Burkholderiaceae: A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Burkholderia cepacia complex: A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.Burkholderia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BURKHOLDERIA.Burkholderia cepacia: A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Methylophilaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Methylophilales.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Leptothrix: A genus of gram-negative, sheathed, rod-shaped bacteria in the family COMAMONADACEAE.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.MiningMetals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Burkholderia mallei: A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.Glanders: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Panstrongylus: A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Andrographis: A plant genus of the family ACANTHACEAE. Members contain andrographolide and other DITERPENES and androechin, a CHALCONE.Capparaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, that are mostly herbs and shrubs growing in warm arid regions. Several produce GLUCOSINOLATES.QuinuclidinesMelioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Ralstonia solanacearum: A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).Ralstonia: A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Entomopoxvirinae: A subfamily of POXVIRIDAE comprising poxviruses infecting insects including members of COLEOPTERA; DIPTERA; LEPIDOPTERA; and ORTHOPTERA.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.ArizonaBrazilTourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)MexicoBiota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.

Isolation of strains belonging to the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter necessarius cluster from freshwater habitats located in three climatic zones. (1/49)

More than 40 bacterial strains belonging to the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter necessarius cluster (Betaproteobacteria) were isolated from a broad spectrum of freshwater habitats located in three climatic zones. Sequences affiliated with the freshwater P. necessarius cluster are among the most frequently detected in studies on bacterial diversity in freshwater ecosystems. Despite this frequent detection with culture-independent techniques and the cosmopolitan occurrence of members affiliated with this cluster, no isolates have been reported thus far. The isolated strains have been obtained from lakes, ponds, and rivers in central Europe, the People's Republic of China, and East Africa by use of the filtration-acclimatization method. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates are 98.8 to 100% identical to reference sequences obtained by various authors by use of culture-independent methods. The isolates, aerobic heterotrophs, grew on a wide range of standard complex media and formed visible colonies on agar plates. Thus, the previous lack of isolates cannot be explained by a lack of appropriate media. Most of the isolates possess, under a wide range of culture conditions, very small cells (<0.1 micro m(3)), even when grown in medium containing high concentrations of organic substances. Thus, these strains are obligate ultramicrobacteria. The obtained strains have a C-shaped cell morphology which is very similar to that of recently isolated ultramicrobacterial Luna cluster strains (Actinobacteria) and the SAR11 cluster strains (Alphaproteobacteria).  (+info)

Polaromonas naphthalenivorans sp. nov., a naphthalene-degrading bacterium from naphthalene-contaminated sediment. (2/49)

Strain CJ2T, capable of growth on naphthalene as a sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from coal-tar-contaminated freshwater sediment. The Gram reaction of strain CJ2T was negative. The cells were non-spore-forming, non-motile cocci (without flagella). The isolate was found to be an aerobic heterotroph capable of utilizing glucose and other simple sugars. Growth was observed between 4 and 25 degrees C (optimum, 20 degrees C) and between pH 6.0 and 9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.5 mol% and the major quinone was ubiquinone-8. The peptidoglycan of strain CJ2T was determined as belonging to type A1-gamma, meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids of strain CJ2T were 16:1omega7c (67.0%), 16:0 (19.6%), 18:1omega7c (approximately 7.9%) and 10:0 3-OH (approximately 2.5%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Mycolic acid and glycolipids could not be detected. Comparative 16S rDNA analysis indicated that strain CJ2T is related to the family Comamonadaceae and that the nearest phylogenetic relative was Polaromonas vacuolata 34-PT (97.1% similarity). On the basis of the physiological and molecular properties, the naphthalene-degrading isolate was designated Polaromonas naphthalenivorans sp. nov. The type strain is CJ2T (=ATCC BAA-779T=DSM 15660T).  (+info)

Ottowia thiooxydans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel facultatively anaerobic, N2O-producing bacterium isolated from activated sludge, and transfer of Aquaspirillum gracile to Hylemonella gracilis gen. nov., comb. nov. (3/49)

Strain K11T was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal wastewater-treatment plant. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that it represents a distinct line of descent within the Comamonadaceae. The novel strain was a Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile, straight to slightly curved rod. Polyhydroxyalkanoate granules were stored intracellularly as reserve material. Colonies on agar plates were small, regular and characterized by a water-insoluble yellow pigment. Unbranched fatty acids 16:1omega7c, 16:0 and 18:1omega7c dominated the cellular fatty acid pattern and ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) was the major component of the respiratory lipoquinones, both traits typical of members of the Comamonadaceae. A distinguishing characteristic was the presence of the two hydroxy fatty acids 10:0 3-OH and 12:0 2-OH, each in significant amounts. The G+C content of the DNA was 59 mol%. Strain K11T was capable of aerobic chemolithoheterotrophic growth using thiosulfate as an additional substrate, but could not grow autotrophically with thiosulfate or hydrogen. Facultative anaerobic growth was possible with nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptors, but not with ferric iron, sulfate or by fermentation. The sole end product of denitrification was N2O; nitrite accumulated only transiently in small amounts. Based upon phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed to establish the novel taxon Ottowia thiooxydans gen. nov., sp. nov., represented by the type strain K11T (=DSM 14619T=JCM 11629T). Aquaspirillum gracile was among the phylogenetically most closely related species to strain K11T. This species has been wrongly classified, and it is proposed to reclassify it as Hylemonella gracilis gen. nov., comb. nov. The type strain is ATCC 19624T (=DSM 9158T).  (+info)

Wautersia gen. nov., a novel genus accommodating the phylogenetic lineage including Ralstonia eutropha and related species, and proposal of Ralstonia [Pseudomonas] syzygii (Roberts et al. 1990) comb. nov. (4/49)

Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicates that two distinct sublineages, with a sequence dissimilarity of >4 % (bootstrap value, 100 %), exist within the genus RALSTONIA: the Ralstonia eutropha lineage, which comprises Ralstonia basilensis, Ralstonia campinensis, R. eutropha, Ralstonia gilardii, Ralstonia metallidurans, Ralstonia oxalatica, Ralstonia paucula, Ralstonia respiraculi and Ralstonia taiwanensis; and the Ralstonia pickettii lineage, which comprises Ralstonia insidiosa, Ralstonia mannitolilytica, R. pickettii, Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii comb. nov. (previously Pseudomonas syzygii). This phylogenetic discrimination is supported by phenotypic differences. Members of the R. eutropha lineage have peritrichous flagella, do not produce acids from glucose and are susceptible to colistin, in contrast to members of the R. pickettii lineage, which have one or more polar flagella, produce acid from several carbohydrates and are colistin-resistant. Members of the R. pickettii lineage are viable for up to 6 days on tryptic soy agar at 25 degrees C, whereas members of the R. eutropha lineage are viable for longer than 9 days. It is proposed that species of the R. eutropha lineage should be classified in a novel genus, Wautersia gen. nov. Finally, based on the literature and new DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed that Pseudomonas syzygii should be renamed Ralstonia syzygii comb. nov.  (+info)

Two distinct binding sites for high potential iron-sulfur protein and cytochrome c on the reaction center-bound cytochrome of Rubrivivax gelatinosus. (5/49)

The photosynthetic cyclic electron transfer of the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus, involving the cytochrome bc(1) complex and the reaction center, can be carried out via two pathways. A high potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) acts as the in vivo periplasmic electron donor to the reaction center (RC)-bound cytochrome when cells are grown under anaerobic conditions in the light, while cytochrome c is the soluble electron carrier for cells grown under (8)aerobic conditions in the dark. A spontaneous reversion of R. gelatinosus C244, a defective mutant in synthesis of the RC-bound cytochrome by insertion of a Km(r) cassette leading to gene disruption with a slow growth rate, restores the normal photosynthetic growth. This revertant, designated C244-P1, lost the Km(r) cassette but synthesized a RC-bound cytochrome with an external 77-amino acid insertion derived from the cassette. We characterized the RC-bound cytochrome of this mutant by EPR, time-resolved optical spectroscopy, and structural analysis. We also investigated the in vivo electron transfer rates between the two soluble electron donors and this RC-bound cytochrome. Our results demonstrated that the C244-P1 RC-bound cytochrome is still able to receive electrons from HiPIP, but it is no longer reducible by cytochrome c(8). Combining these experimental and theoretical protein-protein docking results, we conclude that cytochrome c(8) and HiPIP bind the RC-bound cytochrome at two distinct but partially overlapping sites.  (+info)

Strain-specific differences in the grazing sensitivities of closely related ultramicrobacteria affiliated with the Polynucleobacter cluster. (6/49)

Ultramicrobacteria (cell volume < 0.1 microm(3)) are the numerically dominant organisms in the plankton of marine and freshwater habitats. Flagellates and other protists are assumed to be the most important predators of these ultramicrobacteria as well as of larger planktonic bacteria. However, due to controversial observations conducted previously, it is not clear as to whether fractions of the ultramicrobacteria are resistant to flagellate predation. Furthermore, it is not known if closely related bacteria vary significantly in their sensitivity to flagellate predation. We investigated the sensitivity of ultramicrobacteria affiliated with the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter cluster to grazing by Spumella-like nanoflagellates. Laboratory grazing experiments with four closely related (> or =99.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) bacteria and three closely related (100% 18S rRNA gene sequence similarity) flagellates were performed. In comparison to larger bacteria, predation on the ultramicrobacterial Polynucleobacter strains was weak, and the growth of the predating flagellates was slow. Specific clearance rates ranged between 0.14 x 10(5) and 2.8 x 10(5) units of predator size h(-1). Feeding rates strongly depended on the flagellate and bacterial strain (P < 0.001). Grazing mortality rates of the three flagellate strains investigated varied for the same prey strain by up to almost fourfold. We conclude that (i) ultramicrobacteria affiliated with the Polynucleobacter cluster are not protected from grazing, (ii) strain-specific variations in grazing sensitivity even between closely related bacteria are high, and (iii) strain-specific differences in predator-prey interaction could be an important factor in the evolution and maintenance of microbial microdiversity.  (+info)

Taxonomy of the genus Cupriavidus: a tale of lost and found. (7/49)

DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and an evaluation of phenotypic characteristics, DNA base ratios and 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that Wautersia eutropha (Davies 1969) Vaneechoutte et al. 2004, the type species of the genus Wautersia, is a later synonym of Cupriavidus necator Makkar and Casida 1987, the type species of the genus Cupriavidus. In conformity with Rules 15, 17, 23a and 37a(1) of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, the genus name Cupriavidus has priority over the genus name Wautersia, and all other members of the genus Wautersia are reclassified into Cupriavidus as Cupriavidus basilensis comb. nov. (type strain LMG 18990(T)=DSM 11853(T)), Cupriavidus campinensis comb. nov. (type strain LMG 19282(T)=CCUG 44526(T)), Cupriavidus gilardii comb. nov. (type strain LMG 5886(T)=CCUG 38401(T)), Cupriavidus metallidurans comb. nov. (type strain LMG 1195(T)=DSM 2839(T)), Cupriavidus oxalaticus comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2235(T)=CCUG 2086(T)=DSM 1105(T)), Cupriavidus pauculus comb. nov. (type strain LMG 3244(T)=CCUG 12507(T)), Cupriavidus respiraculi comb. nov. (type strain LMG 21510(T)=CCUG 46809(T)) and Cupriavidus taiwanensis comb. nov. (type strain LMG 19424(T)=CCUG 44338(T)).  (+info)

Chloromethylmuconolactones as critical metabolites in the degradation of chloromethylcatechols: recalcitrance of 2-chlorotoluene. (8/49)

To elucidate possible reasons for the recalcitrance of 2-chlorotoluene, the metabolism of chloromethylcatechols, formed after dioxygenation and dehydrogenation by Ralstonia sp. strain PS12 tetrachlorobenzene dioxygenase and chlorobenzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, was monitored using chlorocatechol dioxygenases and chloromuconate cycloisomerases partly purified from Ralstonia sp. strain PS12 and Wautersia eutropha JMP134. Two chloromethylcatechols, 3-chloro-4-methylcatechol and 4-chloro-3-methylcatechol, were formed from 2-chlorotoluene. 3-Chloro-4-methylcatechol was transformed into 5-chloro-4-methylmuconolactone and 2-chloro-3-methylmuconolactone. For mechanistic reasons neither of these cycloisomerization products can be dehalogenated by chloromuconate cycloisomerases, with the result that 3-chloro-4-methylcatechol cannot be mineralized by reaction sequences related to catechol ortho-cleavage pathways known thus far. 4-Chloro-3-methylcatechol is only poorly dehalogenated during enzymatic processing due to the kinetic properties of the chloromuconate cycloisomerases. Thus, degradation of 2-chlorotoluene via a dioxygenolytic pathway is evidently problematic. In contrast, 5-chloro-3-methylcatechol, the major dioxygenation product formed from 3-chlorotoluene, is subject to quantitative dehalogenation after successive transformation by chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase and chloromuconate cycloisomerase, resulting in the formation of 2-methyldienelactone. 3-Chloro-5-methylcatechol is transformed to 2-chloro-4-methylmuconolactone.  (+info)

The use of dilution culture techniques to cultivate saccharolytic bacteria present in the anoxic soil of flooded rice microcosms allowed the isolation of three new strains of bacteria, typified by their small cell sizes, with culturable numbers estimated at between 1.2 x 10(5) and 7.3 x 10(5) cells per g of dry soil. The average cell volumes of all three strains were 0.03 to 0.04 microns3, and therefore they can be termed ultramicrobacteria or "dwarf cells." The small cell size is a stable characteristic, even when the organisms grow at high substrate concentrations, and thus is not a starvation response. All three strains have genomic DNA with a mol% G+C ratio of about 63, are gram negative, and are motile by means of a single flagellum. The three new isolates utilized only sugars and some sugar polymers as substrates for growth. The metabolism is strictly fermentative, but the new strains are oxygen tolerant. Sugars are metabolized to acetate, propionate, and succinate. Hydrogen production was ...
In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3-dihydroxy-4,4-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the ...
Pandoraea species are gram negative, motile, non-spore forming, rod shaped and oxidase positive, obligate aerobes bacteria, and have one polar flagellum. Most of Pandoraea species ...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Xylophilus ampelinus.
ID Q13RX3_PARXL Unreviewed; 102 AA. AC Q13RX3; DT 22-AUG-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 22-AUG-2006, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 78. DE RecName: Full=Exodeoxyribonuclease 7 small subunit {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00337}; DE EC=3.1.11.6 {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00337}; DE AltName: Full=Exodeoxyribonuclease VII small subunit {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00337}; DE Short=Exonuclease VII small subunit {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00337}; GN Name=xseB {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00337}; GN ORFNames=Bxe_B2829 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33166.1}; OS Paraburkholderia xenovorans (strain LB400). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33166.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33166.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=LB400 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33166.1, RC ...
ID Q13S50_PARXL Unreviewed; 203 AA. AC Q13S50; DT 22-AUG-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 22-AUG-2006, sequence version 1. DT 30-AUG-2017, entry version 79. DE SubName: Full=Two component transcriptional regulator, LuxR family {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33089.1}; GN ORFNames=Bxe_B2906 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33089.1}; OS Paraburkholderia xenovorans (strain LB400). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33089.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33089.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=LB400 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33089.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RX PubMed=17030797; DOI=10.1073/pnas.0606924103; RA Chain P.S.G., Denef V.J., Konstantinidis K.T., Vergez L.M., Agullo L., RA Reyes V.L., Hauser L., Cordova M., Gomez L., Gonzalez M., Land M., RA Lao V., Larimer F., LiPuma J.J., ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Ralstonia; Ralstonia ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Ralstonia; Ralstonia ...
Cupriavidus metallidurans ATCC ® 43123D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Cupriavidus metallidurans strain CH34 TypeStrain=True Application:
The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which glucose-6P is converted to ribulose-5P by oxidative decarboxylation, and NADPH is generated [MD:M00006]. The other is reversible non-oxidative phase in which phosphorylated sugars are interconverted to generate xylulose-5P, ribulose-5P, and ribose-5P [MD:M00007]. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) formed from ribose-5P [MD:M00005] is an activated compound used in the biosynthesis of histidine and purine/pyrimidine nucleotides. This pathway map also shows the Entner-Doudoroff pathway where 6-P-gluconate is dehydrated and then cleaved into pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3P [MD:M00008 ...
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That faint whirring sound you hear is every alchemist spinning in his grave. Scientists have discovered bacteria that eats toxic material and, well, po ...
The copK gene is localized on the pMOL30 plasmid of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 within the complex cop cluster of genes, for which 21 genes have been identified. The expression of the corresponding periplasmic CopK protein is strongly upregulated in the presence of copper, leading to a high periplasmic accumulation. The structure and metal-binding properties of CopK were investigated by NMR and mass spectrometry. The protein is dimeric in the apo state with a dissociation constant in the range of 10(-5) M estimated from analytical ultracentrifugation. Mass spectrometry revealed that CopK has two high-affinity Cu(I)-binding sites per monomer with different Cu(I) affinities. Binding of Cu(II) was observed but appeared to be non-specific. The solution structure of apo-CopK revealed an all-beta fold formed of two beta-sheets in perpendicular orientation with an unstructured C-terminal tail. The dimer interface is formed by the surface of the C-terminal beta-sheet. Binding of the first Cu(I)-ion ...
Endosymbiosis of bacteria by eukaryotes is a defining feature of cellular evolution. In addition to well-known bacterial origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts, multiple origins of bacterial endosymbiosis are known within the cells of diverse animals, plants and fungi. Early-diverging lineages of terrestrial fungi harbor endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the Burkholderiaceae. We sequenced the metagenome of the soil-inhabiting fungus Mortierella elongata and assembled the complete circular chromosome of its endosymbiont, Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which we place within a lineage of endofungal symbionts that are sister clade to Burkholderia. The genome of M. elongata strain AG77 features a core set of primary metabolic pathways for degradation of simple carbohydrates and lipid biosynthesis, while the M. cysteinexigens (AG77) genome is reduced in size and function. Experiments using antibiotics to cure the endobacterium from the host demonstrate that the fungal host metabolism is highly ...
The x-ray structure of NccX, a type II transmembrane metal sensor, from Cupriavidus metallidurans 31A has been determined at a resolution of 3.12 A. This was achieved after solubilization by dodecylphosphocholine and purification in the presence of the detergent. NccX crystal structure did not match the model based on the extensively characterized periplasmic domain of its closest homologue CnrX. Instead, the periplasmic domains of NccX appeared collapsed against the hydrophobic transmembrane segments, leading to an aberrant topology incompatible with membrane insertion. This was explained by a detergent-induced redistribution of the hydrophobic interactions among the transmembrane helices and a pair of hydrophobic patches keeping the periplasmic domains together in the native dimer. Molecular dynamics simulations performed with the full-length protein or with the transmembrane segments were used along with in vivo homodimerization assays (TOXCAT) to evaluate the determinants of the interactions ...
The long history of co-existence of bacteria and their protozoan predators in aquatic environments has led to evolution of protozoa resistant bacteria (PRB). Many of these bacteria are also pathogenic to humans. However, the ecological drivers determining the occurrence of different types of PRB in aquatic environments, and the eco-evolutionary link between bacterial adaptation and the resulting implications for mammalian hosts are poorly known. This thesis examines the impact of nutrients and predation on PRB, as well as the ecological and evolutionary connection between their life in aquatic environments and mammalian hosts. In the first study seven bacterial isolates from the Baltic Sea were investigated for their plasticity of adaptation to predation. The response to predation showed large variation where some bacteria rapidly developed a degree of grazing resistance when exposed to predators. The rapid adaptation observed may result in bacterial communities being resilient or resistant to ...
ID D8NY76_RALSL Unreviewed; 872 AA. AC D8NY76; DT 05-OCT-2010, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 05-OCT-2010, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 34. DE SubName: Full=ATP dependent DNA ligase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBJ52137.1}; DE EC=6.5.1.1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBJ52137.1}; GN ORFNames=RPSI07_2772 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBJ52137.1}; OS Ralstonia solanacearum PSI07. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Burkholderiaceae; Ralstonia. OX NCBI_TaxID=859657 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBJ52137.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006858}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBJ52137.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006858} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=PSI07 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CBJ52137.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006858}; RX PubMed=20550686; DOI=10.1186/1471-2164-11-379; RA Remenant B., Coupat-Goutaland B., Guidot A., Cellier G., Wicker E., RA Allen C., Fegan M., Pruvost O., Elbaz M., Calteau A., Salvignol G., RA Mornico D., Mangenot S., Barbe V., Medigue C., ...
The SJR is a size-independent prestige indicator that ranks journals by their average prestige per article. It is based on the idea that all citations are not created equal. SJR is a measure of scientific influence of journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from It measures the scientific influence of the average article in a journal, it expresses how central to the global scientific discussion an average article of the journal is. ...
The SJR is a size-independent prestige indicator that ranks journals by their average prestige per article. It is based on the idea that all citations are not created equal. SJR is a measure of scientific influence of journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from It measures the scientific influence of the average article in a journal, it expresses how central to the global scientific discussion an average article of the journal is. ...
T02922 (aof,chro,cmax,cmos,dzi,eml,fpd,goc,hae,jre,kpd,lpg,lrn,mhos,mste,msyr,nob,oeu,oor,paro,pkb,pprf,psor,pvs,pzh,salj,slim,spir,tmar : calculation not yet completed ...
T01604 (arn,caer,camg,ccar,clus,cmb,cpap,ddq,egz,hbr,mass,ment,moc,mtw,nfu,ntp,oro,parb,pavi,pgs,pht,pib,pmac,prap,pret,psuf,ros,rrz,sgv,shyd,sob,soe,spun,sya,tmu,tprf,xph,zne : calculation not yet completed ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Death due to asthma at workplace in a diphenylmethane diisocyanate-sensitized subject. AU - Carino, Mauro. AU - Aliani, Maria. AU - Licitra, Carmelo. AU - Sarno, Nicola. AU - Ioli, Francesco. PY - 1997/1. Y1 - 1997/1. N2 - Total cases of fatal asthma in the occupational setting reported in the literature are reviewed and the case of a 39-year-old foundry worker who died at work is described. A diagnosis of occupational asthma induced by diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) had been assessed 5 years in advance through a 0.005 ppm exposure inhalation challenge. Postmortem microscopic examination of the lung showed epithelial desquamation, eosinophilic/neutrophilic infiltration of the mucosa, dilatation of bronchial vessels, edema, hypertrophy and disarray of smooth muscle. Fatal asthma attack in a MDI-sensitized individual, to our knowledge, has not been previously described.. AB - Total cases of fatal asthma in the occupational setting reported in the literature are reviewed and the ...
The physiology of the environmental bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 (previously Ralstonia metallidurans) is being studied in comparison to the clinical model bacterium Escherichia coli in order to understand its behaviour and resistance under extreme conditions (e.g. space biology). In order to estimate physiological changes associated with pH stress, flow cytometry was employed to estimate the extent of damage on cell size, membrane integrity and potential and production of superoxides in the two bacterial strains. C. metallidurans and E. coli were submitted to a pH stress. C. metallidurans cells exhibited a different staining intensity than E. coli cells. For both bacterial strains, the physiological status was only slightly affected between pH 6 and 8 in comparison with pH 7 which represents the reference pH. Moderate physiological damage could be observed at pH 4 and 5 as well as at pH 9 in both strains. At pH 2, 10 and 12, membrane permeability and potential, esterase activity, ...
The present invention relates to a process for preparing mixtures of diphenylmethane diisocyanates and polyphenyl polymethylene polyisocyanates by sequential reaction of benzene to nitrobenzene to aniline to polyphenyl polymethylene polyamines to polyphenyl polymethylene polyisocyanates wherein the benzene used as the starting material contains 500 to 5000 ppm w/w toluene and/or xylenes.
Aminoguanidine lanthanide thiodipropionate hydrates of composition [Ln(Agun)<sub>2</sub>(tdp)<sub>3</sub>&#183nH<sub>2</sub>O], Agun = Aminoguanidine, tdp = thiodipropionic acid, where Ln = La, Pr, Nd and Sm if n = 2, have been prepared and characterized by physic-chemical techniques.
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The bvgSA and kps loci of C. metallidurans CH34.Genomic region on the CHR2 replicon of C. metallidurans CH34 covering the bvgSA locus encoding a master virulenc
Sergei Volis, Professor of Ecology. My lab uses ecological, phylogenetic and population genetics techniques to examine the contribution of historical processes, natural selection and gene flow to genetic, morphological and ecological diversification within and among species. Especially we are interested in intraspecific diversification, which often is an intermed... More Content,, ...
TARWEEDS AND SILVERSWORDS. Evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae). 7 Wood Anatomy of Madiinae in Relation to Ecological Diversification. SHERWIN CARLQUIST. OVERVIEW. INTRODUCTION. ECOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS. ROLES OF FIBERS AND PARENCHYMA. ADAPTIVE RADIATION IN WOOD OF MADIINAE: A SUMMARY. ...
This invention relates to syntactic foams comprising the reaction product of a liquid diphenylmethane diisocyanate component, with an isocyanate-reactive component, a filler having a density of less than 1 g/cm 3, and at least one organo-metallic catalyst. This invention also relates to the use of these syntactic foams for insulating pipes.
a) Planktonic bacteria can be cleared by antibodies and phagocytes, and are susceptible to antibiotics. (b) Adherent bacterial cells form biofilms preferentially on inert surfaces, and these sessile communities are resistant to antibodies, phagocytes, and antibiotics. (c) Phagocytes are attracted to the biofilms. Phagocytosis is frustrated, but phagocytic enzymes are released. (d) Phagocytic enzymes damage tissue around the biofilm, and planktonic bacteria are released from the biofilm. Release may cause dissemination and acute infection in neighboring tissue. (Courtesy, Science, 21 May, 1999, VOL 284 ...
View Notes - Conclusion Lab Unit 08 - Ubiquity of Microorganisms from BIOLOGY 2300 at Georgia State. Conclusion Lab Unit 08 - Ubiquity of Microorganisms Levine 1 AlexisLevine Dr.MaxwellM/W
Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from a root nodule of Mimosa asperata collected in Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, in 2005. Mimosa asperata is the only legume described so far to exclusively associates with Cupriavidus symbionts. Furthermore, strain AMP6 represents an early-diverging lineage within the symbiotic Cupriavidus group and has the capacity to develop an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with three other species of Mimosa. Here, we describe the genome of Cupriavidus sp. strain AMP6 which enables comparative analyses of symbiotic trait evolution in this genus; the general features, together with sequence and annotation are further discussed. Finally, the 7,579,563 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 260 scaffolds of 262 contigs, contains 7,033 protein-coding genes and 97 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal. ...
Smiejan, A., Wilkinson, K.J., Rossier, C. 2003. Cd bioaccumulation by a gram negative freshwater bacterium (Rhodospirillum rubrum). Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 701-706. ...
The rate constants for the reaction of dia zo diphenylmethane with 2-substituted cyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acids, determined in butan-1-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol and ethylene glycol, together with the rate constants determined previously in methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol, are correlated using the total solvatochromic equation, of the form log k = A o + sp* + aa + bb, the two parameter model log k = Ao + sp*+ aa and the single parameter model log k = Ao + bb, where p*, b and a represent the solvent dipolarity/polarizability, solvent hydrogen bond acceptor basicity and hydrogen bond donor acidity, respectively. The results obtained for 2-substituted cyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acids are compared to the results for 2-subsituted benzoic acids under the same experimental conditions. ...
Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are "diphenylmethane"-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single methyl radical. This does not include compounds where these benzenes are fused to other rings.[1] Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh.[2] ...
Lautropia mirabilis is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile bacterium of the genus Lautropia and family Burkholderiaceae, isolated from the mouth of children who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Lautropia mirabilis is a gram-negative, polymorphic, motile, coccoid bacteria , that is most commonly found in the human oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract. It was first isolated in 1930 and it was identified as Sarcina mirabilis. However, its status as a unique species was not proposed until 1994, when it was rediscovered in samples from the gingival margins of healthy human patients. Its status as a new species was validated in 1995 by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. L. mirabilis can be grown on all non-selective media except for egg yolk agar. Furthermore, when L. mirabilis is inoculated onto selective media, no growth can be observed. When grown in a broth culture, granules are typically ...
101-61-1 4,4-methylenebis(N,N-dimethylaniline) testing. Laboratory testing for CAS number 101-61-1. Aniline, 4,4-methylenebis[N,N-dimethyl-;Arnolds base;p,p-Bis(dimethylamino)diphenylmethane;4,4-Bis(dimethylamino)diphenylmethane;Bis[p-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]methane;Bis[p-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methane;Bis[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methane;Bis[4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]methane;4,4-Bis(dimethylaminophenyl)methane;4,4-Methylenebis[N,N-dimethylaniline];Michlers base;Michlers hydride;Michlers methane;Reduced michlerS ketone;Tetrabase;Tet. This chemical is yellow to tan crystals
From a green chemistry perspective, the results of our research could allow us to apply these enzymes to biocatalysis processes to synthesize biologically active compounds (such as flavonoids) that have strong antioxidant properties," explained Professor Michel Sylvestre, also an enzyme engineering specialist.. The results were published in the following works: Mohammadi, M., Viger, J.F., Kumar, P., Barriault, D., Bolin, J. T., Sylvestre, M. 2011. "Retuning Rieske-type oxygenase to expand substrate range." J. Biol Chem. 286, 27612-27621. http://www.jbc.org/content/286/31/27612.abstract?sid=9a7395c8-4e4c-460a-a69a-932c85d04095. Kumar, P., Mohammadi, M., Viger, J.F., Barriault, D., Gomez-Gil, L., Eltis, L.D., Bolin, J. T., and Sylvestre, M. 2011. "Structural insight into the expanded PCB-degrading abilities of a biphenyl dioxygenase obtained by directed evolution." J. Mol. Biol. 405, 531-547. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002228361001209X. ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Great Salt Lake-biotype brine shrimp cysts were added to 440-1 saltwater cultures maintained at 20° ,25° , and 30° C. A micronized corn-byproduct was added each day as food. Planktonic bacteria found during growth of the brine shrimp were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (Difco). From the 25° and 30° brine shrimp cultures, a total of seven prevalent bacterial types (five gram-negative and two gram-positive) were isolated from throughout the 12-day growth cycle. Eight antimicrobial agents were tested against these bacteria, with chloramphenicol the most effective antibacterial agent overall, followed by erythromycin and carbenicillin. The bacterial density of the culture medium upon cyst addition was 106 colony forming units (cfu)/ml. The density increased similarly in all cultures from day 1 to day 3, and continued to increase in both the 25°- and 30°- cultures to between 108 and 109 cfu/ml at the end of day 12, at which time many brine shrimp had reached sexual maturity. However, the bacterial
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease characterized by chronic respiratory infections and inflammation causing permanent lung damage. Recurrent infections are caused by Gram-negative antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and the emerging pathogen genus Pandoraea. In this study, the interactions between co-colonizing CF pathogens were investigated. Both Pandoraea and Bcc elicited potent pro-inflammatory responses that were significantly greater than Ps. aeruginosa. The original aim was to examine whether combinations of pro-inflammatory pathogens would further exacerbate inflammation. In contrast, when these pathogens were colonized in the presence of Ps. aeruginosa the pro-inflammatory response was significantly decreased. Real-time PCR quantification of bacterial DNA from mixed cultures indicated that Ps. aeruginosa significantly inhibited the growth of Burkholderia multivorans, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Pandoraea
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 1yfy: Crystal Structure of 3-Hydroxyanthranilate-3,4-Dioxygenase From Ralstonia Metallidurans Complexed With 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid
nm.. Due to the narrow energy range in consideration (~3.0-3.9 eV), we approximate ε∞(ω) as a second-order Taylor polynomial based on the frequency-dependent values given for Ag in Ref. [41]. We find ε∞(ω)=(59.8+i55.1)(ω/ωP)2-(40.3+i42.4)(ω/ωP)+(10.5+i8.6). Since the refractive index of the Si3N4 substrate varies hardly (n≈2.1) in the narrow energy range we consider [36], we assume that the background permittivity εB is constant and determine it by approximating the average resonance energy of the largest particles (2R,20 nm) as the classical limit, i.e., the first term of Eq. (6).. It is known that local Drude theory produces size-independent resonance frequencies of subwavelength particles, but this theory is clearly inadequate to describe the measurements of Figure 2. The nonlocal quasistatic hydrodynamic model predicts a blueshift in agreement with the experimental EELS measurements. Interestingly, the measured blueshift is even larger than predicted. We also see that the ...
During an investigation into the mechanism of the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, it became necessary to determine traces of iodide and bromide in biological matrices as well as in food. A vydac 302-IC anion-exchange column with methanesulphonic acid as the mobile phase was used for the ion chromatographic separation of iodide and bromide. A post-column reaction detector was developed based on the reaction between iodide or bromide, chloramine-T and 4,4-bis(dimethylamino)diphenylmethane. Methods with minimal sample preparation are described for determination of iodide or bromide in serum, milk, salt and water. The detection limit is ca. 20 pg iodide and 15 ng bromide injected.
0011] The invention provides polyurethanes obtainable from [0012] a) a prepolymer containing isocyanate groups and based on diphenylmethane diisocyanate, with an NCO content of 23% to 28% by weight, [0013] obtained from [0014] (i) at least one polyol based on propylene oxide, with an OH number of 200 to 1000, preferably 400 to 800, more preferably 500 to 700 mg KOH/g and a functionality of 1.8 to 4, with the exception of tripropylene glycol, and optionally containing 1,3-butanediol and/or 1,2-propylene glycol in amounts each of max. 2% by weight, based on (a), and [0015] (ii) a mixture of 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (4,4-MDI) modified with carbodiimide groups and uretonimine groups, the uretonimine groups content being 10% to 40% by weight, based on (ii), and a mixture of 15% to 40% by weight of 2,4-MDI, 60% to 85% by weight of 4,4-MDI and 0% to 10% by weight of 2,2-MDI, [0016] b) at least one compound containing NCO-reactive groups, preferably polyether polyols, more preferably ...
Evolution isnt always about competition. It can also be about cooperation, as is the case with the development of chloroplasts and mitochondria from free-living bacteria. This module explains the theory of endosymbiosis along with its origins. Convincing evidence in support of the theory is presented. The evolution of the nucleus and other organelles through invagination of the cell membrane is also discussed.
About Us Malik Sons has continuously enhanced their export orders since its establishment (1993) and we are located in the cosmopolitan city of karachi in order to cate...
EFFECTS OF GRAZERS ON FRESHWATER HABITATS: Interaction Between Salamanders and Terrestrial Grazers A final report to Arizona Fish and Game Department In fulfillment of Arizona Game and Fish Department Heritage Fund Program grant #I96046 by Paul E. Brunkow*, James P. Collins**, and James K. Jancovich Department of Biology Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 85287 Submitted: July 14, 2000 * Present address for Paul Brunkow: Department of Biological Sciences Southern Illinois University - Edwardsville Edwardsville, IL 62026 ** Corresponding author DISCLAIMER The findings, opinions, and recommendations in this report are those of the investigators who have received partial or full funding from the Arizona Game and Fish Department Heritage Fund. The findings, opinions, and recommendations do not necessarily reflect those of the Arizona Game and Fish Commission or the Department, or necessarily represent official Department policy or management practice. For further information, please contact the ...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information forCampylobacter sputorum.
Failure of acute wounds to proceed through the norma lregulated repair process results in wound chronicization. When bacteria find the conditions to form biofilms, wound infection assumes features that differ from those caused by planktonic bacteria. Capacity to adhere to skin surface, aggregation and production of a matrix are the main differences between biofilm-associated microorganisms and their planktonic counterparts.
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Manganese metal-organic framework (Mn-MOF) containing Mn2+ ions, benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC) and N,N-dimethylformamid (DMF) was prepared and used as catalyst for oxidation of alkenes such as 1,1-diphenylethylene, trans-stilbene, cyclohexene, norbornene, styrene and cyclooctene to epoxides with 33-92% conversion and 75-100% selectivity and oxidation of alkanes such as fluorene, adamantane, ethylbenzene and diphenylmethane to alcohols or ketones with tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) with 19-64% conversion and 80-100% selectivity. Study of the catalyst stability and reusability revealed that Mn-MOF behaves heterogeneously in the oxidation reactions.
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This month, Wired published a chilling article by (former EFF Media Coordinator) Annalee Newitz about RFIDs and the privacy threats they create. She tells five stories of these chips in action and how simple hacks can expose you to identity theft, stalking, and tracking. Anyone could uncover your...
The videos author attributes the Sig 550s ubiquity in Swiss households to the generally safe…. by Tactical-Life.com / Mar 12, 2010 ...
"Burkholderiaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-10-25. ... Paraburkholderia members form a monophyletic clade within the Burkholderiaceae family, which is what prompted their distinction ...
Most organisms within the Burkholderiaceae live in soil; however, B. mallei does not. Because B. mallei is an obligate ...
Famili Burkholderiaceae *Genus Burkholderia. *Genus Chitinimonas. *Genus Cupriavidus. *Genus Lautropia. *Genus Limnobacter ...
... is a genus of bacteria from the family of Burkholderiaceae. Parte, A.C. "Caballeronia". www.bacterio.net. " ...
Burkholderiaceae Burkholderia Burkholderia cepacia strain AIMST Ngse1 (N. gracilis; Selangor, Malaysia; leaf tissue) ...
... is a bacterium of the genus Cupriavidus and family Burkholderiaceae. It was renamed from Wautersia ...
... is a species of Proteobacteria of the family of Burkholderiaceae . This bacterium is the plant pathogen ...
... is a bacterium from the genus Burkholderia and family Burkholderiaceae. LSPN bacterio.net Straininfo of ...
... is a bacterial species of the genus Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae. Vandamme, Peter; Henry, ...
... is a genus of bacteria of the family Burkholderiaceae in the class Betaproteobacteria. Only one species, Lautropia ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae. LSPN bacterio.net Vandamme ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family of Burkholderiaceae. "AY197330 Sequence ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae. Candidatus ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae. UniProt eol ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae. LPSN bacterio. ...
... is a Gram-negative, nonfermenting bacterium of the genus Cupriavidus and family Burkholderiaceae. It ...
... is a gram-negative soil bacterium of the genus Cupriavidus and the family Burkholderiaceae. C. ...
Burkholderia nigropunctata is a Candidatus species of bacteria from the genus Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae. ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae. ...
... nonspore-forming bacterium of the genus Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae. B. arboris belongs to the Burkholderia ...
... is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae ...
sbc RNAs are found some species of bacteria classified under the family Burkholderiaceae, and usually reside in plasmids. They ...
... oxidase-positive bacterium from the genus Cupriavidus and the family Burkholderiaceae. It is motil by a single polar flagellum ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family of Burkholderiaceae which belongs to the ...
... is a gram-negative soil bacterium of the genus Cupriavidus and the family Burkholderiaceae which was ...
The Burkholderiaceae are a family of bacteria included in the order Burkholderiales. It includes some pathogenic species, such ...
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Ralstonia. Old locus tag. RS05492. Genomic ...
Burkholderiaceae. Rhizosphere from paddy rice field of Fujian province, China [60]. RT-PCR amplification of nifH RNA. 4 clones ...
"Burkholderiaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-10-25. ... Paraburkholderia members form a monophyletic clade within the Burkholderiaceae family, which is what prompted their distinction ...
Burkholderiaceae. 0.027. 0.049. -. 6. 3. 1. Acidobacteria. Acidobacteriaceae. 0.012. 0.031. -. 4. 3. 0. ...
Burkholderiaceae; Ralstonia. OX NCBI_TaxID=402626 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACD29160.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002566}; RN [1] {ECO ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE36760.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [ ...
Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia; Burkholderia cepacia complex. OG Plasmid pBMUL01 XX RN [1] RP 1-167422 RG US DOE Joint Genome ...
Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia; Burkholderia cepacia complex. OX NCBI_TaxID=406425 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACA92383.1, ECO:0000313, ...
Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia; Burkholderia cepacia complex. OX NCBI_TaxID=406425 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACA92474.1, ECO:0000313, ...
OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Burkholderiaceae; Cupriavidus. OX NCBI_TaxID=264198; RN [0 ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=391038 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACC72697.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001192}; RN [ ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE28876.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [ ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33583.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [ ...
Abbreviations in the graph represent each family: ANAE, Anaeroplasmataceae; BURK, Burkholderiaceae; CARN, Carnobacteriaceae; ... Burkholderiaceae; CARN, Carnobacteriaceae; CLOS IV, Clostridiales incertae sedis IV; CLOS XI, Clostridiales incertae sedis XI; ... OTUs belonging to Burkholderiaceae accounted for more than 12% of the total abundance in all dietary treatments, being detected ... Burkholderiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae (Figure 2). In the ileum, the dominance of Lactobacillaceae family ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33342.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [ ...
A, Bacteroidaceae; B, Porphyromonadaceae; C, Sphingobacteriaceae; D, Flavobacteriaceae; E, Cytophagaceae; F, Burkholderiaceae; ... In addition, the Burkholderiaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae families dominated in chromium resistance, representatives of ... Burkholderiaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae (Figure 6). A similar taxonomic pattern was observed for arsenic resistance genes, ... Burkholderiaceae, and Shewanellaceae. In addition, nitrogenase-related genes contributed to 0.310 ± 0.033 and 0.102 ± 0.051% of ...
OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia; pseudomallei group. OX ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE36487.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [ ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=398527 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACD18837.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001739}; RN [ ...
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Betaproteobacteria › Burkholderiales › Burkholderiaceae › Cupriavidus › ...
Burkholderiaceae; Ralstonia. OX NCBI_TaxID=402626 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACD28908.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002566}; RN [1] {ECO ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33089.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [ ...
Burkholderiaceae; Paraburkholderia. OX NCBI_TaxID=266265 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABE33141.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001817}; RN [ ...
Burkholderiaceae; Ralstonia. OX NCBI_TaxID=402626 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACD29094.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002566}; RN [1] {ECO ...