A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE, infecting vertebrates and vectored by ticks. It has not been associated with human disease though antibodies have been isolated from human sera.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE named after NAIROBI SHEEP DISEASE, an acute, hemorrhagic, tick-borne, gastroenteritis affecting sheep and goats. The type species is Dugbe virus. Some viruses in this genus are capable of causing severe and fatal disease in humans.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A species of HANTAVIRUS causing nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME. It is found in most of Europe and especially in Finland, along with its carrier rodent, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of NAIROVIRUS, transmitted by the ixodid ticks and producing a lethal gastroenteritis in sheep and goats. Though a major veterinary pathogen, its effect on humans has not been firmly established.
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
A species of HANTAVIRUS which emerged in the Four Corners area of the United States in 1993. It causes a serious, often fatal pulmonary illness (HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME) in humans. Transmission is by inhaling aerosolized rodent secretions that contain virus particles, carried especially by deer mice (PEROMYSCUS maniculatus) and pinyon mice (P. truei).
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

Transient association of calnexin and calreticulin with newly synthesized G1 and G2 glycoproteins of uukuniemi virus (family Bunyaviridae). (1/176)

The membrane glycoproteins G1 and G2 of Uukuniemi virus, a member of the Bunyaviridae family, are cotranslationally cleaved from a common precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we show that newly made G1 and G2 associate transiently with calnexin and calreticulin, two lectins involved in glycoprotein folding in the ER. Stable complexes between G1-G2 and calnexin or calreticulin could be immunoprecipitated after solubilization of virus-infected BHK21 cells with the detergents digitonin or Triton X-100. In addition, G1-G2-calnexin complexes could be recovered after solubilization with CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate), while G1-G2-calreticulin complexes were not readily detected by using this detergent. Only endoglycosidase H-sensitive forms of G1 were found complexed with calnexin. Pulse-chase experiments showed that G1 and G2 associated with both chaperones transiently for up to 120 min. Sequential immunoprecipitations with anticalreticulin and anticalnexin antisera indicated that about 50% of newly synthesized G1 and G2 was associated with either calnexin or calreticulin. Our previous results have shown that newly synthesized G1 and G2 transiently interact also with the ER chaperone BiP and with protein disulfide isomerase (R. Persson and R. F. Pettersson, J. Cell Biol. 112:257-266, 1991). Taking all of this into consideration, we conclude that the folding of G1 and G2 in the ER is catalyzed by at least four different folding factors.  (+info)

Potential for evolution of California serogroup bunyaviruses by genome reassortment in Aedes albopictus. (2/176)

Aedes albopictus was introduced into the United States in used tires in 1985. Its successful colonization of the upper Midwest has potential to alter the current epidemiology of bunyaviruses that circulate in the region. It is permissive for the replication of several arboviruses, including La Crosse (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon (JCV) bunyaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of LACV and JCV to coinfect Ae. albopictus mosquitoes and to form all six possible reassortant genotypes. All reassortant viruses infect Ae. albopictus orally and can be transmitted to suckling mice. All reassortants are neurovirulent in mice. However, reassortant viruses carrying the LACV M segment in the foreign genetic background of JCV are more neuroinvasive than JCV, or any other reassortant genotype. In addition, these reassortants can replicate in gerbils and infect Ae. triseriatus, characteristics of LACV, but not JCV. Because Ae. albopictus is spreading into new geographic areas and feeds on a variety of mammals, including humans, it has the potential to transmit new, emerging bunyaviruses in nature.  (+info)

The broad-spectrum tospovirus resistance gene Sw-5 of tomato is a homolog of the root-knot nematode resistance gene Mi. (3/176)

We used a positional cloning approach to isolate the Sw-5 disease resistance locus of tomato. Complementation experiments with overlapping cosmid clones enabled us to demonstrate that Sw-5 is a single gene locus capable of recognizing several tospovirus isolates and species. Analysis of the predicted Sw-5 protein suggests that it is a cytoplasmic protein, with a potential nucleotide binding site (NBS) domain and a C-terminal end consisting of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Based on its structural features, Sw-5 belongs to the class of NBS-LRR resistance genes that includes the tomato Mi, 12, and Prf genes; the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene; and the plant potato virus X resistance gene Rx. The overall similarity between the Sw-5 and Mi proteins of tomato suggests that a shared or comparable signal transduction pathway leads to both virus and nematode resistance in tomato. The similarity also supports the hypothesis that Sw-5 provides resistance via a hypersensitive response. Sw-5 is a member of a loosely clustered gene family in the telomeric region of chromosome 9. Members of this family map to other regions of chromosome 9 and also to chromosome 12, where several fungal, virus, and nematode genes have been mapped, suggesting that paralogs of Sw-5 may have evolved to provide different resistance specificities.  (+info)

Detection of Akabane viral antigens in spontaneous lymphohistiocytic encephalomyelitis in cattle. (4/176)

A 5-month-old Japanese black bull calf and twenty-seven 1-27-day-old calves exhibiting neurological signs between August and October 1998 were examined. The bull calf exhibited rapid breathing, fever, hypersensitivity, and ataxia and was euthanized 4 days after the onset of symptoms. The 27 calves primarily exhibited ataxia, and 15 had arthrogryposis. Histological examination of the bull calf revealed perivascular infiltraction by mononuclear cells, diffuse to multifocal gliosis, and neuronal necrosis in the brain and spinal cord. Multiple malacic foci were found in the midbrain in 5 cases. In contrast, in the 15 calves necropsied in October, there were fewer inflammatory changes, but there was neuronal cell loss in the ventral horn and a decrease in myelinated axons in the lateral and ventral funiculi. Immunohistochemical examination using a rabbit antiserum against Akabane virus strain OBE-1 revealed a large amount of viral antigen in the degenerating neurons and glial cells of the bull calf, mainly in the spinal gray matter. Small amounts of viral antigen in swollen axons and a few glial cells were found in 5 of 27 calves. Thirteen of the 27 calves had high neutralization antibody titers against the Akabane virus, whereas there was no significant antibody titer in most of the calves necropsied during August. The present study revealed that viral antigen detection was very useful for the diagnosis of Akabane diseases in the 5-month-old bull calf that was suspected to be infected postnatally, while it had limited usefulness in the other young calves.  (+info)

Overcoming host- and pathogen-mediated resistance in tomato and tobacco maps to the M RNA of Tomato spotted wilt virus. (5/176)

A viral genetic system was used to map the determinants of the ability of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) to overcome the R gene (Sw-5) in tomato and the resistance conferred by the nucleocapsid gene of TSWV (N gene) in tobacco. A complete set of reassortant genotypes was generated from TSWV isolates A and D. TSWV-A was able to overcome the Sw-5 gene in tomato and the TSWV N gene in tobacco, whereas TSWV-D was repressed by both forms of resistance. The ability to overcome both forms of resistance was associated with the M RNA segment of TSWV-A (M(A)). Overcoming the Sw-5 gene was linked solely to the presence of M(A), and the ability of M(A) to overcome the TSWV N gene was modified by the L RNA and the S RNA of TSWV-A, which is consistent with previous reports that suggest that the nucleocapsid gene is not the primary determinant for overcoming the nucleocapsid-mediated resistance. Sequence analysis of the M RNA segment of TSWV-A, -D, and the type isolate BR-01 revealed multiple differences in the coding and noncoding regions, which prevented identification of the resistance-breaking nucleotide sequences.  (+info)

Activity of Toscana and Rift Valley fever virus transcription complexes on heterologous templates. (6/176)

A transcription system for Toscana virus (TOSV) (a member of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE:, genus PHLEBOVIRUS:) was constructed. For in vivo expression, the TOSV transcription system uses the viral N and L proteins and an S-like RNA genome containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in the antisense orientation flanked by the viral genomic 5'- and 3'-terminal S sequences. It was found that the N and L proteins represent the minimal protein requirement for an active transcription complex. To investigate the possibility of reassortment between TOSV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the activity of their polymerase complexes was tested on their heterologous S-like RNA genomes and this showed that both virus complexes were active. Moreover, hybrid transcriptase complexes with protein components originating from the two viruses were tested on both virus templates and only the combination RVFV L + TOSV N on RVFV S-like RNA was found to be active in this assay. These results suggest that virus reassortants might be generated whenever the two viruses infect the same host.  (+info)

Ultrastructural, antigenic and physicochemical characterization of the Mojui dos Campos (Bunyavirus) isolated from bat in the Brazilian Amazon region. (7/176)

The Mojui dos Campos virus (MDCV) was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera) captured in Mojui dos Campos, Santarem, State of Para, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i), and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.  (+info)

Serologic survey of cattle in the northeastern and north central United States, Virginia, Alaska, and Hawaii for antibodies to Cache Valley and antigenically related viruses (Bunyamwera serogroup virus). (8/176)

Bovine sera from northeastern states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and West Virginia), north central states (Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin), Virginia, Alaska, and Hawaii were examined for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to Cache Valley (CV), Lokern (LK), Main Drain (MD), Northway (NW), and Tensaw (TS) viruses. Microneutralization tests were performed using Vero cells. Ninety percent inhibition of the virus at a 1:10 serum dilution was considered positive for the presence of specific antibody. Sera having antibody to more than one virus were titrated from 1:10 to 1:640. The results indicated that 4-28% of the cattle per region had specific antibodies to CV virus. Neutralizing antibodies to NW, LK, and TS viruses were also detected, indicating possible exposure to these Bunyamwera serogroup viruses along with CV virus. Antibody titers measured against NW virus were very similar to those against CV virus. Antibodies to MD virus were present in low levels in bovine sera from Illinois, Maryland, and Ohio. Cattle from Alaska had only antibodies to NW virus. Antibodies to Bunyamwera serogroup viruses were not observed in sera from Hawaii.  (+info)

Bunyaviridae is a family of enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that includes more than 350 different species. These viruses are named after the type species, Bunyamwera virus, which was first isolated in 1943 from mosquitoes in Uganda.

The genome of Bunyaviridae viruses is divided into three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is responsible for replication and transcription of the viral genome. The M segment encodes two glycoproteins that form the viral envelope and are involved in attachment and fusion to host cells. The S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein, which packages the viral RNA, and a non-structural protein that is involved in modulation of the host immune response.

Bunyaviridae viruses are transmitted to humans and animals through arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. Some members of this family can cause severe disease in humans, including Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever.

Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae viruses include avoiding contact with vectors, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing, and implementing vector control programs. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for most Bunyaviridae infections, although ribavirin has been shown to be effective against some members of the family. Vaccines are available for a few Bunyaviridae viruses, such as Hantavirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, but they are not widely used due to limitations in production and distribution.

Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses that includes several genera capable of causing human disease. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks, or through contact with infected rodents or their excreta.

Some of the diseases caused by Bunyaviridae infections include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): This is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease caused by hantaviruses. It is transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their urine and droppings.
2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF): This is a serious and often fatal viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the CCHF virus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks, but can also be spread through contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals.
3. Rift Valley Fever (RVF): This is a viral disease that primarily affects animals, but can also infect humans. It is transmitted to humans through contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals, or through the bite of infected mosquitoes.
4. La Crosse Encephalitis: This is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. It primarily affects children and can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).
5. Toscana Virus Infection: This is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies. It can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and meningitis.

Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents and their excreta, using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito and tick bites, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms of a Bunyaviridae infection develop.

Phlebovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae. These viruses have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome and are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected insects, such as sandflies or ticks. Some examples of diseases caused by Phleboviruses include sandfly fever, Toscana virus infection, and Rift Valley fever.

The term "Phlebovirus" comes from the Greek word "phleps," which means "vein," reflecting the viruses' tendency to cause febrile illnesses characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. The virus was first identified in the 1960s and has since been found in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with warm climates where sandflies and ticks are more common.

Phleboviruses have a complex structure, consisting of three segments of RNA enclosed within a lipid membrane derived from the host cell. The viral membrane contains two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are important for attachment to and entry into host cells. Once inside the cell, the virus uses its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to replicate its genome and produce new virions, which can then infect other cells or be transmitted to a new host through the bite of an infected insect.

Prevention and treatment of Phlebovirus infections are focused on avoiding exposure to infected insects and reducing symptoms through supportive care. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for these infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective therapies. Vaccines are also being developed for some Phleboviruses, such as Rift Valley fever, which can cause severe illness and death in humans and animals.

Bunyamwera virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Peribunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus. It was first isolated in 1943 from mosquitoes in the Bunyamwera district of Uganda. The viral genome consists of three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S).

The virus is primarily transmitted to vertebrates, including humans, through the bite of infected mosquitoes. It can cause a mild febrile illness in humans, characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, Bunyamwera virus infection is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild symptoms in humans.

Bunyamwera virus has a wide host range, including mammals, birds, and mosquitoes, and is found in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is an important pathogen in veterinary medicine, causing disease in livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats.

Research on Bunyamwera virus has contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology and ecology of bunyaviruses, which are a major cause of human and animal diseases worldwide.

Orthobunyavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Peribunyaviridae, order Bunyavirales. These are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses. The genome consists of three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the M segment encodes two glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) and a nonstructural protein (NSm), and the S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N) and a nonstructural protein (NSs).

Orthobunyaviruses are primarily transmitted by arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges, and can cause disease in humans and animals. The diseases caused by orthobunyaviruses range from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis. Some of the notable orthobunyaviruses include California encephalitis virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Oropouche virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uukuniemi virus" is not a commonly used medical term in the English language. It is a term from virology, referring to a specific type of virus discovered in Finland. Uukuniemi virus is a type of hantavirus, which can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. However, it's primarily a term used in research and not something that would typically be used in a medical diagnosis or treatment context. If you have any more specific questions about virology or infectious diseases, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus, a type of virus that is transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks. It belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. The virus was first identified in 1930 during an investigation into a large epidemic of cattle deaths near Lake Naivasha in the Rift Valley of Kenya.

RVFV primarily affects animals, particularly sheep, goats, and cattle, causing severe illness and death in newborn animals and abortions in pregnant females. The virus can also infect humans, usually through contact with infected animal tissues or fluids, or through the bite of an infected mosquito. In humans, RVFV typically causes a self-limiting febrile illness, but in some cases, it can lead to more severe complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and retinitis (inflammation of the retina), which can result in permanent vision loss.

RVFV is endemic to parts of Africa, particularly in the Rift Valley region, but it has also been found in other parts of the continent, as well as in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The virus can be transmitted through the movement of infected animals or contaminated animal products, as well as through the spread of infected mosquitoes by wind or travel.

Prevention measures for RVFV include vaccination of livestock, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling animals or their tissues, and avoidance of mosquito bites in areas where the virus is known to be present. There is currently no approved vaccine for humans, but several candidates are in development. Treatment for RVFV infection typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

La Crosse virus (LACV) is an orthobunyavirus that belongs to the California serogroup and is the most common cause of pediatric arboviral encephalitis in the United States. It is named after La Crosse, Wisconsin, where it was first identified in 1963.

LACV is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus), which serve as the primary vector and amplifying host for the virus. The virus can also be found in other mosquito species, such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus.

The transmission cycle of LACV involves mosquitoes feeding on infected small mammals, particularly chipmunks and squirrels, which serve as the natural reservoirs for the virus. The virus then replicates in the salivary glands of the mosquito, making it possible to transmit the virus through their bite.

LACV infection can cause a range of symptoms, from mild flu-like illness to severe neurological complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). Most cases occur in children under the age of 16, with peak transmission during summer months.

Preventive measures for LACV include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, eliminating standing water around homes to reduce mosquito breeding sites, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours (dawn and dusk). There is currently no specific antiviral treatment available for LACV infection, and management typically involves supportive care to address symptoms.

Nairovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. They are negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses and are transmitted to humans and animals through tick bites. The name "Nairovirus" comes from the initials of the National Institute for Virology in South Africa, where the first virus in this genus was discovered.

Nairoviruses can cause severe febrile illnesses in humans, including hemorrhagic fever and neurological symptoms. Some of the more well-known nairoviruses include Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is found in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East, and Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV), which primarily infects sheep and goats but can also cause illness in humans.

It's important to note that nairoviruses are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans, and can pose a significant public health risk in areas where they are endemic. Prevention measures include avoiding tick bites, using personal protective equipment when handling infected animals, and implementing appropriate infection control practices in healthcare settings.

Hantavirus is an etiologic agent for several clinical syndromes, including hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). It's a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthohantavirus.

These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. The symptoms can range from flu-like illness to severe respiratory distress and renal failure, depending upon the specific hantavirus species. There are no known treatments for HFRS, but early recognition and supportive care can significantly improve outcomes. Ribavirin has been used in some cases of HPS with apparent benefit, although its general efficacy is not well-established

(References: CDC, NIH, WHO)

There is no medical definition or specific virus named "Encephalitis Virus, California." However, there are several viruses that can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and some of them have been identified in California. Some examples include:

1. West Nile Virus: A mosquito-borne virus that is the most common cause of encephalitis in the United States, including California.
2. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus: Another mosquito-borne virus that is less common but can cause encephalitis, particularly in older adults. It has been identified in California.
3. Californian serogroup viruses (La Crosse, Jamestown Canyon, Snowshoe Hare): These are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and have been known to cause encephalitis, particularly in children. They are named after California because they were first identified there.
4. Tick-borne encephalitis viruses: There are several tick-borne viruses that can cause encephalitis, including Powassan virus and deer tick virus. These have been reported in California but are rare.

It's important to note that any virus that causes an infection in the body has the potential to spread to the brain and cause encephalitis, so there are many other viruses that could potentially be associated with encephalitis in California or any other location.

Hantaan virus (HTNV) is a species of the genus Orthohantavirus, which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. This enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, particularly the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Asia. The virus was initially isolated in 1976 from the Hantaan River area in Korea.

HTNV infection leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations in HFRS, ranging from mild to severe forms. The symptoms often include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and blurred vision. In severe cases, it can cause acute renal failure, hypotension, and hemorrhagic complications. The incubation period for HTNV infection typically ranges from 7 to 42 days.

Prevention strategies include avoiding contact with rodents, reducing rodent populations in living areas, using personal protective equipment when handling potentially infected materials, and ensuring proper food storage and waste disposal practices. No specific antiviral treatment is available for HFRS caused by HTNV; however, supportive care, such as fluid replacement and hemodialysis, can help manage severe symptoms and improve outcomes.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral disease transmitted to humans through tick bites or contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and after slaughter. The virus belongs to the Nairovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. The disease was first identified in Crimea in 1944 and later in the Congo in 1956, hence the name Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever.

The CCHF virus causes severe illness with a case fatality rate of up to 40% in hospitalized patients. The symptoms include sudden onset of fever, muscle pain, headache, dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, back pain, sore eyes, and sensitivity to light. After a few days, patients may develop nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bleeding from the mouth, nose, gums, and private parts.

There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for CCHF, but early supportive care with oral or intravenous fluids, analgesics, and antipyretics can significantly reduce mortality. Ribavirin has been used in the treatment of severe cases, but its efficacy is not fully proven. Preventive measures include avoiding tick bites, using protective clothing and gloves while handling animals or their tissues, and practicing good hygiene and food safety.

Hantavirus infections are a group of viral diseases caused by rodent-borne hantaviruses. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings, or saliva from infected rodents, particularly the deer mouse, white-tailed mouse, and rice rat in North America.

There are several different types of hantavirus infections, including Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS). HPS is more common in the Americas, while HFRS is more prevalent in Europe and Asia.

Symptoms of hantavirus infections can vary depending on the specific type of infection but may include fever, muscle aches, headache, fatigue, and coughing. In severe cases, hantavirus infections can lead to respiratory failure, shock, and even death.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents, sealing entry points to prevent their entry into homes or buildings, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when cleaning areas where rodents may have been present. Currently, there is no specific treatment for hantavirus infections, but early recognition and supportive care can improve outcomes.

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease that primarily affects animals, but can also have serious consequences for humans. It is caused by the Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus.

The disease is transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes or through contact with the blood, milk, or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and camels. In humans, RVF can cause a range of symptoms, from mild fever and headache to severe complications such as retinitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal in some cases.

RVF is endemic in parts of Africa, particularly in the Rift Valley region, and has also been reported in the Arabian Peninsula. It poses a significant public health and economic threat to affected regions due to its potential to cause large-scale outbreaks with high mortality rates in both animals and humans. Prevention and control measures include vaccination of animals, vector control, and avoidance of mosquito bites.

Simbu virus, also known as SIMBU or SV, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) from the family *Phenuiviridae*, genus *Seadornavirus*. It is primarily maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and ruminant animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The virus can cause asymptomatic or mild illness in humans, with symptoms like fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, severe disease or long-term complications are rare.

Simbu virus is geographically widespread across Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Pacific islands. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly from the genus *Culex*. The virus has been isolated from various mosquito species, indicating its broad host range.

Research on Simbu virus is essential for understanding its ecology, transmission dynamics, and potential impacts on human health. It also provides insights into the evolution and emergence of related viruses in the family *Phenuiviridae*.

"California encephalitis" is not a medical term used to describe a specific type of encephalitis. Instead, it refers to a group of related viral infections that are common in California and other western states. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes.

The most common cause of California encephalitis is the California serogroup of viruses, which includes the La Crosse virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, and Snowshoe Hare virus. These viruses can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) and can lead to symptoms such as fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and coma.

California encephalitis is typically a mild illness, but in some cases, it can be severe or even life-threatening. Treatment usually involves supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage symptoms. There is no specific antiviral treatment for California encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Tospovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Tospovirus. It is transmitted by thrips, small insects that feed on plant sap. Tospoviruses are important pathogens of plants and can cause serious diseases in a wide range of crops, including vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants.

Tospoviruses have a tripartite negative-stranded RNA genome, consisting of large (L), medium (M), and small (S) segments, which encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, two glycoproteins, and the nucleocapsid protein, respectively. The M segment also encodes a nonstructural protein called NSm, which is involved in viral movement within the plant.

The most well-known tospovirus is the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which infects over 800 host plants and causes significant economic losses worldwide. Other important tospoviruses include Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV).

Tospovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms in plants, including leaf spots, ring spots, necrosis, stunting, and reduced yield. There are no known cures for tospovirus infections, and control measures typically focus on preventing the spread of the virus through the use of resistant plant varieties, cultural practices, and insecticides to reduce thrips populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Phlebotomus Fever" is not a recognized medical term. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or miscommunication.

However, I can provide information on diseases that are transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. One such disease is Sand Fly Fever, also known as Pappataci Fever. It is a viral disease characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain. The disease is usually self-limiting, with symptoms resolving within a week.

If you meant to ask about a different medical term, please provide more details.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Sandfly Fever Naples Virus (SFNV) is an single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and genus Phlebovirus. It is the causative agent of sandfly fever, also known as "pappataci fever," a disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies (Phlebotomus spp.). The virus was first isolated in Naples, Italy, hence its name.

The incubation period for sandfly fever Naples virus infection is typically 3-5 days, after which patients may experience sudden onset of symptoms including high fever, chills, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, and a transient skin rash. The disease is usually self-limiting, with symptoms resolving within 7-10 days, although some cases may be more severe and require hospitalization. There is no specific treatment for sandfly fever Naples virus infection, and management is primarily supportive. Prevention measures include the use of insect repellent and protective clothing to reduce exposure to sandfly bites.

Nucleocapsid proteins are structural proteins that are associated with the viral genome in many viruses. They play a crucial role in the formation and stability of the viral particle, also known as the virion. In particular, nucleocapsid proteins bind to the viral RNA or DNA genome and help to protect it from degradation by host cell enzymes. They also participate in the assembly and disassembly of the virion during the viral replication cycle.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, for example, has been shown to interact with host cell proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression, which may contribute to the virus's ability to manipulate the host cell environment and evade the immune response.

Overall, nucleocapsid proteins are important components of many viruses and are often targeted by antiviral therapies due to their essential role in the viral replication cycle.

Puumala virus (PUUV) is an RNA virus that belongs to the Hantavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. It is the most common cause of nephropathia epidemica (NE), also known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), in Europe. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodent urine, droppings, or saliva, particularly from the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). The symptoms of NE caused by PUUV include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting, which can progress to acute kidney injury in severe cases. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents and their excreta, as well as ensuring proper ventilation when cleaning areas where rodents may be present.

**Hemorrhagic fevers, viral** are a group of severe, potentially fatal illnesses caused by viruses that affect the body's ability to regulate its blood vessels and clotting abilities. These viruses belong to several different families including *Filoviridae* (e.g., Ebola, Marburg), *Arenaviridae* (e.g., Lassa, Machupo), *Bunyaviridae* (e.g., Hantavirus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and *Flaviviridae* (e.g., Dengue, Yellow Fever).

The initial symptoms are non-specific and include sudden onset of fever, fatigue, muscle aches, joint pains, headache, and vomiting. As the disease progresses, it may lead to capillary leakage, internal and external bleeding, and multi-organ failure resulting in shock and death in severe cases.

The transmission of these viruses can occur through various means depending on the specific virus. For example, some are transmitted via contact with infected animals or their urine/feces (e.g., Hantavirus), others through insect vectors like ticks (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever) or mosquitoes (Dengue, Yellow Fever), and yet others through direct contact with infected body fluids (Ebola, Marburg).

There are no specific treatments for most viral hemorrhagic fevers. However, some experimental antiviral drugs have shown promise in treating certain types of the disease. Supportive care, such as maintaining blood pressure, replacing lost fluids and electrolytes, and managing pain, is critical to improving outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding areas where the viruses are common, using personal protective equipment when caring for infected individuals or handling potentially contaminated materials, and controlling insect vectors.

Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO).

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Reassortant viruses are formed when two or more different strains of a virus infect the same cell and exchange genetic material, creating a new strain. This phenomenon is most commonly observed in segmented RNA viruses, such as influenza A and B viruses, where each strain may have a different combination of gene segments. When these reassortant viruses emerge, they can sometimes have altered properties, such as increased transmissibility or virulence, which can pose significant public health concerns. For example, pandemic influenza viruses often arise through the process of reassortment between human and animal strains.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus (NSDV) is an enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae and genus Nairovirus. This virus is the causative agent of Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) and related diseases in small ruminants, particularly sheep and goats. The disease is characterized by high fever, severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, and rapid death, resulting in significant economic losses in endemic areas.

The NSDV genome consists of three segments: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). The L segment encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the M segment encodes two glycoproteins (Gn and Gc) and a nonstructural protein (Nsm), while the S segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N) and a nonstructural protein (NSs).

The virus is primarily transmitted through ticks, mainly of the genus Rhipicephalus. The main vector for NSDV is Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, although other species such as Rhipicephalus zambeziensis and Amblyomma variegatum can also transmit the virus.

Nairobi sheep disease is prevalent in East Africa, particularly in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and southern Sudan. Vaccination of susceptible animals and tick control measures are essential for preventing and controlling NSDV infections in endemic areas.

Crimean hemorrhagic fever (CHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the virus named Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). It is a severe and often fatal illness. The disease is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, muscle pain, severe headache, soreness in the eyes, fatigue, and dizziness. After two to four days, there may be evidence of hemorrhage (bleeding) from the mouth, gums, nose, or other sites. The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks that feed on domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animal blood or tissues during and after slaughtering. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons. Healthcare workers are at risk if they are not wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. There is no specific treatment for CHF yet, but early supportive care and symptomatic treatment improve survival rates.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Ixodidae is a family of arachnids commonly known as hard ticks. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Ixodidae is a family of tick species, also known as hard ticks, which are obligate ectoparasites of many different terrestrial vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They have a hard, shield-like structure on their dorsal surface called the scutum, and a prominent mouthpart called the hypostome, which helps them anchor themselves onto their host's skin during feeding.

Hard ticks are vectors of various bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases that can affect both humans and animals. Some of the diseases transmitted by Ixodidae include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and tularemia.

Ixodidae species have a complex life cycle that involves three developmental stages: larva, nymph, and adult. Each stage requires a blood meal from a host to progress to the next stage or to reproduce. The length of the life cycle varies depending on the species and environmental conditions but can take up to several years to complete.

Proper identification and control of Ixodidae populations are essential for preventing tick-borne diseases and protecting public health.

Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a type of hantavirus that was first identified in 1993 during an outbreak of severe respiratory illness in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. The name "Sin Nombre" means "without name" in Spanish and was given to the virus because it had not been previously identified or named.

SNV is primarily carried by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodent urine, droppings, or saliva, or by inhaling aerosolized particles of the virus. The virus causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe and sometimes fatal respiratory disease characterized by fever, muscle aches, coughing, and shortness of breath.

SNV is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Hantavirus. It is a select agent, which means that it has the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety, and is therefore subject to strict regulations and controls by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other federal agencies.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is a group of clinically similar diseases caused by several distinct but related orthohantaviruses. The viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with excreta of infected rodents.

The clinical presentation of HFRS includes four phases: febrile, hypotensive, oliguric (decreased urine output), and polyuric (increased urine output). The febrile phase is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, and abdominal pain. In the hypotensive phase, patients may experience a sudden drop in blood pressure, shock, and acute kidney injury leading to oliguria. The oliguric phase can last for days to weeks, followed by a polyuric phase where urine output increases significantly.

Additional symptoms of HFRS may include nausea, vomiting, conjunctival injection (redness), photophobia (sensitivity to light), and petechial rash (small red or purple spots on the skin caused by bleeding under the skin). In severe cases, HFRS can lead to acute renal failure, hypovolemic shock, and even death.

The severity of HFRS varies depending on the specific virus causing the infection. The most severe form of HFRS is caused by the Hantaaan virus, which has a mortality rate of up to 15%. Other viruses that can cause HFRS include Dobrava-Belgrade, Seoul, and Puumala viruses, with lower mortality rates ranging from less than 1% to about 5%.

Prevention measures for HFRS include reducing exposure to rodents and their excreta through proper food storage, waste disposal, and rodent control. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent HFRS caused by specific viruses.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases caused by viruses that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. "Arbo" is short for "arthropod-borne."

There are over 150 different Arboviruses, but only a few cause significant illness in humans. Some of the most common Arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever
* Chikungunya fever
* Yellow fever
* Zika virus infection
* Japanese encephalitis
* West Nile fever
* Tick-borne encephalitis

The symptoms of Arbovirus infections can vary widely, depending on the specific virus and the individual infected. Some people may experience only mild illness or no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications.

Common symptoms of Arbovirus infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In more severe cases, Arbovirus infections can cause neurological problems such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for most Arbovirus infections. Treatment is generally supportive, with fluids and medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration or neurological problems.

Prevention of Arbovirus infections involves avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks. Vaccines are available to prevent some Arbovirus infections, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Sigmodontinae is a subfamily of rodents, more specifically within the family Cricetidae. This group is commonly known as the New World rats and mice, and it includes over 300 species that are primarily found in North, Central, and South America. The members of Sigmodontinae vary greatly in size and habits, with some being arboreal while others live on the ground or burrow. Some species have specialized diets, such as eating insects or seeds, while others are more generalist feeders. This subfamily is also notable for its high degree of speciation and diversity, making it an interesting subject for evolutionary biologists and ecologists.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Arvicolinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes voles, lemmings, and muskrats. These small mammals are characterized by their short legs, rounded bodies, and short tails. They are primarily found in the northern hemisphere, with the majority of species living in North America and Eurasia.

Arvicolines are known for their high reproductive rate and ability to survive in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, tundra, and wetlands. They have a unique set of teeth called hypsodont teeth, which continue to grow throughout their lives. This adaptation allows them to wear down their teeth as they gnaw on tough plant material.

Many arvicoline species are important prey animals for larger predators, such as hawks, owls, and foxes. Some species, like the muskrat, are also hunted by humans for their fur or meat. In recent years, some arvicoline populations have experienced dramatic fluctuations in size due to changes in their habitats and food supplies, leading to concerns about their conservation status.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A nucleocapsid is a protein structure that encloses the genetic material (nucleic acid) of certain viruses. It is composed of proteins encoded by the virus itself, which are synthesized inside the host cell and then assemble around the viral genome to form a stable complex.

The nucleocapsid plays an important role in the viral life cycle. It protects the viral genome from degradation by host enzymes and helps to facilitate the packaging of the genome into new virus particles during assembly. Additionally, the nucleocapsid can also play a role in the regulation of viral gene expression and replication.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid is encased within an envelope derived from the host cell membrane, while in others, it exists as a naked capsid. The structure and composition of the nucleocapsid can vary significantly between different virus families.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

Nucleoproteins are complexes formed by the association of proteins with nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). These complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as packaging and protecting genetic material, regulating gene expression, and replication and repair of DNA. In these complexes, proteins interact with nucleic acids through electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and other non-covalent interactions, leading to the formation of stable structures that help maintain the integrity and function of the genetic material. Some well-known examples of nucleoproteins include histones, which are involved in DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells, and reverse transcriptase, an enzyme found in retroviruses that transcribes RNA into DNA.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex or simply the Golgi, is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the processing, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell.

The Golgi apparatus consists of a series of flattened, disc-shaped sacs called cisternae, which are stacked together in a parallel arrangement. These stacks are often interconnected by tubular structures called tubules or vesicles. The Golgi apparatus has two main faces: the cis face, which is closest to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and receives proteins and lipids directly from the ER; and the trans face, which is responsible for sorting and dispatching these molecules to their final destinations.

The Golgi apparatus performs several essential functions in the cell:

1. Protein processing: After proteins are synthesized in the ER, they are transported to the cis face of the Golgi apparatus, where they undergo various post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation (the addition of sugar molecules) and sulfation. These modifications help determine the protein's final structure, function, and targeting.
2. Lipid modification: The Golgi apparatus also modifies lipids by adding or removing different functional groups, which can influence their properties and localization within the cell.
3. Protein sorting and packaging: Once proteins and lipids have been processed, they are sorted and packaged into vesicles at the trans face of the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles then transport their cargo to various destinations, such as lysosomes, plasma membrane, or extracellular space.
4. Intracellular transport: The Golgi apparatus serves as a central hub for intracellular trafficking, coordinating the movement of vesicles and other transport carriers between different organelles and cellular compartments.
5. Cell-cell communication: Some proteins that are processed and packaged in the Golgi apparatus are destined for secretion, playing crucial roles in cell-cell communication and maintaining tissue homeostasis.

In summary, the Golgi apparatus is a vital organelle involved in various cellular processes, including post-translational modification, sorting, packaging, and intracellular transport of proteins and lipids. Its proper functioning is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and overall organismal health.

... (NSs) are synthesized by viral DNA/RNA and do not play a role in the replication or the ... Within the Bunyaviridae virus family, specifically phlebovirus genus, there has been multiple pathways of the inhibition of the ... The nonstructural S segment (NSs) created by Bunyaviridae virus family, are able to interact with the human immune system, in ... Many other NSs proteins in the Bunyaviridae virus family do not function in this same way. Although the exact target of the ...
"Bunyaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Archived from the original on 2015-10-04. Retrieved 2015-10-03 ... Negative single-stranded RNA families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, ... Bunyaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Arenaviridae, and Reoviridae (acronym BOAR). All are RNA viruses. Viruses transmitted almost ...
15 June 2015). "Implementation of non-Latinized binomial species names in the family Bunyaviridae" (PDF). International ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) (2019). "Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
Viralzone: Bunyaviridae ICTVdb Index of Viruses-Bunyaviridae The Big Picture Book of Viruses: Bunyaviridae Bunyaviridae Genomes ... Bunyaviridae "Bunyaviridae". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 11571. (CS1: long volume value, All articles with dead external links, ... Bunyaviridae". ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. 2006. Retrieved 2009-01-01. Ballinger, MJ; Bruenn, JA; Hay, J; ... Bunyaviridae are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods including mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks. The viral incubation ...
Family Bunyaviridae. In: Fauquet CM, editor; Mayo MA, editor; Maniloff J, editor; Desselberger U, et al., editors. Virus ... Bunyaviridae Hantavirus - Occurrences and deaths in North and South America, 1993-2004, PAHO (Articles with short description, ...
The causative agent was identified as a virus in the family Bunyaviridae by electron microscopy. This was then identified ... Zeller H, Bouloy M (April 2000). "Infections by viruses of the families Bunyaviridae and Filoviridae". Rev Sci Tech. 19 (1): 79 ... Obijeski JF, Murphy FA (October 1977). "Bunyaviridae: recent biochemical developments". J Gen Virol. 37 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1099/ ... this is a longer period of viremia than what is normally observed in cases of Bunyaviridae infections. The second human case of ...
Elliott RM (1990). "Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 71 (3): 501-522. doi:10.1099/0022- ... "ICTV 9th Report (2011) - Negative Sense RNA Viruses - Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ... Bunyaviridae) RNAs suggest a prime-and-realign mechanism for the initiation of RNA synthesis". Journal of Virology. 69 (9): ...
"ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 31 January 2019. Hanta: ... Bunyaviridae Occurrences and deaths in North and South America (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
His specialty is researching Bunyaviridae. He is an adjunct professor at the Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology of the ...
Alexander., Plyusnin; M., Elliott, Richard (2011-01-01). Bunyaviridae : molecular and cellular biology. Caister Academic Press ...
A study of the family Bunyaviridae showed that bunyavirus particles are pleomorphic. This known fact cased some surprise when ... "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 31 January 2019. Phlebo ... Bunyaviridae) based on partial M segment sequence analyses". J. Gen. Virol. 84 (Pt 2): 465-73. doi:10.1099/vir.0.18765-0. PMID ... Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from the Amazon region of Brazil". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32 (5): 1164-71. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.1983.32 ...
Bunyaviridae Occurrences and deaths in North and South America (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 17 February 2019. List of other related viruses ...
"ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 31 January 2019. ... Plyusnin, Alexander; Elliott, Richard M (2011-01-01). Bunyaviridae: molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Caister ...
Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 17 February 2019. List of other related viruses ...
"ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 4 March 2019. List of ... CDC's Hantavirus Technical Information Index page Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Bunyaviridae (Articles ...
Batai virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus and a member of the family Bunyaviridae. Batai virus is part of a diverse ... Plyusnin, A. (2011). Bunyaviridae: Molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press. Liu, H.; Shao, X.; Hu, ... Batai virus (BATV) is a member of the family Bunyaviridae. Associated viruses include Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, ... Elliott, R. M. "Emerging Viruses: The Bunyaviridae." Molecular Medicine 3.9 (1997): 572-577 Bird, Brian; Szemiel, Agnieszka M ...
"ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Archived from the original on 11 ...
"ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Archived from the original on 11 ...
"ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 7 March 2019. Sloan ... Bunyaviridae Occurrences and deaths in North and South America (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
Mertz GJ (1997). "Bunyaviridae: Bunyaviruses, Phleboviruses, Nairoviruses and Hantaviruses". In Richman DD, Whitley RJ, Hayden ... Bunyaviridae)". J Gen Virol. 94 (Pt 4): 837-842. doi:10.1099/vir.0.048850-0. PMC 3709685. PMID 23239568. ...
Schmaljohn C.S. and Hooper, J.W. (2001). Bunyaviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields Virology, 4' Edn, (D.M. ... "Implementation of non-Latinized binomial species names in the family Bunyaviridae" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy ...
"ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 8 July 2019. v t ...
ICTV Bunyaviridae Study Group (15 June 2015). "Implementation of non - Latinized binomial species names in the family ... Bunyaviridae" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London, UK: ICTV. p. 5. Retrieved 30 September 2017. ...
"PP-212/PP134: Tospoviruses (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus)". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-15. Jones, D. R. 2005 ... Viralzone: Tospovirus Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Bunyaviridae (Articles with short description, ... Bunyaviridae from Plant Viruses online Plant Viruses Online - Tomato Spotted Wilt tospovirus APSnet A Plant Disease Lesson on ... Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) An article by Scott Adkins, Tom Zitter and Tim Momol. " ...
Family Bunyaviridae)". Viruses. 8 (6): 164. doi:10.3390/v8060164. PMC 4926184. PMID 27294949. Kalunda, M.; Mukwaya, L. G.; ...
Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) isolated from the ticks Ornithodoros alactagalis Issaakjan, 1936 and O. verrucosus Olenev, Sassuchin ... Family Bunyaviridae)". Viruses. 8 (6): 164. doi:10.3390/v8060164. PMC 4926184. PMID 27294949. Alkhovsky, SV; Lvov, DK; ...
It is in the Bunyaviridae family of viruses. Its genus is Bandavirus and its species name is Lone star bandavirus. It has been ...
Rivers of Korea "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved ...
List of other related viruses which may be members of the family Bunyaviridae but have not been approved as species Mehlhorn, ... Hubálek Z (2009). "Biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in Europe". Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2009: ... Negative Sense RNA Viruses Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 20 December 2019. ...
The Oropouche virus (OROV) is found in the family Bunyaviridae. The study of apoptosis brought on by Bunyaviridae was initiated ...
Bunyaviridae nonstructural S proteins (NSs) are synthesized by viral DNA/RNA and do not play a role in the replication or the ... Within the Bunyaviridae virus family, specifically phlebovirus genus, there has been multiple pathways of the inhibition of the ... The nonstructural S segment (NSs) created by Bunyaviridae virus family, are able to interact with the human immune system, in ... Many other NSs proteins in the Bunyaviridae virus family do not function in this same way. Although the exact target of the ...
Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya Mary Crabtree. , Rosemary Sang, and Barry R. Miller ... Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya. ...
Immunoprophylaxis of Punta Toro virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) infection in hamsters with recombinant Eimeria profilin-like ...
Immunoprophylaxis of Punta Toro virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) infection in hamsters with recombinant Eimeria profilin-like ...
"Bunyaviridae" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bunyaviridae" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bunyaviridae" by people in Profiles. ...
Home / Primary Antibodies / Virus / Bunyaviridae. Bunyaviridae. SKU. Name. Tags. Summary. Buy. Price. hf:tags. ...
Bunyaviridae. This group includes Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus, and several ... Four viral families are known to cause VHFs in humans: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and Flaviviridae. General ...
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We suggest that this is a new virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus, and we propose that it be designated Kupe ... 2009). Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya. 15(2). Crabtree, Mary B. and Sang, Rosemary ... Title : Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya Personal Author(s) : Crabtree, Mary B.;Sang ... "Kupe Virus, a New Virus in the Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Nairovirus, Kenya" vol. 15, no. 2, 2009. Export RIS Citation ...
Bunyaviridae Genus. Bunyavirus Information From. Donald M. McLean, M.D. Address. Division of Medical Microbiology, Univ. of ...
Bunyaviridae Genus. Bunyavirus Information From. M. Sabattini and C. Mitchell Address. Instituto de Virologia, Cordoba, ...
Bunyaviridae Genus. Bunyavirus-like Information From. C.Mitchell, T.Monath, C.Calisher, M.Sabattini. Address. CDC,Ft. Collins, ...
Pilgrims progress -- Parodies, imitations, etc." to "Bunyaviridae" (Exclude extended shelves). ,previous -- A B C D E F G H I ...
Bunyaviridae sequences and alignments may be downloaded from the second spreadsheet with titles defined by the user from the ... VirusBanker allows large datasets of aligned nucleotide and protein sequences from the Bunyaviridae to be compiled and winnowed ... The VirusBanker database contains Bunyaviridae sequences and alignments and is presented as two spreadsheets generated by a ... Viruses of the Bunyaviridae have segmented negative-stranded RNA genomes and several of them cause significant disease. Many ...
Hantavirus is a genus of enveloped RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. The majority are transmitted by arthropod vectors. ...
... belongs to the genus Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae and contains tripartite RNA genomes, small (S), medium (M), and ... Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae. J Gen Virol 71: 501-522.. Elliott. RM. , 1990. . Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae. ... Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae. J Gen Virol 71: 501-522.. Elliott. RM. , 1990. . Molecular biology of the Bunyaviridae. ... belongs to the genus Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae and contains tripartite RNA genomes, small (S), medium (M), and ...
Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that belong to the Bunyaviridae family. They have been classified as category A ... Hantaviruses, members of the Bunyaviridae family, are negative-stranded emerging RNA viruses and category A pathogens that ... Hantaviruses, members of the Bunyaviridae family, are negative-stranded emerging RNA viruses and category A pathogens that ...
Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and Flaviviridae. They are present on. all continents except Antarctica, their person- ...
Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in ...
Tospoviruses (Bunyaviridae). Pages 1803-1807 in: , ,Encyclopedia of Virology. A. Granoff and R. G. Webster, eds. Academic , , ... Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) of the genus Tospovirus, family , ,Bunyaviridae (1), causes an economically important virus ...
In: Bunyaviridae. edn. Edited by Plyusnin A, Elliott RM: Caister Academic Press; 2011: 41-60. ...
It is caused by a virus from the family Bunya-viridae and is endemic in areas of Africa, but can spread to surrounding regions. ... The disease is caused by the RVF virus, which is a member of the genus Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF was first ...
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts ...
裂谷熱病毒為布尼亞病毒科(Bunyaviridae),沙蠅病毒屬(
Massilia virus, a novel Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) isolated from sandflies in the Mediterranean. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. ... Bunyaviridae Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses 2011 Available at: http://www. ...
Bunyaviridae, tais como o vírus ou da encefalite da Califórnia ou hantavírus; Rhabdoviridae, tal como o vírus da raiva; ... Bunyaviridae, such as the California encephalitis or hantavirus virus; Rhabdoviridae, such as the rabies virus; Filoviridae, ...
It is caused by a tick-borne virus, Nairovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. The virus causes severe viral ...
The pathogenic virus, especially common in East and West Africa, is a member of the Bunyaviridae family of RNA viruses. This ...
Elliott R. M. 1996; The Bunyaviridae : concluding remarks. In The Bunyaviridae pp 295-332 Edited by Elliott R. M. New York & ... In The Bunyaviridae pp 189-226 Edited by Elliott R. M. New York and London: Plenum Press; ... In The Bunyaviridae pp 19-53 Edited by Elliott R. M. New York & London: Plenum Press; ... Flick R., Pettersson R. F. 2001; Reverse genetics system for Uukuniemi virus ( Bunyaviridae ): RNA polymerase I-catalyzed ...

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