A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.
A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BURKHOLDERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes disease in plants. It is found commonly in the environment and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
3-Chloro-4-(3-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Antifungal antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. It is effective mainly against Trichophyton, Microsporium, Epidermophyton, and Penicillium.
Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

Salicylate induces an antibiotic efflux pump in Burkholderia cepacia complex genomovar III (B. cenocepacia). (1/151)

An antibiotic efflux gene cluster that confers resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin has been identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia (genomovar III), an important cystic fibrosis pathogen. Five open reading frames have been identified in the cluster. There is apparently a single transcriptional unit, with llpE encoding a lipase-like protein, ceoA encoding a putative periplasmic linker protein, ceoB encoding a putative cytoplasmic membrane protein, and opcM encoding a previously described outer membrane protein. A putative LysR-type transcriptional regulatory gene, ceoR, is divergently transcribed upstream of the structural gene cluster. Experiments using radiolabeled chloramphenicol and salicylate demonstrated active efflux of both compounds in the presence of the gene cluster. Salicylate is an important siderophore produced by B. cepacia complex isolates, and both extrinsic salicylate and iron starvation appear to upregulate ceoR promoter activity, as does chloramphenicol. These results suggest that salicylate is a natural substrate for the efflux pump in B. cenocepacia and imply that the environment of low iron concentration in the cystic fibrosis lung can induce efflux-mediated resistance, even in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure.  (+info)

The Burkholderia cepacia epidemic strain marker is part of a novel genomic island encoding both virulence and metabolism-associated genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia. (2/151)

The Burkholderia cepacia epidemic strain marker (BCESM) is a useful epidemiological marker for virulent B. cenocepacia strains that infect patients with cystic fibrosis. However, there was no evidence that the original marker, identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting, contributed to pathogenicity. Here we demonstrate that the BCESM is part of a novel genomic island encoding genes linked to both virulence and metabolism. The BCESM was present on a 31.7-kb low-GC-content island that encoded 35 predicted coding sequences (CDSs): an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase gene (cciI) and corresponding transcriptional regulator (cciR), representing the first time cell signaling genes have been found on a genomic island; fatty acid biosynthesis genes; an IS66 family transposase; transcriptional regulator CDSs; amino acid metabolism genes; and a group of hypothetical genes. Mutagenesis of the AHL synthase, amidase (amiI), and porin (opcI) genes on the island was carried out. Testing of the isogenic mutants in a rat model of chronic lung infection demonstrated that the amidase played a role in persistence, while the AHL synthase and porin were both involved in virulence. The island, designated the B. cenocepacia island (cci), is the first genomic island to be defined in the B. cepacia complex and its discovery validates the original epidemiological correlation of the BCESM with virulent CF strains. The features of the cci, which overlap both pathogenicity and metabolism, expand the concept of bacterial pathogenicity islands and illustrate the diversity of accessory functions that can be acquired by lateral gene transfer in bacteria.  (+info)

Importance of the ornibactin and pyochelin siderophore transport systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia lung infections. (3/151)

Previously, orbA, the gene encoding the outer membrane receptor for ferric-ornibactin, was identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2, a strain which produces ornibactin, salicylic acid, and negligible amounts of pyochelin. A K56-2 orbA mutant was less virulent than the parent strain in a rat agar bead infection model. In this study, an orbA mutant of B. cenocepacia Pc715j which produces pyochelin in addition to ornibactin and salicylic acid was constructed. The gene encoding the outer membrane receptor for ferric-pyochelin (fptA) was also identified. An fptA mutant was constructed in Pc715j and shown to be deficient in [(59)Fe]pyochelin uptake. A 75-kDa iron-regulated protein was identified in outer membrane preparations of Pc715j that was absent in outer membrane preparations of Pc715jfptA::tp. Pc715jfptA::tp and Pc715jorbA::tp produced smaller amounts of their corresponding siderophores. Both Pc715jorbA::tp and Pc715jfptA::tp were able to grow in iron starvation conditions in vitro. In the agar bead model, the Pc715jorbA::tp mutant was cleared from the lung, indicating that the pyochelin uptake system does not compensate for the absence of a functional ornibactin system. Pc715jfptA::tp persisted in rat lung infections in numbers similar to those of the parent strain, indicating that the ferric-ornibactin uptake system could compensate for the defect in ferric-pyochelin uptake in vivo. These studies suggest that the ornibactin uptake system is the most important siderophore-mediated iron transport system in B. cenocepacia lung infections.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of a multicomponent signal transduction system controlling the expression of cable pili in Burkholderia cenocepacia. (4/151)

Cable pili are peritrichous organelles expressed by certain strains of Burkholderia cenocepacia, believed to facilitate colonization of the lower respiratory tract in cystic fibrosis patients. The B. cenocepacia cblBACDS operon encodes the structural and accessory proteins required for the assembly of cable pili, as well as a gene designated cblS, predicted to encode a hybrid sensor kinase protein of bacterial two-component signal transduction systems. In this study we report the identification of two additional genes, designated cblT and cblR, predicted to encode a second hybrid sensor kinase and a response regulator, respectively. Analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences of the cblS and cblT gene products revealed that both putative sensor kinases have transmitter and receiver domains and that the cblT gene product has an additional C-terminal HPt domain. Mutagenesis of the cblS, cblT, or cblR gene led to a block in expression of CblA, the major pilin subunit, and a severe decrease in cblA transcript abundance. Using transcriptional fusion analyses, the decrease in the abundance of the cblA transcript in the cblS, cblT, and cblR mutants was shown to be due to a block in transcription from the cblB-proximal promoter, located upstream of the cblBACDS operon. Furthermore, ectopic expression of either cblS or cblR in wild-type B. cenocepacia strain BC7 led to a significant increase, while ectopic expression of cblT resulted in a dramatic decrease, in abundance of the CblA major pilin and the cblA transcript. Our results demonstrate that the B. cenocepacia cblS, cblT, and cblR genes are essential for cable pilus expression and that their effect is exerted at the level of transcription of the cblBACDS operon. These findings are consistent with the proposed function of the cblSTR gene products as a multicomponent signal transduction pathway controlling the expression of cable pilus biosynthetic genes in B. cenocepacia.  (+info)

Identification of Burkholderia cenocepacia genes required for bacterial survival in vivo. (5/151)

Burkholderia cenocepacia (formerly Burkholderia cepacia complex genomovar III) causes chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. In this work, we used a modified signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) strategy for the isolation of B. cenocepacia mutants that cannot survive in vivo. Thirty-seven specialized plasposons, each carrying a unique oligonucleotide tag signature, were constructed and used to examine the survival of 2,627 B. cenocepacia transposon mutants, arranged in pools of 37 unique mutants, after a 10-day lung infection in rats by using the agar bead model. The recovered mutants were screened by real-time PCR, resulting in the identification of 260 mutants which presumably did not survive within the lungs. These mutants were repooled into smaller pools, and the infections were repeated. After a second screen, we isolated 102 mutants unable to survive in the rat model. The location of the transposon in each of these mutants was mapped within the B. cenocepacia chromosomes. We identified mutations in genes involved in cellular metabolism, global regulation, DNA replication and repair, and those encoding bacterial surface structures, including transmembrane proteins and cell surface polysaccharides. Also, we found 18 genes of unknown function, which are conserved in other bacteria. A subset of 12 representative mutants that were individually examined using the rat model in competition with the wild-type strain displayed reduced survival, confirming the predictive value of our STM screen. This study provides a blueprint to investigate at the molecular level the basis for survival and persistence of B. cenocepacia within the airways.  (+info)

Production of exopolysaccharide by Burkholderia cenocepacia results in altered cell-surface interactions and altered bacterial clearance in mice. (6/151)

Despite the characterization of some Burkholderia cepacia complex exopolysaccharides (EPSs), little is known about the role of EPSs in the pathogenicity of B. cepacia complex organisms. We describe 2 Burkholderia cenocepacia (genomovar III) isolates obtained from a patient with cystic fibrosis (CF): the nonmucoid isolate C8963 and the mucoid isolate C9343. Both isolates had identical random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. C9343 produced a capsule composed of the EPSs PS-I and PS-II, as well as alpha -1,6-glucan. These isolates exhibited several phenotypic differences: C8963 synthesized octanoyl-homoserine lactone and produced biofilms, but C9343 did not; in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, C8963 was cleared more rapidly than was C9343; and C9343 interacted poorly with macrophages and neutrophils, compared with C8963, suggesting that the C9343 capsule interfered with cell-surface interactions. Overproduction of EPS by C9343 resulted in a mucoid appearance and interfered with cell-surface interactions and clearance in an animal model. This mucoid colonial appearance could enhance the persistence and virulence of this important CF-related pathogen.  (+info)

Involvement of a plasmid-encoded type IV secretion system in the plant tissue watersoaking phenotype of Burkholderia cenocepacia. (7/151)

Burkholderia cenocepacia strain K56-2, a representative of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, is part of the epidemic and clinically problematic ET12 lineage. The strain produced plant tissue watersoaking (ptw) on onion tissue, which is a plant disease-associated trait. Using plasposon mutagenesis, mutants in the ptw phenotype were generated. The translated sequence of a disrupted gene (ptwD4) from a ptw-negative mutant showed homology to VirD4-like proteins. Analysis of the region proximal to the transfer gene homolog identified a gene cluster located on the 92-kb resident plasmid that showed homology to type IV secretion systems. The role of ptwD4, ptwC, ptwB4, and ptwB10 in the expression of ptw activity was determined by conducting site-directed mutagenesis. The ptw phenotype was not expressed by K56-2 derivatives with a disruption in ptwD4, ptwB4, or ptwB10 but was observed in a derivative with a disruption in ptwC. Complementation of ptw-negative K56-2 derivatives in trans resulted in complete restoration of the ptw phenotype. In addition, analysis of culture supernatants revealed that the putative ptw effector(s) was a secreted, heat-stable protein(s) that caused plasmolysis of plant protoplasts. A second chromosomally encoded type IV secretion system with complete homology to the VirB-VirD system was identified in K56-2. Site-directed mutagenesis of key secretory genes in the VirB-VirD system did not affect expression of the ptw phenotype. Our findings indicate that in strain K56-2, the plasmid-encoded Ptw type IV secretion system is responsible for the secretion of a plant cytotoxic protein(s).  (+info)

Burkholderia cepacia genomovar III and Burkholderia vietnamiensis double infection in a cystic fibrosis child. (8/151)

Herein we report a case of a cystic fibrosis child who was simultaneously infected with Burkholderia cepacia genomovar III and Burkholderia vietnamiensis. After antimicrobial therapy only B. cepacia genomovar III persisted.  (+info)

The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of closely related bacterial species that are gram-negative, motile, and aerobic. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and vegetation. The Bcc organisms are known to be opportunistic pathogens, meaning they primarily cause infections in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.

Bcc infections can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and chronic lung colonization. The bacteria are particularly notorious for their high level of antibiotic resistance and their ability to form biofilms, making them difficult to eradicate from the lungs of CF patients. Accurate identification of Bcc species is essential for appropriate treatment and infection control measures.

Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative, motile bacillus that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in water and soil. It is a conditional pathogen, meaning it can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions such as cystic fibrosis.

Infections caused by B. cepacia can be difficult to treat due to its resistance to many antibiotics. The bacteria can colonize the lungs and cause a chronic respiratory infection that can lead to decline in lung function, increased frequency of exacerbations, and even death in some cases. It is also associated with outbreaks in healthcare settings, particularly in patients receiving respiratory therapy or using contaminated medical equipment.

It's important to note that B. cepacia is not typically considered a community-acquired pathogen and is not commonly associated with typical pneumonia or other respiratory infections in healthy individuals.

Burkholderia infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia genus, which includes several species that can cause various types of infection in humans. The most well-known and medically significant species include Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), Burkholderia pseudomallei, and Burkholderia mallei.

1. Burkholderia cepacia Complex (Bcc): These are a group of closely related bacteria that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and plants. They can cause respiratory infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis. Bcc infections can be difficult to treat due to their resistance to many antibiotics.

2. Burkholderia pseudomallei: This species is the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially severe and life-threatening infection endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacteria can be found in contaminated water and soil, and people can get infected through direct contact with contaminated sources, ingestion, or inhalation of the bacteria. Melioidosis symptoms may vary widely, from mild flu-like illness to severe pneumonia, abscesses, and sepsis.

3. Burkholderia mallei: This species is responsible for glanders, a rare but serious disease primarily affecting horses, donkeys, and mules. Human infections are usually associated with occupational exposure to infected animals or their secretions. Glanders can cause severe symptoms such as fever, pneumonia, sepsis, and skin ulcers.

Treatment of Burkholderia infections typically involves the use of specific antibiotics, often in combination therapy, depending on the species and severity of infection. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissues. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated sources, practicing good hygiene, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when handling animals or working in high-risk environments.

Burkholderia is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including soil, water, and associated with plants. Some species of Burkholderia are opportunistic pathogens, meaning they can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

One of the most well-known species of Burkholderia is B. cepacia, which can cause respiratory infections in people with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. Other notable species include B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially serious infection that primarily affects the respiratory system; and B. mallei, which causes glanders, a rare but severe disease that can affect humans and animals.

Burkholderia species are known for their resistance to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat in some cases. Proper identification of the specific Burkholderia species involved in an infection is important for determining the most appropriate treatment approach.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the lungs and digestive system. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which regulates the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. When this gene is not functioning properly, thick, sticky mucus builds up in various organs, leading to a range of symptoms.

In the lungs, this mucus can clog the airways, making it difficult to breathe and increasing the risk of lung infections. Over time, lung damage can occur, which may lead to respiratory failure. In the digestive system, the thick mucus can prevent the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, impairing nutrient absorption and leading to malnutrition. CF can also affect the reproductive system, liver, and other organs.

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis may include persistent coughing, wheezing, lung infections, difficulty gaining weight, greasy stools, and frequent greasy diarrhea. The severity of the disease can vary significantly among individuals, depending on the specific genetic mutations they have inherited.

Currently, there is no cure for cystic fibrosis, but treatments are available to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include airway clearance techniques, medications to thin mucus, antibiotics to treat infections, enzyme replacement therapy, and a high-calorie, high-fat diet. Lung transplantation is an option for some individuals with advanced lung disease.

Burkholderia cenocepacia is a species of gram-negative, motile bacteria that belongs to the family Burkholderiaceae. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant roots. They are known to form biofilms and can survive under a wide range of conditions, making them difficult to eradicate.

B. cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious respiratory infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, particularly those with cystic fibrosis (CF). In CF patients, B. cenocepacia infections can lead to a rapid decline in lung function and are associated with high mortality rates. The bacteria can also cause other types of infections such as bacteremia, wound infections, and urinary tract infections.

B. cenocepacia is resistant to many antibiotics, which makes treatment challenging. Infection control measures, such as contact isolation and rigorous environmental cleaning, are crucial in preventing the spread of B. cenocepacia in healthcare settings.

'Burkholderia pseudomallei' is a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of melioidosis. It is found in soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacterium can infect humans and animals through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated soil or water. Melioidosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pneumonia, sepsis, and abscesses in various organs. It is a serious and potentially fatal disease, especially in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or compromised immune systems. Proper diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are essential for managing melioidosis.

Recombination is a natural process that occurs in cells to exchange genetic information between two similar or identical strands of DNA. This process helps to maintain the stability and diversity of the genome. RecA (RecA protein) is a type of recombinase enzyme found in bacteria, including Escherichia coli, that plays a crucial role in this process.

RecA recombinases are proteins that facilitate the exchange of genetic information between two DNA molecules by promoting homologous pairing and strand exchange. Homologous pairing is the alignment of similar or identical sequences of nucleotides on two different DNA molecules, while strand exchange refers to the physical transfer of one strand of DNA from one molecule to another.

RecA recombinases work by forming a nucleoprotein filament on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and then searching for complementary sequences on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Once a complementary sequence is found, the RecA protein facilitates the invasion of the ssDNA into the dsDNA, leading to strand exchange and the formation of a joint molecule. This joint molecule can then be used as a template for DNA replication or repair.

RecA recombinases have been extensively studied due to their importance in genetic recombination and DNA repair. They also have potential applications in biotechnology, such as in the development of genome engineering tools and methods for detecting and quantifying specific DNA sequences.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) is a chemical compound with the formula H-C≡N. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous and flammable liquid that has a bitter almond-like odor in its pure form. However, not everyone can detect its odor, as some people lack the ability to smell it, which makes it even more dangerous. It is soluble in water and alcohol, and its aqueous solution is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid.

Hydrogen Cyanide is rapidly absorbed by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact, and it inhibits the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, which is essential for cellular respiration. This leads to rapid death due to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) at the cellular level. It is used industrially in large quantities as a pesticide, fumigant, and chemical intermediate, but it also has significant potential for use as a chemical weapon.

In the medical field, Hydrogen Cyanide poisoning can be treated with high-concentration oxygen, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate, which help to restore the function of cytochrome c oxidase and enhance the elimination of cyanide from the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "onions" are not a medical term. They are a type of vegetable, specifically a variety of bulb vegetables, known scientifically as Allium cepa. Onions are widely used in cooking and have been cultivated for centuries for their unique, pungent flavor and potential health benefits. If you have any questions about onions in a culinary or nutritional context, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. It refers to the presence of variations in DNA sequences among individuals, which can be detected by restriction enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of different lengths.

In RFLP analysis, DNA is isolated from an individual and treated with a specific restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA at particular recognition sites. The resulting fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern unique to that individual's DNA. If there are variations in the DNA sequence between individuals, the restriction enzyme may cut the DNA at different sites, leading to differences in the length of the fragments and thus, a different pattern on the gel.

These variations can be used for various purposes, such as identifying individuals, diagnosing genetic diseases, or studying evolutionary relationships between species. However, RFLP analysis has largely been replaced by more modern techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing, which offer higher resolution and throughput.

Pyrrolnitrin is an antifungal agent that is produced naturally by certain types of bacteria. Its chemical formula is C12H13ClN2O2. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi, including certain species that can cause infections in humans. Pyrrolnitrin is not widely used in medicine, but it has been studied as a potential treatment for fungal infections of the skin and nails. It is also used in agriculture as a fungicide to control fungal diseases in crops.

Benzethonium is an antimicrobial agent used as a preservative in some pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. It has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The chemical name for benzethonium chloride is N'-(1-benzyl-4-phenoxypyridinio) decane methosulfate.

Benzethonium chloride is commonly used as a topical antiseptic in products such as skin cleansers, hand sanitizers, and first aid treatments. It works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to the death of the microorganism. However, it may not be effective against some spores and highly resistant bacteria.

It is important to note that benzethonium chloride should be used according to the instructions on the product label and should not be ingested or used in the eyes or mucous membranes unless specifically directed by a healthcare professional.

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by the soil-dwelling gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease primarily occurs in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. It can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations including acute septicemia, pneumonia, and chronic suppurative infection. Risk factors for melioidosis include diabetes mellitus, renal disease, alcoholism, and lung disease. The diagnosis is confirmed by culturing B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum, or pus. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, including intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Sodium benzoate is a chemical compound with the formula NaC7H5O2. It is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water and alcohol. Sodium benzoate is a preservative commonly added to foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals to inhibit microbial growth.

In medical terms, sodium benzoate may also be used as a medication to treat certain metabolic disorders such as hyperammonemia, which can occur in conditions like urea cycle disorders or liver disease. In these cases, sodium benzoate acts by binding with excess ammonia in the body and converting it into a compound that can be excreted through the kidneys.

It is important to note that people with a rare genetic disorder called benzoic aciduria should avoid foods or medications containing sodium benzoate, as they are unable to metabolize this compound properly.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the medical definition of Tobramycin is:

"A semi-synthetic modification of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, NEOMYCIN, that retains its antimicrobial activity but has less nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects. Tobramycin is used in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, especially Pseudomonas infections in patients with cystic fibrosis."

Tobramycin works by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacterial cells, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. It is commonly used to treat severe infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter species.

Tobramycin is available in various formulations, such as injectable solutions, ophthalmic ointments, and inhaled powder for nebulization. The choice of formulation depends on the type and location of the infection being treated. As with any antibiotic, it's essential to use Tobramycin appropriately and under medical supervision to minimize the risk of antibiotic resistance and potential side effects.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a type of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method used in molecular biology for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis. This technique utilizes random primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences to amplify random segments of genomic DNA. The amplified products are then separated by electrophoresis, and the resulting banding patterns are analyzed.

In RAPD analysis, the randomly chosen primers bind to multiple sites in the genome, and the intervening regions between the primer binding sites are amplified. Since the primer binding sites can vary among individuals within a species or among different species, the resulting amplicons will also differ. These differences in amplicon size and pattern can be used to distinguish between individuals or populations at the DNA level.

RAPD is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique that does not require prior knowledge of the genome sequence. However, it has some limitations, such as low reproducibility and sensitivity to experimental conditions. Despite these limitations, RAPD remains a useful tool for genetic analysis in various fields, including forensics, plant breeding, and microbial identification.

4-Butyrolactone, also known as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4-butanolide, is a chemical compound with the formula C4H6O2. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used in various industrial and commercial applications, including as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, as a solvent, and as a flavoring agent.

In the medical field, 4-butyrolactone has been studied for its potential use as a sleep aid and muscle relaxant. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. It is also known to have abuse potential and can cause intoxication, sedation, and other central nervous system effects when ingested or inhaled.

It's important to note that 4-butyrolactone is not a medication and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional for approved medical purposes.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Quorum sensing is a type of cell-cell communication that allows bacteria to detect and respond to changes in population density by producing, releasing, and responding to signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process enables the coordinated expression of certain genes related to various group behaviors such as biofilm formation, virulence factor production, and bioluminescence. The term "quorum sensing" was coined in 1994 by Bonnie L. Bassler and Susan Goldberg to describe this population-dependent gene regulation mechanism in bacteria.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

'Burkholderia gladioli' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). This complex includes several closely related species that can cause respiratory infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

'Burkholderia gladioli' is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. It has been isolated from a variety of plants, including onions, gladiolus, and other flowers. While it can cause serious infections in humans, it is also being studied for its potential use in bioremediation and as a source of novel antibiotics.

Infections caused by 'Burkholderia gladioli' can be difficult to treat due to the bacterium's resistance to many commonly used antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics and close monitoring of the patient's response to therapy.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) is a synthetic auxin, or plant growth regulator, that has been used as an herbicide. It was a component of Agent Orange, which was used as a defoliant during the Vietnam War. 2,4,5-T has been banned in many countries due to concerns about its toxicity and potential health effects.

It is important to note that exposure to 2,4,5-T has been linked to various health issues, including developmental and reproductive problems, as well as an increased risk of cancer. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

It's also important to note that 2,4,5-T is not used in medical field, it's mainly used as herbicide and defoliant.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Glanders is a rare and serious disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. It primarily affects horses, donkeys, and mules, but can also infect humans who come into contact with infected animals or contaminated materials. The disease is characterized by the formation of multiple abscesses in various organs, particularly the lungs, liver, spleen, and skin. In humans, glanders can cause fever, cough, chest pain, muscle aches, and pustules on the skin. It is a highly infectious disease and can be fatal if not treated promptly with appropriate antibiotics. Historically, it has been a concern in military settings due to its potential use as a biological weapon.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

... in the NCBI Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Burkholderia cepacia complex at BacDive, the Bacterial ... Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), or simply Burkholderia cepacia, is a group of catalase-producing, lactose-nonfermenting, ... Burkholderia cepacia is also found in marine environments (marine sponges) and some strains of Burkholderia cepacia can ... "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia Complex". Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of ...
Coenye T, Vandamme P, Govan JR, LiPuma JJ (October 2001). "Taxonomy and identification of the Burkholderia cepacia complex". ... Speert DP (September 2002). "Advances in Burkholderia cepacia complex". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 3 (3): 230-5. doi: ... "Ornibactin production and transport properties in strains of Burkholderia vietnamiensis and Burkholderia cepacia (formerly ... LiPuma JJ (September 1998). "Burkholderia cepacia. Management issues and new insights". Clinics in Chest Medicine. 19 (3): 473- ...
... is one of over twenty bacteria in the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), and among these species, it ... Within the Burkholderia genus, the Burkholderia cepacia complex contains over 20 related species that cause opportunistic ... is Burkholderia cenocepacia, a member of a bacterial group collectively referred to as the Burkholderia cepacia complex." ... It is one of over 20 species in the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and is notable due to its virulence factors and inherent ...
and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58 ... "Burkholderia metallica". Peter Vandamme. "Identification of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria" (PDF). Archived from the ... "Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. ... a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family of Burkholderiaceae which belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex ...
... bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family of Burkholderiaceae and belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex, ... Rose, H.; Baldwin, A.; Dowson, C. G.; Mahenthiralingam, E. (2009). "Biocide susceptibility of the Burkholderia cepacia complex ... Burkholderia acidipaludis can cause biliary sepsis. "Genus Burkholderia". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in ... Type strain of Burkholderia contaminans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
Rose H, Baldwin A, Dowson CG, Mahenthiralingam E (March 2009). "Biocide susceptibility of the Burkholderia cepacia complex". ... The non-sterile form of Povidone iodine has a long history of intrinsic contamination with Burkholderia cepacia (a.k.a. ... These deficiencies were overcome by the discovery and use of PVP-I, in which the iodine is carried in a complexed form and the ... They carried out tests in vitro to demonstrate anti-bacterial activity, and found that the complex was less toxic in mice than ...
and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex". International Journal of ... B. arboris belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex. "J.P. Euzéby: List of bacterial names with standing in nomenclature". " ... "Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. ... Burkholderia arboris is a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming bacterium of the genus Burkholderia and the family ...
"Burkholderia stagnalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia territorii sp. nov., two novel Burkholderia cepacia complex species from ... "Burkholderia stagnalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia territorii sp. nov., two novel Burkholderia cepacia complex species from ... Burkholderia territorii belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex. LSPN lpsn.dsmz.de UniProt De Smet, B; Mayo, M; Peeters, C ... Burkholderia territorii is a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia. ...
... belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex. LSPN lpsn.dsmz.de Straininfo of Burkholderia ... Burkholderia pseudomultivorans is a bacterium from the genus Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae which was isolated ... UniProt Type strain of Burkholderia pseudomultivorans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with ... pseudomultivorans Srinivasan, S; Kim, J; Kang, S. R.; Jheong, W. H.; Lee, S. S. (2013). "Burkholderia humi sp. nov., isolated ...
and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex". International Journal of ... bacterium from the genus Burkholderia and the family Burkholderiaceae which belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex. " ... "Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. ... "Burkholderia seminalis DSM 23518". UniProt. Retrieved 2 October 2015. Type strain of Burkholderia seminalis at BacDive - the ...
and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58 ... and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex". ijsb.sgmjournals.org. Archived ... "Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. ... "Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. ...
and Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58 ... "Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. ... bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family of Burkholderiaceae which belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex ... "hisA - ProFAR isomerase - Burkholderia diffusa - hisA gene & protein". Type strain of Burkholderia diffusa at BacDive - the ...
"Burkholderia stagnalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia territorii sp. nov., two novel Burkholderia cepacia complex species from ... "Burkholderia stagnalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia territorii sp. nov., two novel Burkholderia cepacia complex species from ... Burkholderia stagnalis belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex. LSPN lpsn.dsmz.de UniProt De Smet, B; Mayo, M; Peeters, C; ... Burkholderia stagnalis is a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia. ...
... is a species of bacteria. It is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. This particular strain is ... Type strain of Burkholderia dolosa at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (CS1 errors: missing title, CS1 ... cite web}}: Missing or empty ,title= (help)[dead link] "Burkholderia dolosa". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 152500. ...
LiPuma JJ, Spilker T, Coenye T, Gonzalez CF (June 2002). "An epidemic Burkholderia cepacia complex strain identified in soil". ...
"Factors Influencing Acquisition of Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Organisms in Patients with Cystric Fibrosis". Journal of ...
Lord R, Jones AM, Horsley A (April 2020). "Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis ... opportunistic infection due to Burkholderia cepacia complex can occur, especially through transmission from patient to patient ... the effectiveness of antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis and Burkholderia cepacia complex or ... Eventually, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (and sometimes Burkholderia cepacia) dominates. By 18 years of age, 80% of patients with ...
The Burkholderia cepacia complex has been implicated in vertebral osteomyelitis in intravenous drug users. In general, ... Weinstein, Lenny; Knowlton, Christin A.; Smith, Miriam A. (2007-12-16). "Cervical osteomyelitis caused by Burkholderia cepacia ... The diagnosis of osteomyelitis is complex and relies on a combination of clinical suspicion and indirect laboratory markers ...
"A general protein O-glycosylation system within the Burkholderia cepacia complex is involved in motility and virulence". ... Ribitol, xylose and glucuronic acid can be added to this structure in a complex modification that forms a long sugar chain. ... O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation can occur on the same threonine and serine residues, suggesting a complex relationship ... Glucosphingolipids, however, are often modified and can become a lot more complex. Biosynthesis of galacto- and ...
... a complex within the Burkholderia cepacia complex, comprises at least two novel species, Burkholderia contaminans sp. nov. and ... a bacterium from the genus of Burkholderia and the family of Burkholderiaceae which belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex ... "Burkholderia lata Taxon Passport". StrainInfo. Retrieved 2013-06-12. "Burkholderia lata". Uniprot.org. Retrieved 2013-06-12. ... Type strain of Burkholderia lata at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ...
One particular method is the use of the bacterial complex Burkholderia cepacia, which is a registered control method. This ... However, a given species within the complex may not be as widespread and may not have the same ecology as others in the complex ... The current concept of F. solani is as a species complex consisting of multiple, closely related and morphologically poorly ... Fusarium solani is a species complex of at least 26 closely related filamentous fungi in the division Ascomycota, family ...
"Burkholderia anthina sp. nov. and Burkholderia pyrrocinia, two additional Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, may confound ... Burkholderia J.P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature "Burkholderia anthina". NCBI Taxonomy Browser ... Type strain of Burkholderia anthina at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... Burkholderia anthina is a species of bacteria of the family Burkholderiaceae. Vandamme, Peter; Henry, Deborah; Coenye, Tom; ...
"Burkholderia anthina sp. nov. and Burkholderia pyrrocinia, two additional Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, may confound ... "Polyphasic Characterisation of Burkholderia cepacia-Like Isolates Leading to the Emended Description of Burkholderia pyrrocinia ... "Burkholderia pyrrocinia". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 60550. "Genus Burkholderia". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in ... Burkholderia pyrrocinia is a Gram-negative bacterium which has been found in soil as well as in the sputum of patients with ...
... is closely related to, and often mistaken for, a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. This ... PubMed article on PCR identification of Burkholderia EMedicine overview of Burkholderia Type strain of Burkholderia gladioli at ... Burkholderia gladioli can be distinguished from the other Burkholderia because it is oxidase negative B. gladioli is indole ... NCBI: Burkholderia gladioli pv. cocovenerans (no rank) "Genus burkholderia". LPSN - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in ...
P. pulmonicola is a part of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, which is a group of bacteria commonly associated with infections ...
... is a genus of Pseudomonadota whose pathogenic members include the Burkholderia cepacia complex, which attacks ... Burkholderia ambifaria Burkholderia anthina Burkholderia arboris Burkholderia cenocepacia Burkholderia cepacia Burkholderia ... Burkholderia dolosa Burkholderia gladioli Burkholderia glumae Burkholderia humptydooensis Burkholderia lata Burkholderia latens ... Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia metallica Burkholderia multivorans Burkholderia oklahomensis Burkholderia plantarii ...
... the most common skin cancer Burkholderia cepacia complex, a bacterial pathogen Behavior Change Communication Body-centered ...
Burkholderia cepacia complex in 1994, Rhizobium meliloti in 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis in 1996, and now about 10% of ... Cheng, H P; Lessie, T G (1994). "Multiple replicons constituting the genome of Pseudomonas cepacia 17616". Journal of ... "Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 harbors a multi-replicon, 9.73-Mbp genome shaped for versatility". Proceedings of the National ... One of the largest chromids is the one in Burkholderia pseudomallei, which exceeds 3.1 million nucleotides in size, i.e. 3.1 ...
Burkholderia cepacia complex MeSH B03.440.400.425.251.100.110.500 - Burkholderia cepacia MeSH B03.440.400.425.251.100.355 - ... Burkholderia MeSH B03.660.075.077.100.110 - Burkholderia cepacia complex MeSH B03.660.075.077.100.110.500 - Burkholderia ... Burkholderia gladioli MeSH B03.440.400.425.251.100.477 - Burkholderia mallei MeSH B03.440.400.425.251.100.600 - Burkholderia ... Burkholderia gladioli MeSH B03.660.075.077.100.477 - Burkholderia mallei MeSH B03.660.075.077.100.600 - Burkholderia ...
... à Burkholderia cepacia complex chez un nourrisson révélant une granulomatose septique et une intégration génomique du virus HHV ... Lymphohistiocytic activation syndrome and Burkholderia cepacia complex infection in a child revealing chronic granulomatous ... first identified the gene product gQ1, a glycoprotein unique to HHV-6, and found that it forms a complex with gH and gL ... Soon thereafter, another glycoprotein named gQ2 was identified and found to be part of the gH/gL/gQ1 ligand complex, forming a ...
Burkholderia cepacia complex in the NCBI Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Burkholderia cepacia complex at BacDive, the Bacterial ... Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), or simply Burkholderia cepacia, is a group of catalase-producing, lactose-nonfermenting, ... Burkholderia cepacia is also found in marine environments (marine sponges) and some strains of Burkholderia cepacia can ... "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia Complex". Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts principles and practice of ...
... cepacia complex. Cases of B. cepacia complex infection or colonization associated with use of this product should be reported ... Notice to Readers: Manufacturers Recall of Nasal Spray Contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia Complex. ... of intrinsic contamination with Burkholderia cepacia complex. The nasal spray is distributed as Major Twice-A-Day 12 Hour ... Clinicians should be aware that patients using product from this lot number might have been exposed to B. cepacia complex. ...
Cunha MV, Leitao JH, Mahenthiralingam E, Vandamme P, Lito L, Barreto C, Molecular analysis of Burkholderia cepacia complex ... An epidemic Burkholderia cepacia complex strain identified in soil.Lancet. 2002;359:2002-3. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Taxonomy and identification of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3427-36. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Updated version of the Burkholderia cepacia complex experimental strain panel.J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2797-8. DOIPubMedGoogle ...
Article Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Burkholderia Infections Cross Infection Culture Of Safety Disease Outbreaks Hospitals ... "A pseudo-outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex in a Kentucky hospital" 50, no. 3 (2022). Eldridge, Chad C. et al. "A pseudo- ... A cluster of Burkholderia cepacia complex cases from January to October 2020 among outpatients undergoing urologic procedures ... A cluster of Burkholderia cepacia complex cases from January to October 2020 among outpatients undergoing urologic procedures ...
A group of bacteria that commonly cause severe and fatal infections in these patients is the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC ... An investigation of the basis of aminoglycoside resistance in the Burkholderia cepacia complex. * Year 2007 ...
B cepacia is an organism of low virulence and is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital (eg, irrigation solutions ... Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. ... Burkholderia cepacia complex infection in a cohort of Italian patients with cystic fibrosis. J Microbiol. 2007 Jun. 45(3):275-9 ... encoded search term (Burkholderia cepacia) and Burkholderia cepacia What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Shelly DB, Spilker T, Gracely EJ, et al. Utility of commercial systems for identification of Burkholderia cepacia complex from ... Update on the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Curr Opin Pulm Med2005;11:528-33. ... Cunha MV, Leitao JH, Mahenthiralingam E, et al. Molecular analysis of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates from a Portuguese ... Evidence of transmission of Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia dolosa among persons with cystic ...
Burkholderia cepacia complex: new developments in taxonomy, diagnosis and epidemiology Elke Vanlaere ...
Chiarini, L., Bevivino, A., Dalmastri, C., Tabacchioni, S., and Visca, P. (2006). Burkholderia cepacia complex species: health ... A well-studied case is that of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of phenotypically associated bacterial species which ... The B. cepacia complex was restricted for field application in the United States (Martínez-Hidalgo et al., 2018), even though ... and Burkholderia phenazinium) that strongly attaches to the surface of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizoglomus irregulare ...
Other respiratory bacteria, such as species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, can adapt to the lung environment of CF ... Regan, K.H.; Bhatt, J. Eradication therapy for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database ... Implementation of a successful eradication protocol for Burkholderia cepacia complex in cystic fibrosis patients. BMC Pulm. Med ... AZLI administration was shown to not ameliorate lung function in CF patients with chronic Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) ...
Burkholderia cepcia complex (B. cepacia, B. cenocepacia, at least 8 other genomospecies) ... M. avium complex (M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. chimaera, M avium ss hominissuis, M. columbiense). M. scrofulaecuem ...
Categories: Burkholderia cepacia complex Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Burkholderia stagnalis sp. nov. and Burkholderia territorii sp. nov., two novel Burkholderia cepacia complex species from ... Systematic Review and Consensus Guidelines for Environmental Sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei. D Limmathurotsakul, DAB ...
Health Canada says Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria pose a low risk to most healthy people. ... Health Canada says the recalled lots may be contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, which can pose serious ...
Complex of Burkholderia cepacia lipase with transition state analogue of 1-phenoxy-2-acetoxybutane, Biocatalytic, structural ... Tomić, Sanja , Combined 3D QSAR and QM/MM Study of the Burkholderia cepacia Lipase Enantioselectivity // Protein Design and ... Ceilinger, I. ; Tomić, Sanja ; Hodošček, M. ; Janežič, D. , QM/MM Study of the Burkholderia cepacia Lipase Catalysed Secondary ... Tomić, Sanja ; Ceilinger, Igor ; Hodošček, Milan ; Janežić, Dušanka , QM/MM Study of the Burkholderia cepacia Lipase Catalyzed ...
... cepacia in a pre-term infant, diagnosed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital, Marrakesh. He was a male ... Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic, glucose non-fermenting, motile, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, which is ... Burkholderia Cepacia Complex (BCC), formerly known as Pseudomonas cepacia was assigned to a new genus Burkholderia in 1992, in ... Mali S, Dash L, Gautam V, Shastri J, Kumar S. An outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex in the paediatric unit of a tertiary ...
Burkholderia cepacia complex Infections Associated with Use of Medline Remedy Essentials No-Rinse Foam Advisory Mar 30, 2018. ... Update: Increase in Cases of Non-Respiratory Burkholderia cepacia complex in Pennsylvania Advisory Aug 6, 2021. ... Increase in Cases of Non-Respiratory Burkholderia cepacia complex in Pennsylvania Update Aug 20, 2021. ... Increase in Cases of Burkholderia cepacia in Pennsylvania Alert Jul 29, 2021. ...
The International Burkholderia cepacia Working Group Fostering research in Burkholderia cepacia complex ... We are happy to officially announce that registration and abstract submission to the 2022 International Burkholderia cepacia ...
Contamination of healthcare products by Burkholderia cepacia complex By oksana , July 8, 2021 ...
Burkholderia cepacia is a complex and a group of 17 distinct species. It is known to be an important opportunistic pathogen ... B.cepacia can survive for a long time and even multiply in disinfectants used in hospitals as a complex. Therefore, ... The absence of "Burkholderia cepacia" in this type of product is more important. ... Especially if individuals with low immune system use a cosmetic product or disinfectant contaminated with "Burkholderia cepacia ...
Burkholderia cepacia. has been recognized as a group of highly virulent organisms known as Burkholderia cepacia. complex (Bcc ... Burkholderia cepacia. and related bacteria. They constitute a group of highly virulent organisms. Burkholderia cepacia. complex ... Burkholderia cepacia. complex. Nat Rev Microbiol 2005 3:144-56.. [Google Scholar]. [6]. Wong. S. , Tam. AY. , Yung. RW. , Kwan ... Burkholderia cepacia complex: Beyond Pseudomonas. and Acinetobacter. Indian J Med Microbiol 2011 29(1):4-12.. [Google Scholar] ...
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and the Burkholderia cepacia complex. J Breath Res 10, 037102, doi:10.1088/1752-7155/10/3/037102 ( ...
Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex caused by contaminated alcohol-free mouthwash]. / Ausbruch mit Burkholderia-cepacia- ...
Burkholderia cepacia Complex. USP ,64,. *Probiotic Test. Growth Promotion. Hemp. *Yersinia. *Campylobacter ...
Inbred CFTRBurkholderia cepaciaMice, KnockoutRats, Sprague-DawleyCapillariaRats, WistarBurkholderia cepacia complexMice, ... Burkholderia cepacia complex. A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus ... Burkholderia cepacia. A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with ... ChronicBurkholderia InfectionsBurkholderia cepaciaNephrogenic Fibrosing DermopathyEpithelial CellsMice, KnockoutConnective ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei *Melioidosis. *Burkholderia mallei *Glanders. *Burkholderia cepacia complex. *Bordetella pertussis/ ...
The authors describe a protocolized approach that effectively eradicated Burkholderia cepacia complex in cystic fibrosis ... Background Infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) results in a heterogeneous clinical course ranging from ... Implementation of a Successful Eradication Protocol for Burkholderia Cepacia Complex in Cystic Fibrosis Patients. ... Table 1. Burkholderia Eradication Protocol Medication. Dosing. Frequency. Route. Bacteria Targeted. Induction Period (21 Days): ...
Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Infection. Chromobacteriosis. Other Unusual Bacterial Infections. Section 3. Fungal Diseases ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia cepacia Complex Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Acinetobacter ... Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas The Pseudomonad Group Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
Testing for Burkholderia cepaciacomplex (BCC) by David Hussong. * Bioburden Testing by Edward Tidswell ...
  • Title : A pseudo-outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex in a Kentucky hospital Personal Author(s) : Eldridge, Chad C.;Flinchum, Andrea H.;Thoroughman, Doug;Spicer, Kevin B. (cdc.gov)
  • Characteristics and outcome predictors of patients involved in an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex. (medscape.com)
  • Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex among ventilated pediatric patients linked to hospital sinks. (medscape.com)
  • Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex caused by contaminated alcohol-free mouthwash]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. (medscape.com)
  • We are happy to officially announce that registration and abstract submission to the 2022 International Burkholderia cepacia Working Group (IBCWG) are now open! (ibcwg.org)
  • It was first isolated in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in 1977, when it was known as Pseudomonas cepacia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subacute and acute endocarditis due to Pseudomonas cepacia in heroin addicts. (medscape.com)
  • Pseudomonas cepacia endocarditis treated with co-trimoxazole and kanamycin. (medscape.com)
  • Background Infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex ( Bcc ) results in a heterogeneous clinical course ranging from asymptomatic colonization of the airways to fulminant respiratory failure in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Early eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa improves clinical outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • If an intravenous infusate contains high numbers of B cepacia , direct injection into the bloodstream may result in gram-negative bacteremia. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Burkholderia cepacia bacteremia in an intensive care unit. (medscape.com)
  • We describe sepsis of B. cepacia bacteremia occurring in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital, Marrakesh, and we report epidemiological investigations. (clinicalcasereportsjournal.com)
  • The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of closely related gram-negative bacteria comprising at least 9 species ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A group of bacteria that commonly cause severe and fatal infections in these patients is the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC). (healthresearchbc.ca)
  • Health Canada says the recalled lots may be contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, which can pose serious health risks to people with chronic lung diseases or weakened immune systems, those who are pregnant, as well as seniors and children. (cp24.com)
  • Health Canada says Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria pose a low risk to most healthy people. (cp24.com)
  • Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic, glucose non-fermenting, motile, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, which is not considered from the normal human flora. (clinicalcasereportsjournal.com)
  • Cases of B. cepacia complex infection or colonization associated with use of this product should be reported to the local or state health department and CDC, telephone 800-893-0485. (cdc.gov)
  • B cepacia rarely causes infection in healthy hosts. (medscape.com)
  • The pathophysiology of B cepacia infection mirrors that of other nonfermentative aerobic gram-negative bacilli. (medscape.com)
  • Moisturizing body milk as a reservoir of Burkholderia cepacia: outbreak of nosocomial infection in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit. (medscape.com)
  • To identify the source of infection, study the clinical profile and outcomes of neonates with Burkholderia septicemia, and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. (clinicalcasereportsjournal.com)
  • Especially if individuals with low immune system use a cosmetic product or disinfectant contaminated with "Burkholderia cepacia", infection may occur in the person. (saniterlab.com)
  • B. cepacia is an opportunistic human pathogen that most often causes pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals with underlying lung disease (such as cystic fibrosis or chronic granulomatous disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • B. cepacia was discovered by Walter Burkholder in 1949 as the cause of onion skin rot, and first described as a human pathogen in the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cepacia ordinarily is not a pathogen in the ambulatory setting, but it may colonize and/or infect the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. (medscape.com)
  • B. cepacia is a nosocomial pathogen of humans in both immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. (clinicalcasereportsjournal.com)
  • Burkholderia cepacia is also found in marine environments (marine sponges) and some strains of Burkholderia cepacia can tolerate high salinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2021) isolated and biochemically characterized salt tolerant strains of Burkholderia cepacia from marine sponges of Saint Martin's Island of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains of the Burkholderia cepacia complex can survive within macrophages by arresting the maturation of phagocytic vacuoles. (qub.ac.uk)
  • B cepacia nosocomial pneumonia has rarely been reported, usually in patients treated with fluoroquinolones and ceftazidime. (medscape.com)
  • Although co-trimoxazole has been generally considered the drug of choice for B. cepacia infections, ceftazidime, minocycline, piperacillin, and meropenem are considered to be viable alternative options in cases where co-trimoxazole cannot be administered because of hypersensitivity reactions, intolerance, or resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with underlying lung disease (especially cystic fibrosis) might be at increased risk for severe infections with B. cepacia complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), found in many environments, are associated with clinical infections. (cdc.gov)
  • B cepacia also may cause central venous catheter-related infections in patients with cancer and in those on hemodialysis. (medscape.com)
  • Skin and soft-tissue infections, surgical-wound infections, and genitourinary tract infections with B cepacia have been reported. (medscape.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of B cepacia infections are related to the organ system involved and are indistinguishable from infections with other pathogens. (medscape.com)
  • According to the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's 2021 National Patient Registry , 1.4% percent of all persons with cystic fibrosis were infected with B cepacia complex compared to 2.6% in 2012. (medscape.com)
  • With the improving survival of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), the clinical spectrum of this complex multisystem disease continues to evolve. (bmj.com)
  • CDC has been notified of a voluntary recall of over-the-counter oxymetazoline HCl 0.05% nasal spray because of intrinsic contamination with Burkholderia cepacia complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinicians should be aware that patients using product from this lot number might have been exposed to B. cepacia complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on phenotypic and genotypic analyses, B cepacia is divided into 9 genomovars that constitute the B cepacia complex (BCC). (medscape.com)
  • The organism is usually cultured in Burkholderia cepacia agar (BC agar), which contains crystal violet and bile salts to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive cocci, and ticarcillin and polymyxin B to inhibit the growth of other Gram-negative bacilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cepacia is an organism of low virulence and is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital (eg, irrigation solutions, intravenous fluids). (medscape.com)
  • B cepacia almost always is a colonizing organism rather than an infecting organism, but it may be important when isolated from body fluids that are ordinarily sterile. (medscape.com)
  • These episodes are probably related to a complex relationship between host defence and airway microbiology that impacts on sputum production and airflow obstruction. (bmj.com)
  • B.cepacia can survive for a long time and even multiply in disinfectants used in hospitals as a complex. (saniterlab.com)
  • Burkholderia cepacia is a complex and a group of 17 distinct species. (saniterlab.com)
  • The species complex also attacks young onion and tobacco plants, and displays a remarkable ability to digest oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe a rare case of sepsis by B. cepacia in a pre-term infant, diagnosed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital, Marrakesh. (clinicalcasereportsjournal.com)
  • Here, we report a rare case report of bacteraemia by Burkholderia cepacia in an immunocompetent male, who presented with fever and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). (jcdr.net)
  • Three patients underwent bilateral lung transplantation during the study, two of whom harboured small-colony variants in addition to clonally identical wildtypes of Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cepacia genomovar III prior to lung transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • Results of typing by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that strains of B. cepacia complex from genomovar III are the most potentially transmissible and that the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker is a robust marker for transmissibility. (cdc.gov)
  • Second, the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker (BCESM), which encodes a protein of unknown function, is found in many different strains from genomovar III, each of which is clustered in specific CF treatment centers ( 14 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Production and molecular composition of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia th. (authorea.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative, motile bacillus typically found in surface water and/or soil in endemic regions. (authorea.com)
  • This study evaluates the components of established biofilms using B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia thailandensis, a closely related nonpathogenic species. (authorea.com)
  • Quantitative proteomic analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa type III secretion system effectors using hypersecreting mutants. (burkholderia.com)
  • ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cepacia are Gram-negative, soil-dwelling bacteria that are found in a wide variety of environmental niches. (tropmedres.ac)
  • While B. pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis in humans and animals, members of the B. cepacia complex typically only cause disease in immunocompromised hosts. (tropmedres.ac)
  • In this study, we report the identification of B. cepacia strains isolated from either patients or soil in Laos and Thailand that express a B. pseudomallei -like 6-deoxyheptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS). (tropmedres.ac)
  • Since CPS is a target that is often used for presumptive identification of B. pseudomallei , it is possible that the occurrence of these unique B. cepacia strains may complicate the diagnosis of melioidosis. (tropmedres.ac)
  • IMPORTANCE Burkholderia pseudomallei , the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Аналитическая чувствительность разработанного набора реагентов позволила выявить Burkholderia pseudomallei и Burkholderia mallei в концентрации 1 × 101 м.к. (clinlabdia.ru)
  • Howard K., Inglis T.J.J. Novel selective medium for isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei. (clinlabdia.ru)
  • To identify microbial clones with enhanced transmissibility, we evaluated B. cepacia complex isolates from patients with CF from throughout Canada. (cdc.gov)
  • Rare isolates (0.5% or 0.2% each) included Leclercia adecarboxylata , Raoultella ornithinolytica , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia cepacia, Kosakonia cowanii and Lelliottia amnigena . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of small-colony variant morphotypes of Burkholderia cepacia-like organisms in infectious complications in cystic fibrosis patients following lung transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • Respiratory tract specimens from 470 cystic fibrosis patients were screened over a 22-month period for Burkholderia cepacia-like organisms. (medscape.com)
  • Bcc bacteria are now recognized as important opportunistic pathogens that can cause variable lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients, which result in asymptomatic carriage, chronic infection or 'cepacia syndrome', which is characterized by a rapid decline in lung function that can include invasive disease. (nih.gov)
  • High genomic plasticity, diversity, and specialization within the Burkholderia genus are exemplified by the conservation of only 44% of the genes between LB400 and Burkholderia cepacia complex strain 383. (nih.gov)
  • Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria: opportunistic pathogens with important natural biology. (nih.gov)
  • Rising concerns over persistent opportunistic pathogens is calling attention to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). (nelsonlabs.com)
  • Patients infected with Burkholderia cepacia complex or ceftazidime-resistant P aeruginosa were assigned to receive open-label meropenem/tobramycin. (nih.gov)
  • Biomass formation in B. cepacia and P. aeruginosa cultivations could be increased by addition of sodium acetate as an additional carbon source. (mpg.de)
  • Long-term colonization of the cystic fibrosis lung by Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria: epidemiology, clonal variation, and genome-wide expression alterations. (nih.gov)
  • The results of this study indicate that diagnostic efforts should be undertaken to carefully identify small-colony variants of Burkholderia cepacia complex, since they might be an indicator of poor post-transplantation outcome in patients with cystic fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • The Burkholderia cepacia complex is an important group of pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although evidence for patient-to-patient spread is clear, microbial factors facilitating transmission are poorly understood. (cdc.gov)
  • Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia bloodstream infection at an outpatient hematology and oncology practice. (medscape.com)
  • Characteristics and outcome predictors of patients involved in an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex. (medscape.com)
  • Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex among ventilated pediatric patients linked to hospital sinks. (medscape.com)
  • Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (LB400), a well studied, effective polychlorinated biphenyl-degrader, has one of the two largest known bacterial genomes and is the first nonpathogenic Burkholderia isolate sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • Cases of B. cepacia complex infection or colonization associated with use of this product should be reported to the local or state health department and CDC, telephone 800-893-0485. (cdc.gov)
  • Preventing B cepacia colonization of respiratory secretions in intubated patients who are in ICUs and on broad-spectrum antibiotics is difficult. (medscape.com)
  • Consultation with an infectious disease specialist helps to differentiate B cepacia colonization from infection. (medscape.com)
  • Appropriate isolation procedures rather than antimicrobial therapy should be used to control the spread of B cepacia colonization among patients. (medscape.com)
  • The prognostic role of recipient factors including markers of sepsis, such as white cells and C-reactive protein (CRP), and the influence of multi-resistant organisms, in particular organisms from the Burkholderia cepacia complex, on outcomes were investigated. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] B cepacia is highly transmissible and inherently resistant to the antipseudomonal antibiotics, colistin , and polymyxin. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] B cepacia infection is associated with accelerated lung disease and a clinical syndrome referred to as "cepacia syndrome," characterized by necrotizing pneumonia and septicemia. (medscape.com)
  • The Burkholderia Genome Database: facilitating flexible queries and comparative analyses. (burkholderia.com)
  • Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 harbors a multi-replicon, 9.73-Mbp genome shaped for versatility. (nih.gov)
  • If you have used this database, please ensure that you acknowledge the Burkholderia Genome Database publication rather than just the website URL. (burkholderia.com)
  • Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. (medscape.com)
  • A raised white cell count or temperature or a pre-transplant infection with B cepacia was, however, associated with a significantly poorer prognosis at p = 0.03, 0.03 and 0.001, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • Effective infection-control measures can minimize or limit the spread of B cepacia and other organisms in the ICU. (medscape.com)
  • Burkholderia cepacia complex is an important group of pathogens in immunocompromised hosts, notably those with cystic fibrosis (CF) or chronic granulomatous disease ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • According to the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's 2016 National Patient Registry, 3% percent of all persons with cystic fibrosis were infected with B cepacia complex compared to 2.6% in 2012. (medscape.com)
  • 7. Subtractive sequence analysis aided druggable targets mining in Burkholderia cepacia complex and finding inhibitors through bioinformatics approach. (nih.gov)
  • Pre-operative B cepacia complex infection, leukocytosis and pyrexia, but not CRP, weight, diabetes or lung function, were found to be associated with poorer post-transplant outcome. (medscape.com)
  • Recovered B cepacia should be considered a nonpathogen unless proven otherwise. (medscape.com)
  • Patient-to-patient spread of B cepacia may be minimized and/or prevented with effective infection-control measures. (medscape.com)
  • B cepacia rarely causes infection in healthy hosts. (medscape.com)
  • The most clinically relevant of these to the subsequent risk of post-operative death from sepsis appear to be B cepacia infection and pyrexia. (medscape.com)
  • Assuring an effective preservative system for Burkholderia spp. (nelsonlabs.com)