Rift Valley fever virus
La Crosse virus
Encephalitis Virus, California
Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo
Rift Valley Fever
Sandfly fever Naples virus
Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral
Nairobi sheep disease virus
Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Sin Nombre virus
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome
Molecular Sequence Data
Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska. (1/168)This study investigated the geographic distribution and prevalence of antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in Native populations of Alaska, and demographic and ecologic risk factors associated with exposure. Sera (n = 1,635) from 18 communities were screened using an ELISA. All age groups were tested for antibodies to Jamestown Canyon (JC), Inkoo (INK), snowshoe hare (SSH), and Northway (NOR) viruses; persons > or = 45 years old (n = 90) from six communities were additionally tested for antibodies to Tahyna (TAH), Batai (BAT), Cache Valley (CV), and Sindbis (SIN) viruses. Thirty free-ranging mammals were tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for antibodies to all eight viruses and to Getah (GET) virus. In Natives, overall antibody prevalence was 24.9% (JC = 17.6%, monotypic JC = 6.5%, INK = 11.1%, monotypic INK = 0.6%, SSH = 6.8%, monotypic SSH = 3.5%, and NOR = 6.2%). Five TAH, CV, and BAT virus exposures may be serologic cross-reactions, and no SIN virus antibodies were detected. Sindbis-like virus antibodies were found in 30% of the mammals. Most mammals had antibodies to NOR (83.3%) and California serogroup (70.0%) viruses; no GET virus exposures were found. Significant risk factors for human bunyavirus exposures were age group, ethnic-linguistic group, biotic province, climate zone, terrestrial vegetation, and presence of some ungulates and small mammals in communities. Sex was not a significant risk factor. (+info)
Potential for evolution of California serogroup bunyaviruses by genome reassortment in Aedes albopictus. (2/168)Aedes albopictus was introduced into the United States in used tires in 1985. Its successful colonization of the upper Midwest has potential to alter the current epidemiology of bunyaviruses that circulate in the region. It is permissive for the replication of several arboviruses, including La Crosse (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon (JCV) bunyaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of LACV and JCV to coinfect Ae. albopictus mosquitoes and to form all six possible reassortant genotypes. All reassortant viruses infect Ae. albopictus orally and can be transmitted to suckling mice. All reassortants are neurovirulent in mice. However, reassortant viruses carrying the LACV M segment in the foreign genetic background of JCV are more neuroinvasive than JCV, or any other reassortant genotype. In addition, these reassortants can replicate in gerbils and infect Ae. triseriatus, characteristics of LACV, but not JCV. Because Ae. albopictus is spreading into new geographic areas and feeds on a variety of mammals, including humans, it has the potential to transmit new, emerging bunyaviruses in nature. (+info)
Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. (3/168)Immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) is a rapid and versatile diagnostic method that readily permits the combination of multiple assays. Test consolidation is especially important for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) which belong to at least three virus families: the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. Using prototype viruses from each of these families and a panel of well-characterized human sera, we have evaluated and standardized a combined MAC-ELISA capable of identifying virus infections caused by members of each virus family. Furthermore, by grouping antigens geographically and utilizing known serological cross-reactivities, we have reduced the number of antigens necessary for testing, while maintaining adequate detection sensitivity. We have determined that a 1:400 serum dilution is most appropriate for screening antiviral antibody, using a positive-to-negative ratio of >/=2.0 as a positive cutoff value. With a blind-coded human serum panel, this combined MAC-ELISA was shown to have test sensitivity and specificity that correlated well with those of other serological techniques. (+info)
Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (4/168)Monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G (IgG ELISAs) were developed for a comprehensive array of medically important arboviruses from the Alphavirus, Flavivirus, and Bunyavirus genera. Tests were optimized and standardized so that maximum homology could be maintained among working parameters for the different viral agents, enabling a wide range of viruses to be easily tested for at one time. MAbs were screened for suitability as capture vehicles for antigens from the three genera. The final test configuration utilized group-reactive MAbs eastern equine encephalitis virus 1A4B-6, dengue 2 virus 4G2, and La Crosse encephalitis virus 10G5.4 to capture the specific inactivated viral antigens. Serum IgG was detected by using alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-human IgG (Fc portion). A dilution of 1:400 was chosen as the universal screening serum dilution, with endpoint titrations of serum samples testing positive eliminating occasional false-positive results. IgG ELISA results correlated with those of the standard plaque-reduction neutralization assays. As expected, some test cross-reactivity was encountered within the individual genera, and tests were interpreted within the context of these reactions. The tests were standardized for laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections, with the intent that they be used in tandem with the corresponding IgM antibody-capture ELISAs. (+info)
Effects of antigen-retrieval pretreatments for immunohistochemical detection of Akabane viral antigen. (5/168)Effects of various antigen-retrieval pretreatment techniques for immunohistochemical detection of Akabane virus antigen were examined with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues taken from mice intracerebrally inoculated with the virus. The results indicated that no pretreatment is necessary for the detection of the antigen, and excessive enzymatic pretreatment of sections may lead to false-negative results. (+info)
Comparison of intertypic antigenicity of Aino virus isolates by dot immunobinding assay using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. (6/168)Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the Aino virus were prepared, and the neutralizing epitopes of the virus were defined by competitive binding assay. Seven continuous and overlapping neutralizing epitopes existed on the G1 glycoprotein of the Aino virus. Two antigenic domains were identified and were designated I and II, with domain II consisting of six epitopes. Dot immunobinding assays (DIAs) were performed with MAbs that recognized these seven neutralizing epitopes. DIAs were performed with 1 Australian strain and 21 isolates found in Japan between the years 1964 and 1995. The MAb response patterns of all isolates were divided into four groups. The Japanese isolates did not show large differences in antigenicity, but the antigenicity of the Australian strain collected in 1968 was significantly different from that of the Japanese strains; the Australian strain lacked reactivity to three epitopes and showed only low reactivity to one epitope. (+info)
Reverse genetics system for Uukuniemi virus (Bunyaviridae): RNA polymerase I-catalyzed expression of chimeric viral RNAs. (7/168)We describe here the development of a reverse genetics system for the phlebovirus Uukuniemi virus, a member of the Bunyaviridae family, by using RNA polymerase I (pol I)-mediated transcription. Complementary DNAs containing the coding sequence for either chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) (both in antisense orientation) were flanked by the 5'- and 3'-terminal untranslated regions of the Uukuniemi virus sense or complementary RNA derived from the medium-sized (M) RNA segment. This chimeric cDNA (pol I expression cassette) was cloned between the murine pol I promoter and terminator and the plasmid transfected into BHK-21 cells. When such cells were either superinfected with Uukuniemi virus or cotransfected with expression plasmids encoding the L (RNA polymerase), N (nucleoprotein), and NSs (nonstructural protein) viral proteins, strong CAT activity or GFP expression was observed. CAT activity was consistently stronger in cells expressing L plus N than following superinfection. No activity was seen without superinfection, nor was activity detected when either the L or N expression plasmid was omitted. Omitting NSs expression had no effect on CAT activity or GFP expression, indicating that this protein is not needed for viral RNA replication or transcription. CAT activity could be serially passaged to fresh cultures by transferring medium from CAT-expressing cells, indicating that recombinant virus containing the reporter construct had been produced. In summary, we demonstrate that the RNA pol I system, originally developed for influenza virus, which replicates in the nucleus, has strong potential for the development of an efficient reverse genetics system also for Bunyaviridae members, which replicate in the cytoplasm. (+info)
Bunyamwera bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs is a nonessential gene product that contributes to viral pathogenesis. (8/168)Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) contains a tripartite negative-sense RNA genome. The smallest RNA segment, S, encodes the nucleocapsid protein N and a nonstructural protein, NSs, in overlapping reading frames. We have generated a mutant virus lacking NSs, called BUNdelNSs, by reverse genetics. Compared with the wild-type (wt) virus, BUNdelNSs exhibited a smaller plaque size and generated titers of virus approximately 1 log lower. In mammalian cells, the mutant expressed greatly increased levels of N protein; significantly, the marked inhibition of host cell protein synthesis shown by wt virus was considerably impaired by BUNdelNSs. When inoculated by the intracerebral route BUNdelNSs killed BALB/c mice with a slower time course than wt and exhibited a reduced cell-to-cell spread, and titers of virus in the brain were lower. In addition, the abrogation of NSs expression changed Bunyamwera virus from a noninducer to an inducer of an interferon-beta promoter. These results suggest that, although not essential for growth in tissue culture or in mice, the bunyavirus NSs protein has several functions in the virus life cycle and contributes to viral pathogenesis. (+info)
Bunyaviridae infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, especially in certain populations such as young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of Bunyaviridae infections can include fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from the eyes, ears, or gastrointestinal tract.
There is no specific treatment for Bunyaviridae infections, but supportive care and management of symptoms can help alleviate the severity of the illness. Prevention of Bunyaviridae infections includes avoiding insect bites by using protective clothing and insect repellents, as well as controlling the populations of potential vector insects in affected areas.
Examples of diseases caused by Bunyaviridae viruses include Rift Valley fever, which is common in Africa and the Middle East, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, which is found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Other examples of Bunyaviridae infections include La Crosse encephalitis, which is found in North America, and Japanese encephalitis, which is prevalent in parts of Asia.
It's important to note that Bunyaviridae infections can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to other viral or bacterial infections. Laboratory testing, such as PCR or ELISA assays, is often necessary to confirm the presence of a Bunyaviridae virus.
Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae infections include avoiding insect bites, controlling vector populations, and implementing public health measures such as surveillance, education, and vaccination programs. Research into the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs against Bunyaviridae viruses is ongoing, but there are currently no licensed treatments available for these infections.
Hantavirus infections can cause a range of diseases, including:
1. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS): This is the most common form of hantavirus infection and is characterized by fever, hemorrhaging, and failure of the kidneys.
2. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES): This is a rare form of hantavirus infection that is characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood.
3. Pulmonary hantavirus infection: This is a rare form of hantavirus infection that affects the lungs and can cause respiratory failure.
4. Cardiac hantavirus infection: This is a rare form of hantavirus infection that affects the heart and can cause cardiac failure.
The symptoms of hantavirus infections can vary depending on the type of disease, but may include fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, hantavirus infections can lead to organ failure and death.
Hantaviruses are primarily transmitted through contact with the urine, saliva, or feces of infected rodents, such as mice and rats. The virus can also be spread through contact with contaminated materials, such as dust and soil, that have come into contact with infected rodents.
There is no specific treatment for hantavirus infections, but supportive care, such as fluid replacement and oxygen therapy, may be provided to manage symptoms. Prevention of hantavirus infections is primarily focused on avoiding contact with infected rodents and their bodily fluids, as well as taking precautions when cleaning up contaminated areas.
The symptoms of RVF in humans can range from mild to severe and include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and bleeding disorders. In severe cases, RVF can cause hemorrhagic fever, which can lead to death. Pregnant women, the elderly, and young children are at higher risk for developing severe forms of the disease.
RVF is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and serology. Treatment is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and supporting vital organ function, and may include antiviral medications, antibiotics, and blood transfusions.
Prevention of RVF relies on controlling the transmission of the virus by reducing the population of infected mosquitoes through insecticides, eliminating standing water where mosquitoes can breed, and protecting against mosquito bites using personal protective measures such as long sleeves, pants, and insect repellents. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent RVF.
Rift Valley fever is a significant public health concern in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, where it can have a significant impact on human health, animal production, and economic development. Outbreaks of RVF can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, as well as disruption of social and economic activities.
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
4. UC Davis Health System. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
5. California Department of Public Health. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
In the medical field, "Encephalitis, California" refers to a type of inflammatory disease that affects the brain and is caused by a viral or bacterial infection. The term specifically refers to cases of encephalitis that occur in the state of California.
Encephalitis is a serious condition that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to long-term complications, such as brain damage, or even be fatal.
The causes of encephalitis in California are typically viral or bacterial infections that are transmitted through mosquitoes, ticks, or other vectors. The most common viruses that cause encephalitis in the state include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and St. Louis encephalitis virus.
The diagnosis of encephalitis is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and pain. In severe cases, antiviral or antibacterial medications may be administered to help reduce the severity of the infection.
Prevention of encephalitis in California is focused on reducing the risk of mosquito-borne and tick-borne infections. This includes using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding areas with high mosquito or tick activity. Vaccines are also available for some of the viruses that cause encephalitis, such as West Nile virus.
In summary, "Encephalitis, California" refers to a serious inflammatory disease that affects the brain and is caused by viral or bacterial infections in the state of California. The diagnosis and treatment of encephalitis are based on clinical symptoms and laboratory tests, and prevention strategies focus on reducing the risk of mosquito-borne and tick-borne infections.
The symptoms of Phlebotomus Fever can include high fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and swelling in the lymph nodes. In more severe cases, the disease can cause respiratory problems, kidney failure, and even death.
Phlebotomus Fever is most commonly found in dry, desert regions of the world, such as North Africa, the Middle East, and the southwestern United States. The disease is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history.
Treatment for Phlebotomus Fever typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and reduce symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care and manage complications. Prevention of Phlebotomus Fever includes protecting against sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where the disease is common.
Some of the common types of hemorrhagic fever, viral include:
1. Ebola virus disease (EVD): a severe and often fatal illness caused by the Ebola virus, which is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat, and saliva.
2. Marburg virus disease (MVD): a highly contagious and deadly illness caused by the Marburg virus, which is also transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids.
3. Lassa fever: a viral hemorrhagic fever that is common in West Africa and is caused by the Lassa virus, which is transmitted through contact with infected rodents.
4. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF): a widespread viral disease that affects the Balkans, the Middle East, and parts of Africa, and is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, which is transmitted through contact with infected ticks.
5. Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF): a rare and potentially deadly viral disease that is caused by the Machupo virus and is found in Bolivia and other parts of South America.
These diseases can be diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and are typically treated with supportive care, such as fluid replacement and pain management, as well as antiviral medications in some cases.
Prevention of hemorrhagic fever, viral includes avoiding contact with infected individuals, wearing protective clothing and equipment, and using insecticides to prevent tick bites. Vaccines are also available for some of the diseases, such as Ebola and Marburg, but they are not widely available or effective against all strains of the virus.
Overall, hemorrhagic fever is a serious and potentially deadly condition that requires prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Symptoms of CHF typically begin within 3-7 days after the tick bite and may include:
* Muscle and joint pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin (petechiae)
In severe cases, CHF can lead to:
* Hemorrhagic manifestations such as bleeding from the eyes, ears, and mouth
* Central nervous system involvement including seizures, meningitis, and encephalitis
* Multi-organ failure
The diagnosis of CHF is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and serology. Treatment is primarily supportive, with management of symptoms and fluid replacement as needed. Antiviral therapy may be used in some cases.
Prevention of CHF involves protecting against tick bites, such as using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where ticks are common. Vaccines are also available for high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the virus.
The prognosis for CHF varies depending on the severity of the disease and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, milder cases may have a good outcome with supportive care, while severe cases can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.
There are several forms of HFRS, including:
1. Severe Hemorrhagic Fever (SHF): This form of the disease is characterized by rapid onset of severe symptoms, including fever, hemorrhaging, and renal failure.
2. Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF): This form of the disease is similar to SHF but has a milder course.
3. African Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF): This form of the disease is found primarily in sub-Saharan Africa and is characterized by a severe course with high mortality rates.
4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF): This form of the disease is found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa and is transmitted through tick bites or contact with infected animals.
The symptoms of HFRS can include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and hemorrhaging. In severe cases, the disease can lead to kidney failure, shock, and death.
Diagnosis of HFRS is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests (such as PCR and ELISA), and serology. Treatment is primarily supportive, with management of symptoms and fluid replacement. Antiviral medications may be used in some cases.
Prevention of HFRS includes tick control measures, protective clothing, and avoiding contact with potentially infected animals or ticks. Vaccines are available for some forms of the disease, particularly CCHF.
Some common types of arbovirus infections include:
* Dengue fever: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause severe flu-like symptoms.
* Chikungunya: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause joint pain, fever, and swelling of the limbs.
* Yellow fever: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain.
* Zika virus disease: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes).
Arbovirus infections can be diagnosed through blood tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which can detect the presence of viral antigens or genetic material in the blood. Treatment for arbovirus infections is typically supportive, such as providing fluids and pain relief medication to manage symptoms.
Prevention of arbovirus infections primarily involves controlling the populations of mosquitoes and ticks that transmit the viruses, through measures such as:
* Using insecticides to kill mosquitoes and ticks.
* Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors.
* Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce mosquito breeding sites.
* Implementing public health measures such as spraying insecticides and installing window screens to reduce the risk of mosquito bites.
Overall, arbovirus infections can be a significant public health concern, particularly in areas where the viruses are common and transmission is frequent. Effective prevention and control measures, such as those listed above, can help reduce the risk of infection and manage outbreaks when they do occur.
Cache Valley orthobunyavirus
Viral hemorrhagic fever
Bunyaviridae nonstructural S proteins
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
Rosemary Chepkorir Sang
Nairobi sheep disease orthonairovirus
El Moro Canyon orthohantavirus
Royal Farm virus
C. J. Peters
Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
Prospect Hill orthohantavirus
Black Creek Canal orthohantavirus
Impatiens necrotic spot orthotospovirus
Punta Toro phlebovirus
Jamestown Canyon encephalitis
Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) infections in rodents from Orange and San Diego counties, California - PubMed
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- The analysis detected nucleotide sequences homologous to arthropod-borne Akabane, Aino, and Shamonda viruses, all belonging to the family Bunyaviridae , genus Orthobunyavirus , and Simbu serogroup ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- 20. Geographical range of Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in association with the small-eared pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys microtis). (nih.gov)
- SFTSV is a member of the Phlebovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. (who.int)
- schmallenberg virus (sbv) is a vector-borne virus belonging to the genus orthobunyavirus within the bunyaviridae family. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- SBV is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus and belongs to the Bunyaviridae family, genus Orthobunyavirus. (indical.com)
- We have previously described isolation and preliminary identification of a virus related to Dugbe virus (DUGV), family Bunyaviridae , genus Nairovirus . (cdc.gov)
- We suggest that this is a new virus in the family Bunyaviridae , genus Nairovirus , and we propose that it be designated Kupe virus. (cdc.gov)
- To assess the public health risk of human infection from a novel bunyavirus - severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) - in China. (who.int)
- Although a number of other febrile viral infections may produce hemorrhage, only the agents of Lassa, Marburg, Ebola, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fevers are known to have caused significant outbreaks of disease with person-to-person transmission. (cdc.gov)
- CCHF is caused by infection with a tickborne virus of the Bunyaviridae family ( 1-3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Electron microscopy revealed viruses consistent with members of the Bunyaviridae family. (nih.gov)
- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) belongs to the Bunyaviridae virus family. (who.int)
- The virus belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. (hartmann-science-center.com)
- Orthohantaviruses typically cause chronic asymptomatic infection in rodents . (wikipedia.org)
- Infections produced by oncogenic viruses . (lookformedical.com)
- The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses . (lookformedical.com)
- The rec- cause relatively mild infection, many Eastern Mediterranean Regional Of- ommendations from each of the func- of these viruses can cause severe, life- fice of the World Health Organization tional domains were later synthesized, threatening disease outbreaks with mul- (WHO) invited a group of experts to a and final agreement on the interven- tiple haemorrhagic manifestations . (who.int)
- Bioperfectus provides FIVE kits for humans with a CE certificate and ONE kit for veterinary use, presenting a rapid response to help diagnose monkeypox infection as early as possible. (bioperfectus.com)
- Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE . (nih.gov)
- Fever is often an important indicator of infections or inflammations that may cause significant injury if left untreated. (unboundmedicine.com)
- We determined the threat of these arboviral infections through a serologic using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] based tests. (who.int)
- On the basis of historical information, as well as serologic testing, sporadic Lassa infection may have occurred also in Guinea, Senegal, Mali, and the Central African Republic (6,7). (cdc.gov)
- 4. Tracing Transmission of Sin Nombre Virus and Discovery of Infection in Multiple Rodent Species. (nih.gov)
- The A-to-Z database provides information on each pathogen, the most common infections that it triggers, its main transmission paths and recommendations on disinfection. (hartmann-science-center.com)
- Only 14.5% could correctly answer 4 questions about influenza virus transmission, symptoms, and infection control. (cdc.gov)
- Endemic countries report approximately 200,000 infections and 5,000 deaths annually, with Nigeria experiencing thousands of infections and hundreds of deaths including healthcare workers. (who.int)
- Many birds are resistant to infection, but ostriches are susceptible and may show a high prevalence of infection in endemic areas, where they have been at the origin of human cases. (who.int)
- The increasing volume of international travel, including visits to rural areas of the tropical world, provides opportunity for the importation of these infections into countries with no endemic VHF, such As the United States. (cdc.gov)
- The antiviral drug, ribavirin, has been used in the treatment of established CCHF infection. (who.int)
- Symptoms of SFTSV infection are nonspecific, but have led to multiorgan dysfunction in severe cases. (who.int)
- the aim of this study was to estimate the apparent (ap) and estimated prevalence (ep) of exposure to srlv infection in wild ruminants from poland. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- species other than cattle have been shown to be infected with the virus, thereby providing a potential source of infection for livestock. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- the following species have been responsible for zoonotic infections: onchocerca cervicalis, o. dewittei japonica, o. gutturosa, o. (liverpool.ac.uk)
- Bioperfectus is confident in providing products, supporting tests for cervical swabs, and liquid-based cytology samples with solid results, enabling women to get access to screening and diagnosis at the early stage of HPV infection before the development of precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. (bioperfectus.com)
- Preventing foodborne infection in pregnant women and infants. (musc.edu)
- We report the case of a 1-week old calf with severe central nervous system (CNS) lesions probably caused by in utero infection with the new virus. (cdc.gov)
- Literature about hazard, exposure and contextual factors associated with SFTSV infection was collected and reviewed. (who.int)
- Among the ways to reduce infection in people is by raising awareness of the risk factors and educating people about the measures they can take to reduce exposure to the virus. (who.int)
- With increasing confirmed monkeypox cases, more people, countries, and regions are at risk of infection. (bioperfectus.com)
- There is a low to moderate public health risk related to SFTSV human infection in China. (who.int)
- onchocerca jakutensis ocular infection in poland: a new vector-borne human health risk? (liverpool.ac.uk)
- The goal of measures, the current evidence base, the is a high risk of health-care-acquired this meeting was to define intervention public health value of each of the recom- infection. (who.int)
- In the glossary, you will find explanations of infection control terms. (hartmann-science-center.com)