A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes disease in plants. It is found commonly in the environment and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BURKHOLDERIA.
A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A sulfanilamide that is used as an antibacterial agent.
A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.

BcsKC is an essential protein for the type VI secretion system activity in Burkholderia cenocepacia that forms an outer membrane complex with BcsLB. (1/74)

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Ecological succession in long-term experimentally evolved biofilms produces synergistic communities. (2/74)

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Inactivation of macrophage Rab7 by Burkholderia cenocepacia. (3/74)

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The pobA gene of Burkholderia cenocepacia encodes a group I Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyltransferase required for biosynthesis of the siderophores ornibactin and pyochelin. (4/74)

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The Burkholderia cenocepacia LysR-type transcriptional regulator ShvR influences expression of quorum-sensing, protease, type II secretion, and afc genes. (5/74)

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Virulence of an emerging respiratory pathogen, genus Pandoraea, in vivo and its interactions with lung epithelial cells. (6/74)

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Burkholderia cenocepacia O polysaccharide chain contributes to caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta production in macrophages. (7/74)

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CD4+ T-cell immunity to the Burkholderia pseudomallei ABC transporter LolC in melioidosis. (8/74)

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Burkholderia cenocepacia is a species of gram-negative, motile bacteria that belongs to the family Burkholderiaceae. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and plant roots. They are known to form biofilms and can survive under a wide range of conditions, making them difficult to eradicate.

B. cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious respiratory infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, particularly those with cystic fibrosis (CF). In CF patients, B. cenocepacia infections can lead to a rapid decline in lung function and are associated with high mortality rates. The bacteria can also cause other types of infections such as bacteremia, wound infections, and urinary tract infections.

B. cenocepacia is resistant to many antibiotics, which makes treatment challenging. Infection control measures, such as contact isolation and rigorous environmental cleaning, are crucial in preventing the spread of B. cenocepacia in healthcare settings.

Burkholderia is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including soil, water, and associated with plants. Some species of Burkholderia are opportunistic pathogens, meaning they can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

One of the most well-known species of Burkholderia is B. cepacia, which can cause respiratory infections in people with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. Other notable species include B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially serious infection that primarily affects the respiratory system; and B. mallei, which causes glanders, a rare but severe disease that can affect humans and animals.

Burkholderia species are known for their resistance to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat in some cases. Proper identification of the specific Burkholderia species involved in an infection is important for determining the most appropriate treatment approach.

The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of closely related bacterial species that are gram-negative, motile, and aerobic. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and vegetation. The Bcc organisms are known to be opportunistic pathogens, meaning they primarily cause infections in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying lung conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.

Bcc infections can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and chronic lung colonization. The bacteria are particularly notorious for their high level of antibiotic resistance and their ability to form biofilms, making them difficult to eradicate from the lungs of CF patients. Accurate identification of Bcc species is essential for appropriate treatment and infection control measures.

Burkholderia infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia genus, which includes several species that can cause various types of infection in humans. The most well-known and medically significant species include Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), Burkholderia pseudomallei, and Burkholderia mallei.

1. Burkholderia cepacia Complex (Bcc): These are a group of closely related bacteria that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and plants. They can cause respiratory infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis. Bcc infections can be difficult to treat due to their resistance to many antibiotics.

2. Burkholderia pseudomallei: This species is the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially severe and life-threatening infection endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacteria can be found in contaminated water and soil, and people can get infected through direct contact with contaminated sources, ingestion, or inhalation of the bacteria. Melioidosis symptoms may vary widely, from mild flu-like illness to severe pneumonia, abscesses, and sepsis.

3. Burkholderia mallei: This species is responsible for glanders, a rare but serious disease primarily affecting horses, donkeys, and mules. Human infections are usually associated with occupational exposure to infected animals or their secretions. Glanders can cause severe symptoms such as fever, pneumonia, sepsis, and skin ulcers.

Treatment of Burkholderia infections typically involves the use of specific antibiotics, often in combination therapy, depending on the species and severity of infection. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissues. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated sources, practicing good hygiene, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when handling animals or working in high-risk environments.

Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative, motile bacillus that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in water and soil. It is a conditional pathogen, meaning it can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions such as cystic fibrosis.

Infections caused by B. cepacia can be difficult to treat due to its resistance to many antibiotics. The bacteria can colonize the lungs and cause a chronic respiratory infection that can lead to decline in lung function, increased frequency of exacerbations, and even death in some cases. It is also associated with outbreaks in healthcare settings, particularly in patients receiving respiratory therapy or using contaminated medical equipment.

It's important to note that B. cepacia is not typically considered a community-acquired pathogen and is not commonly associated with typical pneumonia or other respiratory infections in healthy individuals.

'Burkholderia pseudomallei' is a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of melioidosis. It is found in soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacterium can infect humans and animals through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated soil or water. Melioidosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pneumonia, sepsis, and abscesses in various organs. It is a serious and potentially fatal disease, especially in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or compromised immune systems. Proper diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are essential for managing melioidosis.

Quorum sensing is a type of cell-cell communication that allows bacteria to detect and respond to changes in population density by producing, releasing, and responding to signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process enables the coordinated expression of certain genes related to various group behaviors such as biofilm formation, virulence factor production, and bioluminescence. The term "quorum sensing" was coined in 1994 by Bonnie L. Bassler and Susan Goldberg to describe this population-dependent gene regulation mechanism in bacteria.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the lungs and digestive system. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which regulates the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. When this gene is not functioning properly, thick, sticky mucus builds up in various organs, leading to a range of symptoms.

In the lungs, this mucus can clog the airways, making it difficult to breathe and increasing the risk of lung infections. Over time, lung damage can occur, which may lead to respiratory failure. In the digestive system, the thick mucus can prevent the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, impairing nutrient absorption and leading to malnutrition. CF can also affect the reproductive system, liver, and other organs.

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis may include persistent coughing, wheezing, lung infections, difficulty gaining weight, greasy stools, and frequent greasy diarrhea. The severity of the disease can vary significantly among individuals, depending on the specific genetic mutations they have inherited.

Currently, there is no cure for cystic fibrosis, but treatments are available to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include airway clearance techniques, medications to thin mucus, antibiotics to treat infections, enzyme replacement therapy, and a high-calorie, high-fat diet. Lung transplantation is an option for some individuals with advanced lung disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "onions" are not a medical term. They are a type of vegetable, specifically a variety of bulb vegetables, known scientifically as Allium cepa. Onions are widely used in cooking and have been cultivated for centuries for their unique, pungent flavor and potential health benefits. If you have any questions about onions in a culinary or nutritional context, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by the soil-dwelling gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease primarily occurs in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. It can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations including acute septicemia, pneumonia, and chronic suppurative infection. Risk factors for melioidosis include diabetes mellitus, renal disease, alcoholism, and lung disease. The diagnosis is confirmed by culturing B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum, or pus. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, including intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Acyl-butyrolactones are a type of chemical compound that consists of a butyrolactone ring (a five-membered ring containing an oxygen atom and a carbonyl group) that has an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to another functional group) attached to it.

Butyrolactones are lactones, which are cyclic esters derived from carboxylic acids. The addition of an acyl group to the butyrolactone ring results in the formation of acyl-butyrolactones. These compounds have a variety of uses in organic synthesis and may also be found in some natural sources.

It's worth noting that "acyl-butyrolactones" is a general term that can refer to any compound with this basic structure, and there may be many specific compounds that fall under this category. Therefore, it's important to consult a detailed chemical reference or speak with a chemist for more information on a specific acyl-butyrolactone compound.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

Sulfamerazine is a type of antibiotic known as a sulfonamide. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce folic acid, which is necessary for their growth and survival. Sulfonamides like sulfamerazine are often used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and urinary tract infections.

Sulfamerazine is typically prescribed as an oral medication, and it may be given alone or in combination with other antibiotics. As with all medications, sulfamerazine can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rashes. It's important to take this medication exactly as directed by your healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment even if you start feeling better before all of the medication is gone.

It's worth noting that sulfonamides have been associated with rare but serious side effects, including allergic reactions, blood disorders, and liver damage. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking sulfamerazine, be sure to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Rhizoctonia is a genus of saprophytic and facultative parasitic fungi that belong to the order Corticiales. It is widely distributed in soil and on plant debris, and can cause various plant diseases known as "rhizoctonioses." The most common species associated with plant pathogenicity is Rhizoctonia solani. These fungi infect a wide range of plants, including crops, turfgrass, and ornamentals, causing symptoms such as root rot, stem canker, damping-off, and wirestem blight. The fungus can also form sclerotia, which are compact masses of hardened fungal mycelium that can survive in the soil for many years, serving as a source of infection for future plant growth.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

'Burkholderia gladioli' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). This complex includes several closely related species that can cause respiratory infections, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

'Burkholderia gladioli' is commonly found in the environment, including soil and water. It has been isolated from a variety of plants, including onions, gladiolus, and other flowers. While it can cause serious infections in humans, it is also being studied for its potential use in bioremediation and as a source of novel antibiotics.

Infections caused by 'Burkholderia gladioli' can be difficult to treat due to the bacterium's resistance to many commonly used antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics and close monitoring of the patient's response to therapy.

Bronchopneumonia is a type of pneumonia that involves inflammation and infection of the bronchioles (small airways in the lungs) and alveoli (tiny air sacs in the lungs). It can be caused by various bacteria, viruses, or fungi and often occurs as a complication of a respiratory tract infection.

The symptoms of bronchopneumonia may include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as respiratory failure or sepsis. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, antiviral medications for viral infections, and supportive care such as oxygen therapy and hydration.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Polymyxin B is an antibiotic derived from the bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa. It belongs to the class of polypeptide antibiotics and has a cyclic structure with a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region, which allows it to interact with and disrupt the bacterial cell membrane. Polymyxin B is primarily active against gram-negative bacteria, including many multidrug-resistant strains. It is used clinically to treat serious infections caused by these organisms, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. However, its use is limited due to potential nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

4-Butyrolactone, also known as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4-butanolide, is a chemical compound with the formula C4H6O2. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used in various industrial and commercial applications, including as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, as a solvent, and as a flavoring agent.

In the medical field, 4-butyrolactone has been studied for its potential use as a sleep aid and muscle relaxant. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. It is also known to have abuse potential and can cause intoxication, sedation, and other central nervous system effects when ingested or inhaled.

It's important to note that 4-butyrolactone is not a medication and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional for approved medical purposes.

Glanders is a rare and serious disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. It primarily affects horses, donkeys, and mules, but can also infect humans who come into contact with infected animals or contaminated materials. The disease is characterized by the formation of multiple abscesses in various organs, particularly the lungs, liver, spleen, and skin. In humans, glanders can cause fever, cough, chest pain, muscle aches, and pustules on the skin. It is a highly infectious disease and can be fatal if not treated promptly with appropriate antibiotics. Historically, it has been a concern in military settings due to its potential use as a biological weapon.

Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are a type of fatty acid that contains one double bond in its chemical structure. The presence of the double bond means that there is one less hydrogen atom, hence the term "unsaturated." In monounsaturated fats, the double bond occurs between the second and third carbon atoms in the chain, which makes them "mono"unsaturated.

MUFAs are considered to be a healthy type of fat because they can help reduce levels of harmful cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein or LDL) while maintaining levels of beneficial cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein or HDL). They have also been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and improved insulin sensitivity.

Common sources of monounsaturated fats include olive oil, canola oil, avocados, nuts, and seeds. It is recommended to consume MUFAs as part of a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-dense foods.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

A phagosome is a type of membrane-bound organelle that forms around a particle or microorganism following its engulfment by a cell, through the process of phagocytosis. This results in the formation of a vesicle containing the ingested material, which then fuses with another organelle called a lysosome to form a phago-lysosome. The lysosome contains enzymes that digest and break down the contents of the phagosome, allowing the cell to neutralize and dispose of potentially harmful substances or pathogens.

In summary, phagosomes are important organelles involved in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

"Burkholderia cenocepacia". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 95486. Type strain of Burkholderia cenocepacia at BacDive - the Bacterial ... because they were first identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Burkholderia cenocepacia has the ability to swim and swarm ... Burkholderia cenocepacia is one of over twenty bacteria in the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), and among these species, it ... sRNAs identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia KC-0 were upregulated under iron depletion and oxidative stress.Burkholderia ...
Sass AM, De Waele S, Daled S, Devreese B, Deforce D, Van Nieuwerburgh F, Coenye T (October 2019). "Burkholderia cenocepacia ... Sass A, Kiekens S, Coenye T (November 2017). "Identification of small RNAs abundant in Burkholderia cenocepacia biofilms reveal ... Characterization of the secondary structures of 4 tsRNAs in Burkholderia cenocepacia suggests they form double hairpin ... Typically, each species of Burkholderia has 3-5 homologous tsRNAs. Experiments with four species of the Burkholderia lineage ...
Loutet SA, Valvano MA (October 2010). "A decade of Burkholderia cenocepacia virulence determinant research". Infect. Immun. 78 ... Burkholderia cepacia complex in the NCBI Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Burkholderia cepacia complex at BacDive, the Bacterial ... Burkholderia cepacia is also found in marine environments (marine sponges) and some strains of Burkholderia cepacia can ... Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), or simply Burkholderia cepacia, is a group of catalase-producing, lactose-nonfermenting, ...
... is produced by Burkholderia cenocepacia under iron-deficient conditions. B. cenocepacia is known to ... "The ornibactin biosynthesis and transport genes of Burkholderia cenocepacia are regulated by an extracytoplasmic function sigma ... "Ornibactin production and transport properties in strains of Burkholderia vietnamiensis and Burkholderia cepacia (formerly ... Coenye T, Vandamme P, Govan JR, LiPuma JJ (October 2001). "Taxonomy and identification of the Burkholderia cepacia complex". ...
Examples of these opportunistic pathogens include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Mycobacterium avium. ...
... and motility in Burkholderia cenocepacia". Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (23): 6712-23. doi:10.1128/JB.05979-11. PMC 3232912. ... "Elucidation of the Burkholderia cenocepacia hopanoid biosynthesis pathway uncovers functions for conserved proteins in hopanoid ...
"Genomics Reveals a Unique Clone of Burkholderia cenocepacia Harboring an Actively Excising Novel Genomic Island". Frontiers in ...
... biofilms are present in the chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia infections characteristic of cystic ...
"The Novel Cis-Encoded Small RNA h2cR Is a Negative Regulator of hfq2 in Burkholderia cenocepacia". PLOS ONE. 7 (10): e47896. ... In molecular biology, the h2cR sRNA is a small RNA produced by species of the bacterial genus Burkholderia. It binds to the ...
As first discovered in plants, diffusible signal factors (DSFs) have been found in bacteria such as Burkholderia cenocepacia ...
... such as the chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia infections characteristic of cystic fibrosis. Other ...
... archaea and a number of pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia cenocepacia, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Acinetobacter ... "A general protein O-glycosylation system within the Burkholderia cepacia complex is involved in motility and virulence". ...
Some species, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Mycobacterium avium, are opportunistic pathogens ...
This is found when Burkholderia cenocepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia's diffusible signal factor is received by ...
... cultures were identified as Burkholderia cenocepacia strain VIMP01 (JQ867371), Burkholderia gladioli strain VIMP02 (JQ811557), ... Burkholderia gladioli strain VIMP03 (JQ867372) and Burkholderia species strain VIMP04 (JQ867373). Additionally, phosphate (P) ... Isolates were strains of Burkholderia named as VIMP01, VIMP02, VIMP03 and VIMP04. VIMP (Vasantdada Sugar Institute Isolate by ...
By age 15, bacteria had colonized Smith's lungs, including a form of Burkholderia cenocepacia which mutated over a decade of ...
... alpina Burkholderia ambifaria Burkholderia anthina Burkholderia arboris Burkholderia cenocepacia Burkholderia ... Burkholderia dolosa Burkholderia gladioli Burkholderia glumae Burkholderia humptydooensis Burkholderia lata Burkholderia latens ... Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia metallica Burkholderia multivorans Burkholderia oklahomensis Burkholderia plantarii ... Burkholderia pseudomallei Burkholderia pseudomultivorans Burkholderia puraquae Burkholderia pyrrocinia Burkholderia seminalis ...
... ambifaria Burkholderia cenocepacia Burkholderia multivorans Burkholderia vietnamiensis Burkholderia xenovorans Burkholderia sp ... Bacillus pumilus Pathema-Burkholderia Burkholderia mallei Burkholderia pseudomallei Burkholderia thailandensis Burkholderia ... Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Clostridium perfringens, and Entamoeba histolytica) involved in new and re- ... Burkholderia phages Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ralstonia solanacearum Pathema-Clostridium Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium ...
"Burkholderia cenocepacia". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 95486. Type strain of Burkholderia cenocepacia at BacDive - the Bacterial ... because they were first identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Burkholderia cenocepacia has the ability to swim and swarm ... Burkholderia cenocepacia is one of over twenty bacteria in the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), and among these species, it ... sRNAs identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia KC-0 were upregulated under iron depletion and oxidative stress.Burkholderia ...
Crystal structure of Cfl2 wild-type from Burkholderia cenocepacia ... two Cif-like epoxide hydrolases from Burkholderia cenocepacia ... Biochemical and structural characterization of two cif-like epoxide hydrolases from Burkholderia cenocepacia .. Taher, N.M., ... Crystal structure of Cfl2 wild-type from Burkholderia cenocepacia. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/pdb7JQZ/pdb ...
Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Burkholderia multivorans, Burkholderia stabilis, Burkholderia cepacia genomovars I and III. J Clin ... Burkholderia anthina sp. nov. and Burkholderia pyrrocinia, two additional Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, may confound ... Burkholderia cenocepacia sp. nov.-a new twist to an old story. Res Microbiol. 2003;154:91-6. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C Andrea Petrucca*†, Paola ...
The Burkholderia Genome Database: facilitating flexible queries and comparative analyses. Bioinformatics 2008 Dec 1;24(23):2803 ... If you have used this database, please ensure that you acknowledge the Burkholderia Genome Database publication rather than ... Distribution of cepacian biosynthesis genes among environmental and clinical Burkholderia strains and role of cepacian ... Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, BCAM1005 (bceO) .list-group { margin-bottom: 5px; width: 150px; text-align: left; } Cytoplasmic ...
The Burkholderia Genome Database: facilitating flexible queries and comparative analyses. Bioinformatics 2008 Dec 1;24(23):2803 ... If you have used this database, please ensure that you acknowledge the Burkholderia Genome Database publication rather than ... Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2Valvano, BURCENK562V_RS18780 .list-group { margin-bottom: 5px; width: 150px; text-align: left; } ...
title = "Inactivation of macrophage Rab7 by Burkholderia cenocepacia",. abstract = "Strains of the Burkholderia cepacia complex ... Huynh KK, Plumb JD, Downey GP, Valvano MA, Grinstein S. Inactivation of macrophage Rab7 by Burkholderia cenocepacia. Journal of ... Inactivation of macrophage Rab7 by Burkholderia cenocepacia. Kassidy K Huynh, Jonathan D Plumb, Gregory P Downey, Miguel A ... Inactivation of macrophage Rab7 by Burkholderia cenocepacia. In: Journal of innate immunity. 2010 ; Vol. 2, No. 6. pp. 522-33. ...
Among the Burkholderia cepacia complex species, Burkholderia cenocepacia is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) ... Among the Burkholderia cepacia complex species, Burkholderia cenocepacia is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) ... Biofilms produced by Burkholderia cenocepacia: Influence of media and solid supports on composition of matrix ... In the present investigation, B. cenocepacia strain BTS2, a CF isolate, was grown in biofilm mode on glass slides and cellulose ...
The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the ... The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the ... The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of the ... T1 - The temperate Burkholderia phage AP3 of the Peduovirinae shows efficient antimicrobial activity against B. cenocepacia of ...
18] Burkholderia cenocepacia, [19] Burkholderia dolosa, or Mycobacterium abscessus * Mechanical ventilation [20] ... Lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis patients with Burkholderia cepacia complex. Survival linked to genomovar type. Am J ... Survival of lung transplant patients with cystic fibrosis harboring panresistant bacteria other than Burkholderia cepacia, ... airway infection due to Burkholderia cepacia, [10] and frequent acute exacerbations. In contrast, an increased FEV1, increased ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia. internal. 07/25/2022. XRay. NAD;. 8DQ9. KloxA.17380.a. 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase I (EC 4.2.1.10). ...
Burkholderia cepcia complex (B. cepacia, B. cenocepacia, at least 8 other genomospecies) ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia. Human urine. R.E.Weaver, CDC, Atlanta, USA. 1970-08-10. ... Burkholderia cepacia. M.J.Pickett, UCLA, Los Angeles, U.S.A.. 1970-09-16. ... Burkholderia cepacia. Human blood. R.E.Weaver, CDC, Atlanta, USA. 1970-08-10. ... Burkholderia cepacia. M.J.Pickett, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA. 1970-09-16. ...
My daughter Mallory would battle that superbug, Burkholderia cenocepacia, for 13 years. At some point, she also acquired a ...
Phenotypic diversity and genotypic flexibility of Burkholderia cenocepacia during long-term chronic infection of cystic ... In a study published today in Genome Research, scientists sequenced and phenotyped multiple B. cenocepacia isolates from 16 CF ...
Phenotypic diversity and genotypic flexibility of Burkholderia cenocepacia during long-term chronic infection of cystic ... In a study published today in Genome Research, scientists sequenced and phenotyped multiple B. cenocepacia isolates from 16 CF ...
Burkholderia. → Burkholderia cepacia complex. → Burkholderia cenocepacia. → Burkholderia cenocepacia HI2424. IMG OID. 639633014 ...
The Genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, an Epidemic Pathogen of Cystic Fibrosis Patients. Holden, M. T. G., Seth-Smith, H ...
Gasdermin Deb confines Burkholderia cenocepacia infection within vitro plus vivo.. Posted on November 30, 2023. by admin ...
JTD Keywords: biomass quantification, burkholderia cenocepacia, burkholderia-cepacia, crystal violet, cystic-fibrosis, dual- ... This study shows that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia strains expressing specific fluorescent or ... Burkholderia cenocepacia, Crystal violet, Dual-species biofilms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas-aeruginosa ...
WistarBurkholderia cepacia complexMice, TransgenicAchromobacter denitrificansBurkholderia cenocepaciaRats, Inbred F344Mice, ... Burkholderia cenocepacia. A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes disease in plants. It is found commonly in the ... Burkholderia cepacia. A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with ... ChronicBurkholderia InfectionsBurkholderia cepaciaNephrogenic Fibrosing DermopathyEpithelial CellsMice, KnockoutConnective ...
Kümmerli group publishes their work on genetic constraints of siderophore cooperation exploitation in Burkholderia cenocepacia ... This paper explored an extreme green‐beard scenario between two unrelated bacterial species P. aeruginosa and B. cenocepacia, ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia AU 1054 chromosome 1, complete sequence. Glutamine amidotransferase, class-II:Glutamate synthase, ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia. genome. BMC Microbiol 2006 6:66. [Google Scholar]. [3]. Jones. AM. , Dodd. ME. , Webb. AK. , ... Burkholderia cenocepacia. and the contribution of glycosylated flagellin to evasion of human innate immune responses. J Biol ... Burkholderia cenocepacia. and the contribution of glycosylated flagellin to evasion of human innate immune responses. Flagella ... Burkholderia cepacia. has been recognized as a group of highly virulent organisms known as Burkholderia cepacia. complex (Bcc ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia. AhpC like peroxiredoxin. complete. Nicolas Rouhier. 4882. BliAhpC Firmicutes. Bacillus licheniformis ... Burkholderia sp.. AhpC like peroxiredoxin. complete. Nicolas Rouhier. 4878. BviAhpC Betaproteobacteria. Burkholderia ... Burkholderia cepacia. AhpC like peroxiredoxin. complete. Nicolas Rouhier. 4885. BceAhpC Firmicutes. Bacillus cereus. AhpC like ... Burkholderia phytofirmans. AhpC like peroxiredoxin. complete. Nicolas Rouhier. 4904. BsAhpC Firmicutes. Bacillus subtilis. AhpC ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia induces neutrophil necrosis in chronic granulomatous disease. J Immunol. 2005 Mar 15. 174(6):3562-9. [ ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia. biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 71. : 5208-5218.. *. Barel V, Chalupowicz L, Barash I, Sharabani ... Biofilm Signaling, Composition and Regulation in Burkholderia pseudomallei. Pravin Kumran Nyanasegran, Sheila Nathan, Mohd ...
Infecciones por Burkholderia/microbiología , Burkholderia cenocepacia/patogenicidad , Macrófagos/microbiología , Virulencia/ ... The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia is particularly life-threatening for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Chronic ... Burkholderia cenocepacia is emerging as the culprit of non-CF related, sometimes fatal infections. Knowledge of the underlying ... is essential for transition from intracellular persistence of Burkholderia cenocepacia to acute pro-inflammatory infection. ...
Flannagan RS, Aubert D, Kooi C, Sokol PA, Valvano MA:Burkholderia cenocepacia requires a periplasmic HtrA protease for growth ... Yoder-Himes DR, Chain PS, Zhu Y, Wurtzel O, Rubin EM, Tiedje JM, Sorek R: Mapping the Burkholderia cenocepacia ... Darling P, Chan M, Cox AD, Sokol PA: Siderophore production by cystic fibrosis isolates of Burkholderia cepacia. Infect Immun ...
  • The consensus phylogenetic tree of recA DNA sequences of Burkholderia cepacia complex strains, representative of each genomovar, and of the B. cenocepacia isolate (GenBank accession no. (cdc.gov)
  • Only recA DNA sequences of reference B. cenocepacia strains (genomovar III, lineage IIIB) are included in the tree ( 4 , 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Distribution of cepacian biosynthesis genes among environmental and clinical Burkholderia strains and role of cepacian exopolysaccharide in resistance to stress conditions. (burkholderia.com)
  • Strains of the Burkholderia cepacia complex can survive within macrophages by arresting the maturation of phagocytic vacuoles. (qub.ac.uk)
  • This phage specifically infects multidrug-resistant clinical Burkholderia cenocepacia lineage IIIA strains commonly isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • These data suggest that the AP3 phage is a promising potent agent against bacteria belonging to the most common B. cenocepacia IIIA lineage strains. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • This study shows that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia strains expressing specific fluorescent or bioluminescent proteins permit the more efficient study of dual-species biofilms compared to other methods that rely on measuring the total biomass. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • No IIIC isolates have been found in studies on the natural environment, whereas all IIID isolates studied have been in clinical isolates of B. cenocepacia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Petrucca A , Cipriani P , Valenti P , Santapaola D , Cimmino C , Scoarughi GL , Molecular characterization of Burkholderia cepacia isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients in an Italian CF center. (cdc.gov)
  • Darling P, Chan M, Cox AD, Sokol PA: Siderophore production by cystic fibrosis isolates of Burkholderia cepacia. (chk-signal.com)
  • Roberts AEL, Jenkins RE (2016) Poster Presentation 'The viability of Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates is decreased by manuka honey' at Microbiology Society Annual Conference, Liverpool 21-24th March. (rowjenkins.com)
  • Spilker T, Gill GH, Campbell PW, Liu L, Mahenthiralingam E. Disproportionate distribuition of Burkholderia cepacia complex species and transmissibility markers in cystic fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Among the Burkholderia cepacia complex species, Burkholderia cenocepacia is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and is generally more aggressive than other species. (units.it)
  • Vacuoles containing B. cenocepacia strain J2315, an isolate of the transmissible ET12 clone, recruited Rab5 and synthesized phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, indicating progression to the early phagosomal stage. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Burkholderia cenocepacia is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and water environments and may also be associated with plants and animals, particularly as a human pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of over 20 species in the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and is notable due to its virulence factors and inherent antibiotic resistance that render it a prominent opportunistic pathogen responsible for life-threatening, nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis or chronic granulomatous disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia is particularly life-threatening for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fisher L, Brown H and Jenkins RE (2018) 'Virulence of the cystic fibrosis pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia is reduced in the presence of manuka honey ' at Microbiology Society Annual Conference 10 -13th April. (rowjenkins.com)
  • 0 comments Highlights new insights into cysteamine's mechanism of action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, further supporting cysteamine's potential as an antimicrobial intervention in. (novabiotics.co.uk)
  • In the present investigation, B. cenocepacia strain BTS2, a CF isolate, was grown in biofilm mode on glass slides and cellulose membranes, using five growth media, one of which mimics the nutritional content of CF sputum. (units.it)
  • Nzula S , Vandamme P , Govan JR . Influence of taxonomic status on the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Jointly, these experiments indicate that B. cenocepacia express virulence factors capable of interfering with Rab7 function and thereby with membrane traffic. (qub.ac.uk)
  • In environments with little available iron such as the lungs of a cystic fibrosis patient, Burkholderia cenocepacia secretes siderophores, molecules that bind to iron and transport them to the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • nov. and Burkholderia pyrrocinia , two additional Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, may confound results of new molecular diagnostic tools. (cdc.gov)
  • If you have used this database, please ensure that you acknowledge the Burkholderia Genome Database publication rather than just the website URL. (burkholderia.com)
  • The Burkholderia Genome Database: facilitating flexible queries and comparative analyses. (burkholderia.com)
  • Because of this phenotypic overlap between species, previous nomenclature of Bcc species involved genomovar terms, with Burkholderia cenocepacia categorized as genomovar III of the Bcc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agodi A , Mahenthiralingam E , Bachitta M , Giannino V , Sciacca A , Stefani S . Burkholderia cepacia complex infection in Italian patients with cystic fibrosis: prevalence, epidemiology, and genomovar status. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenotypic methods for determining genomovar status of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Vermis K , Coenye T , Mahenthiralingam E , Nelis HJ , Vandamme P . Evaluation of species-specific recA -based PCR tests for genomovar level identification within the Burkholderia cepacia complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Within the Burkholderia genus, the Burkholderia cepacia complex contains over 20 related species that cause opportunistic infections and possess antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flannagan RS, Aubert D, Kooi C, Sokol PA, Valvano MA:Burkholderia cenocepacia requires a periplasmic HtrA protease for growth under thermal and osmotic stress and for check details survival in vivo. (chk-signal.com)
  • CDC of a cluster of eight invasive infections with Burkholderia bacterial bioburden (7.0 x 106-5.8 x 107 colony-forming stabilis , a bacterium in the Burkholderia cepacia complex units/mL) in bottles from two of these lots. (cdc.gov)
  • Burkholderia cepacia was originally defined as a single species, but it is now one of several species in the Bcc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although closely related, the species within the Bcc have differing severity of pathogenicity, and B. cenocepacia is one of the most intensively studied due to its higher pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance compared to other species in the complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species in the Burkholderia cepacia complex has also created another polysaccharide with one 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid and three galactose molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coenye T , Vandamme P . Diversity and significance of Burkholderia species occupying diverse ecological niches. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular epidemiology of Burkholderia species. (cdc.gov)
  • AP3 exhibits high pairwise nucleotide identity (61.7 %) to Burkholderia phage KS5, specific to the same B. cenocepacia host, and has 46.7-49.5 % identity to phages infecting other species of Burkholderia. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • B. cenocepacia has been demonstrated to colonize an array of ecological niches with diverse lifestyles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkholderia phage AP3 (vB_BceM_AP3) is a temperate virus of the Myoviridae and the Peduovirinae subfamily (P2likevirus genus). (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • The strong environmental protection response of B. cenocepacia is attributed to the biofilm formed by groups of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burkholderia cepacia has been recognized as a group of highly virulent organisms known as Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). (jcdr.net)
  • The closely related B. cenocepacia H111 has been shown to be less virulent than K56-2 in several infection models, including Galleria mellonella and rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • We have recently shown that macrophages are a critical site for replication of B. cenocepacia K56-2 and the induction of fatal pro-inflammatory responses using a zebrafish infection model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Experimental studies conducted on the growth of B. cenocepacia in environments akin to the human lungs demonstrated the pathogen's increased success in microaerophilic environments over aerophilic settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth of Burkholderia cepacia on blood agar. (jcdr.net)
  • Speert DP , Henry DA , Vandamme P , Corey M , Mahenthiralingam E . Epidemiology of Burkholderia cepacia complex in patients with cystic fibrosis, Canada. (cdc.gov)
  • Burkholderia cenocepacia has been found to thrive in primarily microaerophilic conditions, which consist of little to no oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • All genomovars have been shown to cause infections, and B. cenocepacia and B. multivorans (genomovars III and II, respectively) are the genomovars most frequently isolated from CF patients ( 4 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Agodi A , Mahenthiralingam E , Bachitta M , Giannino V , Sciacca A , Stefani S . Burkholderia cepacia complex infection in Italian patients with cystic fibrosis: prevalence, epidemiology, and genomovar status. (cdc.gov)
  • We report a case of a vaginal infection caused by a strain of Burkholderia cenocepacia . (cdc.gov)
  • We report a case of vaginal infection, caused by B. cenocepacia, in a patient affected by smoldering myeloma, and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Analysis of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Pro-inflammatory Response to Burkholderia cenocepacia Infection: Inability to Secrete IL-1β. (bowiestate.edu)
  • 10. TLR 5, but neither TLR2 nor TLR4, is involved in lung epithelial cell response to Burkholderia cenocepacia. (nih.gov)
  • To date, the genus Burkholderia comprises more than 30 species, including the Burkholderia cepacia complex, B. mallei , and B. pseudomallei ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Patients with CF are co-infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. (ucc.ie)
  • The consensus phylogenetic tree of recA DNA sequences of Burkholderia cepacia complex strains, representative of each genomovar, and of the B. cenocepacia isolate (GenBank accession no. (cdc.gov)
  • Speert DP , Henry DA , Vandamme P , Corey M , Mahenthiralingam E . Epidemiology of Burkholderia cepacia complex in patients with cystic fibrosis, Canada. (cdc.gov)
  • Taxonomy and identification of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Phenotypic methods for determining genomovar status of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Following his time in the Johnson lab, he joined the student-led Bass Connections: Enabling Precision Health and Medicine program and worked with Dr. Gregory A. Wray to investigate virulence of Burkholderia cenocepacia in Cystic Fibrosis patients. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we analyzed the tolerance of planktonic and sessile Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 cultures and examined the transcriptional response of sessile cells to treatment with chlorhexidine. (nih.gov)
  • Gateway compatible allelic exchange vector for Burkholderia sp. (addgene.org)
  • Allelic exchange in burkholderia sp. (addgene.org)