A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BURKHOLDERIA.
A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes disease in plants. It is found commonly in the environment and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Arabinose is a simple, pentose sugar (a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms) that is a constituent of various polysaccharides and glycosides, particularly found in plant tissues and some microorganisms, and can be metabolized in humans as a source of energy through the pentose phosphate pathway.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.

Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei. (1/670)

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of Ara+ and Ara- Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates and development of a multiplex PCR procedure for rapid discrimination between the two biotypes. (2/670)

A Burkholderia pseudomallei-like organism has recently been identified among some soil isolates of B. pseudomallei in an area with endemic melioidosis. This organism is almost identical to B. pseudomallei in terms of morphological and biochemical profiles, except that it differs in ability to assimilate L-arabinose. These Ara+ isolates are also less virulent than the Ara- isolates in animal models. In addition, clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei available to date are almost exclusively Ara-. These features suggested that these two organisms may belong to distinctive species. In this study, the 16S rRNA-encoding genes from five clinical (four Ara- and one Ara+) and nine soil isolates (five Ara- and four Ara+) of B. pseudomallei were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 16S rRNA-encoding gene of the Ara+ biotype was similar to but distinctively different from that of the Ara- soil isolates, which were identical to the classical clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei. The nucleotide sequence differences in the 16S rRNA-encoding gene appeared to be specific for the Ara+ or Ara- biotypes. The differences were, however, not sufficient for classification into a new species within the genus Burkholderia. A simple and rapid multiplex PCR procedure was developed to discriminate between Ara- and Ara+ B. pseudomallei isolates. This new method could also be incorporated into our previously reported nested PCR system for detecting B. pseudomallei in clinical specimens.  (+info)

Characterization of a murine model of melioidosis: comparison of different strains of mice. (3/670)

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the saprophytic gram-negative rod Burkholderia pseudomallei. The aim of this study was to establish and characterize a murine model of melioidosis to provide a basis for further investigations on the pathogenesis of the disease. After intravenous infection with B. pseudomallei, C57BL/6 mice were found to be significantly more resistant than BALB/c mice. There was a marked organotropism of B. pseudomallei for the spleen and liver in both strains of mice, with the highest bacterial load in the spleen. Electron microscopic investigations of the spleen clearly demonstrated intracellular replication within membrane-bound phagosomes. Electron micrographs of the liver provided evidence that B. pseudomallei-containing phagosomes in hepatocytes fuse with lysosomes, leading to degradation of bacteria. In both strains of mice, the course of infection was highly dependent on the infective dose and the bacterial strain used, ranging from death within a few days to death after several weeks. In comparison with BALB/c mice, the bacterial counts in C57BL/6 mice were decreased 12 h after infection, which is suggestive of an innate immune mechanism against B. pseudomallei in this early phase of infection contributing to the lower susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice. BALB/c mice developed a more pronounced lymphopenia, granulocytosis, and splenomegaly at a lower infective dose compared to C57BL/6 mice. Analysis of the antibody response against B. pseudomallei 11 days after infection revealed a significantly higher immunoglobulin G2A (IgG2a)/IgG1 ratio in C57BL/6 mice than in BALB/c mice, indicating that a T helper type 1 immune response is associated with resistance to infection with B. pseudomallei.  (+info)

Obligatory role of gamma interferon for host survival in a murine model of infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei. (4/670)

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative bacterium capable of causing either acute lethal sepsis or chronic but eventually fatal disease in infected individuals. However, despite the clinical importance of this infection in areas where it is endemic, there is essentially no information on the mechanisms of protective immunity to the bacterium. We describe here a murine model of either acute or chronic infection with B. pseudomallei in Taylor Outbred (TO) mice which mimics many features of the human pathology. Intraperitoneal infection of TO mice at doses of >10(6) CFU resulted in acute septic shock and death within 2 days. In contrast, at lower doses mice were able to clear the inoculum from the liver and spleen over a 3- to 4-week period, but persistence of the organism at other sites resulted in a chronic infection of between 2 and 16 months duration which was eventually lethal in all of the animals tested. Resistance to acute infection with B. pseudomallei was absolutely dependent upon the production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in vivo. Administration of neutralizing monoclonal antibody against IFN-gamma lowered the 50% lethal dose from >5 x 10(5) to ca. 2 CFU and was associated with 8,500- and 4,400-fold increases in the bacterial burdens in the liver and spleen, respectively, together with extensive destruction of lymphoid architecture in the latter organ within 48 h. Neutralization of either tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-12 but not granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, also increased susceptibility to infection in vivo. Together, these results provide the first evidence of a host protective mechanism against B. pseudomallei. The rapid production of IFN-gamma within the first day of infection determines whether the infection proceeds to an acute lethal outcome or becomes chronic.  (+info)

Evidence for the presence in Burkholderia pseudomallei of a type III secretion system-associated gene cluster. (5/670)

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, contains a cluster of putative genes homologous to those encoding HpaP, HrcQ, HrcR, HrcS and HrpV in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. In R. solanacearum, these genes form part of a type III secretion-associated pathogenicity island. The order of the genes in B. pseudomallei is directly equivalent to that found in R. solanacearum. The B. pseudomallei proteins share 49.5% (HpaP), 52.6% (HrcQ), 80.0% (HrcR), 72.1% (HrcS) and 46.7% (HrpV) similarity, respectively, with their equivalent R. solanacearum proteins. The presence of type III secretion-associated genes in B. pseudomallei pathogens suggests a possible role for type III secretion systems in the pathogenicity of this organism.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of genetic loci required for secretion of exoproducts in Burkholderia pseudomallei. (6/670)

Previous studies have demonstrated that Burkholderia pseudomallei secretes protease, lipase, and phospholipase C (PLC) into the extracellular milieu, but their mechanisms of secretion and roles in pathogenesis have not been elucidated. In this study, we isolated and characterized 29 transposon mutants unable to secrete protease, lipase, and PLC.  (+info)

Melioidosis with adrenal gland abscess. (7/670)

We report a case of melioidosis with left adrenal gland abscess in a 51-year-old man from Taiwan who traveled to Rangoon, Burma for a four-day tour on July 15, 1997. The patient developed fever and left upper abdominal pain upon returning to Taiwan on July 19, 1997. Ten days after returning to Taiwan, he was admitted to Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Keelung, Taiwan and blood culture on admission was positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei. Computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed left adrenal gland swelling and suppuration. Treatment with parenteral ceftazidime and cotrimoxazole for three weeks followed by two months of oral cotrimoxazole cured the infection. The patient remained asymptomatic at 12 months follow-up.  (+info)

Epidemiology of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Thailand. (8/670)

The distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil collected from four regions of Thailand and the frequency of B. pseudomallei infections in patients attending government hospitals throughout Thailand in 1997 were surveyed. A total of 3,585 soil samples collected from 896 sites in four regions of Thailand were cultured for B. pseudomallei using selective enrichment broth and modified Ashdown's agar. The organism was recovered in 4.4%, 6.1%, 20.4%, and 5.9% of the soil samples collected from the northern, central, northeastern, and southern regions, respectively, of Thailand (P < 0.0001). Burkholderia pseudomallei was cultured from 50.1% of the sites in the northeastern region compared with 13.8%, 24.5%, and 18.4% in the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively (P < 0.0001). The infection rate in patients attending government hospitals in the northeastern region (137.9 per 100,000 inpatients) was significantly higher than those in the northern (18 per 100,000 inpatients), central (13.4 per 100,000 inpatients), and southern (14.4 per 100,000 inpatients) regions, respectively (P < 0.0001). It is suggested that melioidosis, which is endemic in Thailand, is associated with the presence of B. pseudomallei in soil.  (+info)

'Burkholderia pseudomallei' is a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of melioidosis. It is found in soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacterium can infect humans and animals through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated soil or water. Melioidosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pneumonia, sepsis, and abscesses in various organs. It is a serious and potentially fatal disease, especially in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or compromised immune systems. Proper diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are essential for managing melioidosis.

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by the soil-dwelling gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease primarily occurs in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. It can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations including acute septicemia, pneumonia, and chronic suppurative infection. Risk factors for melioidosis include diabetes mellitus, renal disease, alcoholism, and lung disease. The diagnosis is confirmed by culturing B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum, or pus. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, including intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Burkholderia is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including soil, water, and associated with plants. Some species of Burkholderia are opportunistic pathogens, meaning they can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

One of the most well-known species of Burkholderia is B. cepacia, which can cause respiratory infections in people with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. Other notable species include B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially serious infection that primarily affects the respiratory system; and B. mallei, which causes glanders, a rare but severe disease that can affect humans and animals.

Burkholderia species are known for their resistance to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat in some cases. Proper identification of the specific Burkholderia species involved in an infection is important for determining the most appropriate treatment approach.

Burkholderia mallei is a gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that causes the disease glanders in horses, donkeys, and other solipeds. It can also cause severe and often fatal illness in humans who come into contact with infected animals or contaminated materials. Glanders is rare in developed countries but still occurs in parts of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America.

Human infection with Burkholderia mallei typically occurs through inhalation of infectious aerosols, direct contact with broken skin or mucous membranes, or ingestion of contaminated food or water. The bacterium can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, cough, chest pain, and pneumonia. In severe cases, it can spread to other organs, such as the skin, bones, brain, and spleen, leading to sepsis and death if left untreated.

Burkholderia mallei is highly infectious and resistant to environmental degradation, making it a potential agent of bioterrorism. It is classified as a Tier 1 select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States, meaning that it poses a high risk to national security and public health.

Prevention and control measures include avoiding contact with infected animals or contaminated materials, using personal protective equipment when handling suspect specimens, and implementing strict biosecurity measures in laboratories and animal facilities. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics, such as ceftazidime, meropenem, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, for at least 3 weeks to ensure complete eradication of the bacterium.

Burkholderia infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia genus, which includes several species that can cause various types of infection in humans. The most well-known and medically significant species include Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), Burkholderia pseudomallei, and Burkholderia mallei.

1. Burkholderia cepacia Complex (Bcc): These are a group of closely related bacteria that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and plants. They can cause respiratory infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis. Bcc infections can be difficult to treat due to their resistance to many antibiotics.

2. Burkholderia pseudomallei: This species is the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially severe and life-threatening infection endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacteria can be found in contaminated water and soil, and people can get infected through direct contact with contaminated sources, ingestion, or inhalation of the bacteria. Melioidosis symptoms may vary widely, from mild flu-like illness to severe pneumonia, abscesses, and sepsis.

3. Burkholderia mallei: This species is responsible for glanders, a rare but serious disease primarily affecting horses, donkeys, and mules. Human infections are usually associated with occupational exposure to infected animals or their secretions. Glanders can cause severe symptoms such as fever, pneumonia, sepsis, and skin ulcers.

Treatment of Burkholderia infections typically involves the use of specific antibiotics, often in combination therapy, depending on the species and severity of infection. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissues. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated sources, practicing good hygiene, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when handling animals or working in high-risk environments.

Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative, motile bacillus that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in water and soil. It is a conditional pathogen, meaning it can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions such as cystic fibrosis.

Infections caused by B. cepacia can be difficult to treat due to its resistance to many antibiotics. The bacteria can colonize the lungs and cause a chronic respiratory infection that can lead to decline in lung function, increased frequency of exacerbations, and even death in some cases. It is also associated with outbreaks in healthcare settings, particularly in patients receiving respiratory therapy or using contaminated medical equipment.

It's important to note that B. cepacia is not typically considered a community-acquired pathogen and is not commonly associated with typical pneumonia or other respiratory infections in healthy individuals.

Glanders is a rare and serious disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. It primarily affects horses, donkeys, and mules, but can also infect humans who come into contact with infected animals or contaminated materials. The disease is characterized by the formation of multiple abscesses in various organs, particularly the lungs, liver, spleen, and skin. In humans, glanders can cause fever, cough, chest pain, muscle aches, and pustules on the skin. It is a highly infectious disease and can be fatal if not treated promptly with appropriate antibiotics. Historically, it has been a concern in military settings due to its potential use as a biological weapon.

The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of closely related bacterial species that are gram-negative, motile, and aerobic. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and vegetation. The Bcc organisms are known to be opportunistic pathogens, meaning they primarily cause infections in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.

Bcc infections can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and chronic lung colonization. The bacteria are particularly notorious for their high level of antibiotic resistance and their ability to form biofilms, making them difficult to eradicate from the lungs of CF patients. Accurate identification of Bcc species is essential for appropriate treatment and infection control measures.

Burkholderia cenocepacia is a species of gram-negative, motile bacteria that belongs to the family Burkholderiaceae. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant roots. They are known to form biofilms and can survive under a wide range of conditions, making them difficult to eradicate.

B. cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious respiratory infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, particularly those with cystic fibrosis (CF). In CF patients, B. cenocepacia infections can lead to a rapid decline in lung function and are associated with high mortality rates. The bacteria can also cause other types of infections such as bacteremia, wound infections, and urinary tract infections.

B. cenocepacia is resistant to many antibiotics, which makes treatment challenging. Infection control measures, such as contact isolation and rigorous environmental cleaning, are crucial in preventing the spread of B. cenocepacia in healthcare settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thailand" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Ceftazidime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria.

It is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis, particularly when they are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ceftazidime is also commonly used in combination with other antibiotics to treat complicated abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, and hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Like all antibiotics, ceftazidime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It may also affect the kidneys and should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function. Ceftazidime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms.

Biological warfare agents are pathogenic organisms or toxins that are intentionally used in a military conflict or act of terrorism to cause disease, death, or disruption. These agents can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxins produced by living organisms. They can be spread through the air, water, or food and can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms to serious diseases that can be fatal if left untreated.

Biological warfare agents are considered weapons of mass destruction because they have the potential to cause widespread harm and panic. The use of such agents is prohibited by international law, and their production, storage, and transportation are closely monitored and regulated. Despite these efforts, there remains a risk that biological warfare agents could be used in acts of terrorism or other hostile actions.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Northern Territory" is not a medical term. It is a geographical and political term referring to a federal territory in Australia. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

'Burkholderia gladioli' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). This complex includes several closely related species that can cause respiratory infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

'Burkholderia gladioli' is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. It has been isolated from a variety of plants, including onions, gladiolus, and other flowers. While it can cause serious infections in humans, it is also being studied for its potential use in bioremediation and as a source of novel antibiotics.

Infections caused by 'Burkholderia gladioli' can be difficult to treat due to the bacterium's resistance to many commonly used antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics and close monitoring of the patient's response to therapy.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Arabinose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a stereoisomer of xylose. It is a pentose, meaning it contains five carbon atoms, and is classified as a hexahydroxyhexital because it has six hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to the carbon atoms. Arabinose is found in various plant polysaccharides, such as hemicelluloses, gums, and pectic substances. It can also be found in some bacteria and yeasts, where it plays a role in their metabolism. In humans, arabinose is not an essential nutrient and must be metabolized by specific enzymes if consumed.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Quorum sensing is a type of cell-cell communication that allows bacteria to detect and respond to changes in population density by producing, releasing, and responding to signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process enables the coordinated expression of certain genes related to various group behaviors such as biofilm formation, virulence factor production, and bioluminescence. The term "quorum sensing" was coined in 1994 by Bonnie L. Bassler and Susan Goldberg to describe this population-dependent gene regulation mechanism in bacteria.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections. It contains two active ingredients: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, which work together to inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, a vital component for their survival.

Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic agent that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme needed for bacterial growth, while sulfamethoxazole is a bacteriostatic sulfonamide that inhibits the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate by blocking the action of the enzyme bacterial dihydropteroate synthase. The combination of these two agents produces a synergistic effect, increasing the overall antibacterial activity of the medication.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a severe lung infection that can occur in people with weakened immune systems. It is also used as a prophylactic treatment to prevent PCP in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that compromise the immune system.

As with any medication, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination can have side effects and potential risks, including allergic reactions, skin rashes, gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood disorders. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Acyl-butyrolactones are a type of chemical compound that consists of a butyrolactone ring (a five-membered ring containing an oxygen atom and a carbonyl group) that has an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to another functional group) attached to it.

Butyrolactones are lactones, which are cyclic esters derived from carboxylic acids. The addition of an acyl group to the butyrolactone ring results in the formation of acyl-butyrolactones. These compounds have a variety of uses in organic synthesis and may also be found in some natural sources.

It's worth noting that "acyl-butyrolactones" is a general term that can refer to any compound with this basic structure, and there may be many specific compounds that fall under this category. Therefore, it's important to consult a detailed chemical reference or speak with a chemist for more information on a specific acyl-butyrolactone compound.

Suppuration is the process of forming or discharging pus. It is a condition that results from infection, tissue death (necrosis), or injury, where white blood cells (leukocytes) accumulate to combat the infection and subsequently die, forming pus. The pus consists of dead leukocytes, dead tissue, debris, and microbes (bacteria, fungi, or protozoa). Suppuration can occur in various body parts such as the lungs (empyema), brain (abscess), or skin (carbuncle, furuncle). Treatment typically involves draining the pus and administering appropriate antibiotics to eliminate the infection.

Southeast Asia is a geographical region that consists of the countries that are located at the southeastern part of the Asian continent. The definition of which countries comprise Southeast Asia may vary, but it generally includes the following 11 countries:

* Brunei
* Cambodia
* East Timor (Timor-Leste)
* Indonesia
* Laos
* Malaysia
* Myanmar (Burma)
* Philippines
* Singapore
* Thailand
* Vietnam

Southeast Asia is known for its rich cultural diversity, with influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. The region is also home to a diverse range of ecosystems, including rainforests, coral reefs, and mountain ranges. In recent years, Southeast Asia has experienced significant economic growth and development, but the region still faces challenges related to poverty, political instability, and environmental degradation.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

... and Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar for clinical isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei". Journal of Clinical ... Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped ... Pathema Burkholderia resource "Burkholderia pseudomallei". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 28450. (Articles with short description, ... 2011). "Rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ...
... metallica Burkholderia multivorans Burkholderia oklahomensis Burkholderia plantarii Burkholderia pseudomallei ... Burkholderia alpina Burkholderia ambifaria Burkholderia anthina Burkholderia arboris Burkholderia cenocepacia Burkholderia ... Burkholderia dolosa Burkholderia gladioli Burkholderia glumae Burkholderia humptydooensis Burkholderia lata Burkholderia latens ... Burkholderia pseudomultivorans Burkholderia puraquae Burkholderia pyrrocinia Burkholderia seminalis Burkholderia singaporensis ...
It is closely related to Burkholderia pseudomallei, but unlike B. pseudomallei, it only rarely causes disease in humans or ... Brett PJ, DeShazer D, Woods DE (1998). "Burkholderia thailandensis sp. nov., a Burkholderia pseudomallei-like species". Int J ... Burkholderia thailandensis is sometimes used to model B. pseudomallei infection in mice because of similarities in the immune ... "Arabinose-positive Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in humans: case report". Clin Infect Dis. 28 (4): 927-28. doi:10.1086/ ...
Brett PJ, DeShazer D, Woods DE (January 1998). "Burkholderia thailandensis sp. nov., a Burkholderia pseudomallei-like species ...
Chua KL, Chan YY, Gan YH (April 2003). "Flagella are virulence determinants of Burkholderia pseudomallei". Infection and ...
Antibiotics used to treat Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (melioidosis), for example β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and ... "Modified Virulence of Antibiotic-Induced Burkholderia pseudomallei Filaments". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 49 (3): ... B.pseudomallei filaments revert to normal forms when the antibiotics are removed, and daughter cells maintain cell-division ...
Inglis, TJ; Chiang, D; Lee, GS; Chor-Kiang, L (1998). "Potential misidentification of Burkholderia pseudomallei by API 20NE". ... Care must be taken because Burkholderia pseudomallei is commonly misidentified as C. violaceum by many common identification ... "Comparison of Automated and Nonautomated Systems for Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei". J Clin Microbiol. 40 (12): ... The two are readily distinguished because B. pseudomallei produces large wrinkled colonies, whereas C. violaceum produces a ...
... it is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei.) Saunders identified the rat as the Large Sumatran Bamboo Rat ( ...
Galyov EE, Brett PJ, DeShazer D (2010). "Molecular insights into Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei pathogenesis ... Bondi SK, Goldberg JB (2008). "Strategies toward vaccines against Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei". Expert ... Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei". J. Clin. Microbiol. 41 (5): 2068-79. doi:10.1128/JCM.41.5.2068-2079.2003. ... "Molecular procedure for rapid detection of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei". J. Clin. Microbiol. 36 (9): 2737 ...
2010). Kursula P (ed.). "Structure of a Burkholderia pseudomallei trimeric autotransporter adhesin head". PLOS ONE. 5 (9): ...
In Burkholderia pseudomallei BimA initiates actin polymerization in vitro. It is assumed that intracellular migration of this ...
One of the largest chromids is the one in Burkholderia pseudomallei, which exceeds 3.1 million nucleotides in size, i.e. 3.1 ... Burkholderia pseudomallei". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (39): 14240-14245. doi:10.1073/pnas.0403302101 ... "Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 harbors a multi-replicon, 9.73-Mbp genome shaped for versatility". Proceedings of the National ... Burkholderia cepacia complex in 1994, Rhizobium meliloti in 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis in 1996, and now about 10% of ...
There are pathogens, such as Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei which have been shown to exhibit genome-wide ... September 2004). "Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei". Proceedings of the ... September 2004). "Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
... and Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar for clinical isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei" (PDF). J Clin Microbiol. 43 ( ... Ashdown's medium is a selective culture medium for the isolation and characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei (the ... 2007). "Biological relevance of colony morphology and phenotypic switching by Burkholderia pseudomallei". J Bacteriol. 189 (3 ... The medium is also enriched with 4% glycerol, which is required by some strains of B. pseudomallei to grow. B. pseudomallei ...
During infection, some bacteria (e.g., Burkholderia pseudomallei) therefore produce superoxide dismutase to protect themselves ... August 2011). "Superoxide dismutase C is required for intracellular survival and virulence of Burkholderia pseudomallei". ...
Currie BJ (2015). "Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei: Melioidosis and Glanders". In Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser ... Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 41 (5): 2068-2079. doi:10.1128/jcm.41.5. ... "Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei as bioterrorism agents: national aspects of emergency preparedness". The ... "Development of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, ...
"A preliminary X-ray study of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase from Burkholderia pseudomallei". Acta Crystallographica ...
... between Etest and reference broth microdilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Burkholderia pseudomallei". ...
It includes some pathogenic species, such as Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis). This ... nov., isolated from forest soil and reclassification of Burkholderia alpina as Pararobbsia alpina comb. nov". Int J Syst Evol ... Sawana A, Adeolu M, Gupta RS (2014). "Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: Proposal for ... to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia". International Journal of Systematic and ...
The first structure of a needle-complex monomer was NMR structure of BsaL from "Burkholderia pseudomallei" and later the ... the type III secretion needle protein of Burkholderia pseudomallei". Journal of Molecular Biology. 359 (2): 322-30. doi:10.1016 ... Burkholderia (glanders), Yersinia (plague), Chlamydia (sexually transmitted disease), Pseudomonas (infects humans, animals and ...
nov., a Burkholderia pseudomallei-like species formerly known as the Oklahoma strain of Pseudomonas pseudomallei". ... Burkholderia oklahomensis is a bacterium which has been described in association with melioidosis. Colonies of Burkholderia ... "Empfehlung der ZKBS zur Risikobewertung von Burkholderia oklahomensis, Burkholderia ambifaria und Empedobacter haloabium" (PDF ... Burkholderia oklahomensis is a gram-negative, catalase and oxidase-positive aerobic, motile bacterium from the genus of ...
"Caspase-6 mediates resistance against Burkholderia pseudomallei infection and influences the expression of detrimental ...
Bond TE, Sorenson AE, Schaeffer PM (June 2017). "Functional characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei biotin protein ligase ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Q63NG7), Brucella abortus (Q57B94), Brucella suis (Q8FYS0) and Brucella melitensis (Q8YJ29). The ...
Fresh-water bacterial infections include Aeromonas hydrophila, Burkholderia pseudomallei causing melioidosis, leptospira ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei and Edwardsiella tarda are two other organisms which possess a T6SS that appears dedicated for ...
The bacteria, Burkholderia pseudomallei, entered his brain through his optic nerve during a research trip to Vietnam in 2001. ...
A recent Australian study has shown that the bacterium causing the tropical disease melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, can ... "Burkholderia pseudomallei penetrates the brain via destruction of the olfactory and trigeminal nerves: implications for the ...
... infection mechanisms of Burkholderia pseudomallei and melioidosis. Peacock has published around 150 papers on these topics. ... and for her research on Burkholderia pseudomallei and Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ...
Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Chlamydophila psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, some of the ... Also, Germany itself became a victim of similar attacks - horses bound for Germany were infected with Burkholderia by French ...
... and Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar for clinical isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei". Journal of Clinical ... Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped ... Pathema Burkholderia resource "Burkholderia pseudomallei". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 28450. (Articles with short description, ... 2011). "Rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ...
Specimens suspected of containing Burkholderia pseudomallei should be clearly labeled as "suspected Burkholderia pseudomallei" ... This information is being provided at the request of the CDC subject-matter experts for Burkholderia pseudomallei. ... For additional information on Burkholderia pseudomallei refer to the ASM Sentinel Level Clinical Laboratory Guidelines. ... Notes Regarding Identification of B. pseudomallei: *Culture of B. pseudomallei from any clinical specimen is considered ...
Crystal structure of a protein from the universal stress protein family from Burkholderia pseudomallei ... Crystal structure of a protein from the universal stress protein family from Burkholderia pseudomallei. Seattle Structural ... Crystal structure of a protein from the universal stress protein family from Burkholderia pseudomallei. *PDB DOI: https://doi. ...
nov., a new species related to Burkholderia thailandensis and the fifth member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei complex. Appl ... Serological Evidence of Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection in U.S. Marines Who Trained in Australia From 2012-2014: A ... Serological Evidence of Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection in U.S. Marines Who Trained in Australia From 2012-2014: A ... Burkholderia pseudomallei grown on sheep blood agar for 96 hours. (CDC photo by Larry Stauffer) ...
Burkholderia Humptydooensis Sp. Nov. Burkholderia Pseudomallei Complex MSMB43T Public And Environmental Health Microbiology ... nov., a New Species Related to Burkholderia thailandensis and the Fifth Member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei Complex. ... The bacterium Burkholderia thailandensis, a member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei complex, is generally considered ... nov., a New Species Related to Burkholderia thailandensis and the Fifth Member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei Complex ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe and often fatal infection that manifests as pneumonia ... Discovery of inhibitors of Burkholderia pseudomallei methionine aminopeptidase with antibacterial activity. Phumvadee ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil, US Virgin Islands, 2019 Cite CITE. Title : Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil, US Virgin ... 2020). Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil, US Virgin Islands, 2019. 26(11). Stone, Nathan E. et al. "Burkholderia pseudomallei ... Burkholderia pseudomallei in Unchlorinated Domestic Bore Water, Tropical Northern Australia Cite CITE. Title : Burkholderia ... The distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Caribbean is poorly understood. We isolated B. pseudomallei from US Virgin ...
Molecular characterization of genetic loci required for secretion of exoproducts in Burkholderia pseudomallei. ... The Burkholderia Genome Database: facilitating flexible queries and comparative analyses. Bioinformatics 2008 Dec 1;24(23):2803 ... If you have used this database, please ensure that you acknowledge the Burkholderia Genome Database publication rather than ... Burkholderia pseudomallei 668, BURPS668_0013 (gspH) .list-group { margin-bottom: 5px; width: 150px; text-align: left; } ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei) case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ... Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) , 2023 Case Definition. *Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) , 2012 Case Definition ...
Interpreting Burkholderia pseudomallei disc diffusion susceptibility test results by the EUCAST method. / Dance, David A.B.; ... Interpreting Burkholderia pseudomallei disc diffusion susceptibility test results by the EUCAST method. In: CLINICAL ... Interpreting Burkholderia pseudomallei disc diffusion susceptibility test results by the EUCAST method. CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY ... keywords = "Burkholderia pseudomallei, EUCAST, melioidosis",. author = "Dance, {David A.B.} and Vanaporn Wuthiekanun and Baird ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei,/jats:named-content,is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the cause of melioidosis, which kills an ... Burkholderia pseudomallei,/jats:named-content,is an environmental Gram-negative bacillus and the cause of melioidosis. Humans ... The presence of,jats:named-content content-type=genus-species,B. pseudomallei,/jats:named-content,in soil defines geographic ... We evaluated the soil properties and presence of,jats:named-content content-type=genus-species,B. pseudomallei,/jats:named- ...
vc_column_text][vc_column_text]The structure of BPSL1549, a protein of unknown function from Burkholderia pseudomallei reveals ... We propose to name BPSL1549 Burkholderia Lethal Factor 1 (BLF1).[/vc_column_text][vc_column_text] ...
We studied the role of NETs in Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (melioidosis), an important cause of Gram-negative sepsis in ... NETs killed B. pseudomallei effectively, and neutrophils stimulated with B. pseudomallei showed increased elastase and DNA ... Conclusion: B. pseudomallei is a potent inducer of NETosis which was reflected by greatly increased levels of NET-related ... Functional assays included human neutrophil stimulation and killing assays and a murine model of B. pseudomallei infection in ...
Paraplegia secondary to Burkholderia pseudomallei myelitis: a case report.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:1630-2. DOIPubMed ... Comparison of Burkholderia pseudomallei loads in organs of BALB/c mice at days 1 (A, B), 3 (C, D) and 7 (E, F) after intranasal ... Exploitation of host cells by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;293:549-55 . DOIPubMed ... Neurological melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1997;25:166-7 . ...
Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei). *Plague (Yersinia pestis)plus icon *FAQ About Plague (as a bioweapon) ...
Geographical distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil in Myanmar * Improving the Usability and Safety of Digital ... Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei - immune correlates of survival in acute melioidosis * Community engagement for the ... Burkholderia pseudomallei multi-centre study to establish EUCAST MIC and zone diameter distributions and epidemiological cut- ... Genetic variation associated with infection and the environment in the accidental pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei ...
Slow growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei compared to other pathogens in an adapted blood culture system in Phnom Penh, Cambodia ... Dive into the research topics of Slow growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei compared to other pathogens in an adapted blood ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei/classificação Burkholderia/classificação Burkholderia/genética Burkholderia/fisiologia Filogenia ... nov., a New Species Related to Burkholderia thailandensis and the Fifth Member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei Complex.. ... The genus Burkholderia consists of a diverse group of species, with the closest relatives of B. pseudomallei referred to as the ... During routine screening for Burkholderia pseudomallei from water wells in northern Australia in areas where it is endemic, ...
Pseudomonas pseudomallei. P pseudomallei (now known as Burkholderia pseudomallei) causes melioidosis (from the Greek, " ... B pseudomallei is found in contaminated water and soil. The pathogen spreads to humans and animals through direct contact with ... The B pseudomallei organism is so prevalent that it is often found as a contaminant. ... In 1949, Walter Burkholder of Cornell University first described P cepacia (now known as Burkholderia cepacia) as the ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei ≤ 0.0011. , 81. 1 For susceptibility testing purposes, the concentration of clavulanic acid is fixed ...
Genomic islands from five strains of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Tuanyok A, Leadem BR, Auerbach RK, Beckstrom-Sternberg SM, ...
Categories: Burkholderia pseudomallei Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Serological Evidence of Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection in U.S. Marines Who Trained in Australia From 2012-2014: A ...
Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei). *Plague (Yersinia pestis)plus icon *FAQ About Plague (as a bioweapon) ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia cepacia Complex Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Acinetobacter ... Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas The Pseudomonad Group Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
Systematic Review and Consensus Guidelines for Environmental Sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei. D Limmathurotsakul, DAB ... Burkholderia stagnalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia territorii sp. nov., two novel Burkholderia cepacia complex species from ...
The agents include Burkholderia pseudomallei, the cause of an uncommon bacterial infection called melioidosis; Francisella ...
Histology showed suppurative granulomas and cultures grew Burkholderia pseudomallei.. Outcome: The patient recovered well with ...
  • This message is to inform you of an ongoing public health investigation regarding three cases of melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei , which occurred in a Kansas resident in March of 2021, a Texas resident in May of 2021, and a Minnesota resident in May of 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • Culture of B. pseudomallei from any clinical specimen is considered diagnostic for melioidosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in a life-threatening disease known as melioidosis. (health.mil)
  • Melioidosis is a potentially life threatening disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei . (health.mil)
  • 1,2 A recent model estimated an incidence of 165,000 melioidosis cases per year (an incidence rate of 5.0 per 100,000 people at risk), with a predicted mortality of 89,000 per year, among the 3 billion people residing in areas likely to contain B. pseudomallei . (health.mil)
  • 3 The true global distribution of B. pseudomallei and the incidence of melioidosis remain poorly understood, and it is not yet known if the growing number of melioidosis cases reported worldwide reflects an unmasking of long-standing bacterial presence or the spread of B. pseudomallei to previously unaffected areas. (health.mil)
  • Title : Child Melioidosis Deaths Caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei-Contaminated Borehole Water, Vietnam, 2019 Personal Author(s) : Tran, Quyen T.L.;Phan, Phuc H.;Bui, Linh N.H.;Bui, Ha T.V.;Hoang, Ngoc T.B.;Tran, Dien M.;Trinh, Trung T. (cdc.gov)
  • In some parts of the tropics, melioidosis is an important public health problem and diagnostic laboratories frequently encounter Burkholderia pseudomallei. (edu.au)
  • We studied the role of NETs in Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (melioidosis), an important cause of Gram-negative sepsis in Southeast Asia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Methods: In a prospective observational study, circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil elastase were assayed in 44 patients with Gram-negative sepsis caused by B. pseudomallei (melioidosis) and 82 controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion: B. pseudomallei is a potent inducer of NETosis which was reflected by greatly increased levels of NET-related components in melioidosis patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Many similarities have been described regarding the clinical features of neurologic melioidosis in naturally infected animals and humans and in animal models infected with B. pseudomallei ( 6 , 9 - 15 ). (blogspot.com)
  • DDBJ accession numbers CP013380 to CP013382).IMPORTANCEBurkholderia pseudomallei is a soil -dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • This 64-year-old man presented with symptoms and radiological features of pulmonary TB, confirmed by sputum smear, but sputum culture also yielded Burkholderia pseudomallei , the pathogen that causes melioidosis. (who.int)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even when the isolate is recognized to be significant, commonly used identification systems may misidentify the organism as Chromobacterium violaceum or other nonfermenting, Gram-negative bacilli such as Burkholderia cepacia or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • MALDI-TOF, 16s, VITEK-2) may misidentify B. pseudomallei as another bacterium, such as occurred with the case in TX, where the isolate was initially misidentified as Burkholderia thailandensis by MALDI-TOF. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary route of infection with B. pseudomallei is believed to be through skin inoculation of the soil-dwelling bacterium. (health.mil)
  • Using the new app, researchers anywhere in the world can look up gene activity in the lungs and blood of mice infected with a range of pathogens: the parasite Toxoplasma gondii , influenza virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei , the fungus Candida albicans , or the allergen, house dust mite. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Surprisingly, genes associated with type I interferon were highly active in both the lungs and blood of mice infected with the Toxoplasma gondii parasite and also seen in response to the Burkholderia pseudomallei bacterium, albeit to a lesser extent. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Ashdown's medium (or Burkholderia cepacia medium) may be used for selective isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1949, Walter Burkholder of Cornell University first described P cepacia (now known as Burkholderia cepacia ) as the phytopathogen responsible for the bacterial rot of onions. (medscape.com)
  • The classic textbook description of B. pseudomallei in clinical samples is of an intracellular, bipolar-staining, Gram-negative rod, but this is of little value in identifying the organism from clinical samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • During routine screening for Burkholderia pseudomallei from water wells in northern Australia in areas where it is endemic, Gram-negative bacteria ( strains MSMB43T, MSMB121, and MSMB122) with a similar morphology and biochemical pattern to B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis were coisolated with B. pseudomallei on Ashdown's selective agar . (bvsalud.org)
  • To determine the exact taxonomic position of these strains and to distinguish them from B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis, they were subjected to a series of phenotypic and molecular analyses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genome -to- genome distance calculations and the average nucleotide identity of all isolates to both B. thailandensis and B. pseudomallei, based on whole- genome sequences, also confirmed B. humptydooensis sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • In an effort to assess the risk of B. pseudomallei infection to service personnel in Australia, 341 paired samples, representing pre- and post-deployment samples of Marines who trained in Australia, were analyzed for antibodies against B. pseudomallei antigens. (health.mil)
  • Serological evidence of possible deployment-related infection with B. pseudomallei was found in 13 Marines. (health.mil)
  • Analysis of pre- and post-deployment serum samples obtained from the Department of Defense Serum Repository identified serological evidence of possible infection with B. pseudomallei in U.S. Marines who trained in Australia during 2012-2014. (health.mil)
  • Functional assays included human neutrophil stimulation and killing assays and a murine model of B. pseudomallei infection in which NET function was compromised using DNase. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Whether certain Burkholderia pseudomallei strains are more likely than other strains to cause central nervous system infection and whether route of infection influences the neurotropic threat remain unclear. (blogspot.com)
  • Rather, a distinct subset of B. pseudomallei strains appear to have heightened pathogenic potential for rapid dissemination to multiple tissues, including the central nervous system, irrespective of the infection route. (blogspot.com)
  • Flaccid paraparesis, commonly documented in animals with B. pseudomallei infection, also has been reported in humans ( 6 , 10 , 15 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Mapping epigenetic changes to the host cell genome induced by Burkholderia pseudomallei reveals pathogen-specific and pathogen-generic signatures of infection. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • They can also see gene activity in the blood of mice with listeria, murine cytomegalovirus, the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi , or a chronic Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. (sciencedaily.com)
  • international travel, the disease is now occurring in https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.06.013 areas to which B . pseudomallei is not endemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular analyses clearly demonstrated that strains MSMB43T, MSMB121, and MSMB122 belong to a novel Burkholderia species for which the name Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although NETs exhibited antibacterial activity against B. pseudomallei, NET formation did not protect against bacterial dissemination and inflammation during B. pseudomallei-induced sepsis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The ability of B. pseudomallei to cause severe, rapidly fatal, invasive infections and to persist in the environment for extended periods, plus its intrinsic resistance to many antibacterial drugs, make B. pseudomallei a desirable candidate for use as a bioterrorism agent ( 1 ). (blogspot.com)
  • This finding has valuable public health ramifications for initiating appropriate and timely therapy after exposure to systemically invasive B. pseudomallei strains. (blogspot.com)
  • Relatively little is known about the potential for different B. pseudomallei strains to cause severe disease, including whether particular strains are more likely to cause neurologic sequelae or whether CNS involvement is a consequence of the mode of delivery of B. pseudomallei . (blogspot.com)
  • Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of the three isolates in comparison with MLST data from 3,340 B. pseudomallei strains and related taxa revealed a new sequence type (ST318). (bvsalud.org)
  • B. pseudomallei, amongst other pathogens, has been found in monkeys imported into the United States from Asia for laboratory use, posing a risk that the pathogen could be introduced into the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical laboratories that have identified any of the agents listed above from hospitalized patients from January 1, 2021, to present should consult with their state or local public health department to determine if referral to a Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratory for rule out of B. pseudomallei is indicated. (cdc.gov)
  • If you have used this database, please ensure that you acknowledge the Burkholderia Genome Database publication rather than just the website URL. (burkholderia.com)
  • The Burkholderia Genome Database: facilitating flexible queries and comparative analyses. (burkholderia.com)
  • NETs killed B. pseudomallei effectively, and neutrophils stimulated with B. pseudomallei showed increased elastase and DNA release in a time- and dose-dependent matter. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, B. pseudomallei can invade host cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, and other cells of the immune system, and persist within them ( 2 , 3 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Two distinct types of Burkholderia pseudomallei, differentiated by the ability to assimilate L-arabinose but with similar morphologies and antigenicities, can be isolated from soil in Thailand. (tropmedres.ac)
  • nov. is phylogenetically distinct from B. pseudomallei and other members of the B. pseudomallei complex, making it the fifth member of this important group of bacteria . (bvsalud.org)
  • Again, because the disease is rarely seen in Western countries, identification of B. pseudomallei in cultures may not actually trigger alarms in physicians unfamiliar with the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histology showed suppurative granulomas and cultures grew Burkholderia pseudomallei . (annals.edu.sg)
  • The laboratory identification of B. pseudomallei has been described in the literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory identification of B. pseudomallei can be difficult, especially in Western countries where it is rarely seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • vc_column_text][vc_column_text]The structure of BPSL1549, a protein of unknown function from Burkholderia pseudomallei reveals a similarity to E. coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1. (atlantisbioscience.com)
  • nov. as a novel Burkholderia species within the B. pseudomallei complex. (bvsalud.org)
  • The genus Burkholderia consists of a diverse group of species, with the closest relatives of B. pseudomallei referred to as the B. pseudomallei complex. (bvsalud.org)
  • Reduce the potential for laboratory exposures by alerting laboratories about the possibility of B. pseudomallei in their laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of these laboratories use disc diffusion for antimicrobial susceptibility testing but have had difficulty with B. pseudomallei because of a lack of internationally accepted criteria to interpret the results. (edu.au)
  • Although it is mainly a soil-dwelling bacteria, a study performed by Apinya Pumpuang and others showed that Burkholderia pseudomallei survived in distilled water for 16 years, demonstrating that it is capable of living in water if a specific environment is provided. (wikipedia.org)
  • For additional information on Burkholderia pseudomallei refer to the ASM Sentinel Level Clinical Laboratory Guidelines . (cdc.gov)
  • When handling specimens suspected to contain B. pseudomallei , increased biosafety practices should be implemented to minimize laboratory exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence et les facteurs de risque des infections liées aux procédures de soins dans tous les hôpitaux de la région du centre-est de la Tunisie, comptant neuf établissements, en 2005. (who.int)
  • Nous en concluons que les infections liées aux procédures de soins constituent un motif de préoccupation dans cette région de Tunisie. (who.int)
  • The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) has recently published guidelines for interpretation of disc diffusion testing for B. pseudomallei, which include the adoption of the new EUCAST interpretative categorisation of susceptibility and resistance. (edu.au)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei is not fastidious and grows on a large variety of culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, EMB, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei grown on sheep blood agar for 96 hours. (health.mil)
  • With matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight analysis , all isolates grouped together in a cluster separate from other Burkholderia spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Increasing understanding of B. pseudomallei pathology and its influencing factors will further reduce illness and death from this disease. (blogspot.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei measures 2-5 μm in length and 0.4-0.8 μm in diameter and is capable of self-propulsion using flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • U.S. Marines deploy annually to Darwin, Australia, a "hyperendemic" region for B. pseudomallei , to engage in training exercises. (health.mil)
  • Since 2012, U.S. Marines have participated in training exercises in Darwin, Australia, one of the world's "hyperendemic" regions for Burkholderia pseudomallei . (health.mil)