Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Bunyaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.Phlebovirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Orthobunyavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Hantaan virus: The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Uukuniemi virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.La Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Encephalitis Virus, California: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Tospovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.Nairovirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE named after NAIROBI SHEEP DISEASE, an acute, hemorrhagic, tick-borne, gastroenteritis affecting sheep and goats. The type species is Dugbe virus. Some viruses in this genus are capable of causing severe and fatal disease in humans.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Puumala virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS causing nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME. It is found in most of Europe and especially in Finland, along with its carrier rodent, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Simbu virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Sin Nombre virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS which emerged in the Four Corners area of the United States in 1993. It causes a serious, often fatal pulmonary illness (HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME) in humans. Transmission is by inhaling aerosolized rodent secretions that contain virus particles, carried especially by deer mice (PEROMYSCUS maniculatus) and pinyon mice (P. truei).Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)RNA, Transfer, Lys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Phlebotomus Fever: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Sandfly fever Naples virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Marburgvirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of one species (Lake Victoria marburgvirus) with several strains. The genus shows no antigenic cross-reactivity with EBOLAVIRUS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Paramyxoviridae: A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.Arenaviridae: A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.Nairobi sheep disease virus: A species of NAIROVIRUS, transmitted by the ixodid ticks and producing a lethal gastroenteritis in sheep and goats. Though a major veterinary pathogen, its effect on humans has not been firmly established.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA, Transfer, Pro: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Rinderpest: A viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by MORBILLIVIRUS. It may be acute, subacute, or chronic with the major lesions characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the entire digestive tract. The disease was declared successfully eradicated worldwide in 2010.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Arteriviridae: A family of viruses, of the order NIDOVIRALES, containing spherical virions. In contrast to CORONAVIRIDAE, no protruding spikes are obvious on the surface.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Arenaviruses, New World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Mason-Pfizer monkey virus: A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.White spot syndrome virus 1: A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Hemorrhagic Fever, American: Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).Nipah Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.Protein PrecursorsCulicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine: A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing a severe, often fatal enteritis and pneumonia (PESTE-DES-PETITS-RUMINANTS) in sheep and goats.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Junin virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Arteritis Virus, Equine: The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.PhosphoproteinsParainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.HIV Long Terminal Repeat: Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Penaeidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.

*Orthohantavirus

Inside the envelope are the nucleocapsids. These are composed of many copies of the nucleocapsid protein N, which interact with ... As with other Bunyaviridae, each of the three segments has a consensus 3'-terminal nucleotide sequence (AUCAUCAUC), which is ... Within virions, the genomic RNAs of hantaviruses are thought to complex with the N protein to form helical nucleocapsids, the ... Transcription of viral genes must be initiated by association of the L protein with the three nucleocapsid species. In addition ...

*Amalgaviridae

By contrast, the putative capsid protein of amalgaviruses is homologous to the nucleocapsid proteins of negative-strand RNA ... viruses of the genera Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and Tenuivirus. Martin, R. R.; Zhou, J; Tzanetakis, I. E. (2011). "Blueberry ... Specifically, phylogenetic analyses have shown that the amalgavirus RdRps form a sister clade to the corresponding proteins of ... and a putative capsid protein. It has been suggested that amalgaviruses have evolved via recombination between viruses with ...

*Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus

The nucleocapsid of NSVs is assembled with a single nucleocapsid protein, and the viral RNA. Each NSV nucleocapsid is packaged ... and Bunyaviridae. One important element of NSVs is that the capsid protein (N) is first synthesized as a monomeric protein (N0 ... X-ray crystal structures of N proteins and EM micrographs of RNP complexes from a number of Bunyaviridae (a Family of segmented ... In terms of the structure of the nucleocapsid, the N protein will eventually oligomerize to encapsidate the single-stranded RNA ...

*Hazara virus

The N protein is the most abundant viral protein in Bunyaviridae virus particles and infected cells and, therefore, the main ... L protein), the M RNA segment encodes two surface glycoproteins (Gc and Gn), and the S RNA segment encodes a nucleocapsid ... "The crystal structure of the Hazara virus nucleocapsid protein". BMC Structural Biology. 15: 24. doi:10.1186/s12900-015-0051-3 ... protein (N). The three genomic RNA segments are encapsidated by copies of the N protein in the form of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) ...

*Bunyamwera virus

... and a nonstructural protein (NSm), while the S RNA segment encodes a nucleocapsid protein (N) and, in an alternative ... Plyusnin, Alexander; Elliott, Richard M (2011-01-01). Bunyaviridae: molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Caister ... The N protein is the most abundant protein in virus particles and infected cells and, therefore, the main target in many ... "Nucleocapsid protein structures from orthobunyaviruses reveal insight into ribonucleoprotein architecture and RNA ...

*Schmallenberg virus

... and a nonstructural protein (NSm), while the S RNA segment encodes a nucleocapsid protein (N) and, in an alternative ... Bunyaviridae : molecular and cellular biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 9781904455905. OCLC 711044654. Ariza, A.; Tanner, S ... The N protein is the most abundant protein in virus particles and infected cells and, therefore, the main target in many ... "Nucleocapsid protein structures from orthobunyaviruses reveal insight into ribonucleoprotein architecture and RNA ...

*Bunyavirales

The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N). The L and M segment are negative sense. For the Genera of Phlebovirus and ... Viralzone: Bunyaviridae ICTVdb Index of Viruses-Bunyaviridae The Big Picture Book of Viruses: Bunyaviridae Bunyaviridae Genomes ... These viruses contain no matrix proteins. Bunyaviridae have tripartite genomes consisting of a large (L), medium (M), and small ... It was formerly known as Bunyaviridae family of viruses. In 2017, the ICTV reclassified the family Bunyaviridae as Bunyvirales ...

*Batai virus

... segments which generally encode the nucleocapsid, envelope protein and the polymerase protein, respectively. The size of the S ... Batai virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus and a member of the family Bunyaviridae. Batai virus is part of a diverse ... It has been demonstrated in previous studies that in mammalian cells, the NSs protein will induce a shut-off of host protein ... The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) and the non-structural (NSs) proteins. The M segment encodes the virion surface ...

*Oropouche fever

... that is coded by the nucleocapsid protein, and the L polymerase function together to create a replication of the viral genome. ... Oropouche fever is caused by the oropouche virus (OROV) that belongs to the bunyaviridae family of arboviruses. This virus is a ... "Diagnosis of Oropouche Virus Infection Using a Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme Immunoassay". Journal of Clinical ... Oropouche fever is caused by a specific arbovirus, the Oropouche virus (OROV), of the Bunyaviridae family. Large epidemics are ...

*Asama virus

However, the nucleocapsid protein is similar to that of rodent and shrew-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses positions it ... Bunyaviridae Occurrences and deaths in North and South America. ...

*Orthonairovirus

The small segment is about 1,700-2,100 nucleotides long (1.7-2.1 kb), and it encodes the nucleocapsid protein. The genome has ... "Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya." Emerging Infectious Diseases 15 (2009): 147-54. ... These nucleocapsids are surrounded by a single envelope that has projections made of glycoproteins protruding from its surface ... They range in size from about 80-120 nm in diameter, with 50% of their weight attributed to proteins and 20-30% of their weight ...

*Bwamba Fever

The S RNA encodes a nucleocapsid and non structural proteins, the M RNA encodes envelope glycoproteins and a non structural ... Schmaljohn C.S. and Hooper, J.W. (2001). Bunyaviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields Virology, 4' Edn, (D.M. ... The segmented RNAs are surrounded by nucleocapsid proteins that form a Ribonucleoprotein complex, that associates with RNA ... From these transcripts, the host machinery is used for translation into viral proteins. The S segment is slightly different ...

*Cache Valley virus

... it can either code for the protein that makes up the nucleocapsid, N, or a non-structural protein, NSs. The medium segment ... The causative agent was identified as a virus in the Bunyaviridae family by electron microscopy. This was then identified ... The Gc and Gn proteins start as one precursor protein and are then cleaved cotranslationally. They are modified by N-linked ... Bunyamwera virus NSs protein is a nonessential gene that contributes to viral pathogenesis. It has been shown that in mammalian ...

*Orthobunyavirus

4.5kb and 6.5kb in length The S RNA encodes the Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) and a non structural protein (NS Protein). The ... Bunyaviridae Orthobunyavirus by ViralZone Richard J. Kascsak & Michael J. Lyons, (1971). Bunyamwera virus I. The molecular ... The L RNA encodes the viral RNA dependent RNA Polymerase or L Protein The taxonomy remains somewhat fluid as relatively few ... M RNA encodes a polyprotein which is cleaved by host protease into Gn, NSm and Gc proteins. ...

*Jamestown Canyon virus

The S segment encodes the NSs protein for immune suppression and virulence, and the N structural nucleocapsid protein. About 2 ... Andreadis TG, Anderson JF, Armstrong PM, Main AJ (2008). "Isolations of Jamestown Canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) ... further cleaved in the Gn and Gc surface glycoproteins for attachment and the NSm nonstructural protein that influences ...

*Thogotovirus

The genome encodes 7-9 proteins, including the trimeric RNA polymerase enzyme (PA, PB1, PB2) and the structural proteins ... Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga ... "Interferon-induced human MxA GTPase blocks nuclear import of Thogoto virus nucleocapsids", Proceedings of the National Academy ... In some members of the genus, replication has been shown to be sensitive to the Mx1/MxA protein, which is induced in mice and ...

*Virus

... and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral nucleic acid is called a nucleocapsid. The capsid and entire virus ... The same protein may act as the subunit of both the pentamers and hexamers or they may be composed of different proteins.[81]. ... These proteins go on to become either new virions within the cell, helper proteins, which help assembly of new virions, or ... Transport of viral proteins to the apical membranes and interaction of matrix protein with glycoproteins in the assembly of ...
Shi, Y.; Yi, Y.; Li, P.; Kuang, T.; Li, L.; Dong, M.; Ma, Q.; Cao, C., 2003: Diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) by detection of SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid antibodies in an antigen-capturing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
IF: 4.606] GENOME REPLICATION AND REGULATION OF VIRAL GENE EXPRESSION: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Interacts with Nsp9 and Cellular DHX9 To Regulate Viral RNA ...
Rabbit polyclonal H1N1 Influenza A virus Nucleocapsid protein antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC/IF and tested in InfA. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic…
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HIV nucleocapsid protein. Molecular model of the nucleocapsid protein (blue) from HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-type 1) complexed with the Psi RNA (ribonucleic acid) packaging element (pink). The Psi element is involved in the packaging of viral RNA into the capsid during replication. - Stock Image C025/1461
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Falls are an all-too common occurrence among seniors, and the causes of falls can vary widely-from biological factors like changes in eyesight or hearing to environmental ones, such as missing a step or tripping on a rug.. While Belmont Village is in the process of piloting a new fall-prevention program with TIRR Memorial Hermann at our West University and Hunters Creek communities this summer, all Belmont Village communities take proactive measures to prevent falls-starting from the first day residents arrive.. Prevention Starts from Day One. Upon move-in, Belmont Villages teams evaluate each resident closely to determine the full continuum of care each resident requires. This includes evaluating levels of fitness, such as agility and range of motion, as well as questionnaires to determine seniors confidence in tending to their own self-care. This baseline is then used to provide ongoing monitoring and care.. To reduce the chance of falls, Belmont Village partners with professional ...
In a previous study, a scFv phage display library against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was constructed and yielded a clone designated A I with conformational specificity against native but not denatured viral antigen. Although the clone A1 has been used successfully as a diagnostic antibody, its precise target antigen has not been elucidated. A different strategy was adopted involving the construction of a second T7 phage display library utilizing mRNA isolated from shrimp infected with WSSV. Following RT-PCR and T7 phage library construction, phages displaying the candidate epitope were selected with A I scFv. Since successive enrichment steps were not associated with an increased titer of the phages, enrichment after successive tests was confirmed by PCR resulting in the prefer-red selection of a specific DNA sequence encoding a novel nucleocapsid protein WSSV388. Immune electron microscopy revealed that WSSV388 is located on the ...
Efforts to contain severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) have been limited by the lack of a standardized, sensitive, and specific test for SARS-associated coronavirus (CoV). We used a standardized reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay to detect SARS-CoV in lung samples obtained from well-characterized patients who died of SARS and from those who died of other reasons. SARS-CoV was detected in all 22 postmortem lung tissues (to 109 viral copies/g) from 11 patients with probable SARS but was not detected in any of the 23 lung control samples (sample analysis was blinded). The sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) were 100% (84.6% to 100%) and 100% (85.1% to 100%), respectively. Viral loads were significantly associated with a shorter course of illness but not with the use of ribavirin or steroids. CoV was consistently identified in the lungs of all patients who died of SARS but not in control patients, supporting a primary role for CoV in deaths.
0171] [0172] Ali I K, McKendrick L, Morley S J, Jackson R T (2001) Truncated initiation factor eIF4G lacking an eIF4E binding site can support capped mRNA translation. EMBO J. 20: 4233-4242 [0173] Barr J N (2007) Bunyavirus mRNA synthesis is coupled to translation to prevent premature transcription termination. RNA 13: 731-736 [0174] Bellocq C, Kolakofsky D (1987) Translational requirement for La Crosse virus S-mRNA synthesis: a possible mechanism. J Virol 61: 3960-3967 [0175] Blakqori G, Kochs G, Haller O, Weber F (2003) Functional L polymerase of La Crosse virus allows in vivo reconstitution of recombinant nucleocapsids. J Gen Virol 84 (Part 5): 1207-1214 [0176] Bochkov Y A, Palmenberg A C (2006) Translational efficiency of EMCV IRES in bicistronic vectors is dependent upon IRES sequence and gene location. Biotechniques 41: 283-284, 286, 288 passim [0177] Bol J F (2005) Replication of alfamo- and ilarviruses: role of the coat protein. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43: 39-62 [0178] ...
Recombinant DNA techniques were used to delete regions of a cDNA clone of the phosphoprotein NS gene of vesicular stomatitis virus. The complete NS gene and four mutant genes containing internal or terminal deletions were inserted into a modified pGem4 vector under the transcriptional control of the phage T7 promoter. Run-off transcripts were synthesized and translated in vitro to provide [35S]methionine-labeled complete NS or deletion mutant NS proteins. Immune coprecipitation assays involving these proteins were developed to map the regions of the NS protein responsible for binding to the structural viral nucleocapsid protein N and the catalytic RNA polymerase protein L. The data indicate the NS protein is a bivalent protein consisting of two discrete functional domains. Contrary to previous suggestions, the negatively charged amino-terminal half of NS protein binds to L protein, while the carboxyl-terminal half of NS protein binds to both ...
Summary Antigenic and structural variation in the major nucleocapsid protein, VPN41, from different strains of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus was observed using a combination of monoclonal antibodies and two-dimensional peptide mapping. Limited trypsin treatment of intact nucleocapsids produced two peptide fragments M r 27K and M r 14K. Two monoclonal antibodies, N1 and N2, reactive with primary sequence epitopes located on intact nucleocapsids also reacted with either the 27K fragment (N2) or the 14K fragment (N1). Competitive radioimmunoassay studies using N1 and N2 antibodies revealed two discrete antigenic groups among the seven human strains of RS virus examined. A bovine strain of RS virus, although antigenically similar to the human strain of RS virus, was placed in a separate group. Two-dimensional peptide mapping of 125I-labelled VPN41 purified by SDS-PAGE revealed extensive structural homology ...
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Buy our Recombinant Measles virus Priorix, Schwarz strain, nucleocapsid protein. Ab74559 is a full length protein produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has…
Serum samples from 317 patients with patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were tested for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-associated coronavirus, with sensitivities of 94% and 78% for the first 5 days and 6-10 days after onset, respectively. The specificity was 99.9%. N protein can be used as an early diagnostic maker for SARS ...
Retroviral genome recognition is mediated by the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the virally encoded Gag polyprotein, which interacts with cognate RNA packaging elements that typically reside within the 5-untranslated region (5-UTR) of the genome. Recent studies suggest that the packaging signal of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), a member of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)/BLV family and a non-primate animal model for HTLV-induced leukemogenesis, comprises elements that reside within both the 5-UTR and gag open reading frame. The recombinant BLV NC protein has been prepared and purified. Electrophoretic mobility shift and isothermal titration calorimetry studies with RNA fragments corresponding to these proposed packaging elements have been conducted. The gag-derived RNAs did not exhibit significant affinity for NC, suggesting an alternate role in packaging. However, an 83-nucleotide fragment of the 5-UTR that resides just upstream of the gag start codon binds NC ...
Genome packaging is a key step in retrovirus replication. Two copies of the virus RNA are specifically selected and packaged into an assembling virion. The nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the Gag polyprotein and the packaging signal (?-site) region of the genomic RNA are critical to this process. Different packaging mechanisms have been proposed for HIV-1 and HIV-2. In HIV-1, the ?-site is downstream of the major splice donor (SD), and any splicing removes both NC binding sites. The proposed HIV-2 ?-site is upstream of the SD. A "co-translational packaging" hypothesis was presented explaining this contradiction. In this mechanism, NC binds the full-length RNA from which it was translated. Other studies indicated the region between the SD and the Gag initiation codon is critical for NC binding and genome packaging. This finding supports the hypothesis that HIV-1 and HIV-2 package their genomes in a similar manner. However, the minimal NC binding domain(s) in HIV-2 had not been ...
Coronaviruslike viruses previously have been identified in feces of diarrheic foals and adult horses (1, 7, 8, 13, 17). In the present study, a coronavirus associated with diarrhea in a young foal was serially propagated in cell culture and partially characterized. The virus was identified as a coronavirus based on (i) virion size and morphology, (ii) antigenic relatedness to BCV and HEV as determined by serological procedures, and (iii) genetic relatedness to BCV, HCV strain OC43, and MHV as determined by N gene sequence analysis. The virus tentatively is identified as equine coronavirus (ECV) based on the origin of the virus.. The coronavirus N protein has been shown to be highly variable in amino acid composition between the viruses that comprise the three coronavirus antigenic groups but highly conserved within these groups (27, 30). In the present study, a high degree of identity (66.7 to 90.1%) was observed between the N protein sequences of ECV strain NC99 and N protein sequences of group ...
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The Kimberly-Clark Professional molding plant in Belmont that produces highway work zone safety products will close in June, resulting in the loss of about 180 jobs here, according to an announcement from Kimberly-Clark in Dallas. Meetings were conducted earlier this week with the 180 employees who work at the Belmont facility to notify them of the plans to close the mill, according to a statement from Bob Brand of the Kimberly-Clark Corp. communications department. Brand said eligible employees will receive a severance package, and Kimberly-Clark Professional . . .
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Free Essay: Belmont Report: Informed Consent and Subject Selection In the famous Belmont Report, several guidelines regarding informed consent, assessment of...
US Air Force Research Lab. Monday, April 24, 2017, Colloquia Auditorium. Electron microscopy has been one of the robust tools in characterizing the life cycle of viruses, such as Semliki Forest Virus (SFV), an alphavirus that belongs to Togavirus family and causes encephalitis in human. The viral particle of SFV is composed of a nucleocapsid enclosed by a lipid-anchored glycoprotein spikes and infects cell through clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway where it releases the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm after membrane fusion at the late endosome. Cryo-electron microscopy and single particle reconstruction revealed the structure of SFV virion that both the nucleocapsid and surface spikes adapted into icosahedral symmetry with T4 surface lattice and that the connection between nucleocapsid protein and C-terminal tail of the glycoprotein stabilizes the particle integrity. ...
UNLABELLED: The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a major target of protective immunity in vivo. Although a large number of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have been developed, it remains unclear if a single RBD-targeting nAb or two in combination can prevent neutralization escape and, if not, attenuate viral virulence in vivo. In this study, we used a large panel of human nAbs against an epitope that overlaps the interface between the RBD and its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to assess their cross-neutralization activities against a panel of human and zoonotic SARS-CoVs and neutralization escape mutants. We also investigated the neutralization escape profiles of these nAbs and evaluated their effects on receptor binding and virus fitness in vitro and in mice. We found that some nAbs had great potency and breadth in neutralizing multiple viral strains, including neutralization escape ...
It has been shown previously, by sequence analysis of the S RNA segment of snowshoe hare (SSH) bunyavirus, that two overlapping open reading frames in the viral complementary sequence code for proteins with molecular weights of 26.8 X 10(3) and 10.5 X 10(3) respectively. In addition to the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein, which is coded by the S RNA, analyses of parental and reassortant bunyavirus-infected cell extracts have shown that the viral S RNA and M RNA species each code for non-structural proteins (NSS and NSM, respectively). In the present report, in vitro translation analyses of the S mRNA species recovered from virus-infected cells indicate that a single size class of mRNA directs the synthesis of N and NSS. Compositional analyses of selected tryptic peptides of N and NSS have provided proof that N is the product of the first open reading frame, and NSS the product of the second.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identifying epitopes responsible for neutralizing antibody and DC-SIGN binding on the spike glycoprotein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. AU - Shih, Yi Ping. AU - Chen, Chia Yen. AU - Liu, Shih Jen. AU - Chen, Kuan Hsuan. AU - Lee, Yuan Ming. AU - Chao, Yu Chan. AU - Chen, Yi Ming Arthur. PY - 2006/11/1. Y1 - 2006/11/1. N2 - The severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) uses dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) to facilitate cell entry via cellular receptor-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. For this project, we used recombinant baculoviruses expressing different lengths of SARS-CoV spike (S) protein in a capture assay to deduce the minimal DC-SIGN binding region. Our results identified the region location between amino acid (aa) residues 324 to 386 of the S protein. We then generated nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the S protein to map the DC-SIGN-binding domain using capture assays with pseudotyped ...
Profiles of antibodies towards the nucleocapsid proteins from the severe acute respiratory symptoms (SARS)-associated coronavirus in 445 possible SARS sufferers and 3,749 healthy people or non-SARS sufferers were analyzed by antigen-capturing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. and non-SARS sufferers, just seven (0.187%) were weakly positive. The novel serious acute respiratory symptoms (SARS)-linked coronavirus (CoV) continues to be defined as the etiologic Rabbit polyclonal to MAP1LC3A. agent of SARS (1, 3, 5). Its been confirmed that, at least in early replies, the antibodies towards the nucleocapsid proteins (N proteins) predominate, as assayed by Traditional western blotting and proteomic evaluation. To comprehend the humoral immunity towards the N proteins of SARS CoV and the chance of using the N proteins in MP470 SARS medical diagnosis, antibodies ...
Coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus, which synthesises a 3-coterminal nested set of six subgenomic RNAs. Subgenomic RNA transcription and genome replication are...
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MERS is caused by a virus called Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which belongs to the Coronavirus family of viruses. MERS Virus belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus. Coronavirus family of viruses includes viruses that usually cause respiratory tract illnesses like the common cold in human beings, and also, these viruses cause a number of diseases in animals. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).. Continue reading → ...
A baculovirus, named BomaNPV S2, was isolated from a diseased larva of the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina. Notably, BomaNPV S2 exhibited a distinguishing feature in that its host range covered that of both Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in cultured cells. It could replicate in cells of B. mori (Bm5 and BmN), Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn-5B1-4). However, occlusion-derived virions of BomaNPV S2 in B. mori cells contained only a single nucleocapsid, whereas they contained multiple nucleocapsids in Tn-5B1-4 cells. The complete genome sequence of BomaNPV S2, including predicted ORFs, was determined and compared with the genome sequence of its close relatives. The comparison results showed that most of the BomaNPV S2 genome sequence was shared with BmNPV (BmNPV T3) or BomaNPV S1, but several regions seemed more similar to regions of AcMNPV. This ...
With increasing international travel and globalization of the worlds economies, changing climates, and altered human behavior and demographics, multiple viruses have emerged to occupy expanded ecologic niches, producing disease syndromes in parts of the world where they had never before existed. Because most emerging viral diseases in humans in the 21st century have been zoonotic, Emerging Viruses in Human Populations focuses on this group of viruses. The resulting overview is a book useful for anyone interested in a diverse group of viral agents that have recently elicited novel disease syndromes in human populations around the world. This text does an excellent job of encompassing a wide variety of contact-transmitted enzootic viruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus, Nipah and Hendra viruses, influenza virus, hantaviruses, monkeypox viruses, and vector-transmitted agents including Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis ...
1DSQ: The NMR structure of the nucleocapsid protein from the mouse mammary tumor virus reveals unusual folding of the C-terminal zinc knuckle.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Table 2 listed on pages 703-15 summarizes finalized data, as of June 30, 2014, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2013. These data will be published in more detail next year in the Summary of Notifiable Diseases - United States, 2013 (1). Because no cases were reported in the United States during 2013, the following diseases do not appear in these early release tables: anthrax; diphtheria; eastern equine encephalitis, nonneuroinvasive disease; poliovirus infection, nonparalytic; severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV); smallpox; St.. ...
This study investigated the long-term excretion of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus in sputum and stool specimens from 56 infected patients. The median (range) duration of virus excretion in sputa and stools was 21 (14-52) and ...
Hendra virus (HeV) is a recently emerged severe human pathogen that belongs to the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. The HeV genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid. Recruitment of the viral polymerase onto the nucleocapsid template relies on the interaction between the C-terminal domain, N(TAIL), of N and the C-terminal X domain, XD, of the polymerase co-factor phosphoprotein (P). Here, we provide an atomic resolution description of the intrinsically disordered N(TAIL) domain in its isolated state and in intact nucleocapsids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Using electron microscopy, we show that HeV nucleocapsids form herringbone-like structures typical of paramyxoviruses. We also report the crystal structure of XD of P that consists of a three-helix bundle. We study the interaction between ...
Looking for online definition of nucleocapsids in the Medical Dictionary? nucleocapsids explanation free. What is nucleocapsids? Meaning of nucleocapsids medical term. What does nucleocapsids mean?
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes a respiratory disease leading to death in 10% of the infected people. A mouse adapted SARS-CoV lacking the envelope (E) protein (rSARS-CoV-MA15-ΔE) is attenuated in vivo. To identify E protein domains and host responses that contribute to rSARS-CoV-MA15-ΔE attenuation, several mutants (rSARS-CoV-MA15-E*) containing point mutations or deletions in the amino-terminal or the carboxy-terminal regions of E protein, respectively, were generated. Amino acid substitutions in the amino terminus, or deletion of domains in the internal carboxy terminal region of E protein led to viral attenuation. Attenuated viruses induced minimal lung injury and limited neutrophil influx to the lungs but, interestingly, increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts in BALB/c mice. To analyze the host responses leading to rSARS-CoV-MA15-E* attenuation, the differential gene expression elicited by the native virus and the mutant ones in infected cells was analyzed. The
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a dangerous infection with pandemic potential. It emerged in 2002 and its aetiological agent, the SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), crossed the species barrier to infect humans, showing high morbidity and mortality rates. No vaccines are currently licensed for SARS-CoV and important efforts have been performed during the first outbreak to develop diagnostic tools. Here we demonstrate the transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of two important antigenic determinants of the SARS-CoV, the nucleocapsid protein (N) and the membrane protein (M) using a virus-derived vector or agro-infiltration, respectively. For the M protein, this is the first description of production in plants, while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that it is recognized by sera of patients from the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong in 2003. The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their ...
Marburg virus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell-surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion envelope with cellular membranes and the concomitant release of the virus nucleocapsid into the cytosol. The virus RdRp partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-stranded mRNAs, which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. Marburgvirus L binds to a single promoter located at the 3 end of the genome. Transcription either terminates after a gene or continues to the next gene downstream. This means that genes close to the 3 end of the genome are transcribed in the greatest abundance, whereas those toward the 5 end are least likely to be transcribed. The gene order is therefore a simple but effective form of transcriptional regulation. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, whose concentration in the cell determines when L switches ...
Taylor JK, Coleman CM, Postel S, Sisk JM, Bernbaum JG, Venkataraman T, Sundberg EJ, Frieman MB. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ORF7a Inhibits Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 Virion Tethering through a Novel Mechanism of Glycosylation Interference. J Virol. 2015 Dec; 89(23):11820-33 ...
Publication_Place: Menlo Park, CA Online_Linkage: http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/gos/n-p2-97-mu.fmeta.xml Online_Linkage: http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/n/np297mu/html/n-p2-97-mu.meta.html Description: Abstract: University of Hawaii,United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. Chief Scientist: Bruce Richmond. Geodetic data (geodetic, navigation) of field activity N-P2-97-MU in Napili BayMaui, Hawaii from 07/07/1997 to 07/07/1997, http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/n/np297mu/html/n-p2-97-mu.meta.html. Purpose: These data and information are intended for science researchers, students from elementary through college, policy makers, and general public. Supplemental_Information: Equipment Used - geodetic data directory exists navigation data directory exists Notes - Other field activities at Napili Bay on Maui also have Activity IDs beginning with "N-P" and ending with "-MU" Cross-shore beach profile data were collected as a component of the Hawaii Coastal Erosion Study, a ...
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Looking for nucleocapsids? Find out information about nucleocapsids. The nucleic acid of a virus and its surrounding capsid Explanation of nucleocapsids
All viruses utilize host cell machinery to synthesize their own genetic materials. Upon entry into cells, the virus has to initiate replication and gene expression. Paramyxoviruses use a unique strategy for replication and gene expression. The active template for paramyxovirus replication is not the naked RNA genome but the protein and RNA complex. Viral genomic RNA is completely encapsidated by the nucleocapsid (N) protein to form an N-RNA complex. During RNA synthesis, the N-RNA template is recognized by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that carries out two distinct processes: (i) transcription to yield 6-10 capped, methylated and polyadenylated messenger RNAs and (ii) replication to yield full-length antigenomic and subsequently genomic RNA.. Our lab uses hMPV and aMPV as models to understand the mechanisms by which the RdRp controls these two processes: replication and transcription. We will focus on the two major components of RdRp, the large protein catalytic ...
Vampire Bats Can Donate Blood To Others Of Its Kind. A recent study has shown that female vampire bats can share blood with their friends. Bats are amazingly altruistic creatures. Bats are known for being socially sophisticated mammals, but they are probably even more generous to those in need than you are. Vampire bats have a particularly bad reputation because people think that these bats would love to drink their blood. However, vampire bats dont consume human blood, and the blood they do take from other animal-hosts is in such small amounts that the animal hosts dont even realized that they are being robbed of their blood. Female vampire bats form a tight community. During the colder months, female vampire bats will keep other bats warm with their body heat. Female vampire bats will also help other females care for their young. But only recently have experts learned that they share blood.. If a female vampire bat should be hungry, and/or does not have enough food, then other female vampire ...
Targeting of viral vectors to specific cells has received an increasing interest in the area of therapeutic gene transfer. However, specific targeting to tumors, especially to tumor vasculature has been impeded by the limitations of present vector systems and lack of selective markers. Therefore, peptides that home to specific sites in the tumor vasculature or tumors, are attractive as targeting moieties for gene therapy purposes. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), a prototype of the Baculoviridae family, is a promising new vector candidate for gene therapy. Moreover, baculovirus display -technology enables the presentation of targeting moieties on the viral surface. The goal of this study was to develop baculovirus vectors for targeted and enhanced gene transfer to cancer cells. To this end, specific tumor and tumor vasculature targeting peptides, such as RGD, RKK, LyP-1, F3 and CGKRK, were successfully displayed on the baculoviral surface. Most importantly, the ...
Retrotransposon TYA Gag gene co-transcribed with TYB Pol; translated as TYA or TYA-TYB polyprotein; Gag is a nucleocapsid protein that is the structural constituent of virus-like particles (VLPs); similar to retroviral Gag
Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) allows the visualization of cellular structures under close-to-life conditions and at molecular resolution. While it is inherently a static approach, yielding struct
Retrotransposon TYA Gag And TYB Pol Genes; Transcribed/translated As One Unit; Polyprotein Is Processed To Make A Nucleocapsid-like Protein (Gag), Reverse Transcriptase (RT), Protease (PR), And Integrase (IN); Similar To Retroviral Genes
Retrotransposon TYA Gag and TYB Pol genes; transcribed/translated as one unit; polyprotein is processed to make a nucleocapsid-like protein (Gag), reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR), and integrase (IN); similar to retroviral genes
Puumala virus is a member of the hantavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, and the major causative agent of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe. This study was conducted with a human Puumala virus isolate (PUUV Umeå/hu), and contains the determination of the first complete PUUV sequence from a human source. When the relationship to other Puumala viruses was analysed, a possible RNA segment exchange between two local strains of PUUV was noticed. Furthermore, the coding regions of PUUV Umeå/hu S- and M-segments were cloned, and a large set of gene products were expressed in mammalian cells. In addition, postulated N- and O-linked glycosylation sites in the two envelope proteins (Gn and Gc) were investigated individually by site-directed mutagenesis followed by gel-shift analysis. Our data demonstrate that N-linked glycosylation occurs at three sites in Gn (N142, N357 and N409), and at one site in Gc (N937). Also, one possible O-glycosylation site was identified ...
The WHO Global Conference on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), was held in the Sunway Lagoon Resort Hotel, Persiaran Lagoon, Bandar Sunway, 46150, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 17-18 June 2003.. ...
Using the purified proteins as antigens in ELISA assays for antibodies in the sera of SARS patients we found that the assay using truncated S-N fusion protein has a clearly higher sensitivity than those using intact N protein or truncated S and N proteins, and virtually as high as the assay using whole SARSCoV lysate (Table 2). The results indicated the N and S protein were complementary in detecting SARS-specific antibodies. This is consistent with previous studies [28, 29]. Five positive sera to SARSCoV lysate antigen were all tested positive against SARSCoV N protein but negative against SARSCoV truncated N-S protein. These sera were also tested positive against N proteins of HCoV 229E and HCoV OC43 (data not shown), which could be reasonably explained partly by existence of other HCoV infections in these humans. The truncated S-N fusion protein was also subjected to ELISA with mice antisera against SARSCoV (BJ01), HCoV 229E and HCoV OC43. Only mice ...
This study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. Twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. Antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein supplied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the United States of America. The results revealed a high percentage of isolations in salivary glands (76.9%).Their average titres were compared in a batch of positive samples of brain and salivary glands, giving values of 4.75 and 3.81 respectively (expressed as log LD50/0.03 ml). The isolated viruses corresponded principally to variant 4 associated with T. brasiliensis and variant 6 associated with the hoary bat, Lasiurus ...
Around the world, scientists race to develop a vaccine or treatment against the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Now, a team of researchers has found that a drug already available around the world can kill the coronavirus in a lab setting in just 48 hours.. ...
Ebola virus nucleoprotein. Computer model showing the C-terminal domain of the Zaire ebola virus nucleoprotein. The nucleoprotein wraps around the RNA (ribonucleic acid), creating a helical complex. - Stock Image C035/6119
Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout
Capsid protein (CA) is the structural component of the virus-like particle (VLP), forming the shell that encapsulates the retrotransposons dimeric RNA genome. The particles are assembled from trimer-clustered units and there are holes in the capsid shells that allow for the diffusion of macromolecules. CA has also nucleocapsid-like chaperone activity, promoting primer tRNA(i)-Met annealing to the multipartite primer-binding site (PBS), dimerization of Ty1 RNA and initiation of reverse transcription (By similarity).
Scientists in the WHO network of collaborating laboratories yesterday reported results of the first scientific studies designed to determine the survival time of the SARS virus in different environmental media. Results from studies of the effectiveness of different disinfectants commonly used in hospitals were also reported, confirming the validity of currently recommended measures for infection control.. The new studies, conducted at network labs in Hong Kong, Japan, and Germany confirm, as anticipated, that the SARS virus can survive after drying on plastic surfaces for up to 48 hours. Ongoing studies are testing virus stability on additional surfaces, with initial results expected by Wednesday.. Scientists have also tested virus survival times in faeces. Research conducted at one Hong Kong lab determined that the virus can survive in faeces for at least 2 days, and in urine for at least 24 hours. Studies conducted at a second Hong Kong lab found that virus in faeces taken from patients ...
Tailor YI, Suskauer SJ, Sepeta LN, Ewen JB, Dematt EJ, Trovato MK, Salorio CF, Slomine BS. Functional status of children with encephalitis in an inpatient rehabilitation setting: a case series. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 2013.. Zhou, J., McAllen, K., Tailor, Y. and Summers, M.F. High Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding to the μΨ RNA Packaging Signal of Rous Sarcoma Virus. Journal of Molecular Biology, 2005. ...
Influenza B Virus Nucleoprotein antibody [B272M] for ELISA, WB. Anti-Influenza B Virus Nucleoprotein mAb (GTX41022) is tested in Influenza B virus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
click on the image for a larger view) Figure 2. RSV virion structure and expression. Panel A shows a diagrammatic representation of a mature Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) virion. The legend at the right identifies individual proteins found in the mature virion. The outer membrane of the virion contains the transmembrane protein (TM), which is associated with the surface protein (SU). The matrix protein (MA) lies just under this outer membrane. The core of the virion is structurally delimited by the capsid protein (CA). Inside the capsid are two viral RNA genomes, shown partially covered with nucleocapsid protein (NC). The two genomic RNAs are hydrogen bonded near their 5 ends. The core also contains reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), and protease (PR). Panel B shows the relationship of the proviral DNA, the open reading frames, viral RNAs, and proteins of RSV. The LTRs of the provirus are shown as a series of three boxes (U3, R, and U5). ...
Definition of orthobunyavirus in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of orthobunyavirus. What does orthobunyavirus mean? Information and translations of orthobunyavirus in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Capsid protein (CA) is the structural component of the virus-like particle (VLP), forming the shell that encapsulates the retrotransposons dimeric RNA genome. The particles are assembled from trimer-clustered units and there are holes in the capsid shells that allow for the diffusion of macromolecules. CA has also nucleocapsid-like chaperone activity, promoting primer tRNA(i)-Met annealing to the multipartite primer-binding site (PBS), dimerization of Ty1 RNA and initiation of reverse transcription (By similarity).
Serological response of animals vaccinated against PRRSV can differ between individuals. Some pigs may not show any response, or very low level of ELISA antibodies. Positive results of ELISA prove contact of a population with PRRSV (wild type or modified live vaccine). The larger the number of pigs tested, the more accurate is the diagnosis. PRRS ELISA can detect antibodies starting from 10-14 days after the contact with the virus. Some pigs can seroconvert later than others. ELISA results are very difficult to interpret in individual pigs. The antibodies detected in ELISA are usually targeted against nucleocapsid protein. These antibodies play no role in immunity against PRRSV. There are no commercially available ELISA kits (or experimental ones) to verify the level of immunity. Pigs negative in ELISA can still be immune. Vaccines against PRRS usually dont protect pigs against infection for entire life. They are intended to limit virus shedding and clinical signs after ...
In Aphios vaccine technology, HIV virions are filled with SuperFluids, which are critical, supercritical or near-critical fluids with or without polar cosolvents. When compressed, these fluids exhibit enhanced thermodynamic properties of penetration, solvation and expansion. The overfilled virions are then rapidly expanded and rupture at their weakest points. The HIV virions are rendered non-infective while preserving overall tertiary structure, protein integrity and antigenicity. Viral proteins, in particular gp120 and nucleocapsid proteins, are retained in their native and functional state. Viruses are inactivated by a purely physical mechanism unlike traditional methods that utilize chemicals that can cross-link and render protein epitopes less effective. This technology is rapid, inactivating more than 6 logs (one million virions per milliliter) of most viruses in less than 20 seconds. Vaccine preparations can include a combination of ...
1HVO: Zinc- and sequence-dependent binding to nucleic acids by the N-terminal zinc finger of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: NMR structure of the complex with the Psi-site analog, dACGCC.
Retrotransposon TYA Gag And TYB Pol Genes; Transcribed/translated As One Unit; Polyprotein Is Processed To Make A Nucleocapsid-like Protein (Gag), Reverse Transcriptase (RT), Protease (PR), And Integrase (IN); Similar To Retroviral Genes
In the present study we investigated, for the first time, the susceptibility of primary human Mφ and DC and their subsequent responses to SARS-CoV infection by focusing on their phenotypic expression, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, phagocytic activity, and T cell-priming capacity. The findings of our studies are: 1) SARS-CoV could not productively infect Mφ and DC (Figs. 1⇑ and 2⇑); 2) incubation with SARS-CoV did not add to the spontaneous cell death of primary Mφ and DC; on the contrary, it enhanced their viability (Fig. 3⇑) independently of the presence of exogenous cytokines; 3) exposure to live SARS-CoV exerted a diverse effect on the biology of DC vs Mφ, in which it up-regulated the expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD83, and CD86, on the surface of DC but not Mφ. Consequently, it also greatly enhanced DC ability to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic T cells (Figs. 4⇑ and 8⇑). In contrast, it impaired the phagocytic activity of Mφ (Fig. 7⇑); and 4) not only ...
Consistent with a previous report on SDAV structural proteins (1), the coding sequences for the S, M, and N proteins were identified. Downstream of the S-protein gene, two overlapping potentially nonstructural-protein genes were located, and these were predicted to encode 15- and 12.6-kDa nonstructural proteins. A small internal ORF (ORF7b) was also found in the +2 frame within the N-protein-coding sequence. Following the N-protein gene, the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) was identified to be 298 nucleotides, followed by a stretch of polyadenylation tail.. The nonstructural NS2 gene, located immediately downstream of RNA polymerase gene 1b, has been shown to be heterogeneous in coronavirus. In MHV JHM variant Wb1, a large portion of the 5′ end of the NS2 gene is deleted, and as a result, the NS2 protein is not expressed (29). However, in SDAV the NS2 nonstructural-protein gene was identified to code for a polypeptide of 274 amino acids.. Similar to the NS2 ...
SARS is mainly spread by close person-to-person contact. After two to seven days, SARS patients may develop a dry cough with most developing pneumonia.
For example, the researchers now know that most of the fibers are usually bound to the virus head rather than extended, as was previously thought. That those fibers are in a dynamic equilibrium between bound and extended states is also new. Molineux said that the idea that phages "walk" over the cell surface was previously proposed, but their paper provides the first experimental evidence that this is the case. This is also the first time that scientists have made actual images showing how the viruss tail extends into the host - the very action that allows it to infect a cell with its DNA.. "I first hypothesized that T7 made an extended tail more than 10 years ago," said Molineux, "but this is the first irrefutable experimental evidence for the idea and provides the first images of what it looks like.". The researchers used a combination of genetics and cryo-electron tomography to image the infection process. Cryo-electron tomography is a process similar to a CT scan, but it is scaled to study ...
Results The LVP consists of a broad nucleocapsid surrounding an electron-dense centre, presumably containing the HCV genome. The nucleocapsid is surrounded by an irregular, detergent-sensitive crescent probably composed of lipids. Lipid content may determine particle size. These particles carry HCV E1E2, ApoB and ApoE, as shown in our immuno-EM analysis. Our results also suggest that these putative LVPs circulate in the serum of patients as part of a mixed population, including lipoprotein-like particles and complete viral particles. ...
Results The LVP consists of a broad nucleocapsid surrounding an electron-dense centre, presumably containing the HCV genome. The nucleocapsid is surrounded by an irregular, detergent-sensitive crescent probably composed of lipids. Lipid content may determine particle size. These particles carry HCV E1E2, ApoB and ApoE, as shown in our immuno-EM analysis. Our results also suggest that these putative LVPs circulate in the serum of patients as part of a mixed population, including lipoprotein-like particles and complete viral particles. ...
The issue of protein dynamics and its implications in the biological function of proteins are arousing greater and greater interest in different fields of molecular biology. In cryo-electron tomography experiments one may take several snapshots of a given biological macromolecule. In principle, a large enough collection of snapshots of the molecule may then be used to calculate its equilibrium configuration in terms of the experimentally accessible degrees of freedom and, hence, to estimate its potential energy. This information would be crucial in order to analyze the biological functions of biomolecules by directly accessing the relevant dynamical indicators. In this article, we analyze the results of cryo-electron tomography experiments performed on monoclonal murine IgG2a antibodies. We measure the equilibrium distribution of the molecule in terms of the relevant angular coordinates and build a mechanical model of the antibody dynamics. This approach enables us to derive an explicit ...
Bonjour mon ordi est infecté par le virus N039. Voici le rapport dhijackthis: Logfile of Trend Micro HijackThis v2.0.0 (BETA) Scan saved at 14:46:31, on 02/10/2007 Platform: Windows XP SP2 (WinN
The risk factors for SARS are close contact within the previous 10 days with a probable case of SARS, recent travel within the previous 10 days to a reported affected area.
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E1 is a class II viral fusion protein. This trimeric (low-pH-iduced) form is fusion active, and promotes release of viral nucleocapsid in cytoplasm after cell and viral membrane fusion. Efficient fusion requires the presence of cholesterol and sphingolipid in the target membrane. N-terminal domain of this protein: 1dyl(NMR), 1vcp, 1vcq ...
(CIDRAP News) Five SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) patients have been released from Chinese hospitals this week, leaving only two still hospitalized with the disease, according to reports from China.
1Q3Y: Target specificity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NCp7 requires an intact conformation of its CCHC N-terminal zinc finger.
The Ebola virus. The structure of the ebola virus consisting of Glycoproteins, VP40, VP24, Nucleocapsid, VP30, Viral genome, VP35 and the Polymerase (L) Protein. - Stock Image C027/7107
The first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in France was diagnosed in March 2003. We conducted a serological survey to assess whether or not asymptomatic persons who had been in contact with this patient during his infectious stage had been infected. They were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample for SARS coronavirus immunoglobulin G antibody testing. Despite the likely high infectivity of the SARS patient, no asymptomatic SARS infection was found in any of the 37 contacts included. These findings support a SARS case definition that is essentially based on clinical and epidemiological assessment, should SARS re-emerge.
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SARS. Id be more concerned over the smog than sars. But to answer question sars is severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) is a serious form of pneumonia. It is caused by a virus that was first identified in 2003. It carries a very high mortality. Just go and be happy in the city..Live your life..Worrying only shortens it ...
Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. The research uses pioneering cryo-electron tomography to reveal the complex viral replication process in vivid detail, opening up new avenues to potentially disrupt, dismantle or redirect viral machinery.
pisces: it is only normal for any human being in a foreign country to panic in such situations... your statement "NO SARS IN THE PHILIPPINES" is not enough for the parents of your students to take the presence of SARS worldwide lightly. i understand that youre worried about most of your student leaving but they are not willing to risk anything and to be honest with you it is better to be in your own country in a situation like this. I am a Filipina living in China and let me tell you that its not easy to be away from the Philippines during times of paranoia. Im sorry to hear that your school might close.. ...
SARS Travel Information Latest Worldwide. Dont become a medical statistic. Protect yourself with our hype-free independent news.
Virus, Mosaic Virus, Nanoparticles, Papaya, Production, Animals, Influenza, Proteins, Mice, Plant, Plant Virus, Vaccines, Nucleocapsid, Antibodies, Flu Vaccines, Antigen, Epitopes, Nanoparticle, Association, Cysteine
The dramatic emergence of a new type of pneumonia, |b|Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome|/b| or Sars, is causing alarm worldwide. Find out how to protect yourself from this frightening condition
The sudden global emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has sickened over 8,000 individuals, crippled health care delivery, and has had a ...
Infection with MARVPSAPmut results in compact inclusion bodies and accumulation of nucleocapsids in the periphery of cells.Huh-7 cells were infected with rMARVw
Find the best OBGYN in Greensboro, NC 27405. OBGYN reviews, phone number, address and map. Find the best OBGYN in Greensboro, NC 27405.

Orthohantavirus - WikipediaOrthohantavirus - Wikipedia

Inside the envelope are the nucleocapsids. These are composed of many copies of the nucleocapsid protein N, which interact with ... As with other Bunyaviridae, each of the three segments has a consensus 3-terminal nucleotide sequence (AUCAUCAUC), which is ... Within virions, the genomic RNAs of hantaviruses are thought to complex with the N protein to form helical nucleocapsids, the ... Transcription of viral genes must be initiated by association of the L protein with the three nucleocapsid species. In addition ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthohantavirus

Storage of cellular 5′ mRNA caps in P bodies for viral cap-snatching | PNASStorage of cellular 5′ mRNA caps in P bodies for viral cap-snatching | PNAS

Here we show that the hantavirus nucleocapsid protein binds with high affinity to the 5′ cap of cellular mRNAs, protecting the ... 1995) The 5′ ends of Hantaan virus (Bunyaviridae) RNAs suggest a prime-and-realign mechanism for the initiation of RNA ... Our data also indicate that modification of the cap-snatching model is warranted to include a role for the nucleocapsid protein ... 2004) Trimeric hantavirus nucleocapsid protein binds specifically to the viral RNA panhandle. J Virol 78:8281-8288. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/105/49/19294

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

The nucleocapsid protein NCp7 (NC) is a key protein regulating several processes during virus replication. NC is in fact a ... In vivo localization of iris yellow spot tospovirus (Bunyaviridae)-encoded proteins and identification of interacting regions ... The reconstitution of YFP signal only occurs when the inquest proteins interact 1-7. To test and validate the protein-protein ... Genome-wide Protein-protein Interaction Screening by Protein-fragment Complementation Assay (PCA) in Living Cells ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/25781476/in-vivo-localization-iris-yellow-spot-tospovirus-bunyaviridae-encoded

Amalgaviridae - WikipediaAmalgaviridae - Wikipedia

By contrast, the putative capsid protein of amalgaviruses is homologous to the nucleocapsid proteins of negative-strand RNA ... viruses of the genera Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and Tenuivirus. Martin, R. R.; Zhou, J; Tzanetakis, I. E. (2011). "Blueberry ... Specifically, phylogenetic analyses have shown that the amalgavirus RdRps form a sister clade to the corresponding proteins of ... and a putative capsid protein. It has been suggested that amalgaviruses have evolved via recombination between viruses with ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalgaviridae

Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru - Volume 21, Number 5-May 2015 - Emerging...Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru - Volume 21, Number 5-May 2015 - Emerging...

... and the S segment encodes for the nucleocapsid protein. Many orthobunyaviruses also encode the nonstructural proteins NSm and ... Viruses of the family Bunyaviridae: are all available isolates reassortants? Virology. 2013;446:207-16. DOIPubMed ... Molecular epidemiology of group C viruses (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) isolated in the Americas. J Virol. 2005;79:10561-70. ... Viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups in the Orthobunyavirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) do not encode ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/5/14-1368

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil - Volume 15, Number 4-April 2009 - Emerging...Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil - Volume 15, Number 4-April 2009 - Emerging...

Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara ... complementary termini and complex with a nucleocapsid (N) protein to form individual L, M, and S nucleocapsids (1). The S ... Bunyaviridae. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, editors. Fields virology, 5th ed. Philadelphia: ... Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/4/08-0289_article

DiVA - SökresultatDiVA - Sökresultat

... and nucleocapsid protein (N), expressed together with a minireplicon RNA, formed transcriptionally active nucleocapsids. These ... Bunyaviridae is a large family of viruses that have gained attention as "emerging viruses" because many members cause serious ... The nucleocapsid (N) protein encoded by hantaviruses plays an important role in the life-cycle of these viruses, and one ... NSs protein of rift valley fever virus induces the specific degradation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase2009 ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22personId%22%3A%22authority-person%3A63776%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=sv&query=

Article | DoljaValerianBotanyPlantPathologyPlantViruses SupportingInformation.zip | ID: x633f261f | ScholarsArchive@OSUArticle | DoljaValerianBotanyPlantPathologyPlantViruses SupportingInformation.zip | ID: x633f261f | [email protected]

Here we show that the CP of amalgaviruses is homologous to the nucleocapsid proteins of negative-strand RNA viruses of the ... genera Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and Tenuivirus. The chimeric genomes of amalgaviruses are a testament to the effectively ... RNA genomes and encode two proteins: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a putative capsid protein (CP). Whereas the ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/x633f261f

Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infectionDevelopment of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection

... that encodes the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) as well as a small nonstructural protein that has been described in certain ... Bunyaviridae. In DM Knipe, PM Hoeley, DE Griffin, RA Lamb, MA Martin, B Roizman, SE Straus, Fields virology, Lippincott ... Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on Araraquara virus recombinant nucleocapsid protein. Am J Trop Med ... Expression of a hantavirus N protein and its efficacy as antigen in immune assays. Braz J Med Biol Res 41: 596-599. [ Links ] ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02762015000500624&lng=en&tlng=en

Bunyaviridae - microbewikiBunyaviridae - microbewiki

The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase known as the nucleocapsid-associated L protein interacts with the three S, M, and L ... The nucleocapsids are elongated and have helical symmetry. (source: ICTVdB) Reproduction Cycle of a Bunyavirus in a Host Cell. ... Bunyaviridae is the largest family of viruses, with over 200 species. Genome Structure. The bunyavirus genome is monomeric and ... They consist of an envelope and three nucleocapsids, which each old one segments of the genome. Virions are 80-120nm in ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Bunyaviridae

Peptide Antagonists That Inhibit Sin Nombre Virus and Hantaan Virus Entry through the β3-Integrin Receptor | Journal of VirologyPeptide Antagonists That Inhibit Sin Nombre Virus and Hantaan Virus Entry through the β3-Integrin Receptor | Journal of Virology

All members of the viral family Bunyaviridae consist of enveloped spherical particles with a helical nucleocapsid and use a ... Design and structure of peptide and peptidomimetic antagonists of protein-protein interactions. Curr. Protein Peptide Sci., in ... and a nucleocapsid protein/RNA chaperone (N), expressed from the S segment mRNA. ... A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 48:443-453 ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/79/12/7319?ijkey=0a33accdc1e512db68afedab900c060d4fdc8d09&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Characterization of the Uukuniemi Virus Group (Phlebovirus: Bunyaviridae): Evidence for Seven Distinct Species | Journal of...Characterization of the Uukuniemi Virus Group (Phlebovirus: Bunyaviridae): Evidence for Seven Distinct Species | Journal of...

... segment encoding the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and, in an ambisense orientation, a nonstructural protein (NSs). However, the ... ii) M protein.Among the viruses in the UUKV complex, the length of the M protein varies in length from 1,007 aa in EGAV, RMLV, ... iii) N protein.The bunyavirus NP is the most abundant protein in infected cells and is posited to regulate the transition ... Family Bunyaviridae, p 725-741. In King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (ed), Virus taxonomy: ninth report of the ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/87/6/3187?ijkey=713529c4ba3b61881186a90895b28061c0887bb9&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

DiVA - Search resultDiVA - Search result

Hantaviruses are enveloped and carry a RNA genome which encodes a polymerase, two glycoproteins and a nucleocapsid protein. The ... Rodent-borne hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) cause two distinct human infections; hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ... We expressed PUU N in E. coli (PUU rN) and found that high levels of IgM to this protein could be detected at onset of NE. This ... Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are dedicated to targeting anti-host effector proteins into the cytosol of the host cell to ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?p=301&fs=false&language=en&searchType=SIMPLE&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%22784%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Browsing  by Subject Viral proteinsBrowsing by Subject "Viral proteins"

Functional analysis of the orthobunyavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein  Eifan, Saleh A. (University of St Andrews, 2008) - Thesis ... Bunyaviridae is one of the biggest known viral families, and includes many viruses of clinical and economic importance. The ... The influenza A virus genome codes for up to 12 proteins. Segment 2 encodes three proteins, the polymerase subunit PB1, a small ... The major outer membrane protein, MOMP, is the main protein in the outer membrane of pathogenic Campylobacter bacteria. ...
more infohttps://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/browse?type=subject&order=ASC&rpp=20&value=Viral+proteins

Serosurvey of hantavirus infection in humans in the border region between Brazil and ArgentinaSerosurvey of hantavirus infection in humans in the border region between Brazil and Argentina

Evaluation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Araraquara Virus Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein. Am J Trop Med ... Bunyaviridae: Bunyaviruses, phleboviruses, nairoviruses, and hantaviruses. In: Richmann DD, Whitley RJ, Hayden FG, editors. ... a protein extract of E. coli not containing the plasmid encoding the recombinant protein, according to the protocol developed ... METHODS: The serum of these patients was collected and used to detect IgG antibodies against recombinant N protein of ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822011000200001&lng=en&tlng=en

DNA transfection system for the generation of infectious influenza virus - St. Jude Childrens Research HospitalDNA transfection system for the generation of infectious influenza virus - St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

... nucleocapsid protein for influenza A virus), (2) bridging between packaged RNA and outer proteins (i.e., matrix protein) and (3 ... Negative strand RNA virus families include, but are not limited to, Orthomyxoviridae, Arenaviridae, and Bunyaviridae. ... Viral proteins are generally classified as structural and nonstructural proteins. In general, nonstructural proteins are ... protein. This protein is required for replication. Plasmids encoding the L and P-protein, which are also essential for ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2002/0164770.html

Rescue of a segmented negative-strand RNA virus entirely from cloned complementary DNAs | PNASRescue of a segmented negative-strand RNA virus entirely from cloned complementary DNAs | PNAS

... and a nonstructural protein called NSm; and the S RNA segment is 961 nt long and encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein and, in ... Several of the Bunyaviridae cause encephalitis or hemorrhagic fevers in man-e.g., Hantaan, Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, and ... Comparison of the protein profiles of authentic Bunyamwera and authentic Maguari viruses shows that the G1 and N proteins of ... Analysis of Viral Proteins.. The protein profiles of cells infected with three transfectant Bunyamwera viruses, derived from ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/93/26/15400?ijkey=8aa15d25165fa3d191dadb7e49956a872145c3cf&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

ArboCat Virus: Belmont (BELV)ArboCat Virus: Belmont (BELV)

Percentage wt, of Virion Protein. Lipid. Carbohydrate. Virion Polypeptides: Number. Details. Tripartate RNA genome (5). Typical ... member of Bunyaviridae, possible bunyavirus (5,6) Non-virion Polypeptides: Number. Details. ... Nucleocapsid Dimensions, Symmetry. Morphogenesis. Site of Constituent Formation in Cell. Site of Virion Assembly. Site of ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/arbocat/VirusDetails.aspx?ID=59&SID=4

EN (en)EN (en)

Here we show that the CP of amalgaviruses is homologous to the nucleocapsid proteins of negative-strand RNA viruses of the ... genera Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and Tenuivirus. The chimeric genomes of amalgaviruses are a testament to the effectively ... RNA genomes and encode two proteins: an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a putative capsid protein (CP). Whereas the ...
more infohttps://research.pasteur.fr/en/publication/plant-viruses-of-the-amalgaviridae-family-evolved-via-recombination-between-viruses-with-double-stranded-and-negative-strand-rna-genomes/

Temporal and geographic evidence for evolution of Sin Nombre virus using molecular analyses of viral RNA from Colorado, New...Temporal and geographic evidence for evolution of Sin Nombre virus using molecular analyses of viral RNA from Colorado, New...

... encoding part of the nucleocapsid protein, were cloned and sequenced from 19 deer mice and from one brush mouse (P. boylii), S ... Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are known to cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or ... All viruses in the family Bunyaviridae possess a tripartite genome, consisting of a small, a medium, and a large RNA segment. ... The 751 nt region of the S segment encoded 250 codons of the highly conserved nucleocapsid protein and was sampled from 21 mice ...
more infohttps://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-6-102

Functional analysis of the orthobunyavirus nucleocapsid (N) proteinFunctional analysis of the orthobunyavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein

Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype of the family Bunyaviridae. It has a tripartite genome consisting of negative sense ... The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N) of 233 amino acids. The N protein encapsidates all three segments to form ... All mutant N proteins were used in a BUNV minigenome system to compare their activity to wt BUNV N. The mutant proteins ... their ability to interact with L protein, and (v) their impact on RNA synthesis. In summary, BUNV N protein was shown to be ...
more infohttps://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/542

Most recent papers with the keyword Sin nombre virus | Read by QxMDMost recent papers with the keyword Sin nombre virus | Read by QxMD

Nucleocapsid (N) protein is 428 aminoacid in length and binds to RNA and functions also as a key molecule between virus and ... UNLABELLED: Hantaviruses, which belong to the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, infect mammals, including humans, ... Hantavirus encodes a nucleocapsid protein (NP) to encapsidate the genome and form a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) together ... Analyses of nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated Muleshoe virus infection in four hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon ...
more infohttps://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/32098

Molecular characterization of two hantavirus strains from different rattus species in Singapore | Virology Journal | Full TextMolecular characterization of two hantavirus strains from different rattus species in Singapore | Virology Journal | Full Text

... whereas M and S segments encode for the two envelope proteins (Gn and Gc) and the nucleocapsid protein (N), respectively. ... Evidence suggesting the placement of viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. Arch Virol 1989, 108: 211-227. 10.1007/BF01310935 ... SimPlot analysis of selected hantavirus genes encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The nucleotide sequences were analyzed in a ... Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed using a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein of the ...
more infohttps://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-7-15

The movement proteins (NSm) of distinct tospoviruses peripherally associate with cellular membranes and interact with...The movement proteins (NSm) of distinct tospoviruses peripherally associate with cellular membranes and interact with...

EN] Tospovirus is the only genus containing virus species which infect plants in the Bunyaviridae family. The aims of this ... spot virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus and the homologous and heterologous interactions among NSm and nucleocapsid protein (N ... BiFC analysis for protein protein interactions showed: i) dimer formation for all NSm and N proteins; ii) interaction between ... The aims of this study were to understand the in vivo membrane association of the movement protein (NSm) of the tospovirus ...
more infohttps://riunet.upv.es/handle/10251/87696

Thrips Transmission of Tospoviruses: Future Possibilities for Management | SpringerLinkThrips Transmission of Tospoviruses: Future Possibilities for Management | SpringerLink

... is the type member of the Tospovirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. The Tospovirusesare the only plant infecting members of ... Resistance to heterologous isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus in transgenic tobacco expressing its nucleocapsid protein gene ... Bunyaviridae and their replication: Part II. Replication of bunyaviridae, pp. 1175-1195. In B. N. Fields & D.M.s Knipe [eds.], ... Coat protein-mediated resistance against virus infection. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 28: 451-474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-1409-5_19
  • The serum of these patients was collected and used to detect IgG antibodies against recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus, by ELISA assay. (scielo.br)
  • Advances in live cell fluorescence microscopy techniques, as well as the construction of recombinant viral strains that express fluorescent fusion proteins have enabled real-time visualization of transport and spread of alphaherpes virus infection of neurons. (jove.com)
  • A recombinant HSV-1 encoding EGFP fused to the viral lytic protein Us11 provides a functional, real-time marker for replication resulting from reactivation that is readily quantified. (jove.com)
  • The virus membrane fuses with the vesicle membrane through acidification of the endosome and the conformational change that results from it, and the nucleocapsids are released into the cytoplasm. (kenyon.edu)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), for example, exhibits a mucin-like region on its glycoprotein gC, a viral protein involved in initial recruitment of the virus to the cell surface via interaction with sulfated glycosaminoglycans. (diva-portal.org)
  • Both a 142 nucleotide (nt) amplicon of the M segment, encoding a portion of the G2 transmembrane glycoprotein, and a 751 nt amplicon of the S segment, encoding part of the nucleocapsid protein, were cloned and sequenced from 19 deer mice and from one brush mouse ( P. boylii ), S RNA but not M RNA from one deer mouse, and M RNA but not S RNA from another deer mouse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autophagy however is also part of the antiviral response as the degradation of viral proteins by the fusion of mature autophagosomes with the lysosome leads to the degradation of viral proteins and/or viral particles. (blogspot.com)
  • Importantly, the techniques of live cell imaging of anterograde transport and spread produce a wealth of information including particle transport velocities, distributions of particles, and temporal analyses of protein localization. (jove.com)
  • Notably, lytic mRNAs, proteins, and infectious virus become undetectable, even in the absence of selection, but latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression persists in neuronal nuclei. (jove.com)
  • Localization and interaction studies of viral proteins provide important information about their replication in their host plants. (jove.com)
  • In the context of viral replication, the autophagic machinery can be subverted by viral proteins to allow the formation of replication centers. (blogspot.com)
  • and a nucleocapsid protein/RNA chaperone (N), expressed from the S segment mRNA. (asm.org)
  • The mechanism of this augmentation relies on the ability of N to replace the cellular cap binding complex to attain more efficient translation initiation--the result being great mRNA production and greater protein/polypeptide production. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, a general strategy for expression of any gene would be to generate significant quantities of mRNA containing the viral UTR from a strong promoter, and then to allow translation of mRNA of a gene product in the presence of N. Even a modest increase in the production of commercially desirable proteins is a goal in industry. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The UL13 and US3 Protein Kinases of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Cooperate to Promote the Assembly and Release of Mature, Infectious Virions. (jove.com)
  • Moreover, based on the genomic diversity of the phleboviruses and given the low correlation observed between complement fixation titers and genetic distance, we propose a system for classification of the Bunyaviridae based on genetic as well as serological data. (asm.org)
  • We studied the in vivo localization and interaction patterns of the IYSV proteins in uninfected and infected Nicotiana benthamiana and identified the interacting partners. (jove.com)
  • ii) interaction between NSm and the cognate N and iii) heterologous interactions between the NSm and N proteins. (upv.es)