A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BURKHOLDERIA.
The largest of the auditory ossicles, and the one attached to the membrana tympani (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Its club-shaped head articulates with the INCUS.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
A disease of horses and donkeys caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. The disease occurs in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.
A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.
A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes disease in plants. It is found commonly in the environment and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.

Experimental aerogenic Burkholderia mallei (glanders) infection in the BALB/c mouse. (1/86)

The object of this study was to develop and characterize experimental Burkholderia mallei aerosol infection in BALB/c mice. Sixty-five mice were infected with 5000 [approx. 2.5 median lethal doses (MLD)] B. mallei strain ATCC 23344(T) bacteria by the aerosol route. Bacterial counts within lung, liver, spleen, brain, kidney and blood over 14 days were determined and histopathological and immunocytochemical profiles were assessed. Mortality due to B. mallei infection occurred between days 4 and 10 post-infection. Bacterial numbers were consistently higher in the lungs than in other tissues, reaching a maximum of approximately 1.0 x 10(6) c.f.u. ml(-1) at 5 days post-infection. Bacterial counts in liver and spleen tissue remained approximately equal, reaching a maximum of approximately 1.0 x 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1) at day 4 post-infection. By day 14 post-infection, bacterial counts were in the range 1.0 x 10(3)-1.0 x 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1) for all tissues. Infection of the lungs by B. mallei resulted in foci of acute inflammation and necrosis. As infection progressed, the inflammatory process became subacute or chronic; this was associated with the development of extensive consolidation. Lesions in liver and spleen tissue were typical of those that might be expected in bacteraemia or bacterial toxaemia. These results suggest that the BALB/c mouse is susceptible to B. mallei when delivered by the aerosol route and that this represents a model system of acute human glanders that is suitable for research into the pathogenesis of and vaccines against this disease.  (+info)

Type III secretion: a virulence factor delivery system essential for the pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei. (2/86)

By creating mutations in the Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 animal pathogen-like type III secretion system (TTSS), this study analyzes the correlation between type III secretion and the pathogenicity of ATCC 23344 in vivo. Mutagenesis demonstrated that a functional TTSS was required for the full pathogenicity of ATCC 23344 in the BALB/c mouse and Syrian hamster models of infection. However, vaccination with each mutant failed to elicit a protective immunity against challenge with wild-type ATCC 23344.  (+info)

Genomic diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates: subtractive hybridization reveals a Burkholderia mallei-specific prophage in B. pseudomallei 1026b. (3/86)

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiologic agent of the disease melioidosis and is a category B biological threat agent. The genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei K96243 was recently determined, but little is known about the overall genetic diversity of this species. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to assess the genetic variability between two distinct clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei, 1026b and K96243. Numerous mobile genetic elements, including a temperate bacteriophage designated phi1026b, were identified among the 1026b-specific suppression subtractive hybridization products. Bacteriophage phi1026b was spontaneously produced by 1026b, and it had a restricted host range, infecting only Burkholderia mallei. It possessed a noncontractile tail, an isometric head, and a linear 54,865-bp genome. The mosaic nature of the phi1026b genome was revealed by comparison with bacteriophage phiE125, a B. mallei-specific bacteriophage produced by Burkholderia thailandensis. The phi1026b genes for DNA packaging, tail morphogenesis, host lysis, integration, and DNA replication were nearly identical to the corresponding genes in phiE125. On the other hand, phi1026b genes involved in head morphogenesis were similar to head morphogenesis genes encoded by Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophages. Consistent with this observation, immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that polyclonal antiserum against phiE125 reacted with the tail of phi1026b but not with the head. The results presented here suggest that B. pseudomallei strains are genetically heterogeneous and that bacteriophages are major contributors to the genomic diversity of this species. The bacteriophage characterized in this study may be a useful diagnostic tool for differentiating B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, two closely related biological threat agents.  (+info)

Contribution of gene loss to the pathogenic evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. (4/86)

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. Burkholderia thailandensis is a closely related species that can readily utilize l-arabinose as a sole carbon source, whereas B. pseudomallei cannot. We used Tn5-OT182 mutagenesis to isolate an arabinose-negative mutant of B. thailandensis. Sequence analysis of regions flanking the transposon insertion revealed the presence of an arabinose assimilation operon consisting of nine genes. Analysis of the B. pseudomallei chromosome showed a deletion of the operon from this organism. This deletion was detected in all B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei strains investigated. We cloned the B. thailandensis E264 arabinose assimilation operon and introduced the entire operon into the chromosome of B. pseudomallei 406e via homologous recombination. The resultant strain, B. pseudomallei SZ5028, was able to utilize l-arabinose as a sole carbon source. Strain SZ5028 had a significantly higher 50% lethal dose for Syrian hamsters compared to the parent strain 406e. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of genes in a type III secretion system were down-regulated in strain SZ5028 when cells were grown in l-arabinose, suggesting a regulatory role for l-arabinose or a metabolite of l-arabinose. These results suggest that the ability to metabolize l-arabinose reduces the virulence of B. pseudomallei and that the genes encoding arabinose assimilation may be considered antivirulence genes. The increase in virulence associated with the loss of these genes may have provided a selective advantage for B. pseudomallei as these organisms adapted to survival in animal hosts.  (+info)

Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome. (5/86)

The complete genome sequence of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 provides insight into this highly infectious bacterium's pathogenicity and evolutionary history. B. mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, has come under renewed scientific investigation as a result of recent concerns about its past and potential future use as a biological weapon. Genome analysis identified a number of putative virulence factors whose function was supported by comparative genome hybridization and expression profiling of the bacterium in hamster liver in vivo. The genome contains numerous insertion sequence elements that have mediated extensive deletions and rearrangements of the genome relative to Burkholderia pseudomallei. The genome also contains a vast number (>12,000) of simple sequence repeats. Variation in simple sequence repeats in key genes can provide a mechanism for generating antigenic variation that may account for the mammalian host's inability to mount a durable adaptive immune response to a B. mallei infection.  (+info)

Quorum sensing: a transcriptional regulatory system involved in the pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei. (6/86)

Numerous gram-negative bacterial pathogens regulate virulence factor expression by using a cell density mechanism termed quorum sensing (QS). An in silico analysis of the Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 genome revealed that it encodes at least two luxI and four luxR homologues. Using mass spectrometry, we showed that wild-type B. mallei produces the signaling molecules N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone. To determine if QS is involved in the virulence of B. mallei, we generated mutations in each putative luxIR homologue and tested the pathogenicities of the derivative strains in aerosol BALB/c mouse and intraperitoneal hamster models. Disruption of the B. mallei QS alleles, especially in RJ16 (bmaII) and RJ17 (bmaI3), which are luxI mutants, significantly reduced virulence, as indicated by the survival of mice who were aerosolized with 10(4) CFU (10 50% lethal doses [LD50s]). For the B. mallei transcriptional regulator mutants (luxR homologues), mutation of the bmaR5 allele resulted in the most pronounced decrease in virulence, with 100% of the challenged animals surviving a dose of 10 LD50s. Using a Syrian hamster intraperitoneal model of infection, we determined the LD50s for wild-type B. mallei and each QS mutant. An increase in the relative LD50 was found for RJ16 (bmaI1) (>967 CFU), RJ17 (bmaI3) (115 CFU), and RJ20 (bmaR5) (151 CFU) compared to wild-type B. mallei (<13 CFU). These findings demonstrate that B. mallei carries multiple luxIR homologues that either directly or indirectly regulate the biosynthesis of an essential virulence factor(s) that contributes to the pathogenicity of B. mallei in vivo.  (+info)

Antibiotic susceptibility of 65 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei to 35 antimicrobial agents. (7/86)

OBJECTIVES: Fifty isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and 15 isolates of Burkholderia mallei were tested for their susceptibilities to 35 antimicrobial agents, including agents not previously tested against these bacteria. METHODS: MICs were determined by agar dilution in Mueller-Hinton medium. RESULTS: Among the antibiotics tested, lower MICs were obtained with imipenem, ceftazidime, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, doxycycline and minocycline. Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides had poor activities. A single clinical isolate of B. pseudomallei was resistant to ceftazidime, co-amoxiclav and doxycycline but remained susceptible to imipenem. CONCLUSIONS: Although B. mallei MICs are often lower, the overall results underline the importance of resistance in both species. The susceptibilities measured are consistent with the current recommendations for the treatment of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei infections.  (+info)

Identification and discrimination of Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis by real-time PCR targeting type III secretion system genes. (8/86)

Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are two highly pathogenic bacteria, responsible for melioidosis and glanders, respectively. The two are closely related and can also be mistaken for B. thailandensis, a nonpathogenic species. To improve their differential identification, we describe a hydrolysis probe-based real-time PCR method using the uneven distribution of type III secretion system genes among these three species.  (+info)

More than 12,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been identified in the genome of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344. As a demonstrated mechanism of phase variation in other pathogenic bacteria, these may function as mutable loci leading to altered protein expression or structure variation. To determine if such alterations are occurring in vivo, the genomes of various single-colony passaged B. mallei ATCC 23344 isolates, one from each source, were sequenced from culture, a mouse, a horse, and two isolates from a single human patient, and the sequence compared to the published B. mallei ATCC 23344 genome sequence. Forty-nine insertions and deletions (indels) were detected at SSRs in the five passaged strains, a majority of which (67.3%) were located within noncoding areas, suggesting that such regions are more tolerant of sequence alterations. Expression profiling of the two human passaged isolates compared to the strain before passage revealed alterations in the mRNA levels of multiple genes when grown
Glanders is a disease of Equidae caused by Burkholderia mallei, which also has zoonotic potential: Apart from humans, wildcats (zoos!), camels, bears, wolves and dogs are susceptible as well. Cattle, sheep and swine are resistant. The course of the disease is either acute (especially in donkeys and mules) with high fever and respiratory symptoms and death after a few days. Or it is rather chronic, particularly in horses, with nodules and ulcerations on the skin, the mucous membrane and the inner organs. Chronically and subclinically infected animals represent a dangerous source of infection. All secretions of the respiratory tract and the skin are infectious; the incubation period ranges from a few days to many months. In Germany, glanders is considered eradicated, but it does occur in different Asian, African and South American countries (export-relevant test).. In Germany, there is an obligation to inform the authorities!. ...
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Allows the formation of correctly charged Asn-tRNA(Asn) or Gln-tRNA(Gln) through the transamidation of misacylated Asp-tRNA(Asn) or Glu-tRNA(Gln) in organisms which lack either or both of asparaginyl-tRNA or glutaminyl-tRNA synthetases. The reaction takes place in the presence of glutamine and ATP through an activated phospho-Asp-tRNA(Asn) or phospho-Glu-tRNA(Gln).
Specifically dimethylates two adjacent adenosines (A1518 and A1519) in the loop of a conserved hairpin near the 3-end of 16S rRNA in the 30S particle. May play a critical role in biogenesis of 30S subunits.
ID BURM7_2_PE1705 STANDARD; PRT; 480 AA. AC BURM7_2_PE1705; A3MMD6; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Drug resistance transporter, EmrB/QacA subfamily; DE (BURM7_2.PE1705). GN OrderedLocusNames=BMA10247_1885; OS BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI NCTC 10247. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia; pseudomallei group. OX NCBI_TaxID=320389; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS BURM7_2.PE1705. CC Burkholderia mallei NCTC 10247 chromosome I, complete genome. CC sequence. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:A3MMD6_BURM7 CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000239124 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; A3MMD6; -. DR EMBL; CP000548; ABO05294.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_001081422.1; NC_009080.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; A3MMD6; -. DR STRING; A3MMD6; -. DR GeneID; 4893681; -. DR GenomeReviews; CP000548_GR; ...
ID BURMS_2_PE2987 STANDARD; PRT; 610 AA. AC BURMS_2_PE2987; A1V7Z1; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Glucosamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase, DE isomerizing; EC=2.6.1 16; (BURMS_2.PE2987). GN Name=glmS-2; OrderedLocusNames=BMASAVP1_A3050; OS BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI SAVP1. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; OC Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia; pseudomallei group. OX NCBI_TaxID=320388; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS BURMS_2.PE2987. CC Burkholderia mallei SAVP1 chromosome I, complete genome. CC sequence. CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:A1V7Z1_BURMS CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000258898 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; A1V7Z1; -. DR EMBL; CP000526; ABM52310.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_994344.1; NC_008785.1. DR ProteinModelPortal; A1V7Z1; -. DR SMR; A1V7Z1; 2-610. DR STRING; A1V7Z1; -. DR ...
Carbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excluding a cofactor (CoA, CoM, THF, or THMPT) that is replaced by an asterisk. The map contains carbon utilization pathways of glycolysis (map00010), pentose phosphate pathway (map00030), and citrate cycle (map00020), and six known carbon fixation pathways (map00710 and map00720) as well as some pathways of methane metabolism (map00680). The six carbon fixation pathways are: (1) reductive pentose phosphate cycle (Calvin cycle) in plants and cyanobacteria that perform oxygenic photosynthesis, (2) reductive citrate cycle in photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria and some chemolithoautotrophs, (3) 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle in photosynthetic green nonsulfur bacteria, two variants of 4-hydroxybutyrate pathways in Crenarchaeota called (4) hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate cycle and (5) ...
Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, are Category B select agents with biothreat potential, and yet effective therapeutic treatments are lacking. In this study, we showed that CpG administration increased survival, demonstrating protection in the murine glanders model. Bacterial recovery from infected lungs, liver and spleen was significantly reduced in CpG-treated animals as compared with non-treated mice. Reciprocally, lungs of CpG-treated infected animals were infiltrated with higher levels of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, as compared to control animals. Employing the B. mallei bioluminescent strain CSM001 and the Neutrophil-Specific Fluorescent Imaging Agent, bacterial dissemination and neutrophil trafficking were monitored in real-time using multimodal in vivo whole body imaging techniques. CpG-treatment increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs and reduced bioluminescent bacteria, correlating with decreased bacterial burden and increased protection against acute
Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are highly pathogenic Gram - negative bacteria and the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These infections, which occur in humans and other animals, are endemic is wide regions of the developing world. This Phase II SBIR project will build on the success of our Phase I work, which established methods for generating monoclon .... ...
Animals; Australia; Burkholderia mallei/genetics; Burkholderia pseudomallei/*genetics/isolation & purification; Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections/*microbiology/mortality/pathology; Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology/mortality/pathology; Disease Models, Animal; Disease Progression; *Genetic Variation; Glanders/microbiology; Humans; Melioidosis/*microbiology/mortality/pathology; Mice; Microfilament Proteins/*genetics; Nasal Mucosa/microbiology; Phagocytes/immunology/microbiology; Virulence/genetics ...
Dr. Gelhaus is Senior Program Manager in the Medical Countermeasures Division of MRIGlobal, where he directs cutting edge research to protect the world from biological threats.. Dr. Gelhaus is also an adjunct faculty member at KCU. Dr. Gelhaus has 19 years of experience in the field of immunology, covering a diverse range of topics. Dr. Gelhaus has nine years of experience in infectious disease, with emphasis on bioweapons and bioterror threats.. At the United States Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Dr. Gelhaus performed research on the role of toll-like receptors (TLR) involved in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by gram-negative select agent bacteria, namely, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis.. At Battelle, Dr. Gelhaus was involved in the development of animal models as a Study Director for Good Laboratory Practices regulated studies, including supporting licensure of medical countermeasures through the US ...
Wallqvist, A., H. Wang, N. Zavaljevski, V. Memisevic, K. Kwon, R. Pieper, S. V. Rajagopala, and J. Reifman. Mechanisms of action of Coxiella burnetii effectors inferred from host-pathogen protein interactions. PLOS ONE. 2017 November 27; 12(11):e0188071. [PDF]. Memisevic, V., K. Kumar, N. Zavaljevski, D. DeShazer, A. Wallqvist, and J. Reifman. DBSecSys 2.0: a database of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei secretion systems. BMC Bioinformatics. 2016 September 20; 17:387. [PDF]. Wallqvist, A., V. Memisevic, N. Zavaljevski, R. Pieper, S. V. Rajagopala, K. Kwon, C. Yu, T. A. Hoover, and J. Reifman. Using host-pathogen protein interactions to identify and characterize Francisella tularensis virulence factors. BMC Genomics. 2015 December 29; 16:1106. [PDF]. Chiang, C. Y., I. Uzoma, D. J. Lane, V. Memisevic, F. Alem, K. Yao, S. Bavari, A. Wallqvist, R. M. Hakami, and R. G. Panchal. A reverse-phase protein microarray-based screen identifies host signaling dynamics upon Burkholderia spp. ...
A simple method was developed for detection and differentiation of five Tier 1 bacterial agents, including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei as well as their closely related near neighbors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Generally, different classes of compounds can be used as biomarkers for biowarfare agent detection, including nucleic acids (i.e., DNA or RNA), proteins (i.e., antibodies), carbohydrates (i.e., sugars), lipopolysaccharides, lipids (i.e., fatty acids) and small molecules. One-step thermochemolysis (TCM) was developed to provide GC-MS detectable biomarker signatures, including sugars, fatty acids and small molecules. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was used for biomarker extraction, concentration and introduction into the GC-MS. Statistical algorithms were constructed using a combination of biomarkers for the five agents, which were robust against different growth conditions (medium and
malleus definition: The hammer-shaped bone tissue this is the outermost for the three small bones inside mammalian center ear. Also known as hammer.; The small hammer-shaped bone of this center ear.;…
Improvement of number of HIV-RNA copies; Improvement is measured by general evaluation of decrease in HIV-RNA copies.. Improvement of CD4 counts; Improvement is measured by general evaluation of increase in CD4 counts.. Not progress in HIV classification (severity of CDC category); Subjects were classified based on the severity of CDC category as mild (Category A), moderate (Category B), and severe (Category C). No change categories from Category A to Category B / Category C, or from Category B to Category C in CDC category. ...
Come to our booth 67a and learn how our customers have used Applied Biosystems™ TaqMan™ array cards for the detection of respiratory viruses and antibiotic resistance genes. Move your single-plex Applied Biosystems™ TaqMan™ assays for microbial identification to the next level using our Custom Formatting Services. It offers the convenience of TaqMan assays pre-plated according to your specifications. Just tell us how you want to configure your plate or card and we will manufacture it.. Discover more. ...
Either well-conducted animal studies show no risk of birth defects, and there are no well-done human studies, or animal studies suggest an increased risk, but human studies do not Examples: Zofran...
Attie, There is a categorical system for use of drugs in pregnancy. The safest drugs are in Category A, followed (in order) by Category B, C, D and X. A good web site for this is...
Before taking Prevacid, tell your doctor if you ever have liver disease. You may not be able to take Prevacid, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment. Prevacid is in the FDA pregnancy category B. This means that it is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not take Prevacid without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant. It is not known whether Prevacid passes into breast milk. Do not take Prevacid without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby ...
Doctors give unbiased, trusted information on whether Emetrol can cause or treat Pregnancy: Dr. Warren on is it safe to take emetrol if you are pregnant: if the benefits out weight the risks and you need it you can take it check with your OB provider to see if you need it or whether you can be off of it during your pregnancy There are different reasons for taking it and you need to see the provider
Stable Block And Dovecot, Callendar House, Callendar Park, Falkirk is a Category B listed building in Falkirk, Falkirk, Scotland. See why it was listed, view it on a map, see visitor comments and photos and share your own comments and photos of this building.
Before taking Prevacid, tell your doctor if you ever have liver disease. You may not be able to take Prevacid, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment. Prevacid is in the FDA pregnancy category B. This means that it is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not take Prevacid without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant. It is not known whether Prevacid passes into breast milk. Do not take Prevacid without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby ...
Glanders is a serious zoonotic disease that primarily affects equids (horses, mules and donkeys). A disease eradication programme based on case detection and destruction of infected domestic animals has been highly successful and the number of reported glanders cases in animals worldwide is now very low. Human glanders is extremely rare and associated with occupations associated with extensive contact with equids. Glanders is caused by Burkholderia mallei, a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular organism that is an obligate parasite of equids with no other known natural reservoir. B. mallei is transmitted by direct contact with infected animals, or indirectly via communal food and water sources that have become contaminated by an infected animal. The clinical presentation in equids can be acute or chronic and has been categorized into nasal, pulmonary and cutaneous forms. Diagnosis is based on culturing B. mallei from lesions or exudates and skin or serological testing. Infected ...
Glanders (from Middle English glaundres or Old French glandres, both meaning glands) (Latin: malleus German: Rotz) (also known as equinia, farcy, and malleus) is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. It can be contracted by other animals, such as dogs, cats and goats. It is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei, usually by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Signs of glanders include the formation of nodular lesions in the lungs and ulceration of the mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract. The acute form results in coughing, fever, and the release of an infectious nasal discharge, followed by septicaemia and death within days. In the chronic form, nasal and subcutaneous nodules develop, eventually ulcerating. Death can occur within months, while survivors act as carriers.. Glanders is endemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. It has been eradicated from North America, Australia, and most ...
The mallein test is a sensitive and specific clinical test for glanders, a common bacterial disease of equids (horses, donkeys, mules). This test is an allergic hypersensitivity test used as a diagnosis for glanders. It is caused by a bacterium called Burkholderia mallei, which is contagious for humans and other species. The occurrence of glanders must be reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Mallein, a protein fraction of B. mallei, is usually injected by an eye-drop. If an animal is infected, the animal will show swelling in the eye from around 48 hours of injection and may be accompanied by secretion and conjunctivitis. Mallein is non toxic to normal animals. Mallein was discovered in 1890. Before 1934, glanders was widespread. In the early 1900s, glanders was common in Europe, the United States of America, and Canada, and has been successfully eliminated by mass testing and the slaughter and destruction of campaigns. Glanders is still present in Asia, the Middle East and ...
Animal Health Australia. The National Animal Health Information System [NAHIS]. Glanders [online]. NAHIS; 2001 Oct. Available at: http://www.brs.gov.au/usr-bin/aphb/ahsq?dislist=alpha.* Accessed 4 Oct 2002.. Rega PP. CBRNE - Glanders and melioidosis. eMedicine [online]; 2007 Aug. Available at: http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic884.htm. Accessed 27 Aug 2007.. Bauernfeind A, Roller C, Meyer D, Jungwirth R, Schneider I. Molecular procedure for rapid detection of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36: 2737-2741.. Biberstein EL, Holzworth J. In: Holzworth J, editor. Diseases of the cat. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1987. Bacterial diseases: Glanders; p. 296.. Bossi P, Tegnell A, Baka A, Van Loock F, Hendriks J, Werner A, Maidhof H, Gouvras G; Task Force on Biological and Chemical Agent Threats, Public Health Directorate, European Commission, Luxembourg. Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of glanders and melioidosis and bioterrorism-related glanders ...
Looking for online definition of slender process of malleus in the Medical Dictionary? slender process of malleus explanation free. What is slender process of malleus? Meaning of slender process of malleus medical term. What does slender process of malleus mean?
Disease Ontology : 12 A primary bacterial infectious disease that results_in septicemic infection, has material basis in Burkholderia mallei, which is transmitted_by contact with tissues or body fluids of infected animals, or through mucosal surfaces such as the eyes and nose. The infection has symptom fever, has symptom chills, has symptom sweating, has symptom muscle aches, has symptom chest pain, has symptom muscle tightness, has symptom headache, has symptom mucopurulent nasal discharge, and has symptom nodular lesions in the lungs ...
Epitope curation should be conducted in the following priority order: A) NIAID Category A, B, and C priority pathogens and toxins: The complete list of NIAID Category A, B, and C priority pathogens and toxins can be found at the following URL: http://www2.niaid.nih.gov/biodefense/bandc_priority.htm. NIAID - Category A Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) Clostridium botulinum Yersinia pestis Variola major (smallpox) and other pox viruses Francisella tularensis (tularemia) Viral hemorrhagic fevers Arenaviruses LCM, Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus Lassa Fever Bunyaviruses Hantaviruses Rift Valley Fever Flaviruses Dengue Filoviruses Ebola Marburg NIAID - Category B Burkholderia pseudomallei Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) Brucella species (brucellosis) Burkholderia mallei (glanders) Ricin toxin (from Ricinus communis) Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens Staphylococcus enterotoxin B Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii) Food and Waterborne Pathogens Bacteria Diarrheagenic E.coli Pathogenic ...
The Soviet Union began a biological weapons program in the 1920s. During World War II, Joseph Stalin was forced to move his biological warfare (BW) operations out of the path of advancing German forces and may have used tularemia against German troops in 1942 near Stalingrad. By 1960, numerous BW research facilities existed throughout the Soviet Union. Although the USSR also signed the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), the Soviets subsequently augmented their biowarfare programs. Over the course of its history, the Soviet program is known to have weaponized and stockpiled the following eleven bio-agents (and to have pursued basic research on many more): Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) Yersinia pestis (plague) Francisella tularensis (tularemia) Burkholderia mallei (glanders) Brucella spp (brucellosis) Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever) Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) Botulinum toxin (botulism) Staphylococcal enterotoxin B Smallpox Marburg virus These programs became immense and were ...
Define glanders: a highly contagious and life-threatening disease of horses and other equines (such as donkeys and mules) or sometimes other animals …
General Information: This type strain came from a Chinese patient in Burma who had glanders in 1944. Causes glanders in horses. This organism is rarely associated with human infection, and is more commonly seen in domesticated animals such as horses, donkeys, and mules where it causes glanders, a disease first described by Aristotle. The pathogen is host-adapted and is not found in the environment outside of its host. Rapid-onset pneumonia, bacteremia (spread of the organism through the blood), pustules, and death are common outcomes during infection. No vaccine exists for this potentially dangerous organism. ...
General Information: This type strain came from a Chinese patient in Burma who had glanders in 1944. Causes glanders in horses. This organism is rarely associated with human infection, and is more commonly seen in domesticated animals such as horses, donkeys, and mules where it causes glanders, a disease first described by Aristotle. The pathogen is host-adapted and is not found in the environment outside of its host. Rapid-onset pneumonia, bacteremia (spread of the organism through the blood), pustules, and death are common outcomes during infection. No vaccine exists for this potentially dangerous organism. ...
Based on these results, we conclude Selleck Ro 61-8048 that BoaA is a well-conserved gene product shared by B. mallei and B. pseudomallei. Table 2 Percent identity shared by boaA and boaB gene products BoaA (Bm ATCC23344) BoaA (Bm NCTC10247) BoaA (Bp K96243) BoaA (Bp DD503) BoaA (Bp 1710b) BoaB (Bp K96243) BoaB (Bp DD503) BoaB (Bp 1710b) BoaA (Bm ATCC23344) 100 BoaA (Bm NCTC10247) 86.9 100 BoaA (Bp K96243) 92.7 89.2 100 BoaA (Bp DD503) 94.4 82.2 90.6 100 BoaA (Bp 1710b) 90.4 83.1 92.4 93.6 100 BoaB (Bp K96243) 64 60 65 63.9 63.9 100 BoaB (Bp. DD503) 62 60.8 62.9 61.9 62.2 96.7 100 BoaB (Bp 1710b) 62.2 60.9 63.2 62.1 62.4 97 99.7 100 Bm = B. mallei Bp = B. pseudomallei Identification of a B. pseudomallei-specific gene encoding a putative autotransporter adhesin that resembles BoaA Further analysis of the annotated genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei K96243 identified the ORF locus tag number BPSL1705 as specifying a second Oca-like protein that is ~60% identical to BoaA. The last 776 aa of ...
Novo Nordisk announced that the FDA has approved NovoLog (insulin aspart [rDNA origin] injection) for pregnancy Category B rating.
In the later sixties it became apparent to the elite with the responsibilities for control of the population that the old idea of putting people in the proverbial bin and keeping them there for life - warehousing people - wasnt cost-effective. The Reagan administration in California was one of the first to realize this. So they had to rethink just what is said to the general public and what is practiced by the executive in control of mental health. The same problem prevails across Europe and the Third World. To see what is happening, look at the textbook or manual called DSM-III: The Diagnostic Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders. Translated into economic and political terms, mental disorder means undesired mental states and behavior. The criteria for mental disorder in DSM-III include any unusual perceptual experience, magical thinking, clairvoyance, telepathy, sixth sense, sense of a person not actually present. Youre allowed to sense the presence of a dead relative for three weeks ...
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Conflicting evidence exists on the prognostic value of PES in BS,4,14,15⇓⇓ and no other predictors of adverse outcome are available. A consensus exists on the indication of an ICD in cardiac arrest survivors,16,17⇓ yet treatment of the majority of patients with BS is undefined.. We have assessed in our population the validity of the stratification scheme proposed by Brugada et al,18 who divided patients into 4 groups, based on clinical features and inducibility at PES (categories A to D). We observed 1 of 14 events in category D (7% of cardiac arrest) and 3 of 35 events in category C (8% of cardiac arrest): Brugada et al18 recommend no ICD in category D and ICD implantation in category C; obviously, our data cannot endorse this recommendation. When category A and category B are compared, no differences are observed (33% of events in category B and 30% of events in category A).. We therefore explored the value of several clinical parameters to differentiate between patients with and without ...
Brick-making is one of the largest employers of human labor in the country. An outbreak of glanders would thus have an enormous negative impact.
Like the Malleus Malleficarum , the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. (American ... criteria for identifying people who are seen as abnormal. It codifies ... the existence of mental disorders is an essential part of the psychiatric faith. .... disorder. The satisfied before making a diagnosis first time. Homosexuality ... the best from. ...
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Thursday, March 30, 1939 E-GAZETTE MASON CITY GLOBE-GAZETTE COMPANX Telephone No. 3800 L9, 0 KrP U *» DAI1 ^Y SCRAP BOOK By Scott EYE Enlerea us second-class mallei April 17. 1930. al Ule Bost . oa.ceat ilMDD City. Iowa. ,,,,;,, the act a! Jl. Edition of The Mason City Globe-Gazette
Hanson JR. and Anson BJ. Development of the malleus of the human ear; Illustrated in atlas series. (1962) Q Bull Northwest Univ Med Sch. 36(2): 119-137. PMID: 13904457. ...
Abstract There is a need for a simple in vitro test to assess the potency of intradermopalpebral (I.D.P.) mallein. The indirect… Expand ...
This survey investigated the variation in the use of the breast core biopsy categories B1 normal and B2 benign. METHOD: A survey with case scenarios was circulated to 701 breast pathologists in the UK. RESULTS: The response ...
As this eMedTV page explains, Natroba is a pregnancy Category B drug, which means it is unlikely to affect the fetus. This article discusses the drugs use during pregnancy, explaining why very little of it is expected to reach the bloodstream.
FDA pregnancy category B. Periactin is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is not known whether Periactin passes into breast milk, but if it does it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication while you are breast-feeding a baby. Do not give Periactin to a child younger 2 years. Older adults may be more likely to have side effects from Periactin.. ...
The US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise convened subject matter experts at the 2010 HHS Burkholderia Workshop to develop consensus recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against and treatment for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei infections, which cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively. Drugs recommended by consensus of the participants are ceftazidime or meropenem for initial intensive therapy, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for eradication therapy. For postexposure prophylaxis, recommended drugs are trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or co-amoxiclav. To improve the timely diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, further development and wide distribution of rapid diagnostic assays were also recommended. Standardized animal models and B. pseudomallei strains are needed for further development of therapeutic options. Training for laboratory technicians and physicians would facilitate better diagnosis and treatment options.
The etiologic agent of human and animal melioidosis is Burkholderia pseudomallei (5, 17). Both B. pseudomallei and its close species relative Burkholderia mallei are microbes recognized as having the potential for misuse as biological weapons (1). Typically, signs of pneumonia in patients with clinical melioidosis are a secondary result of sepsis (5). Presumably, victims suffering from a biological attack that employed B. pseudomallei or B. mallei would present clinically with pneumonic disease as the initial aspect. In order to develop a vaccine program for defending U.S. military forces against a potential B. mallei or B. pseudomallei attack, whole-body aerosol laboratory models of disease were established. With these murine melioidosis models, future vaccine candidates can be evaluated and tested for efficacy.. B. pseudomallei strain 1026b was selected because of its ease of genetic manipulation, its ability to replace genes, and its previously characterized virulence (6, 17). The 50% lethal ...
Neurologic melioidosis is a serious, potentially fatal form of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. Recently, we reported that a subset of clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei from Australia have heightened virulence and potential for dissemination to the central nervous system. In this study, we demonstrate that this subset has a B. mallei-like sequence variation of the actin-based motility gene, bimA. Compared with B. pseudomallei isolates having typical bimA alleles, isolates that contain the B. mallei-like variation demonstrate increased persistence in phagocytic cells and increased virulence with rapid systemic dissemination and replication within multiple tissues, including the brain and spinal cord, in an experimental model. These findings highlight the implications of bimA variation on disease progression of B. pseudomallei infection and have considerable clinical and public health implications with respect to the degree of neurotropic threat posed to human health.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the comparative accuracy of the complement fixation test, Western blot and five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of glanders. AU - Elschner, Mandy Carolina. AU - Laroucau, Karine. AU - Singha, Harisankar. AU - Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath. AU - Saqib, Muhammad. AU - Gardner, Ian. AU - Saini, Sheetal. AU - Kumar, Subodh. AU - El-Adawy, Hosny. AU - Melzer, Falk. AU - Khan, Iahtasham. AU - Malik, Praveen. AU - Sauter- Louis, Carola. AU - Neubauer, Heinrich. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - Glanders is a zoonotic contagious disease of equids caused by Burkholderia (B.) mallei. Serodiagnosis of the disease is challenging because of false-positive and false-negative test results. The accuracy of the complement fixation test (CFT) which is prescribed for international trade by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), five ELISAs and a Western blot (WB) were compared for serodiagnosis of glanders using sera from 3,000 glandersfree and 254 glanderous ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is both a commensal and a major pathogen that causes invasive disease in people of all ages. The introduction of serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccines has reduced the burden of disease but has also led to replacement with new strains; thus, serotyping remains important for vaccine-related disease surveillance. Conventional serotyping methods are laborious and expensive. We developed an easy-to-perform genotypic TaqMan array card (TAC) to identify S. pneumoniae strains, including lytA-based sequences, and 53 sequence-specific PCRs to identify 74 serotypes/serogroups covering all current vaccine types as well as prevalent nonvaccine types. The TAC method was evaluated on 146 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates and 13 nonpneumococcal species that naturally inhabit the upper respiratory tract and yielded 97% (142/146) sensitivity and 100% (13/13) specificity versus results of standard Quellung serotyping. The calculated limit of detection was 20 to 200 fg (∼8 to 84 genome
A pathological condition, aural atresia, was discovered associated with human remains recovered from a late 19th-century Catholic cemetery 2 km south of Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada. Aural atresia, a congenital condition that results in a non-existent external auditory meatus, was apparent on the right temporal bone of the remains of a young adult male. A complete osteological and contextual assessment, which included the use of a SkyScan 1172 micro-CT scanner on the pathological incus that was recovered, indicated that the right incus and malleus had fused during early embryological development. The artifacts associated with this individual included a pocket mirror that may have represented a connection to the practice of oralism due to the discouragement of sign language by the authorities in that time period. The combination of advanced bone imaging and a complete contextual analysis suggests a differential diagnosis of nonfunctional hearing associated with the right ear, and the ...
malleus. // Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary;2005, p1297 A definition of the term Malleus is presented. It refers to the largest of the three auditory ossicles in the middle ear. Malleus is attached to the eardrum and articulates with the incus. The definition is from the Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, published by F.A. Davis Co. ...
Lowe, W., J.K. March, A.J. Bunnell, K.L. ONeill, and R.A. Robison. 2013. PCR-based methodologies used to detect and differentiate the Burkholderia pseudomallei complex: B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis. Current Issues in Molecular Biology 16: 23-54.. Gunnell, M.K., Adams, B.J., and Robison, R.A. 2015. The genetic diversity and evolution of Francisella tularensis with comments on detection by PCR. Current Issues in Molecular Biology. 18: 79-92.. Gunnell, M.K., Robison, R.A., and Adams, B.J. 2016. Natural selection in virulence genes of Francisella tularensis. Journal of Molecular Evolution. DOI 10.1007/s00239-016-9743-y, 1-15.. Lowe, C-W, Satterfield, B.A., Nelson, D.B., Thiriot, J.D., Heder, M.J., March, J.K., Drake, D.S., Lew, C.S., Bunnell, A.J., Moore, E.S., ONeill, K.L., and Robison, R.A. 2016. A quaduplex real-time assay for the rapid detection and differentiation of the most relevant members of the B. pseudomallei complex: B. mallei, B. pseudomallei, and B. thailandensis. ...
Teheran zoo has reportedly killed 14 lions infected with the rare bacterial disease glanders. Earlier, an Amur tiger delivered from Russia as part of a breeding program died in Iran, with glanders among one of the suspected reasons.
Twenty years ago the shuttle Exallon came within the restricted zone of the Humerus and was escorted to the Castellanus by a detachment of Thunderhawks on duty. The crew of the Exallon was held in the infirmary for questioning many months following their infringement. They all had severe burns on most parts of their bodies and the medical staff could do little to assist the Adeptus Arbites in keeping them at a level of conscience, sufficient to conclude the interrogation. The last one of them passed away after nine days.. A warden of the medical facility, named Karrack Bor, claimed to have seen writings on one of their bodies, which told tales of powerful creatures rewarding worship. Compelled by these tales he began massing followers in the months following the crews death by recounting these tales. Exactly three years, three months and three days after the death of the last crewman he led minor revolt in the Prytaneum. The rebels sought access to the Naxes Sector, but armed only with small ...
As the incus (Latin for anvil) does bear a striking resemblance to anvils going back to ancient Rome, youd be justified in assuming that the naming of the malleus was inspired by the blacksmiths hammer. Indeed, the bone does have a long handle and a head that articulates with the incus, just as the hammer of a blacksmith should. However, it resembles not the hammer of the smithy but the hammer of the priest, used to stun oxen prior to sacrifice; butchers used it too. This tool was large and heavy, requiring two hands and not an obvious inspiration for the name of one of the smallest bones of the body. However, it had a distinctively round head like that of the ossicle and thus the bone was so designated as the malleus. ...
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Sominex is in the FDA pregnancy category B. This means that it is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not take Sominex without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant. Infants are especially sensitive to the effects of antihistamines, and side effects could occur in a breast-feeding baby. Do not take Sominex without first talking to your doctor if you are nursing a baby. If you are over 60 years of age, you may be more likely to experience side effects from Sominex. You may require a lower dose of this medication.. Possible Side Effects ...
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FDA pregnancy category B. Periactin is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is not known whether Periactin passes into breast milk, but if it does it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication while you are breast-feeding a baby. Do not give Periactin to a child younger 2 years. Older adults may be more likely to have side effects from Periactin.. ...
FDA pregnancy category B. Periactin is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is not known whether Periactin passes into breast milk, but if it does it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication while you are breast-feeding a baby. Do not give Periactin to a child younger 2 years. Older adults may be more likely to have side effects from Periactin.. ...
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FDA pregnancy category B. Periactin is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is not known whether Periactin passes into breast milk, but if it does it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication while you are breast-feeding a baby. Do not give Periactin to a child younger 2 years. Older adults may be more likely to have side effects from Periactin.. ...
This eMedTV Web page explores the results of studies on Remicade and pregnancy. It explains why the FDA categorizes it as a pregnancy Category B medicine based on the results of these animal studies and offers suggestions for pregnant women.
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Action video game playing has been experimentally linked to a number of perceptual and cognitive improvements. These benefits are captured through a wide range of psychometric tasks and have led to the proposition that action ...
There are pathogens, such as Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei which have been shown to exhibit genome-wide ... September 2004). "Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... September 2004). "Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei". Proceedings of the ...
... is caused by infection with the Burkholderia mallei, usually by ingestion of contaminated feed or water.B. mallei is ... It is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. Glanders is endemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and ... Due to the high mortality rate in humans and the small number of organisms required to establish infection, B. mallei is ... Between 1982 and 1984, the Soviet Union allegedly used weaponized B. mallei during the Soviet-Afghan War. No vaccine is ...
It includes some pathogenic species, such as Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis). ... nov., isolated from forest soil and reclassification of Burkholderia alpina as Pararobbsia alpina comb. nov". Int J Syst Evol ... 2014). "Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: Proposal for division of this genus into the ... 2017). "Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Burkholderia andropogonis and description of Robbsia andropogonis gen. nov., ...
He differentiated it from Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders, by clinical and microbiological features. He ... Major Alfred Whitmore (1876-1946) was an English pathologist who, together with C.S. Krishnaswami, identified Burkholderia ...
... is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of equines caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. It can also be contracted by ...
It is caused by a bacterium called Burkholderia mallei, which is contagious for humans and other species. The occurrence of ... cross reactions were reported between Burkholderia mallei and Streptococcus equi, which is a bacteria-caused contagious upper ... Mallein, a protein fraction of B. mallei, is usually injected by an eye-drop. If an animal is infected, the animal will show ... precipitation Gel filtration chromatography Sensitization of animals Potency test Intradermopalpebral Burkholderia mallei ...
In the first episode of the season, "Glanders", the two aim to acquire the deadly bacterium Burkholderia mallei. Throughout the ...
Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Chlamydophila psittaci, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, some of the ... Also, Germany itself became a victim of similar attacks - horses bound for Germany were infected with Burkholderia by French ...
Acyl Groups to Activation of Murine Toll-Like Receptor 4 by Lipopolysaccharides from Pathogenic Strains of Burkholderia mallei ...
Burkholderia mallei. horses, donkeys direct contact Gnathostomiasis Gnathostoma spp. dogs, minks, opossums, cats, lions, tigers ... Burkholderia pseudomallei various animals direct contact with contaminated soil and surface water ...
Burkholderia mallei.. horses, donkeys. direct contact. Hantavirus. Hantavirus spp.. deer mice, cotton rats and other rodents. ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) Burkholderia mallei (glanders) Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) Epsilon toxin of Clostridium ...
Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia pseudomallei Burkholderia thailandensis Burkholderia ambifaria Burkholderia cenocepacia ... Burkholderia multivorans Burkholderia vietnamiensis Burkholderia xenovorans Burkholderia sp. Burkholderia phages Pseudomonas ... Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridium perfringens, and Entamoeba histolytica) involved in new and re- ... Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus subtilis Bacillus pumilus Pathema-Burkholderia] ...
Bacillus anthracis and Burkholderia mallei) were produced. A 1941 report revealed that the bacteria were to be painted onto the ...
Brucella abortus Brucella melitensis Brucella suis Burkholderia Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia pseudomallei Burkholderia ...
... which causes plague Burkholderia mallei, which causes Glanders in horses: Kuwabara gave testimony after World War II that Unit ...
Burkholderia mallei (glanders) Brucella sp. (brucellosis) Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever) Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE ...
Burkholderia mallei (Glanders bacillus). *Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tubercle bacillus). Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is the ...
... is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic bacterium, a human and animal pathogen of genus Burkholderia causing ... B. mallei's genome also has a large amount of insertion sequences. B. mallei was first called "Bacillus mallei" and was in the ... Pathema-Burkholderia Resource "Glanders (Burkholderia mallei) General Information". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Galyov EE, Brett PJ, DeShazer D (2010). "Molecular insights into Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei pathogenesis ...
Burkholderia mallei. Gnathostomiasis. Gnathostoma spinigerum and Gnathostoma hispidum. Gonorrhea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ...
2011). "Rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ... October 2005). "Comparison of Ashdown's medium, Burkholderia cepacia medium, and Burkholderia pseudomallei selective agar for ... Pathema Burkholderia resource "Burkholderia pseudomallei". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 28450. ... Burkholderia thailandensis) and arabinose-negative Burkholderia pseudomallei". Microbiology and immunology. 43 (7): 625-30. doi ...
Burkholderia gladioli MeSH B03.440.400.425.251.100.477 - Burkholderia mallei MeSH B03.440.400.425.251.100.600 - Burkholderia ... Burkholderia cepacia MeSH B03.660.075.077.100.355 - Burkholderia gladioli MeSH B03.660.075.077.100.477 - Burkholderia mallei ... Burkholderia cepacia complex MeSH B03.440.400.425.251.100.110.500 - Burkholderia cepacia MeSH B03.440.400.425.251.100.355 - ... Burkholderia MeSH B03.660.075.077.100.110 - Burkholderia cepacia complex MeSH B03.660.075.077.100.110.500 - ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia mallei Gnathostomiasis Gnathostoma spinigerum and Gnathostoma hispidum Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Granuloma ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Melioidosis) · Burkholderia mallei (Glanders) · Burkholderia cepacia complex · Bordetella pertussis/ ...
... mallei, P. mephitica, P. mixta, P. palleronii, P. phenazinium, P. pickettii, P. plantarii, P. pseudoflava, P. pseudomallei, P. ... And transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia ... Yabuuchi, E.; Kosako, Y.; Yano, I.; Hotta, H.; Nishiuchi, Y. (1995). "Transfer of two Burkholderia and an Alcaligenes species ... Other strains previously classified in the genus Pseudomonas are now classified in the genera Burkholderia and Ralstonia.[9][10 ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ... Other members of the class can infect plants, such as Burkholderia cepacia which causes bulb rot in onions as well as ...
Acyl Groups to Activation of Murine Toll-Like Receptor 4 by Lipopolysaccharides from Pathogenic Strains of Burkholderia mallei ...
... mallei, P. mephitica, P. mixta, P. palleronii, P. phenazinium, P. pickettii, P. plantarii, P. pseudoflava, P. pseudomallei, P. ... And transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia ... Yabuuchi, E.; Kosako, Y.; Yano, I.; Hotta, H.; Nishiuchi, Y. (1995). "Transfer of two Burkholderia and an Alcaligenes species ... outras cepas antes clasificadas no xénero Pseudomonas están agora clasificadas no xénero Burkholderia e Ralstonia.[12][13] ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Melioidosis) · Burkholderia mallei (Glanders) · Burkholderia cepacia complex · Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
Glanders is an infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. While people can get the disease, ...
Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic bacterium, a human and animal pathogen of genus Burkholderia causing ... B. malleis genome also has a large amount of insertion sequences. B. mallei was first called "Bacillus mallei" and was in the ... Pathema-Burkholderia Resource "Glanders (Burkholderia mallei) General Information". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Galyov EE, Brett PJ, DeShazer D (2010). "Molecular insights into Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei pathogenesis ...
Organism: BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI NCTC 10229 18. BURM9_1_PE1013 (BURM9_1.PE1013). Organism: BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI NCTC 10229 19. ... Organism: BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI NCTC 10229 If you have problems or comments... Back to PBIL home page ... BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI NCTC 10229 8. BURM9_1_PE1004 (BURM9_1.PE1004). Keywords: hypothetical protein. Organism: BURKHOLDERIA ... Organism: BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI NCTC 10229 2. BURM9_1_PE10 RecName: Full=UvrABC system protein B; (BURM9_1.PE10). Keywords: ...
Burkholderia mallei NCTC 10229 chromosome II, complete sequence Burkholderia mallei NCTC 10229 chromosome II, complete sequence ... Burkholderia mallei NCTC 10229 chromosome II, complete sequence. NCBI Reference Sequence: NC_008835.1 ...
NAME: Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) mallei SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Glanders, Malleomyces mallei, Farcy, Malleus; formerly ...
... and Burkholderia mallei (Bm), the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, cause severe disease in both ... Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Burkholderia mallei (Bm), the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, ... Burkholderia thailandensis oacA mutants facilitate the expression of Burkholderia mallei-like O polysaccharides. Infect. Immun. ... Bondi, S. & Goldberg, J. Strategies toward vaccines against Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Expert Rev. ...
sp,A1V5V1,ARLY_BURMS Argininosuccinate lyase OS=Burkholderia mallei (strain SAVP1) OX=320388 GN=argH PE=3 SV=1 ... Burkholderia mallei (strain SAVP1). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy% ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Betaproteobacteria › Burkholderiales › Burkholderiaceae › Burkholderia › ...
Carbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excluding a cofactor (CoA, CoM, THF, or THMPT) that is replaced by an asterisk. The map contains carbon utilization pathways of glycolysis (map00010), pentose phosphate pathway (map00030), and citrate cycle (map00020), and six known carbon fixation pathways (map00710 and map00720) as well as some pathways of methane metabolism (map00680). The six carbon fixation pathways are: (1) reductive pentose phosphate cycle (Calvin cycle) in plants and cyanobacteria that perform oxygenic photosynthesis, (2) reductive citrate cycle in photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria and some chemolithoautotrophs, (3) 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle in photosynthetic green nonsulfur bacteria, two variants of 4-hydroxybutyrate pathways in Crenarchaeota called (4) hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate cycle and (5) ...
sp,Q62LD1,ARLY_BURMA Argininosuccinate lyase OS=Burkholderia mallei (strain ATCC 23344) OX=243160 GN=argH PE=3 SV=1 ... Burkholderia mallei (strain ATCC 23344). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_ ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Betaproteobacteria › Burkholderiales › Burkholderiaceae › Burkholderia › ...
Exposure to Burkholderia mallei. Glanders is a disease of equines caused by Burkholderia mallei, which appears to be a clone of ... Nierman WC, DeShazer D, Kim HS, Tettelin H, Nelson KE, Feldblyum T, Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome. ... Antibodies from patients with melioidosis recognize Burkholderia mallei but not Burkholderia thailandensis antigens in the ... Management of Accidental Laboratory Exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei On This Page ...
This review distils key findings from in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies on the ATs of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. To ... This review distils key findings from in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies on the ATs of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. To ... Several predicted Burkholderia ATs are recognized by human humoral and cell-mediated immunity, indicating that they are ... Several predicted Burkholderia ATs are recognized by human humoral and cell-mediated immunity, indicating that they are ...
Bacillus mallei, Pfeifferella mallei, Loefflerella mallei, Malleomyces mallei, and Actinobacillus mallei. ... "Pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei". Mil Med. vol. 174. 2009. pp. 647-51. ... "Antibiotic susceptibility of 65 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei to 35 antimicrobial agents". J ... The use of Burkholderia mallei as a biological weapon of mass destruction is a concern. If these bacteria were to be weaponized ...
Animals, Base Composition, Base Sequence, Burkholderia mallei, Chromosomes, Bacterial, Cricetinae, Genome, Bacterial, Glanders ... The complete genome sequence of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 provides insight into this highly infectious bacteriums ... B. mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, has come under renewed scientific investigation as a result of recent concerns ... insertion sequence elements that have mediated extensive deletions and rearrangements of the genome relative to Burkholderia ...
Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of a Burkholderia mallei strain isolated from a diseased dromedary in Bahrain ... Scholz HC, Joseph M, Tomaso H, Al Dahouk S, Witte A, Kinne J, Detection of the reemerging agent Burkholderia mallei in a recent ... Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2068-79. DOIPubMed ... mallei-specific single nucleotide polymorphism that differentiates B. mallei from B. pseudomallei (8) (not shown). B. mallei ...
In this study, we demonstrate that this subset has a B. mallei-like sequence variation of the actin-based motility gene, bimA. ... Compared with B. pseudomallei isolates having typical bimA alleles, isolates that contain the B. mallei-like variation ... potentially fatal form of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. Recently, we reported that a subset of clinical isolates of B. ... Massey S, Johnston K, Mott TM, Judy BM, Kvitko BH, Schweizer HP, et al. In vivo bioluminescence imaging of Burkholderia mallei ...
Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of B. mallei pathogenesis. The putative carboxy-terminal processing protease ( ... CtpA) of B. mallei is a member of a … ... Burkholderia mallei is the etiologic agent of glanders in ... Burkholderia mallei is the etiologic agent of glanders in solipeds (horses, mules and donkeys), and incidentally in carnivores ... A disruption of ctpA encoding carboxy-terminal protease attenuates Burkholderia mallei and induces partial protection in CD1 ...
... mallei. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei, the causative agents ... Use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing for rapid identification and differentiation of Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. ... Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei.. *DNA microarray-based detection and identification of Burkholderia mallei, ... Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia spp.. *Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. nov., a New Species Related to Burkholderia ...
We employed subtractive hybridization to identify genetic determinants present in B. mallei but not in Burkholderia ... Little is known about the virulence factors of Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders. ... Identification of a Burkholderia mallei polysaccharide gene cluster by subtractive hybridization and demonstration that the ... Little is known about the virulence factors of Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders. We employed subtractive ...
... was used to type 21 laboratory strains of Burkholderia mallei. We demonstrated good resolution by PFGE together with clustering ... of some geographically related isolates, and confirmed previous observations that B. mallei is clonal as defined by MLST. ... Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. J Clin Microbiol 41 : 2068-2079.. [Google Scholar] ... Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101 : 14246-14251.. [Google Scholar] ...
We evaluated the sensitivity and selectivity of these four media using 20 B. mallei, 20 B. pseudomallei, 20 Burkholderia spp., ... In non-endemic areas, we suggest the use of the commercially available PC agar for the isolation of B. mallei and B. ... Three commercially available media, Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA), oxidative-fermentative-polymyxin B-bacitracin- ... mallei. Pseudomonas cepacia agar was highly sensitive and selective for both organisms. ...
Glanders is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei, and melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. ... Currie B. Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei: Melioidosis and glanders. Chapter 218 in: Principles and Practice ... Currie B. Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei: Melioidosis and glanders. Chapter 218 in Principles and Practice ... Glanders is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei, and melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei ...
... was found to protect BALB/c mice from lung infection or death after aerosol challenge with Burkholderia mallei. Protection was ... A CpG oligonucleotide can protect mice from a low aerosol challenge dose of Burkholderia mallei.. @article{Waag2006ACO, title={ ... A CpG oligonucleotide can protect mice from a low aerosol challenge dose of Burkholderia mallei.}, author={David M. Waag and ... was found to protect BALB/c mice from lung infection or death after aerosol challenge with Burkholderia mallei. Protection was ...
Pathogenic Burkholderia are endemic in many regions worldwide and cases of infection, sometimes brought by travelers from ... Rapid, sensitive methods for identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are urgently needed in the interests of patient ... The assay permits differentiation of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei strains, and probit analysis showed a very low detection ... A single-reaction quadruplex qPCR assay for the detection of pathogenic Burkholderia, which includes a marker for internal ...
There are pathogens, such as Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei which have been shown to exhibit genome-wide ... September 2004). "Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... September 2004). "Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei". Proceedings of the ...
Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344, Burkholderia mallei ATCC23344, Burkholderia mallei str. ATCC 23344 ... Burkholderia mallei. NCBI taxonomy Id: 243160. Other names: B. mallei ATCC 23344, ...
B. mallei and B. pseudomallei must be handled in accordance with the Canadian Biosafety Standards and shipped in accordance ... B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are confirmed using real-time-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method. ... Suspected cultures of B. mallei or B. pseudomallei are forwarded to the National Microbiology Laboratory Monday to Thursday. ...
Characterization of Burkholderia Persistence Determinants and Antibiotic Resistance. Show Project Burkholderia mallei Genome ...
Glanders is a disease of Equidae caused by Burkholderia mallei, which also has zoonotic potential: Apart from humans, wildcats ... You are here LABOKLIN / Products / Infectious Diseases: Pathogenic Agents and Antibody Detection / Bacteria / Burkholderia ...
Glanders is a disease of Equidae caused by Burkholderia mallei, which also has zoonotic potential: Apart from humans, wildcats ... You are here LABOKLIN / Produits / Maladies inféctieuses: agents pathogènes et détéctions danticorps / Bacteria / Burkholderia ...
Increased neurotropic threat from Burkholderia pseudomallei strains with a B. mallei-like variation in the bimA motility gene, ... Increased neurotropic threat from Burkholderia pseudomallei strains with a B. mallei-like variation in the bimA motility gene, ... In this study, we demonstrate that this subset has a B. mallei-like sequence variation of the actin-based motility gene, bimA. ... Compared with B. pseudomallei isolates having typical bimA alleles, isolates that contain the B. mallei-like variation ...
  • Glanders is an infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei . (cdc.gov)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei ( Bp ) and Burkholderia mallei ( Bm ), the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, cause severe disease in both humans and animals. (nature.com)
  • The genetically related Burkholderia mallei ( Bm ), the causative agent of glanders, primarily infects solipeds but can also lead to fatal infections in humans if left untreated 4 . (nature.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are closely related Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the infectious diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Burkholderia mallei is closely related to B. pseudomallei and is the etiological agent of Glanders, an infectious equine disease that can be transmitted to humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • The most recent case of glanders (in 2000) was diagnosed in a laboratory worker that was working with the Burkholderia mallei bacterium. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Glanders is caused by the zoonotic gram-negative nonencapsulated nonmotile aerobic bacterium, Burkholderia mallei. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • B. mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, has come under renewed scientific investigation as a result of recent concerns about its past and potential future use as a biological weapon. (umd.edu)
  • Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of a Burkholderia mallei strain isolated from a diseased dromedary in Bahrain revealed close genetic proximity to strain Dubai 7, which caused an outbreak of glanders in horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004. (cdc.gov)
  • Glanders, a World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-listed disease, is a contagious, life-threatening disease of equids caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to horses and donkeys, dromedaries showed clinical signs of glanders, but B. mallei infection has not yet been confirmed. (cdc.gov)
  • Burkholderia mallei , the etiologic agent of glanders, is thought to have evolved from a single strain of B. pseudomallei , becoming highly specialized for intracellular persistence ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Burkholderia mallei is the etiologic agent of glanders in solipeds (horses, mules and donkeys), and incidentally in carnivores and humans. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that CtpA regulates in vitro growth, cell morphology and intracellular survival of B. mallei, and a ctpA mutant protects CD1 mice against glanders. (nih.gov)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei, the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, are designated category B biothreat agents. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Little is known about the virulence factors of Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders. (nih.gov)
  • The results presented here demonstrate that the capsular polysaccharide of B. mallei is required for production of disease in two animal models of glanders infection and is a major virulence factor. (nih.gov)
  • Glanders and melioidosis are infectious diseases caused by species of the bacterial genus Burkholderia . (centerforhealthsecurity.org)
  • Glanders is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei , and melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei . (centerforhealthsecurity.org)
  • Burkholderia mallei is an obligate mammalian pathogen that causes glanders, a disease that is found in much of the world apart from North America, Europe and Australia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment and is a facultative pathogen that causes melioidosis, a glanders-like disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glanders is a disease of Equidae caused by Burkholderia mallei, which also has zoonotic potential: Apart from humans, wildcats (zoos! (laboklin.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Burkholderia mallei is the aetiological agent of glanders, a highly contagious and re-emerging zoonotic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The established LAMP assay is field adaptable and can be a better and viable alternative to PCR-based techniques for detection of B. mallei in glanders endemic areas with resource-limited settings. (cdc.gov)
  • Genotyping of Burkholderia mallei from an outbreak of glanders in Bahrain suggests multiple introduction events. (cdc.gov)
  • Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. (cdc.gov)
  • We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA) and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. (cdc.gov)
  • Burkholderia mallei , the etiologic agent of glanders, are Category B select agents with biothreat potential, and yet effective therapeutic treatments are lacking. (mdpi.com)
  • Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agents responsible for glanders and melioidosis, respectively, are genetically and phenotypically similar and are category B biothreat agents. (elsevier.com)
  • Burkholderia mallei is a nonmotile, Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of a severe disease known as glanders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Observations on glanders immunity make the presence of such high levels of SSRs in the B. mallei genome particularly intriguing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment of glanders † caused by Burkholderia mallei . (drugs.com)
  • Glanders, or malleus, is a serious disease affecting horses and other equines, such as donkeys and mules. (wur.nl)
  • Glanders is a rare, sporadic disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei (this bacterium has been known by a variety of other names, such as Pseudomonas mallei , Actinobacillus mallei , Pfeifferella mallei , Malleomyces mallei , Corynebacterium mallei , Mycobacterium mallei , and Bacillus mallei ). (dermnetnz.org)
  • Glanders is also known as farcy and malleus. (dermnetnz.org)
  • B. mallei was first called "Bacillus mallei" and was in the genus Pseudomonas until the early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte and the cause of melioidosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The causative agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei , was subsequently identified as a motile, Gram-negative bacillus, which is principally a saprophyte found in soil and water in subtropical areas. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many microbiologists are unfamiliar with B. mallei and as a result it has frequently been misidentified as a Pseudomonas species or as a contaminant in a culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three commercially available media, Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA), oxidative-fermentative-polymyxin B-bacitracin-lactose (OFPBL) agar, and Pseudomonas cepacia (PC) agar are recommended for isolation of B. cepacia from respiratory secretions of cystic fibrosis patients. (ajtmh.org)
  • Burkholderia solanacearum, Pseudomonas solanacearum (Smith 1896) Smith 1914. (wa.gov.au)
  • Burkholderia gladioli ( 26 ), previously Pseudomonas gladioli ( 20 ), was described by McCulloch in 1921 ( 17 , 18 ) as P. marginata , a phytopathogen causing a leaf and corm disease of gladioli and other flowers (e.g., iris species). (asm.org)
  • The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome contains 11 predicted ATs, eight of which share homologs in the B. mallei ATCC 23344 genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The complete genome sequence of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 provides insight into this highly infectious bacterium's pathogenicity and evolutionary history. (umd.edu)
  • A sucrose-resistant strain of B. mallei was constructed by deleting a major portion of the sacB gene of the wild type strain ATCC 23344 by gene replacement, and designated as strain 23344DeltasacB. (nih.gov)
  • The CD1 mice inoculated with a non-lethal dose of the ctpA mutant produced specific serum immunoglobulins IgG1 and IgG2a and were partially protected against challenge with wild type B. mallei ATCC 23344. (nih.gov)
  • Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of a capsule on the surface of B. mallei ATCC 23344 (parental strain) but not on B. mallei DD3008 (capsule mutant) or B. thailandensis. (nih.gov)
  • Other names: B. mallei ATCC 23344, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344, Burkholderia mallei ATCC23344, Burkholderia mallei str. (string-db.org)
  • We used an in silico approach to compare the B. mallei ATCC 23344 and B. pseudomallei K96243 genomes to identify nucleotide sequences unique to B. mallei. (elsevier.com)
  • Genomic DNAs from a collection of 31 B. mallei and 34 B. pseudomallei isolates, obtained from various geographic, clinical, and environmental sources over a 70-year period, were tested with PCR primers targeted for each of the B. mallei ATCC 23344-specific nucleotide sequences. (elsevier.com)
  • More than 12,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been identified in the genome of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine if such alterations are occurring in vivo, the genomes of various single-colony passaged B. mallei ATCC 23344 isolates, one from each source, were sequenced from culture, a mouse, a horse, and two isolates from a single human patient, and the sequence compared to the published B. mallei ATCC 23344 genome sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome of B. mallei ATCC 23344 contains more than 12,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) within coding areas and in putative promoter regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared with B. pseudomallei isolates having typical bimA alleles, isolates that contain the B. mallei -like variation demonstrate increased persistence in phagocytic cells and increased virulence with rapid systemic dissemination and replication within multiple tissues, including the brain and spinal cord, in an experimental model. (cdc.gov)
  • All species and isolates of Burkholderia carry a highly conserved copy of ctpA. (nih.gov)
  • We sequenced the 1.5-kb 16S rRNA gene of 56 B. pseudomallei and 23 B. mallei isolates selected to represent a wide range of temporal, geographic, and origin diversity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Twenty-two of 23 B. mallei isolates showed 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and were designated 16S type 10, whereas the remaining isolate was designated type 11. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We demonstrated good resolution by PFGE together with clustering of some geographically related isolates, and confirmed previous observations that B. mallei is clonal as defined by MLST. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ribotyping of Burkholderia mallei isolates. (ajtmh.org)
  • Genome fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei from patients with melioidosis in Thailand. (ajtmh.org)
  • Identification of Burkholderia cepacia isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis and use of a simple new selective medium. (ajtmh.org)
  • The genomic sequence of several B. pseudomallei and B. mallei isolates are also publicly available through the NCBI genomic BLAST service ( http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/sutils/genom_table.cgi ), which provides a wealth of resources to study these organisms. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here we report on the development of a discriminatory real-time assay for the rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates and the evaluation of this assay for sensitivity against related species and detection in spiked human blood samples. (asm.org)
  • Genomic diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates: subtractive hybridization reveals a Burkholderia mallei-specific prophage in B. pseudomallei 1026b. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CC Burkholderia mallei SAVP1 chromosome I, complete genome. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • B. mallei may have actually evolved from a strain of B. pseudomallei after the latter had infected an animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The API 20 NE-test identified the colonies as B. mallei because the same API ID number (1140504) occurred as in the previously isolated Dubai 7 strain ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Comparative sequence analyses identified a gene product in the published genome of B. mallei strain ATCC23344 (locus # BMAA0649) that resembles the well-characterized Yersinia enterocolitica autotransporter adhesin YadA. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The genomic sequence of the B. mallei strain ATCC23344 has been published by TIGR [ 26 ] and is smaller (2 chromosomes of 3.5 and 2.3 Mbp) than that of B. pseudomallei K96243. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Employing the B. mallei bioluminescent strain CSM001 and the Neutrophil-Specific Fluorescent Imaging Agent, bacterial dissemination and neutrophil trafficking were monitored in real-time using multimodal in vivo whole body imaging techniques. (mdpi.com)
  • Burkholderia species have environmental, industrial and medical significance, and are important opportunistic pathogens in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Using a combination of existing and newly determined genome sequences, this study investigated prophage carriage across the species B. vietnamiensis , and also isolated spontaneously inducible prophages from a reference strain, G4. (mdpi.com)
  • A novel, inducible Mu-like phage (vB_BvM-G4P1) was isolated from B. vietnamiensis G4 that had lytic activity against strains of five Burkholderia species prevalent in CF infections, including the Boston epidemic B. dolosa strain SLC6. (mdpi.com)
  • The genes that allowed the bacterium to survive in a soil environment, like genes that gave B. mallei the capacity to protect against bactericidals, antibiotics, and antifungals, were likely deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is closely related to the bacterium that causes Meliodisos, Burkholderia pseudomallei . (wur.nl)
  • This suggestion has found support from studies that compare strains of B. mallei to B. pseudomallei and indicate that their two respective genomes are very similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay permits differentiation of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei strains, and probit analysis showed a very low detection limit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The assay was highly specific for B. mallei as it did not cross-react with other bacterial strains used in the study. (cdc.gov)
  • The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. (cdc.gov)
  • The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. (cdc.gov)
  • A) Unrooted neighbor-joining tree based on 23 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci demonstrating the genetic relationships of Bahrain and Dubai outbreak strains to other B. mallei . (cdc.gov)
  • B. mallei evolved from B. pseudomallei by selective reduction and deletions from the B. pseudomallei genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome comparisons also seem to indicate that the B. mallei is still evolving and adapting to an intracellular lifestyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of B. mallei was sequenced in the United States by The Institute of Genomic Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome for B. mallei is made up of two circular chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 1000 B. pseudomellei genes are absent or varying in the B. mallei genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome contains numerous insertion sequence elements that have mediated extensive deletions and rearrangements of the genome relative to Burkholderia pseudomallei. (umd.edu)
  • B. mallei ATCC23344 was found to specify a large number of mobile DNA elements that have contributed to extensive deletions and rearrangements relative to the genome of B. pseudomallei K96243. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These data support the notion that genome variability upon passage is a feature of B. mallei ATCC23344, and that within a host B. mallei generates a diverse population of clones that accumulate genome sequence variation at SSR and other loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several predicted Burkholderia ATs are recognized by human humoral and cell-mediated immunity, indicating that they are expressed during infection and may be useful for diagnosis and vaccine-mediated protection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Burkholderia malleli is able to cause two forms of human infection. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Variation in simple sequence repeats in key genes can provide a mechanism for generating antigenic variation that may account for the mammalian host's inability to mount a durable adaptive immune response to a B. mallei infection. (umd.edu)
  • Camels are also susceptible to B. mallei , as experimental infection has demonstrated ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Here we provide evidence for a B. mallei infection in 1 of the diseased dromedaries. (cdc.gov)
  • Neurologic melioidosis is a serious, potentially fatal form of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment with an oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing CPG motifs (CpG ODN 7909) was found to protect BALB/c mice from lung infection or death after aerosol challenge with Burkholderia mallei. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pathogenic Burkholderia are endemic in many regions worldwide and cases of infection, sometimes brought by travelers from unsuspected regions, also occur elsewhere. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Melioidosis, a disease caused by infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei , is a significant public health burden in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, where in some regions it is the most common cause of fatal community-acquired bacteremic pneumonia ( 6 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • But an infection with Burkholderia mallei was found in Germany in January 2015 in a horse being tested for export. (wur.nl)
  • Infection with B. mallei may occur in people in direct contact with infected animals. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei are two closely related species of highly virulent bacteria that can be difficult to detect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These primers were used to develop a rapid PCR assay for the definitive identification of B. mallei and differentiation from all other bacteria. (elsevier.com)
  • B. mallei bacteria are spread to humans and animals via contact with infected horses and other animals through skin abrasions, mucous membranes, or the inhalation of contaminated dust. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Mice immunized with LPS from Bp , and from the non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis ( Bt ), developed high-titer immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses and were partially protected against lethal challenges of Bp 29 , 30 . (nature.com)
  • We employed subtractive hybridization to identify genetic determinants present in B. mallei but not in Burkholderia thailandensis, a non-pathogenic soil microbe. (nih.gov)
  • The indirect hemagglutination assay routinely used to detect antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei was modified to detect cross-reactivity of antibodies to B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis antigens. (mahidol.ac.th)
  • We demonstrate a lack of cross-reactivity between B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis but marked cross-reactivity between B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. (mahidol.ac.th)
  • This represents the first real-time PCR for rapid and sensitive identification of B. pseudomallei that has been tested for cross-reactivity with 23 Burkholderia mallei , 5 Burkholderia thailandensis , and 35 Burkholderia and 76 non -Burkholderia organisms which have historically presented diagnostic challenges. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of isolation media for the recovery of Burkholderia cepacia complex from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis. (ajtmh.org)
  • The method allows rapid and specific discrimination of B. gladioli from related species ( B. cepacia , B. multivorans , B. vietnamiensis , B. mallei , B. pseudomallei , Ralstonia pickettii , and R. eutropha ) and should contribute to the clarification of its role as a human pathogen, e.g., in cystic fibrosis. (asm.org)
  • The LAMP assay could detect as low as 1 pg of B. mallei genomic DNA and 5.5 × 10 3 CFU/ml of B. mallei in spiked human blood. (cdc.gov)
  • This study highlights how genomic characterization of Burkholderia prophages can lead to the discovery of novel bacteriophages with potential therapeutic or biotechnological applications. (mdpi.com)
  • Of the remaining eight predicted B. pseudomallei trimeric autotransporters, five of which are also present in B. mallei , two (BoaA and BoaB), have been implicated in bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei Capsule Exacerbates Respiratory Melioidosis but Does Not Afford Protection against Antimicrobial Signaling or Bacterial Killing in Human Olfactory Ensheathing Cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • the Latin name of this disease (malleus) gave its name to the species causing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing the DNA of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei must be done at the 23S rDNA level, however, since no identifiable difference is found between the two species at the 16S rDNA level. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, the best characterized of the predicted ATs of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei is BimA, a predicted trimeric AT mediating actin-based motility which varies in sequence and mode of action between Burkholderia species. (frontiersin.org)
  • The new assay permits rapid detection of pathogenic Burkholderia and combines enhanced sensitivity, species differentiation, and inclusion of an internal control for both DNA extraction and PCR amplification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two closely related Burkholderia species cause severe, potentially fatal disease in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular detection of B. mallei has always been troublesome because of its genetic similarity with Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Because B. mallei is an obligate mammalian pathogen, it must infect a host mammal to live and to be transmitted from one host to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. mallei has a polysaccharide capsule which indicates its potential as a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multilocus sequence typing has revealed that B. mallei most likely evolved from a B. pseudomallei clone reduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that this subset has a B. mallei -like sequence variation of the actin-based motility gene, bimA . (cdc.gov)
  • We identified an insertion sequence (IS 407 A) at one end of the capsule gene cluster and demonstrated that it was functional in B. mallei. (nih.gov)
  • B. mallei is very closely related to B. pseudomallei, being 99% identical in conserved genes when compared to B. pseudomallei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources. (cdc.gov)
  • Rapid, sensitive methods for identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are urgently needed in the interests of patient treatment and epidemiological surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is thus vital to have fast, sensitive methods for the identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei , both for patient treatment and for epidemiological surveillance and forensic investigation in the event of their deliberate release. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A procedure for molecular identification of Burkholderia gladioli is described. (asm.org)
  • Culture results from skin lesions, abscesses, and respiratory aspirates will grow the gram-negative rod Burkholderia mallei. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Signature sequences for sensitive, specific detection of pathogenic Burkholderia based on published genomes were identified and a qPCR assay was designed and validated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A single-reaction quadruplex qPCR assay for the detection of pathogenic Burkholderia, which includes a marker for internal control of DNA extraction and amplification, was developed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Development of a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Burkholderia mallei. (cdc.gov)
  • In present investigation, a set of six B. mallei-specific primers were designed and a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for detection of B. mallei. (cdc.gov)
  • Five distinct B. mallei DNA sequences and/or genes were identified and evaluated for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay development. (elsevier.com)
  • Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of B. mallei pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • This report provides a basis for rapidly identifying and differentiating B. pseudomallei and B. mallei by molecular methods. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The putative carboxy-terminal processing protease (CtpA) of B. mallei is a member of a novel family of endoproteases involved in the maturation of proteins destined for the cell envelope. (nih.gov)
  • We studied the involvement of CtpA on growth, cell morphology, persistence, and pathogenicity of B. mallei. (nih.gov)
  • Suspected cultures of B. mallei or B. pseudomallei are forwarded to the National Microbiology Laboratory Monday to Thursday. (publichealthontario.ca)
  • Mutations were introduced in the B. mallei capsular gene cluster and the corresponding mutants were examined for their reactivity with antibodies raised against Burkholderia pseudomallei surface polysaccharides by immunoblotting and ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • The gene encoding this B. mallei protein, designated boaA , was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to significantly increase adherence to human epithelial cell lines, specifically HEp2 (laryngeal cells) and A549 (type II pneumocytes), as well as to cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE). (beds.ac.uk)
  • The boaA gene product is shared by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei whereas BoaB appears to be a B. pseudomallei -specific adherence factor. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Natural B. mallei infections are known to occur in various mammals (e.g., cats, bears, wolves, and dogs). (cdc.gov)
  • It is now part of the genus Burkholderia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ubiquitous Proteobacterial genus Burkholderia includes several animal and plant pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)