A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BURKHOLDERIA.
A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes disease in plants. It is found commonly in the environment and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.
An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
3-Chloro-4-(3-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)pyrrole. Antifungal antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia. It is effective mainly against Trichophyton, Microsporium, Epidermophyton, and Penicillium.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.
A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, straight, curved, or branched rods which are motile by a single polar flagellum. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Burkholderia cepacia is more active than LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in stimulating tumor necrosis factor alpha from human monocytes. (1/432)

Whole cells and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) extracted from Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Escherichia coli were compared in their ability to stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from the human monocyte cell line MonoMac-6. B. cepacia LPS, on a weight-for-weight basis, was found to have TNF-alpha-inducing activity similar to that of LPS from E. coli, which was approximately four- and eightfold greater than the activity of LPSs from P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia, respectively. The LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production from monocytes was found to be CD14 dependent. These results suggest that B. cepacia LPS might play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease in cystic fibrosis, and in some patients it might be responsible, at least in part, for the sepsis-like cepacia syndrome.  (+info)

Comparison of isolation media for recovery of Burkholderia cepacia complex from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis. (2/432)

Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has previously been devised for isolation of B. cepacia from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis and tested under research laboratory conditions. Here we describe a study in which BCSA, oxidation-fermentation polymyxin bacitracin lactose agar (OFPBL), and Pseudomonas cepacia agar (PCA) were compared in routine culture procedures for the ability to grow B. cepacia and inhibit other organisms. Three hundred twenty-eight specimens from 209 patients at two pediatric centers and 328 specimens from 109 adults were tested. Plates were inoculated, incubated, and read for quality and quantity of growth at 24, 48, and 72 h. Five (1.5%) specimens from 4 (1.9%) children and 75 (22.9%) specimens from 16 (14.7%) adults grew B. cepacia complex. At 24, 48, and 72 h, BCSA achieved 43, 93, and 100% detection, respectively; OFPBL achieved 26, 84, and 96%, respectively; and PCA achieved 33, 74, and 84% detection, respectively. Quality was assessed as pinpoint or good growth. At 24 h, most cultures growing B. cepacia complex had pinpoint colonies. By 48 and 72 h, 48 and 69% of B. cepacia complex cultures, respectively, had good growth on BCSA, while on OFPBL 19 and 30%, respectively, had good growth and on PCA 11 and 18%, respectively, had good growth. BCSA was superior to OFPBL and PCA in suppressing organisms other than B. cepacia complex; 40 non-B. cepacia complex organisms were isolated from BCSA, 263 were isolated from OFPBL, and 116 were isolated from PCA. We conclude that BCSA is superior to OFPBL and PCA in its ability to support the growth of B. cepacia complex and to suppress other respiratory organisms.  (+info)

Structural elucidation of a novel exopolysaccharide produced by a mucoid clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia. Characterization of a trisubstituted glucuronic acid residue in a heptasaccharide repeating unit. (3/432)

The structure of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by a clinical isolate of Burkholderia cepacia isolated from a patient with fibrocystic lung disease has been investigated. By means of methylation analyses, carboxyl reduction, partial depolymerization by fuming HCl and chemical degradations such as Smith degradation, lithiumethylenediamine degradation and beta-elimination, supported by GC/MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, the repeat unit of the EPS has been identified and was shown to correspond to the acidic branched heptasaccharide with the following structure: [formula: see text]. This partially acetylated acidic polymer, distinguished by the presence of the less usual D-isomer of rhamnose and of a trisubstituted glucuronic acid residue, could represent the main EPS produced by this bacterial species.  (+info)

An epidemic of burkholderia cepacia transmitted between patients with and without cystic fibrosis. (4/432)

Burkholderia cepacia is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) and an infrequent cause of nosocomial infection in non-CF patients. This report describes a large hospital outbreak that appeared to involve both patient groups, a previously unrecognized phenomenon. Ribotype restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-resolved macrochromosomal RFLPs were analyzed, a ribotype-based phylogenic tree was constructed, and case-control and cohort studies were performed. A single dominant clone was found in both CF and non-CF groups. Phylogenic analysis suggests that it has evolved independently and that such highly transmissible strains can emerge rapidly and randomly. Acquisition risk in the CF patients was linked to hospitalization (odds ratio=5.47, P=.0158, confidence interval=1. 28-26.86) and was associated with significantly increased mortality rates. Infection control policies must now consider this threat of transmission between non-CF and CF patients.  (+info)

Discrimination of Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia vietnamiensis from Burkholderia cepacia genomovars I, III, and IV by PCR. (5/432)

We present a PCR procedure for identification of Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis. 16S and 23S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) of B. multivorans and B. vietnamiensis were sequenced and aligned with published sequences for definition of species-specific 18-mer oligonucleotide primers. Specific antisense 16S rDNA primers (for B. cepacia, 5'-AGC ACT CCC RCC TCT CAG-3'; for B. multivorans, 5'-AGC ACT CCC GAA TCT CTT-3') and 23S rDNA primers (for B. vietnamiensis, 5'-TCC TAC CAT GCG TGC AA-3') were paired with a general sense primer of 16S rDNAs (5'-AGR GTT YGA TYM TGG CTC AG-3') or with a sense primer of 23S rDNA (5'-CCT TTG GGT CAT CCT GGA-3'). PCR with these primers under optimized conditions is appropriate to specifically and rapidly identify B. multivorans, B. vietnamiensis, and B. cepacia (genomovars I, III, and IV are not discriminated). In comparison with the polyphasic taxonomic analyses presently necessary for species and genomovar identification within the B. cepacia complex, our procedure is more rapid and easier to perform and may contribute to clarifying the clinical significance of individual members of the complex in cystic fibrosis.  (+info)

Hydroxylation reaction catalyzed by the Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 bacterial strain. Involvement of the chlorophenol-4-monooxygenase. (6/432)

The Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 strain, known to degrade the herbicide, 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), is able to metabolize 4-hydroxyarylaldehyde, not only into the corresponding acid, but also into a new hydroquinone, 2,5-dihydroxyarylaldehyde. When incubated with resting AC1100 cells or cell-free extracts, syringaldehyde and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were converted into such metabolites, identified by comparison of their mass and 1H-NMR spectra with those of authentic chemically synthesized samples. With 5-bromovanillin, only one metabolite was formed, the structure of which was identified as 2, 5-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-6-bromobenzaldehyde through 1H-NMR two-dimensional NOESY experiments. All these products result formally from a para hydroxylation of the phenol followed by the cis migration of the aldehyde. This reaction is the only one to be associated with the 2,4,5-T degradation pathway, as the acid formation was retained when the AC1100 strain had lost its degradation ability. Through competitive experiments with halophenols and methimazole, an alternative substrate of flavin monooxygenase, the chlorophenol-4-monooxygenase was recognized to be the enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of 4-hydroxyarylaldehyde. The purified enzyme, previously reported to catalyze the para hydroxylation or dehalogenating hydroxylation of chlorophenols, also promotes this hydroxylation reaction in the presence of NADH and FAD. The kcat value determined for the best substrate, syringaldehyde, 0. 08 s-1, was about 20% of that obtained for 2,6-dichlorophenol hydroxylation (0.38 s-1).  (+info)

Nitric oxide-induced potentiation of the killing of Burkholderia cepacia by reactive oxygen species: implications for cystic fibrosis. (7/432)

Burkholderia (formerly Pseudomonas) cepacia has emerged as an important pulmonary pathogen in cystic fibrosis, and survives within the lung despite a vigorous neutrophil-dominated immune response. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the antimicrobial activity of reactive oxygen species in the normal lung, but recent evidence suggests that inducible NO synthase is not expressed in the airway epithelial cells of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This may explain the failure of the neutrophil response to eliminate B. cepacia. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined the combined effect of NO, superoxide and H2O2 against B. cepacia. There was no killing of a highly transmissible strain by either superoxide or NO alone, but their combination reduced the bacterial count by >1000-fold over 75 min. This bactericidal activity was not sensitive to addition of superoxide dismutase, but was abrogated completely by catalase, suggesting that NO and hydrogen peroxide were the bactericidal mediators. Increased killing by NO in combination with H2O2 was seen for seven of a further 11 strains examined. The lack of NO in the lungs of CF patients may contribute to the survival of B. cepacia.  (+info)

Role of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase in degradation of phthalate by Burkholderia cepacia DBO1. (8/432)

Two distinct regions of DNA encode the enzymes needed for phthalate degradation by Burkholderia cepacia DBO1. A gene coding for an enzyme (quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase) involved in the biosynthesis of NAD+ was identified between these two regions by sequence analysis and functional assays. Southern hybridization experiments indicate that DBO1 and other phthalate-degrading B. cepacia strains have two dissimilar genes for this enzyme, while non-phthalate-degrading B. cepacia strains have only a single gene. The sequenced gene was labeled ophE, due to the fact that it is specifically induced by phthalate as shown by lacZ gene fusions. Insertional knockout mutants lacking ophE grow noticeably slower on phthalate while exhibiting normal rates of growth on other substrates. The fact that elevated levels of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase enhance growth on phthalate stems from the structural similarities between phthalate and quinolinate: phthalate is a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme and the phthalate catabolic pathway cometabolizes quinolinate. The recruitment of this gene for growth on phthalate thus gives B. cepacia an advantage over other phthalate-degrading bacteria in the environment.  (+info)

Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative, motile bacillus that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in water and soil. It is a conditional pathogen, meaning it can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions such as cystic fibrosis.

Infections caused by B. cepacia can be difficult to treat due to its resistance to many antibiotics. The bacteria can colonize the lungs and cause a chronic respiratory infection that can lead to decline in lung function, increased frequency of exacerbations, and even death in some cases. It is also associated with outbreaks in healthcare settings, particularly in patients receiving respiratory therapy or using contaminated medical equipment.

It's important to note that B. cepacia is not typically considered a community-acquired pathogen and is not commonly associated with typical pneumonia or other respiratory infections in healthy individuals.

Burkholderia infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia genus, which includes several species that can cause various types of infection in humans. The most well-known and medically significant species include Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), Burkholderia pseudomallei, and Burkholderia mallei.

1. Burkholderia cepacia Complex (Bcc): These are a group of closely related bacteria that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and plants. They can cause respiratory infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis. Bcc infections can be difficult to treat due to their resistance to many antibiotics.

2. Burkholderia pseudomallei: This species is the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially severe and life-threatening infection endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacteria can be found in contaminated water and soil, and people can get infected through direct contact with contaminated sources, ingestion, or inhalation of the bacteria. Melioidosis symptoms may vary widely, from mild flu-like illness to severe pneumonia, abscesses, and sepsis.

3. Burkholderia mallei: This species is responsible for glanders, a rare but serious disease primarily affecting horses, donkeys, and mules. Human infections are usually associated with occupational exposure to infected animals or their secretions. Glanders can cause severe symptoms such as fever, pneumonia, sepsis, and skin ulcers.

Treatment of Burkholderia infections typically involves the use of specific antibiotics, often in combination therapy, depending on the species and severity of infection. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissues. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated sources, practicing good hygiene, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when handling animals or working in high-risk environments.

The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of closely related bacterial species that are gram-negative, motile, and aerobic. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and vegetation. The Bcc organisms are known to be opportunistic pathogens, meaning they primarily cause infections in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.

Bcc infections can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and chronic lung colonization. The bacteria are particularly notorious for their high level of antibiotic resistance and their ability to form biofilms, making them difficult to eradicate from the lungs of CF patients. Accurate identification of Bcc species is essential for appropriate treatment and infection control measures.

Burkholderia is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including soil, water, and associated with plants. Some species of Burkholderia are opportunistic pathogens, meaning they can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

One of the most well-known species of Burkholderia is B. cepacia, which can cause respiratory infections in people with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. Other notable species include B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially serious infection that primarily affects the respiratory system; and B. mallei, which causes glanders, a rare but severe disease that can affect humans and animals.

Burkholderia species are known for their resistance to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat in some cases. Proper identification of the specific Burkholderia species involved in an infection is important for determining the most appropriate treatment approach.

'Burkholderia pseudomallei' is a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of melioidosis. It is found in soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacterium can infect humans and animals through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated soil or water. Melioidosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pneumonia, sepsis, and abscesses in various organs. It is a serious and potentially fatal disease, especially in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or compromised immune systems. Proper diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are essential for managing melioidosis.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the lungs and digestive system. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which regulates the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. When this gene is not functioning properly, thick, sticky mucus builds up in various organs, leading to a range of symptoms.

In the lungs, this mucus can clog the airways, making it difficult to breathe and increasing the risk of lung infections. Over time, lung damage can occur, which may lead to respiratory failure. In the digestive system, the thick mucus can prevent the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, impairing nutrient absorption and leading to malnutrition. CF can also affect the reproductive system, liver, and other organs.

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis may include persistent coughing, wheezing, lung infections, difficulty gaining weight, greasy stools, and frequent greasy diarrhea. The severity of the disease can vary significantly among individuals, depending on the specific genetic mutations they have inherited.

Currently, there is no cure for cystic fibrosis, but treatments are available to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include airway clearance techniques, medications to thin mucus, antibiotics to treat infections, enzyme replacement therapy, and a high-calorie, high-fat diet. Lung transplantation is an option for some individuals with advanced lung disease.

Burkholderia cenocepacia is a species of gram-negative, motile bacteria that belongs to the family Burkholderiaceae. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant roots. They are known to form biofilms and can survive under a wide range of conditions, making them difficult to eradicate.

B. cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious respiratory infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, particularly those with cystic fibrosis (CF). In CF patients, B. cenocepacia infections can lead to a rapid decline in lung function and are associated with high mortality rates. The bacteria can also cause other types of infections such as bacteremia, wound infections, and urinary tract infections.

B. cenocepacia is resistant to many antibiotics, which makes treatment challenging. Infection control measures, such as contact isolation and rigorous environmental cleaning, are crucial in preventing the spread of B. cenocepacia in healthcare settings.

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by the soil-dwelling gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease primarily occurs in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. It can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations including acute septicemia, pneumonia, and chronic suppurative infection. Risk factors for melioidosis include diabetes mellitus, renal disease, alcoholism, and lung disease. The diagnosis is confirmed by culturing B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum, or pus. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, including intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

'Burkholderia gladioli' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). This complex includes several closely related species that can cause respiratory infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

'Burkholderia gladioli' is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. It has been isolated from a variety of plants, including onions, gladiolus, and other flowers. While it can cause serious infections in humans, it is also being studied for its potential use in bioremediation and as a source of novel antibiotics.

Infections caused by 'Burkholderia gladioli' can be difficult to treat due to the bacterium's resistance to many commonly used antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics and close monitoring of the patient's response to therapy.

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) is a synthetic auxin, or plant growth regulator, that has been used as an herbicide. It was a component of Agent Orange, which was used as a defoliant during the Vietnam War. 2,4,5-T has been banned in many countries due to concerns about its toxicity and potential health effects.

It is important to note that exposure to 2,4,5-T has been linked to various health issues, including developmental and reproductive problems, as well as an increased risk of cancer. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

It's also important to note that 2,4,5-T is not used in medical field, it's mainly used as herbicide and defoliant.

Glanders is a rare and serious disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. It primarily affects horses, donkeys, and mules, but can also infect humans who come into contact with infected animals or contaminated materials. The disease is characterized by the formation of multiple abscesses in various organs, particularly the lungs, liver, spleen, and skin. In humans, glanders can cause fever, cough, chest pain, muscle aches, and pustules on the skin. It is a highly infectious disease and can be fatal if not treated promptly with appropriate antibiotics. Historically, it has been a concern in military settings due to its potential use as a biological weapon.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

Recombination is a natural process that occurs in cells to exchange genetic information between two similar or identical strands of DNA. This process helps to maintain the stability and diversity of the genome. RecA (RecA protein) is a type of recombinase enzyme found in bacteria, including Escherichia coli, that plays a crucial role in this process.

RecA recombinases are proteins that facilitate the exchange of genetic information between two DNA molecules by promoting homologous pairing and strand exchange. Homologous pairing is the alignment of similar or identical sequences of nucleotides on two different DNA molecules, while strand exchange refers to the physical transfer of one strand of DNA from one molecule to another.

RecA recombinases work by forming a nucleoprotein filament on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and then searching for complementary sequences on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Once a complementary sequence is found, the RecA protein facilitates the invasion of the ssDNA into the dsDNA, leading to strand exchange and the formation of a joint molecule. This joint molecule can then be used as a template for DNA replication or repair.

RecA recombinases have been extensively studied due to their importance in genetic recombination and DNA repair. They also have potential applications in biotechnology, such as in the development of genome engineering tools and methods for detecting and quantifying specific DNA sequences.

Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the medical definition of Tobramycin is:

"A semi-synthetic modification of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, NEOMYCIN, that retains its antimicrobial activity but has less nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects. Tobramycin is used in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, especially Pseudomonas infections in patients with cystic fibrosis."

Tobramycin works by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacterial cells, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. It is commonly used to treat severe infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter species.

Tobramycin is available in various formulations, such as injectable solutions, ophthalmic ointments, and inhaled powder for nebulization. The choice of formulation depends on the type and location of the infection being treated. As with any antibiotic, it's essential to use Tobramycin appropriately and under medical supervision to minimize the risk of antibiotic resistance and potential side effects.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "onions" are not a medical term. They are a type of vegetable, specifically a variety of bulb vegetables, known scientifically as Allium cepa. Onions are widely used in cooking and have been cultivated for centuries for their unique, pungent flavor and potential health benefits. If you have any questions about onions in a culinary or nutritional context, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a type of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method used in molecular biology for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis. This technique utilizes random primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences to amplify random segments of genomic DNA. The amplified products are then separated by electrophoresis, and the resulting banding patterns are analyzed.

In RAPD analysis, the randomly chosen primers bind to multiple sites in the genome, and the intervening regions between the primer binding sites are amplified. Since the primer binding sites can vary among individuals within a species or among different species, the resulting amplicons will also differ. These differences in amplicon size and pattern can be used to distinguish between individuals or populations at the DNA level.

RAPD is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique that does not require prior knowledge of the genome sequence. However, it has some limitations, such as low reproducibility and sensitivity to experimental conditions. Despite these limitations, RAPD remains a useful tool for genetic analysis in various fields, including forensics, plant breeding, and microbial identification.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. It refers to the presence of variations in DNA sequences among individuals, which can be detected by restriction enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of different lengths.

In RFLP analysis, DNA is isolated from an individual and treated with a specific restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA at particular recognition sites. The resulting fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern unique to that individual's DNA. If there are variations in the DNA sequence between individuals, the restriction enzyme may cut the DNA at different sites, leading to differences in the length of the fragments and thus, a different pattern on the gel.

These variations can be used for various purposes, such as identifying individuals, diagnosing genetic diseases, or studying evolutionary relationships between species. However, RFLP analysis has largely been replaced by more modern techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing, which offer higher resolution and throughput.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Quorum sensing is a type of cell-cell communication that allows bacteria to detect and respond to changes in population density by producing, releasing, and responding to signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process enables the coordinated expression of certain genes related to various group behaviors such as biofilm formation, virulence factor production, and bioluminescence. The term "quorum sensing" was coined in 1994 by Bonnie L. Bassler and Susan Goldberg to describe this population-dependent gene regulation mechanism in bacteria.

Chlorophenols are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a phenol ring substituted with one or more chlorine atoms. They are widely used as pesticides, disinfectants, and preservatives. Some common examples of chlorophenols include pentachlorophenol, trichlorophenol, and dichlorophenol.

Chlorophenols can be harmful to human health and the environment. They have been linked to a variety of adverse health effects, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, damage to the liver and kidneys, and an increased risk of cancer. Exposure to chlorophenols can occur through contact with contaminated soil, water, or air, as well as through ingestion or absorption through the skin.

It is important to handle chlorophenols with care and to follow proper safety precautions when using them. If you are concerned about exposure to chlorophenols, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare professional for further guidance.

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a volatile, colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. In the medical field, it is primarily used as a surgical anesthetic and an analgesic. However, its use in medicine has significantly decreased due to the availability of safer alternatives.

In a broader context, TCE is widely used in various industries as a solvent for cleaning metal parts, degreasing fabrics and other materials, and as a refrigerant. It's also present in some consumer products like paint removers, adhesives, and typewriter correction fluids.

Prolonged or repeated exposure to TCE can lead to various health issues, including neurological problems, liver and kidney damage, and an increased risk of certain cancers. Therefore, its use is regulated by environmental and occupational safety agencies worldwide.

4-Butyrolactone, also known as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4-butanolide, is a chemical compound with the formula C4H6O2. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used in various industrial and commercial applications, including as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, as a solvent, and as a flavoring agent.

In the medical field, 4-butyrolactone has been studied for its potential use as a sleep aid and muscle relaxant. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. It is also known to have abuse potential and can cause intoxication, sedation, and other central nervous system effects when ingested or inhaled.

It's important to note that 4-butyrolactone is not a medication and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional for approved medical purposes.

Pseudomonas infections are infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other species of the Pseudomonas genus. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, dermatological, and bloodstream infections.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized for extended periods. The bacteria can also infect wounds, burns, and medical devices such as catheters and ventilators.

Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat due to the bacteria's resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics that are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics or even hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, contact precautions for patients with known Pseudomonas infections, and proper cleaning and maintenance of medical equipment.

Pyrrolnitrin is an antifungal agent that is produced naturally by certain types of bacteria. Its chemical formula is C12H13ClN2O2. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi, including certain species that can cause infections in humans. Pyrrolnitrin is not widely used in medicine, but it has been studied as a potential treatment for fungal infections of the skin and nails. It is also used in agriculture as a fungicide to control fungal diseases in crops.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) is a chemical compound with the formula H-C≡N. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous and flammable liquid that has a bitter almond-like odor in its pure form. However, not everyone can detect its odor, as some people lack the ability to smell it, which makes it even more dangerous. It is soluble in water and alcohol, and its aqueous solution is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid.

Hydrogen Cyanide is rapidly absorbed by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact, and it inhibits the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, which is essential for cellular respiration. This leads to rapid death due to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) at the cellular level. It is used industrially in large quantities as a pesticide, fumigant, and chemical intermediate, but it also has significant potential for use as a chemical weapon.

In the medical field, Hydrogen Cyanide poisoning can be treated with high-concentration oxygen, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate, which help to restore the function of cytochrome c oxidase and enhance the elimination of cyanide from the body.

I am not aware of a widely recognized medical definition for the term "Mimosa." In general, it may refer to a type of plant or a cocktail made with champagne and orange juice. If you are looking for information on a specific medical condition or concept, please provide more context so that I can give you a more accurate and helpful response. Is there something specific you had in mind?

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Toluene is not a medical condition or disease, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. Medically, toluene can be relevant as a substance of abuse due to its intoxicating effects when inhaled or sniffed. It is a colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet aroma, and it is a common solvent found in many products such as paint thinners, adhesives, and rubber cement.

In the context of medical toxicology, toluene exposure can lead to various health issues, including neurological damage, cognitive impairment, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and hearing and vision problems. Chronic exposure to toluene can also cause significant harm to the developing fetus during pregnancy, leading to developmental delays, behavioral problems, and physical abnormalities.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Siderophores are low-molecular-weight organic compounds that are secreted by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to chelate and solubilize iron from their environment. They are able to bind ferric iron (Fe3+) with very high affinity and form a siderophore-iron complex, which can then be taken up by the microorganism through specific transport systems. This allows them to acquire iron even in environments where it is present at very low concentrations or in forms that are not readily available for uptake. Siderophores play an important role in the survival and virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, as they help them to obtain the iron they need to grow and multiply.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a gram-negative, aerobic, non-fermentative bacillus that is commonly found in moist environments such as soil and water. It has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, particularly in patients with compromised immune systems or underlying lung diseases.

S. maltophilia can cause a variety of infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. It is inherently resistant to many antibiotics, making it difficult to treat. The bacteria produce biofilms, which can make them even more resistant to antibiotics and host defenses.

Infection with S. maltophilia is associated with high mortality rates, particularly in critically ill patients. Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are essential for the successful management of infections caused by this organism.

A chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a group of rare inherited disorders that affect the body's ability to fight off certain types of bacterial and fungal infections. It is characterized by the formation of granulomas, which are abnormal masses or nodules composed of immune cells called macrophages that cluster together in an attempt to wall off and destroy the infectious agents.

In CGD, the macrophages have a genetic defect that prevents them from producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are molecules that help kill bacteria and fungi. As a result, the immune system is unable to effectively eliminate these pathogens, leading to chronic inflammation and the formation of granulomas.

CGD is typically diagnosed in childhood and can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and lymph nodes. Symptoms may include recurrent infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, cough, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to manage infections, as well as immunosuppressive therapy to control inflammation and prevent the formation of granulomas. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a curative treatment option.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Benzethonium is an antimicrobial agent used as a preservative in some pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. It has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The chemical name for benzethonium chloride is N'-(1-benzyl-4-phenoxypyridinio) decane methosulfate.

Benzethonium chloride is commonly used as a topical antiseptic in products such as skin cleansers, hand sanitizers, and first aid treatments. It works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to the death of the microorganism. However, it may not be effective against some spores and highly resistant bacteria.

It is important to note that benzethonium chloride should be used according to the instructions on the product label and should not be ingested or used in the eyes or mucous membranes unless specifically directed by a healthcare professional.

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Ceftazidime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria.

It is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis, particularly when they are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ceftazidime is also commonly used in combination with other antibiotics to treat complicated abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, and hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Like all antibiotics, ceftazidime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It may also affect the kidneys and should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function. Ceftazidime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

"Methylomonas" is a genus of facultatively methanotrophic, Gram-negative bacteria that are capable of growth on multi-carbon compounds as well as methane. They possess a type of metabolism known as methanotrophy, in which methane is oxidized as their source of carbon and energy. These bacteria are commonly found in environments with low oxygen concentrations, such as wetlands, sediments, and the water column of lakes. The genus "Methylomonas" belongs to the family Methylococcaceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. It's important to note that providing a medical definition for "Methylomonas" may not be entirely accurate as it is not a human pathogen and does not typically have direct relevance to medical fields.

Burkholderia cepacia complex in the NCBI Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Burkholderia cepacia complex at BacDive, the Bacterial ... Burkholderia cepacia is also found in marine environments (marine sponges) and some strains of Burkholderia cepacia can ... Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), or simply Burkholderia cepacia, is a group of catalase-producing, lactose-nonfermenting, ... Burkholderia cepacia is intrinsically resistant to colistin and usually resistant to aminoglycosides. In people with cystic ...
General Information about B. cepacia. Burkholderia cepacia [burk-hōld-er-ee-uh si-pay-shee-uh] (also called B. cepacia) is the ... B cepacia is a known cause of infections in hospitalized patients.. Symptoms of B. cepacia infection. The effects of B. cepacia ... B. cepacia bacteria are often resistant to common antibiotics.. Populations susceptible to B. cepacia infection. B. cepacia ... Exposure to B. cepacia in the environment.. Treatment of B. cepacia infection. B. cepacia can be resistant to many common ...
... formerly Pseudomonas cepacia, has emerged as an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung ... Burkholderia cepacia, formerly Pseudomonas cepacia, has emerged as an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis ... The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of small-colony variant morphotypes of Burkholderia cepacia-like ... Whats new concerning Burkholderia cepacia complex and lung transplantation? Find out in this easy-to-navigate collection of ...
B cepacia is an organism of low virulence and is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital (eg, irrigation solutions ... Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. ... encoded search term (Burkholderia cepacia) and Burkholderia cepacia What to Read Next on Medscape ... Burkholderia cepacia Medication. Updated: Oct 25, 2018 * Author: Syed Faisal Mahmood, MBBS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze ...
Life threatening infection with species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex frequently occurs as a result of cross infection ... An epidemic Burkholderia cepacia complex strain identified in soil Lancet. 2002 Jun 8;359(9322):2002-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736 ... Life threatening infection with species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex frequently occurs as a result of cross infection ... By use of various genotyping methods, we have identified from agricultural soil the B cepacia genomovar III strain that is most ...
Burkholderia cepacia is a group of complex bacteria that can be found in soil and water and is often resistant to many common ... amid concerns that some batches may be contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia, a serious and potentially life-threatening ... cepacia. Due to the potential cross contamination and the spread of the bacterium in the facility, Centurion Labs issued a ... cepacia bacterium. No illnesses have been reported in relation to the recall. ...
Cunha MV, Leitao JH, Mahenthiralingam E, Vandamme P, Lito L, Barreto C, Molecular analysis of Burkholderia cepacia complex ... An epidemic Burkholderia cepacia complex strain identified in soil.Lancet. 2002;359:2002-3. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Agricultural use of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia: a threat to human health?Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4:221-7.PubMedGoogle ... Taxonomy and identification of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3427-36. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a collection of genetically distinct but phenotypically similar bacteria that are ... The multifarious, multireplicon Burkholderia cepacia complex Eshwar Mahenthiralingam 1 , Teresa A Urban, Joanna B Goldberg ... The multifarious, multireplicon Burkholderia cepacia complex Eshwar Mahenthiralingam et al. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005 Feb. ... Virulence of Burkholderia cepacia complex strains in gp91phox-/- mice. Sousa SA, Ulrich M, Bragonzi A, Burke M, Worlitzsch D, ...
Lung Transplantation for Cystic Fibrosis (CF); the Effect of Burkholderia Cepacia Genomovars on Outcomes A De Soyza; A De Soyza ... the Effect of Burkholderia Cepacia Genomovars on Outcomes. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 2001; 100 (s44): 2P. doi: https://doi.org ...
Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Burkholderia Infections Cross Infection Cystic Fibrosis Drug Contamination Drug Recalls Nasal ... Title : Manufacturers recall of nasal spray contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex Corporate Authors(s) : Centers for ... CDC is assisting the state of Missouri, investigating several cases of B. cepacia that have been identified in one hospital, to ... cepacia complex. The nasal spray is available over the counter and is distributed as: "Major Twice-A-Day 12 Hour Nasal Spray". ...
"Evaluation of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria Pathogenicity Using Caenorhabditis elegans" vol. 6, no. 20, 2016. Export ... 2016). Evaluation of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria Pathogenicity Using Caenorhabditis elegans. 6(20). Tedesco, Pietro ... "Evaluation of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria Pathogenicity Using Caenorhabditis elegans" 6, no. 20 (2016). Tedesco, ... Title : Evaluation of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria Pathogenicity Using Caenorhabditis elegans Personal Author(s) : ...
B cepacia is an organism of low virulence and is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital (eg, irrigation solutions ... Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. ... encoded search term (Burkholderia cepacia) and Burkholderia cepacia What to Read Next on Medscape ... Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. B cepacia is an organism of ...
The International Burkholderia cepacia Working Group Fostering research in Burkholderia cepacia complex ... The Burkholderia cepacia Research Laboratory and Repository provides :. *species identification of B. cepacia complex and ... CF centers are invited to send B. cepacia complex and related species to the Burkholderia cepacia Research Laboratory and ... The Canadian Burkholderia cepacia Research and Referral Repository (CBCCRRR) laboratory is funded by Cystic Fibrosis Canada. ...
Burkholderia cepacia genomovar I, Burkholderia sp. Bp7081, Burkholderia sp. Bp7091, Burkholderia sp. Bp7098, Burkholderia sp. ... Burkholderia cepacia. NCBI taxonomy Id: 292. Other names: ATCC 25416, B. cepacia, ... Bp7108, Burkholderia sp. Bp7432, Burkholderia sp. LK29, Burkholderia sp. NCIM 5465, CCUG 12691, CCUG 13226, CFBP 2227, CIP ... Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas kingii, Pseudomonas multivorans, strain 717-ICPB 25, strain Ballard 717 ...
90mm, 90mm Plate, BCC, Burkholderia, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Featured, Gram-negative species, ...
Burkholderia cepacia Selective Supplement suitable for microbiology; Synonyms: BCSA; find Millipore-39643 MSDS, related peer- ...
A Flow Cytometric Method for Viability Assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia in Mixed Culture ... A Flow Cytometric Method for Viability Assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia in Mixed Culture ... for Viability Assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia in Mixed Culture. Cytometry Part A, 81 A(12), 1055- ...
The agency confirmed the product had been contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia, a bacteria linked to an outbreak in five ... Multistate Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia Infections. On July 16, 2016, FDA alerted healthcare professionals that PharmaTech ... due to possible Burkholderia cepacia contamination.. Actions Healthcare Professionals Should Take. Consumers, pharmacies, and ... recall of all liquid products manufactured by PharmaTech and distributed by 6 companies due to possible Burkholderia cepacia ...
Taxonomy and identification of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3427-36. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Moore, J. E., & Williams, F. (2003). Cicero and Burkholderia cepacia: Whats in a Name?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9(4), ... Moore JE, Williams F. Cicero and Burkholderia cepacia: Whats in a Name?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(4):506-507. doi: ... Burkholderia cepacia, an important gram-negative bacterial pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, may cause premature death ...
... for identification of isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC). The test sample included 42 isolates of the highly ... evaluation of the BD Phoenix and VITEK 2 automated instruments for identification of isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia ...
Taxon K, a complex within the Burkholderia cepacia complex, comprises at least two novel species, Burkholderia contaminans sp. ... Taxon K, a complex within the Burkholderia cepacia complex, comprises at least two novel species, Burkholderia contaminans sp. ... and Burkholderia lata sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 59 (1) , pp. 102-111. 10.1099/ ...
Bacterial blight on Dracaena sanderiana caused by Burkholderia cepacia ... Dracaena sanderiana; Blight; Burkholderia cepacia; 16S rRNA; recA. Citation. AUSTRALASIAN PLANT DISEASE NOTES, v.15, no.1. ... Bacterial blight on Dracaena sanderiana caused by Burkholderia cepaciaopen access. Authors. Choi, Okhee; Lee, Yeyeong; Kang, ... the bacterial pathogen was identified as Burkholderia cepacia. This is the first report of bacterial blight on D. sanderiana ...
... cepacia and its Complex and examine solutions to common microbiological problems. It will discuss the General Chapter USP<60> ... Burkholderia cepacia and its BCC Complex are bacterial species that are ubiquitous in nature and often found as a frequent ... Although B. cepacia does not appear to survive on completely dry surfaces for more than one week, it can survive for many ... B. cepacia can use other routes of transmission including contact with hard surfaces. Perhaps most important to note is this ...
These products have been found to be contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia. The specific lots are listed below: ... Burkholderia cepacia is a multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganism. Contaminated products with Burkholderia cepacia can ... These products have been found to be contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia. The specific lots are listed below:. Product. ...
Keywords: Burkholderia cepacia; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ...
This study highlights how genomic characterization of Burkholderia prophages can lead to the discovery of novel bacteriophages ... vietnamiensis G4 that had lytic activity against strains of five Burkholderia species prevalent in CF infections, including the ... Burkholderia species have environmental, industrial and medical significance, and are important opportunistic pathogens in ... Burkholderia cepacia genomovar vi, a new member of the burkholderia cepacia complex isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. Int ...
The agency confirmed the product had been contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia, a bacteria linked to an outbreak in five ... Multistate Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia Infections. On July 16, 2016, FDA alerted healthcare professionals that PharmaTech ... due to possible Burkholderia cepacia contamination.. Actions Healthcare Professionals Should Take. Consumers, pharmacies, and ... recall of all liquid products manufactured by PharmaTech and distributed by 6 companies due to possible Burkholderia cepacia ...
Burkholderia cepacia Citrobacter diversus Citrobacter freundii Pseudomonas fluorescens Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Yersinia ...

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