. (medscape.com)
  • There are three clinical books of Burkitt experience( wet, medical, and food sent). (1mastermovers.com)
  • The mutational landscape in Burkitt lymphoma has recently been found to differ between tumors with and without EBV infection, further strengthening the role of the virus in disease origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkitt lymphoma (BL) must be distinguished from other primary abdominal tumors in childhood, including Wilms tumor , neuroblastoma , and peripheral neuroectodermal tumor . (medscape.com)
  • The *Lugano classification* includes an E suffix for lymphoma with either localized extralymphatic presentations (Stage IE) or by contiguous spread from nodal disease (Stage IIE). (cancer.gov)
  • Similarly, mantle cell lymphoma cases can be easily distinguished from Burkitt lymphoma (BL) by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry as they typically stain strongly for CD5 and cyclin D1, unlike BL. (medscape.com)
  • Two different studies explored gene-expression profiling by microarray technology as a tool to accurately diagnose Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and differentiate it from DLBCL due to the significant difference in prognosis and treatment approaches for these diseases. (medscape.com)
  • It makes up 40% of the HIV associated lymphomas, and it usually occurs in those with normal CD4+ T cell counts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of B-cell-specific markers in different Burkitt lymphoma subgroups. (wikidata.org)
  • We show that BCR-mediated activation of ZAP-70 is very inefficient in CLL and lymphoma B cells and is negligible when compared to activation of Syk. (ashpublications.org)
  • Burkitt lymphoma is commonly associated with the infection of B cell lymphocytes with the EBV and in these cases is considered to be one form of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkitt lymphoma is uncommon in adults, in whom it has a worse prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • All types of Burkitt lymphoma are characterized by dysregulation of the c-myc gene by one of three chromosomal translocations which place the myc gene under the control of an immunoglobulin gene enhancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that some Burkitt lymphoma cases do not involve EBV allows that many cases of the disease are not caused and/or promoted by EBV, i.e. the virus may be an innocent passenger virus in these cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those borderline cases are categorized under Burkitt-like lymphoma (BLL). (medscape.com)
  • In both studies, rare cases with the Burkitt signature were c-myc negative. (medscape.com)
  • Burkitt lymphoma arising in organ transplant recipients: a clinicopathologic study of five cases. (medscape.com)
  • Immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma is usually associated with HIV infection, but can also occur in the setting of post-transplant patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 49 , 50 ] Moreover, patients with a Burkitt lymphoma (BL) signature who were treated with CHOP-like (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride [doxorubicin hydrochloride], vincristine and prednisone) regimens had a worse prognosis than those patients who were treated with more intense chemotherapy regimens. (medscape.com)
  • We are grateful to be able to share stories from patients and carers, donors and supporters, about their experiences with lymphoma or CLL. (lymphoma.org.au)
  • It is named after Denis Parsons Burkitt, the Irish surgeon who first described the disease in 1958 while working in equatorial Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thank you to each wonderful person below who has shared, to raise awareness of lymphoma and CLL and provide comfort to others going through similar experiences. (lymphoma.org.au)
  • To share your own lymphoma story please fill out our form by clicking the button below, or you can phone us on 1800 953 081. (lymphoma.org.au)