Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Bunyaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.Orthobunyavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Janus Kinase 1: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Janus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.Tospovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)BooksBiological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.La Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.Dictionaries, MedicalSimbu virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Sandfly fever Naples virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.ArchivesMexicoReassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Encephalitis Virus, California: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.

Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska. (1/101)

This study investigated the geographic distribution and prevalence of antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in Native populations of Alaska, and demographic and ecologic risk factors associated with exposure. Sera (n = 1,635) from 18 communities were screened using an ELISA. All age groups were tested for antibodies to Jamestown Canyon (JC), Inkoo (INK), snowshoe hare (SSH), and Northway (NOR) viruses; persons > or = 45 years old (n = 90) from six communities were additionally tested for antibodies to Tahyna (TAH), Batai (BAT), Cache Valley (CV), and Sindbis (SIN) viruses. Thirty free-ranging mammals were tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for antibodies to all eight viruses and to Getah (GET) virus. In Natives, overall antibody prevalence was 24.9% (JC = 17.6%, monotypic JC = 6.5%, INK = 11.1%, monotypic INK = 0.6%, SSH = 6.8%, monotypic SSH = 3.5%, and NOR = 6.2%). Five TAH, CV, and BAT virus exposures may be serologic cross-reactions, and no SIN virus antibodies were detected. Sindbis-like virus antibodies were found in 30% of the mammals. Most mammals had antibodies to NOR (83.3%) and California serogroup (70.0%) viruses; no GET virus exposures were found. Significant risk factors for human bunyavirus exposures were age group, ethnic-linguistic group, biotic province, climate zone, terrestrial vegetation, and presence of some ungulates and small mammals in communities. Sex was not a significant risk factor.  (+info)

RNA binding properties of bunyamwera virus nucleocapsid protein and selective binding to an element in the 5' terminus of the negative-sense S segment. (2/101)

The genome of Bunyamwera virus (BUN) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) comprises three negative-sense RNA segments which act as transcriptional templates for the viral polymerase only when encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein (N). Previous studies have suggested that the encapsidation signal may reside within the 5' terminus of each segment. The BUN N protein was expressed as a 6-histidine-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by metal chelate chromatography. An RNA probe containing the 5'-terminal 32 and 3'-terminal 33 bases of the BUN S (small) genome segment was used to investigate binding by the N protein in vitro using gel mobility shift and filter binding assays. On acrylamide gels a number of discrete RNA-N complexes were resolved, and analysis of filter binding data indicated a degree of cooperativity in N protein binding. RNA-N complexes were resistant to digestion with up to 1 microg of RNase A per ml. Competition assays with a variety of viral and nonviral RNAs identified a region within the 5' terminus of the BUN S segment for which N had a high preference for binding. This site may constitute the signal for initiation of encapsidation by N.  (+info)

Bunyamwera bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs is a nonessential gene product that contributes to viral pathogenesis. (3/101)

Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) contains a tripartite negative-sense RNA genome. The smallest RNA segment, S, encodes the nucleocapsid protein N and a nonstructural protein, NSs, in overlapping reading frames. We have generated a mutant virus lacking NSs, called BUNdelNSs, by reverse genetics. Compared with the wild-type (wt) virus, BUNdelNSs exhibited a smaller plaque size and generated titers of virus approximately 1 log lower. In mammalian cells, the mutant expressed greatly increased levels of N protein; significantly, the marked inhibition of host cell protein synthesis shown by wt virus was considerably impaired by BUNdelNSs. When inoculated by the intracerebral route BUNdelNSs killed BALB/c mice with a slower time course than wt and exhibited a reduced cell-to-cell spread, and titers of virus in the brain were lower. In addition, the abrogation of NSs expression changed Bunyamwera virus from a noninducer to an inducer of an interferon-beta promoter. These results suggest that, although not essential for growth in tissue culture or in mice, the bunyavirus NSs protein has several functions in the virus life cycle and contributes to viral pathogenesis.  (+info)

The Bunyamwera virus nonstructural protein NSs inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a minireplicon system. (4/101)

The small (S) genomic segment of Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) encodes the nucleocapsid protein, N, and a nonstructural protein, NSs, in overlapping reading frames. In order to elucidate the function of NSs, we established a plasmid-based minireplicon system using mammalian cells that express large amounts of T7 RNA polymerase. Expression of N, the viral polymerase protein (L), and a minireplicon containing a reporter gene was sufficient to reconstitute functional virus nucleocapsids. Coexpression of NSs, however, led to a dose-dependent decrease in reporter activity without affecting expression of controls. The inhibition could not be reversed by overexpression of N, L or the minireplicon, indicating that the NSs effect was not caused by a reduction in virus gene expression. The NSs proteins of two other members of the Bunyavirus genus, Guaroa virus and Lumbo virus, were also inhibitory in our system. The intracellular localisation of Bunyamwera virus NSs was investigated and found to be predominantly cytoplasmic, but intranuclear inclusion was also detected. Taken together, these data suggest that, in mammalian cells, the bunyavirus NSs protein controls the activity of the viral polymerase by a highly conserved mechanism.  (+info)

Protein synthesis in Bunyamwera virus-infected cells. (5/101)

In Vero cells infected with Bunyamwera virus there is a rapid inhibition of cell RNA and protein synthesis to levels of 30 and 3% respectively of the control rate, both the rate of inhibition and the time lag before its initiation being multiplicity dependent. Using u.v.-irradiated virus, investigation of the mechanism of inhibition of host cell protein synthesis indicates that synthesis of new virus components is required for inhibition to occur. Quantitative comparison of the proteins synthesized in infected cells shows that at higher m.o.i. synthesis of virus, as well as cellular proteins, is inhibited. Bunyamwera virus-infected Vero cells synthesized three virus-specific proteins identified as the structural virion proteins. Nucleoprotein is synthesized predominantly early in infection while the major envelope glycoprotein and the minor glycoprotein are synthesized predominantly late in the infection cycle.  (+info)

A reassortant bunyavirus isolated from acute hemorrhagic fever cases in Kenya and Somalia. (6/101)

In late 1997 and early 1998, a large outbreak of hemorrhagic fever occurred in East Africa. Clinical samples were collected in Kenya and southern Somalia, and 27 of 115 (23%) hemorrhagic fever patients tested showed evidence of acute infection with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus as determined by IgM detection, virus isolation, detection of virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or immunohistochemistry. However, two patients (one from Kenya and the other from Somalia) whose illness met the hemorrhagic fever case definition yielded virus isolates that were not RVF. Electron microscopy suggested these two virus isolates were members of the family Bunyaviridae. RT-PCR primers were designed to detect bunyavirus RNA in these samples. Regions of the S and L segments of the two isolates were successfully amplified, and their nucleotide sequences exhibited nearly complete identity with Bunyamwera virus, a mosquito-borne virus not previously associated with severe human disease. Unexpectedly, the virus M segment appeared to be reassorted, as the sequences detected exhibited 32-33% nucleotide and 28% amino acid differences relative to the corresponding M segment sequence of Bunyamwera virus. The association of this reassortant bunyavirus, proposed name Garissa virus, with severe disease is supported by the detection of the virus RNA in acute-phase sera taken from 12 additional hemorrhagic fever cases in the region.  (+info)

Bunyamwera bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs counteracts the induction of alpha/beta interferon. (7/101)

Production of alpha/beta interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) in response to viral infection is one of the main defense mechanisms of the innate immune system. Many viruses therefore encode factors that subvert the IFN system to enhance their virulence. Bunyamwera virus (BUN) is the prototype of the Bunyaviridae family. By using reverse genetics, we previously produced a recombinant virus lacking the nonstructural protein NSs (BUNdelNSs) and showed that NSs is a nonessential gene product that contributes to viral pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that BUNdelNSs is a strong inducer of IFN-alpha/beta, whereas in cells infected with the wild-type counterpart expressing NSs (wild-type BUN), neither IFN nor IFN mRNA could be detected. IFN induction by BUNdelNSs correlated with activation of NF-kappaB and was dependent on virally produced double-stranded RNA and on the IFN transcription factor IRF-3. Furthermore, both in cultured cells and in mice lacking a functional IFN-alpha/beta system, BUNdelNSs replicated to wild-type BUN levels, whereas in IFN-competent systems, wild-type BUN grew more efficiently. These results suggest that BUN NSs is an IFN induction antagonist that blocks the transcriptional activation of IFN-alpha/beta in order to increase the virulence of Bunyamwera virus.  (+info)

Polymorphism and structural maturation of bunyamwera virus in Golgi and post-Golgi compartments. (8/101)

The Golgi apparatus is the assembly site for a number of complex enveloped viruses. Using high-preservation methods for electron microscopy, we have detected two previously unknown maturation steps in the morphogenesis of Bunyamwera virus in BHK-21 cells. The first maturation takes place inside the Golgi stack, where annular immature particles transform into dense, compact structures. Megalomicin, a drug that disrupts the trans side of the Golgi complex, reversibly blocks transformation, showing that a functional trans-Golgi is needed for maturation. The second structural change seems to take place during the egress of viral particles from cells, when a coat of round-shaped spikes becomes evident. A fourth viral assembly was detected in infected cells: rigid tubular structures assemble in the Golgi region early in infection and frequently connect with mitochondria. In Vero cells, the virus induces an early and spectacular fragmentation of intracellular membranes while productive infection progresses. Assembly occurs in fragmented Golgi stacks and generates tubular structures, as well as the three spherical viral forms. These results, together with our previous studies with nonrelated viruses, show that the Golgi complex contains key factors for the structural transformation of a number of enveloped viruses that assemble intracellularly.  (+info)

*Ebola virus disease

The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...

*Marburg virus disease

Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae[16] ... Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03 ...

*Orthobunyavirus

... virus Anopheles B virus Boraceia virus Bakau virus Nola virus Birao virus Bozo virus Bunyamwera virus Cache Valley virus Fort ... Sherman virus Germiston virus Guaroa virus Ilesha virus Kairi virus Maguari virus Main Drain virus Northway virus Playas virus ... virus Jerry Slough virus Keystone virus Khatanga virus La Crosse virus Lumbo virus Melao virus Morro Bay virus San Angelo virus ... virus Acara virus Benevides virus Capim virus Alajuela virus Gamboa virus Pueblo Viejo virus San Juan virus Bruconha virus Ossa ...

*Bunyavirales

Bunyamwera virus Family Phenuiviridae (which contains former genus Phlebovirus; type species: Rift Valley fever virus Family ... these include Gan Gan virus, Maprik virus, Mapputta virus and Trubanaman virus. A new genus-as yet unnamed-has been proposed ... As precautions Cache Valley virus and Hantavirus research should be conducted in BSL-2 (or higher), Rift Valley Fever virus ... They are enveloped RNA viruses. Though generally found in arthropods or rodents, certain viruses in this order occasionally ...

*Aedes furcifer

Yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika, Bouboui and Bunyamwera viruses have been isolated from members of the furcifer group. Ae. ... Diallo, D; Sall, AA; Diagne, CT; Faye, O; Faye, O; Ba, Y; Hanley, KA; Buenemann, M; Weaver, SC; Diallo, M (2014). "Zika virus ... furcifer is involved in monkey-to-man and man-to-man transmission of yellow fever, is a potential vector of dengue virus ... Jupp, PG; McIntosh, BM (1990). "Aedes furcifer and other mosquitoes as vectors of chikungunya virus at Mica, northeastern ...

*Lassa fever

Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...

*Japanese encephalitis

Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... The virus appears to have originated from its ancestral virus in the mid-1500s in the Indonesia-Malaysia region and evolved ...

*Middle East respiratory syndrome

Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... the genetic sequence of the virus[97] based on the virus's RNA obtained from the Qatari case.[8][98] ... "Camels in Kenya test positive for MERS virus". Informer East Africa.. *^ "MERS antibody shows promise in rabbits; signs of ... "Mers virus: Saudis warned to wear masks near camels". BBC News. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.. ...

*Alexander John Haddow

In 1942, Haddow joined the Virus Research Institute at Entebbe, Uganda (now known as the Uganda Virus Research Institute) as a ... Bunyamwera and West Nile. In 1961, a steel tower was erected in the Zika forest to allow mosquitoes to be caught simultaneously ... including the discovery of the Zika virus, and research into the insect vectors of the yellow fever virus. Other notable work ... The Zika virus has since emerged as an important human disease, but it was not considered so until very recently. Haddow was ...

*Lassa virus

Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...

*La Crosse encephalitis

Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... La Crosse Virus The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus.[3] The Bunyavirales are mainly ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... "La Crosse virus disease cases reported to CDC by state, 2004-2013" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved ...

*Nucleoprotein

Some viruses are simple ribonucleoproteins, containing only one molecule of RNA and a number of identical protein molecules. ... The structures of many viral nucleoproteins have been determined, including those of influenza, rabies, Ebola, Bunyamwera, ... In the same way, the genomes of negative-strand RNA viruses never exist as free RNA molecule. The ribonucleoproteins protect ... Nucleoproteins are often the major antigens for viruses because they have strain-specific and group-specific antigenic ...

*Eretmapodites

... and Bunyamwera viruses and an undefined viral agent, MTMP 131. Species listed by the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit: ... Viruses isolated from wild-caught Eretmapodites include Rift Valley fever, Semliki forest, Spondweni, Nyando, Okola, Middleburg ...

*Arbovirus

Genus Orthobunyavirus Bunyamwera virus California encephalitis virus Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) La Crosse encephalitis virus ... Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) West Nile virus (WNV) Spondweni group Spondweni virus Zika virus (ZIKV) Yellow fever virus ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) Mosquito-borne viruses Dengue virus group Dengue virus (DENV) Japanese encephalitis virus ... Toscana virus (TOSV) Heartland virus Family Flaviviridae Genus Flavivirus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group ...

*Anhembi virus

The Anhembi virus (AMBV) is a strain of Wyeomyia virus in the genus Bunyavirus, belonging serologically to the Bunyamwera ... Until 2001 that virus have not reported to cause disease in humans. Mahy, Brian W J (2001). A dictionary of virology (3. ed.). ...

*Tensaw virus

... is a virus in the genus Orthobunyavirus of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group, order Bunyavirales. It is named for the ... Evidence that Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in North America are associated with congenital defects such as macrocephaly and/or ... Coleman PH (1969). "Tensaw virus, a new member of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group from the Southern United States". Am. J. Trop ... Chamberlain RW, Sudia WD, Coleman PH (1969). "Isolations of an arbovirus of the Bunyamwera group (Tensaw virus) from mosquitoes ...

*Maguari virus

Bunyamwera serogroup virus may exist in south Florida. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "Virus Name: Maguari" ... Maguari virus, abbreviated MAGV, is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the Bunyavirales order, genus ... MAGV is related to Cache Valley virus and Tensaw virus. In addition to humans, MAGV has been isolated from mosquitoes, horses, ... Human infections with Tensaw virus in south Florida: evidence that Tensaw virus subtypes stimulate the production of antibodies ...

*Abras virus

Bunyamwera, Patois, and Minatitlan". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 32 (4): 877-85. PMID 6309029. ... The Abras virus (ABRV) is a strain of Patois virus. Isolated from Culex adamesi and C. paracrybda in Ecuador. Not reported to ...

*Bunyamwera virus

Reassortant viruses derived from Bunyamwera virus, such as Ngari virus, which has been associated with large outbreaks of viral ... The Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is a negative-sense single stranded enveloped RNA virus. It is the type species of the ... Bunyamwera virus can infect both humans and Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito). It is named for Bunyamwera, a town in ... The genetic structure of Bunyamwera virus is typical for Bunyavirales viruses, which are a family of enveloped negative-sense ...

*Batai virus

A closely associated disease is the Bunyamwera virus, which is of the same family and genus as the Batai virus (BATV); it is ... Batai virus is part of a diverse group of arthropod-borne viruses. Classified via the Baltimore scheme, Batai virus is a ... Batai virus (BATV) is a RNA virus belonging to order Bunyavirales, genus Orthobunyavirus. Batai virus (BATV) is an enveloped, ... Associated viruses include Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Bunyamwera fever, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. ...

*Cache Valley virus

However, CVVs Bunyamwera serogroup's two non-structural proteins play an important role in infection. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) ... a teratogenic virus of the Orthobunyavirus genus closely related to Cache Valley Virus, the virus was shown to replicate in the ... and Hawaii for antibodies to Cache Valley and antigenically related viruses (Bunyamwera serogroup virus). The American Journal ... Bunyamwera virus NSs protein is a nonessential gene that contributes to viral pathogenesis. It has been shown that in mammalian ...

*List of virus species

... ebolavirus Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus Burdock mottle virus Burdock yellows virus Burkholderia virus Bcep1 Burkholderia virus ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus U Potato virus V Potato virus X ... virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X Gayfeather mild mottle virus ... virus Vibrio virus 493 Vibrio virus CTXphi Vibrio virus fs1 Vibrio virus fs2 Vibrio virus K139 Vibrio virus Kappa Vibrio virus ...

*Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus

... a Family of segmented NSVs that includes the Bunyamwera virus and the Schmallenberg virus) show that in these viruses the ... parainfluenza viruses, influenza viruses, Ebola virus, Marburg virus are included within the NSV. The life cycle of NSV has a ... includes Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and NDV Family Pneumoviridae - includes RSV and Metapneumovirus ... Viruses of the family Tenuivirus only infect plants. A few viruses known to infect humans include Marburg virus, Ebola, measles ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

A virus Anopheles B virus Bakau virus Batama virus Benevides virus Bertioga virus Bimiti virus Botambi virus Bunyamwera virus ... virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Tacaiuma virus Tete virus Thimiri virus Timboteua virus Turlock virus Wyeomyia virus Zegla virus ... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... Capim virus Caraparu virus Catu virus Estero Real virus Gamboa virus Guajara virus Guama virus Guaroa virus Kaeng Khoi virus ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... bunyamwera virus MeSH B04.820.087.640.300 --- encephalitis virus, california MeSH B04.820.087.640.300.500 --- la crosse virus ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 --- gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 --- GB virus C ... nairobi sheep disease virus MeSH B04.909.777.147.640 --- orthobunyavirus MeSH B04.909.777.147.640.147 --- bunyamwera virus MeSH ... gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 --- GB virus C MeSH B04.909.777.310.475 --- ...

*List of Aedes species

... carries Bunyamwera virus, California encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon virus, Sindbis virus, ... carries California encephalitis virus, Keystone virus, trivittatus virus, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis Aedes ... Ross River virus, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever, Zika virus Aedes africanus Aedes albolineatus Aedes alboniveus Aedes ... Louis encephalitis Aedes esoensis Aedes fulvus Bites humans, carries Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus ...

*Chikungunya

It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ... This mutation potentially allows the virus to multiply more easily in mosquito cells.[74] The change allows the virus to use ...

*Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself[1]. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever,[2] Ebola virus ... February 1967). "Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. I. Human isolations-clinical notes". East Afr ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses proposed the name Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus, but the Soviets ...
The NSs proteins of bunyaviruses are the viral interferon antagonists, counteracting the hosts antiviral response to infection. During high-multiplicity infection of cultured mammalian cells with Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), NSs is rapidly degraded after reaching peak levels of expression at 12hpi. Through the use of inhibitors this was shown to be the result of proteasomal degradation. A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs protein (NSs4KR) that is resistant to degradation, confirming that degradation is lysine-dependent. However, despite repeated attempts, no direct ubiquitylation of NSs in infected cells could be demonstrated. This suggests that degradation of NSs, although lysine-dependent, may be achieved through an indirect mechanism. Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: in fact rBUN4KR had a slight growth ...
The first line of defence against viral infection is the interferon (IFN) response, which must be overcome by a virus for successful replication. Pattern recognition receptors detect virus which triggers induction of IFNβ. Secreted IFNβ stimulates the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway and the upregulation of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) culminating with expression of hundreds of antiviral proteins. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype virus for the genus Orthobunyavirus and the family Bunyaviridae. BUNV is a trisegmented single stranded negative sense RNA virus whose genome comprises the Large (L), Medium (M) and Small (S) RNA segments. The L segment encodes the RNA polymerase, the M segment the two glycoproteins Gn and Gc and a non-structural protein NSm, and the S segment the nucleoprotein and a non-structural protein NSs in overlapping reading frames. The NSs protein interferes with RNA polymerase II mediated transcription thereby inhibiting cellular mRNA production, including IFN ...
Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a member of the Bunyavirales order, Orthobunyavirus genus, and Bunyamwera serogroup, which was first isolated in 1956 from Culiseta inornata mosquitos collected in Utahs Cache Valley. CVV is an enveloped arbovirus, nominally 80-120 nm in diameter, whose genome is composed of three single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The large segment of related bunyaviruses is approximately 6800 bases in length and encodes a probable viral polymerase. The middle CVV segment has a 4463-nucleotide sequence and the smallest segment encodes for the nucleocapsid, and a second non-structural protein. CVV has been known to cause outbreaks of spontaneous abortion and congenital malformations in ruminants such as sheep and cattle. CVV rarely infects humans, but when they are infected it has caused encephalitis and multiorgan failure. The Cache Valley Virus genome is split into three parts. The three parts are called the small, medium, and large segments, based on the number of ...
Morphological changes of nucleoli were long known as a hallmark of orthobunyavirus infection (60). Moreover, recently a nucleolar localization sequence important for NSs action was described for the orthobunyavirus SBV (45). Our findings that Elongin C (i) colocalizes with nucleolin in uninfected cells, (ii) contributes to the NSs-mediated RNAP II degradation, and (iii) becomes redistributed in the presence of NSs are in line with those earlier observations. Thus, Elongin C appears to be a player in the anti-IFN strategy of LACV, a view further underscored by the increase in IFN induction and RNAP II activity by, log10 step in Elongin C-deficient cells that were infected with wt LACV.. The cellular Elongin complex consisting of Elongin A, B, and C is able to foster both the elongation of mRNA transcription by RNAP II (56) and (the B/C complex) the degradation of RPB1 under conditions of stress (53-55). These activities are congruent with the action of orthobunyavirus NSs, which targets exactly ...
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New and Refurbished Dental Equipment at Affordable Prices Belmont Acutrac Radius Dental Operatory Package [BEL-OPER05] - Features: Belmont Acutrac patient chair, narrow back Belmont Radius Delivery Unit. 3 HP w/ Sringe Belmont Radius Assistants Arm w/ HVE, SE and Syringe Belmont Radius Clesta light
Falls are an all-too common occurrence among seniors, and the causes of falls can vary widely-from biological factors like changes in eyesight or hearing to environmental ones, such as missing a step or tripping on a rug.. While Belmont Village is in the process of piloting a new fall-prevention program with TIRR Memorial Hermann at our West University and Hunters Creek communities this summer, all Belmont Village communities take proactive measures to prevent falls-starting from the first day residents arrive.. Prevention Starts from Day One. Upon move-in, Belmont Villages teams evaluate each resident closely to determine the full continuum of care each resident requires. This includes evaluating levels of fitness, such as agility and range of motion, as well as questionnaires to determine seniors confidence in tending to their own self-care. This baseline is then used to provide ongoing monitoring and care.. To reduce the chance of falls, Belmont Village partners with professional ...
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The Kimberly-Clark Professional molding plant in Belmont that produces highway work zone safety products will close in June, resulting in the loss of about 180 jobs here, according to an announcement from Kimberly-Clark in Dallas. Meetings were conducted earlier this week with the 180 employees who work at the Belmont facility to notify them of the plans to close the mill, according to a statement from Bob Brand of the Kimberly-Clark Corp. communications department. Brand said eligible employees will receive a severance package, and Kimberly-Clark Professional . . .
Free Essay: Belmont Report: Informed Consent and Subject Selection In the famous Belmont Report, several guidelines regarding informed consent, assessment of...
The crowd of over 100,000 at Elmont was once again on its feet with a huge roar, ready to see history. Each fan in Belmont Park anticipated a triumph like many had never seen in their lifetimes...
Up-to-date information to help you find the best accredited mba programs in Belmont, California. Information on students, faculty and mba professional salaries.
Find information about Belmont Abbey College industrial engineering major degree requirements. Qualifications for engineering jobs vary considerably. Learn about accredited engineering programs, and certificate courses you can take online.
Find information about Belmont Abbey College psychology major degree requirements. Completion of a college degree program can qualify you to enter the workforce immediately. To get started, browse degree programs and certificate courses online.
This years topsy-turvy Triple Crown trail comes to an end in a Belmont Stakes without the Kentucky Derby and Preakness winners or the expected favorite who dropped out. It does come with questions about...
Amid the teeth-whitening gels, bibs, periodontal drills and packs of latex gloves in Dr. Michael Morgans cosmetic dentistry office, there sits a professional portrait background and some Canon lenses.
Find info concerning Belmont University pharmacology classes. You can enter nursing with either an associates degree or BSN. As a licensed vocational nurse (LVN), you may provide patient care under the supervision of a registered nurse (RN).
Get the facts about Belmont Abbey College paramedic certificate. Seek out nationally-accredited nursing programs for the best training. Given a brief hospital internship or prior work experience, you can expect a great return on your education.
Of all the many photos I have ever seen of Alva Belmont, the 1905 depiction in Era Magazine that you have published is the only one that makes her look vaguely attractive. All of her other likenesses bring to mind an oft told Gilded Age story: apparently, Alva Vanderbilt marched up to the notoriously sharp tongued Mrs. Stuyvesant Fish (no beauty herself , at least as depicted in photographs), and said, Mamie. You cant deny it. Everyone heard you. You told your guests at dinner last night that I look like a frog. Mrs. Fish is reported to have replied, that is not true. I told everyone that you look like a toad. And right she was. Great post, as always, by the way. I have seen other photos of the interiors of the house. It was quite an eclectic mix- from the neo-Federal, to the pseudo-Gothic with all the Beaux art Louis styles also represented.. ReplyDelete ...
Our certified and degreed teachers serve as role models and encompass positive images of children, recognizing that they are capable of many things. With this in mind, our staff constantly encourages children to reach new potentials. Teachers embody the roles of facilitators, observers, evaluators, and providers of a warm, nurturing environment.. Parents are encouraged to become involved with their childs education by taking the responsibility of assisting their child in growing to his or her fullest potential. We believe it is essential for parents, teachers, and families to work as a team with a common goal to continually develop and increase childrens knowledge and growth.. We also have locations in Hastings, Belmont and ADA/Cascade:. HASTINGS: 269-945-5855. 1150 West M-43 Highway, Hastings, MI 49058. BELMONT: 616-361-0191. 2370 Belmont Center Dr., Belmont, MI 49306. ADA/CASCADE: 616-942-5002. 5070 Cascade Road SE, SUITE #100, Grand Rapids MI 49546. ...
Learn about Belmont NC paramedic certificate. Qualifications for nursing programs vary widely. Learn about the various medical specializations available within technical training programs.
I am looking for Granny Flat / room only on a weekly basis with bed until I find my way around and get feel for it, outer Geelong not near the city, Belmont Highton towards the coast area etc.. then I will find my own place. So if you can help me I appreciate it...I have some Health problems and am mature age 59, relocating to be near my Son and Doctors....Non smoking house, no stairs, must have off st parking or in back yard as my car will will be packed to the brim, so obvious to the eyes. prefer to stay with 1 other female... Prefer someone my age but not essential, I am easy to get on with. ...
Meet doctor H. Michael Belmont, MD, Rheumatologist, and learn about conditions treated, training, and research at NYU Langone. Read more.
Im looking to rent a room in Belmont. Looking for someone clean, tidy and reliable. I consider myself easy to live with. I work full time during the ...
Get the facts about Belmont University nightlife. Whether you are considering an associates or a bachelors degree, your educational investment may pay off with a higher-paying job, or an in-house promotion.
Champion Royal Delta, who will defend her title in the June 15 Fleur de Lis at Churchill Downs, grazes outside Hall of Fame trainer Bill Motts barn at Belmont June 6. ...
Visit Belmont Park Dental Care in Lewisham. See contact details, check prices, read reviews, look at pictures and get directions.
Find, compare and select bikes & cycling activities for kids in Belmont (4153). Read reviews of kids activities and events. ActiveActivities - Australias leading online marketplace for kids activities.
What sets Complete Eye Care apart from other eye doctors offices in Belmont NC? Find out why were one of the leading eye care clinics in Gastonia County.
A man being sought for flashing women and girls in three incidents in Palo Alto may have struck again Friday in Belmont, police said. The most recent incident happened about 3:30 p.m. Thursday when a man in a BMW came to a stop in front of a woman riding her bicycle on Miller Avenue. In the two earlier incidents this week, two girls, ages 10 and 14, reported that they were the victims of indecent exposure.
The three-year old colt, who was broken at Bridlewood Farm in Ocala, finished sixth in the Kentucky Derby and skipped the Preakness. Five of the last nine Belmont winners followed that same path.
Get the facts about Belmont NC genetic screening program. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Statistics: 2018 , 2017. 2017: Scored a goal against Niagara (8/27)... Recorded a shot in every game played... Appeared in three games before redshirting due to injury... Prior to Belmont: Played freshman and sophomore seasons for head coach Aaron Smith at Horizon High School... Played for the Colorado Rush for head coach Sean Bushey.... Personal: Majoring in Neuroscience with an interest in artificial intelligence... ...
Hard-boil eggs. (Place eggs in a single layer in a sauce pan and cover them by at least 1 inch with cold water. Heat until just boiling and remove from burner. Remove from stove and cover. Let eggs stand in hot water for 12-15 minutes. By cooking your eggs in hot water, not boiling, you will avoid the ugly, but harmless, green ring that forms around yolks ...
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Gibbs, R. A., Belmont, J. W., Hardenbol, P., Willis, T. D., Yu, F. L., Yang, H. M., Chang, L. Y., Huang, W., Liu, B., Shen, Y., Tam, P. K. H., Tsui, L. C., Waye, M. M. Y., Wong, J. T. F., Zeng, C. Q., Zhang, Q. R., Chee, M. S., Galver, L. M., Kruglyak, S., Murray, S. S., Oliphant, A. R., Montpetit, A., Hudson, T. J., Chagnon, F., Ferretti, V., Leboeuf, M., Phillips, M. S., Verner, A., Kwok, P. Y., Duan, S. H., Lind, D. L., Miller, R. D., Rice, J. P., Saccone, N. L., Taillon-Miller, P., Xiao, M., Nakamura, Y., Sekine, A., Sorimachi, K., Tanaka, T., Tanaka, Y., Tsunoda, T., Yoshino, E., Bentley, D. R., Deloukas, P., Hunt, S., Powell, D., Altshuler, D., Gabriel, S. B., Qiu, R. Z., Ken, A., Dunston, G. M., Kato, K., Niikawa, N., Knoppers, B. M., Foster, M. W., Clayton, E. W., Wang, V. O., Watkin, J., Gibbs, R. A., Belmont, J. W., Sodergren, E., Weinstock, G. M., Wilson, R. K., Fulton, L. L., Rogers, J., Birren, B. W., Han, H., Wang, H. G., Godbout, M., Wallenburg, J. C., LArcheveque, P., ...
Interested in learning about a host of eye health related topics? Click here to read articles our eye library, so you can be informed.
Cowboy hats and checked shirts were the order of the day as Belmont House Nursing Home in Surrey celebrated a year of providing first-class nursing care to the local community with a Wild Wild West Party. Belmont House, run by Caring Homes, is a purpose built nursing home in the principal town of Sutton. Offering the highest standards […]. ...
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Zita Madeline (Cox) Ahern, 79 West Yarmouth -- Zita Madeline (Cox) Ahern, 79, formerly of Belmont, died June 15, 2007 after a long battle with lung cancer.Mrs. Ahern was the wife of the late Walter C. Ahern. She and her husband retired to the Cape in 1979 from Cumberland, R.I.She was a graduate of Belmont High School and the Kathleen Dell Secretarial School in Boston. She was both a homemaker and part-time secretary.She is survived by her children, Stephen and wife the Rev. Jacquelyn of
Precise location of the tomographic slice(s) is simple with the special chinrest option. (required to use the Tomographic feature ...
Promotions • "Extended Stay Special" available when booking 10 nights or more • "Relaxed Season Special" where rates have been discounted up to 30% Overview The Old Fort is the only fully restored historic plantation ...
Follow horse racing with Alex Hammond on Sky Sports - get live racing results, racecards, news, videos, photos, stats (horses & jockeys), plus daily tips.
Follow horse racing with Alex Hammond on Sky Sports - get live racing results, racecards, news, videos, photos, stats (horses & jockeys), plus daily tips.
Happy gas and sedation are available to ensure your comfort during any procedure. Contact us today to get started! Free parking and payment plans.
2014 BSA Publications Ltd Registered in England and in Wales. Company Number: 01245771. Registered Offices: Bailey Suite, Palatine House, Belmont Business Park, Belmont, Durham, DH1 1TW. VAT Registration Number: 416 9612 43. BSA Publications Ltd is a subsidiary of The British Sociological Association.. ...
Our mission as Belmonts favourite family dentists is to make your smile as amazing as it can be, see the work we have done for some other patients.
Filter caches and way-predictors are common approaches to improve the efficiency and/or performance of first-level caches. Filter caches use a small L0 to provide more efficient and faster access to a small subset of the data, and work well for programs with high locality. Way-predictors improve efficiency by accessing only the way predicted, which alleviates the need to read all ways in parallel without increasing latency, but hurts performance due to mispredictions.In this work we examine how SRAM layout constraints (h-trees and data mapping inside the cache) affect way-predictors and filter caches. We show that accessing the smaller L0 array can be significantly more energy efficient than attempting to read fewer ways from a larger L1 cache; and that the main source of energy inefficiency in filter caches comes from L0 and L1 misses. We propose a filter cache optimization that shares the tag array between the L0 and the L1, which incurs the overhead of reading the larger tag array on every ...
edited Sorry for not posting on this issue, even thought I have been assigned and everything So the basic idea that I have been working on is to make a key/value cache to speed up random reads. Test setup: Used the same test parameters that are used in the BT paper so it would be easy to compare and test have currently only been done on a single machine cluster with one HRegionServer. That setup includes 1column/family and every value is 1000B. Some numbers for testing this extremely simple cache are: Tests done over 10000 reads Random reads without cache: 481 r/s 481 KB/s Random reads with cache: 4019 r/s 4019 KB/s Some other test to compare the difference when using multiple columns/family turned out to give the following numbers: 5 columns/family everything else the same as above. Random reads without cache: 445 r/s 2223 KB/s Random reads with cache: 3588 r/s 17940 KB/s 10 columns/family everything else the same as above. Random reads without cache: 24 r/s 240 KB/s Random reads with cache: 25 ...
... is an innovative new server technology developed by LiteSpeed Technologies, that intelligently store Magento pages into a static cache for much faster retrieval. Caching has traditionally been a challenge for Magento since most pages contains dynamic blocks that changes between users, such as the shopping cart items, My Account area, wishlist, etc., preventing efficient use of a static page cache. LiteMage Cache uses Edge Side Includes (ESI) to punch holes in pages where information changes from visitor to visitor. The remaining content is saved to cache. When the next person visits the same page, the cached content is served quickly, with only the holes needing to be filled in with data for that visitor.. ...
Charismatic is making an excellent recovery from the Belmont Stakes disaster that ended his racing career. Last Saturday, the big chestnut colt was king of...
Get all your party needs at Geelong Party Supplies - helium balloons, catering supplies, costumes, lollies. Located in High St, Belmont.
bles Freefourinternet circled a wall of horses in the stretch and held off an unlucky Proud Man by a nose in the closing strides to post a 20-1 surprise in the $350,000 Kelso Breeders Cup Handicap (gr. IIT) on the Belmont Park turf Saturday.
Am ajuns la Bucuresti pe la 11 dimineata. Am mers la hotel si prin mall si alea, alea. Eu eram super obosita, chiar ma gandeam cum voi face fata la concert. Ma rog, dupa ce ne-am odihnit cam o ora si jumatate, am pornit spre Romexpo. Am ajuns acolo la 5. Am urmarit oamenii, am ajuns toti la o poarta, de unde am fost trimisi inapoi, pe cealalta parte, pe cealalta poarta, (parea ca) pe celalalt capat de lume (Are vreun sens ca scriu toate astea? O sa incerc sa mai rezum.) Am ajuns la poarta corecta, era mai putina lume decat ma asteptam…Ne-au lasat inauntru in jur de 6, ceea ce a fost destul de frustrant caci am stat in soarele arzator, in cele *insert a bigger than 30 number here* aparente sau nu. Am primit bratara in patratele alb si negru facuta din hartie, pentru zona A (singura bratara in patratele alb-negru pe care o sa o port ever ) ) Ne-am plasat cam in al 4-lea rand. Se vedea tot. TOT! Era ceva DJ care punea muzica (indie) si nu m-am abtinut sa ma batai, de parca nu eram destul de ...
Took 0.23 seconds and 1.75MB of RAM; Used 73 files and 32 queries; Sent 5 events; 0 cache hits and 0 misses; Shimmie version trunk ...
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Definition of orthobunyavirus in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of orthobunyavirus. What does orthobunyavirus mean? Information and translations of orthobunyavirus in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
We would like to acknowledge that the service Belmont Hospital provides is held on the Bahtabah lands of the Awabakal people and we pay our respects to Elders past and present.. Belmont Hospital is proud to be celebrating our 50th Year Of Service. We extend to our surrounding local community our thanks for the work undertaken in providing the foundations of our hospital through community fund raising and for supporting our service over the past 50 years.. Belmont Hospital would like to thank and recognise the staff and volunteers both past and current for their commitment to providing a patient centred service of excellence and for providing a service from the heart to our community.. We extend an invitation to past and current team members to join us at the Belmont Hospital Ball in celebration of our 50th Year Anniversary.. ...
Ready to apply? Belmont accepts applications via the Common Application©, the Belmont University online application or paper application. Keep in mind that applications for admission to Belmont are considered on a rolling basis, so early submission of application materials is strongly encouraged. All College of Visual & Performing Arts programs and songwriting have additional application steps with dates for auditions and portfolio submission. Applicants will be notified of a decision within a few weeks of completing the application. Heres a checklist of what youll need - just let us know if you have any questions ...
Periodontal examination is very important to keep the periodontal diseases away. Call Belmont Dental Group in Belmont area at (617) 209-2378.
Check the Cache Valley Oxygen, Inc. company profile in Preston , ID . Find the latest business information using the D&B Business Directory at DandB.com.
Strange Bedfellows: How a Science Museum, a State Agency, and Local Organizers Made It Possible to Re-Write Rochester, New Yorks History. Eduardo A. Ortiz presented "Cache Valley Utah Latino Voices and History," about the Latino Voice Project. The project began interviewing people in the Hispanic/Latino community of Cache Valley in 2007. In 2012 Ortiz reviewed those interviews and pointed out that the different experiences of newer and younger immigrants, people who came to U.S. young, and those who have immigrant parents need to be noted, so they interviewed seven Cache Valley high school students and conducted focus groups with his students at Utah State.. In the 1980s Cache Valley was 1.2% "Spanish-language origin", with the population growing from 150 to 1600 people (2.4%) in the 20 years between 1970 and 1990, and then tripling by 2000 to 5700 (6.3%). This change was in part due to the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act as well as immigrants moving from "gateway" areas like New York, ...
Seneca Valley Virus sounds like the last bug youd want to catch, but it could be the next breakthrough cancer therapy. Now, scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OI... Read more ...
During his recent visit to Thomazeau, Haiti, College of Pharmacy Dean Phil Johnston visited villages with LiveBeyond workers and a Belmont delegation to aid and dispense medications to a woman in postpartum, a father with high blood pressure, a small boy with worms and a man with a hip injury. The most powerful experience of…
By Dylan Vazzano, TTU Sports Information Coordinator. NASHVILLE, Tenn. - Despite jumping out to a 2-0 lead, the Tennessee Tech softball team dropped a nail-biter on Saturday, falling 4-3 to Belmont University amidst an overcast and frigid afternoon in Nashville.. The Golden Eagles (9-25, 1-7) raced out to a quick start, plating two in the top of the first inning behind a two-out, two-run double off the bat of senior Chelsea Burgess. After the first two Tech hitters were retired to begin the frame, junior Hannah Eldridge reached on an infield single which was followed by a Kendall Hooper walk to put runners on first and second. Up stepped Burgess who delivered with a double to center, scoring both Eldridge and Hooper to take the early 2-0 advantage.. Belmont (8-19, 2-5) responded in the bottom half of the first, scoring a pair of runs to deadlock the score at 2-2. After a leadoff triple by senior Ashley Hammer, junior Kirbie Ferrell walked and stole second to give the Bruins a scoring threat with ...
Long Shot: Twisted Tom; dam has the best totally solid Belmont pedigree in the field-- 3 Belmont winners over Class Play which won the CCA Oaks at 12 f.; as for the top I hope Giants Causeways proven ability to sire 12 furlong horses comes through. Siberian Summer sired No Hesitation, winner of the 11-furlong Canadian Derby, Skywalker was good for 10-furlongs and Properantes won the 1 3/4 mi. San Juan Capistrano and 12 furlong turf stakes. If the distance abilitys there Chad Browns capable of coaxing it out ...
Belmont Preparatory School Anti-bullying Policy 1 Statement of Intent 1.1 Belmont School is committed to providing a caring, friendly and safe and secure environment for all of our children so they can
Country Villa Belmont Heights Healthcare Center in Long Beach, California 90804 has an Overall Rating of No rating and a Staffing Rating of No rating. See ratings on health care quality in nursing homes, why quality matters to you, and how you can help get the care you deserve. Some California nursing homes provide better care than others. The CalQualityCare.org website provides ratings of California nursing homes and skilled nursing facilities (SNF) for staffing, facility quality, and care quality and data on location, residents, deficiencies, citations, staffing, bed sores, dementia, accreditation, payment, complaints, penalties, fines, special care, finances, oversight, and regulation.
YouTube provides a little Belmont warm-up. Here is Secretariat in 1973; and the Affirmed-Alydar showdown in 1978 is a classic. This weekend we also have Nadal-Djokovic, Ranger-Kings, Heat-Spurs, and some baseball. Darn this sunshine and beautiful weather!
Up-to-date information to help you find the best accredited elementary education schools in Belmont, California. Learn about students, faculty and elementary education professional salaries.
This paper presents the findings of the Belmont Forums survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community. It highlights users perceptions of the term
Kentucky Derby winner Nyquist will skip next month's Belmont Stakes in the wake of his upset defeat at the Preakness, US media reports said Tuesday. Nyquist,...
From the NYS Gaming Commission: 4-year-old Receiver sustained ligament rupture breezing at Belmont April 22, ambulanced off - euthanized. Receiver had been raced three times, all at Aqueduct this winter.
Belmont School, Cheltenham. A state special school for boys and girls aged from 4 to 16. Type of SEN provision: MLD - Moderate Learning Difficulty. Local authority: Gloucestershire.
The Preakness victor stands above all other Belmont competitors after his main rival was pulled due to a high white blood cell count.
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Belmont Park School, London. A state special school for boys and girls aged from 10 to 19. Type of SEN provision: SEMH - Social, Emotional and Mental Health. Local authority: Waltham Forest.
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Working on a Cache Valley Farm" is curated by Utah State Universitys Special Collections and Archives photography curator Daniel Davis. Comprising images of how people worked on Cache Valley farms, the exhibit demonstrates the changes that occurred after 1890 when steam-powered tractors were first utilized. Steam-power would eventually transform labor on farms ushering in huge societal changes in America as people moved off farms and into towns and cities ...
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College of Entertainment and Music Business Professor Dr. Wesley Bulla recently presented the lead-off academic research paper in audio perception at the Audio Engineering Societys 139th International Conference in New York. Titled
It would not be untruthful to remark that Record is essentially calling for a reversion to the policies of former President Clinton. It might almost describe the kind of policy that Albert Gore and Wesley Clark would have been tempted to pursue in response to September 11. There is an element of realpolitik in Records analysis. The world, he seems to say, still consists of states which can be dealt with by traditional methods. It is a world where multilateralism is important and such grand notions as bringing freedom to the Islamic World are both naive and infeasible.. Building on this notion, he makes certain definite predictions. For example, he argues that the doctrine of pre-emptive attack will encourage, rather than discourage, rogue states from acquiring WMDs. He also maintains that the cost of occupying Iraq is likely to rise and become untenable. By inference, his argument suggests that terrorism, far from withering, will persist and grow, since the strategy employed against it is ...
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Brian Page and his wife, Misti, sat down with WTVA and talked about the process of getting a heart transplant and the battles they face.
Advice: Please attend in person or post the documentation and payment. Holiday Cancellation forms are not covered by the NHS, there will be a charge for this service. Payment for reports must accompany the request or booking (i.e. in advance). Charges are aligned with the BMAs guidelines. Please read the form carefully and fill in and sign any parts that you need to complete before you bring the form to the surgery. We ask that you allow up to 28 days for the process to be completed, you will be contacted by phone when your form is ready for collection. ...
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Where one or more parts of each of these two types of tests are taken, credit will be granted as applicable. Credit will not be duplicated if tests have been taken in the same subject area. In the event of duplicate courses, only the higher grade will be accepted ...
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HISTORY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES AllD SCHOOLS IN CACHE VALLEY J . Duncan Brite (In part printed in The Histor,v of A Valle,v, Joel E Ricks , ed ., Cache Valley Centennial Commission, 1956 , pp . 303- 320 . ) Presbyterian Day Schools in the Valley Presbyterian lUssien Schools were established in Utah before . Presbyterian Churches . By action of the General Assembly of the Church , they .,ere largely supoorted through the WOr.len 5 Board of Home Missions , and the teachers in them were women. Schools were to be establ ished only where the peoole could not be reached by churches and where public schools were not likely soon to be set up. Between 1875 and 1879 eleven schools with 800 day pupils were 41 established in Utah . Duncan J . McMillan , district missionary for the whole Mormon territory, had in mind an academy in the wBjor town in each valley J surrounded with primar .v schools in the surrounding villages . Schools .... auld be located around Logan at Nillville, Hyrum , Wellsvil ...
Summary A total of 25,240 mosquitoes was captured in the Tampa Bay area during September and October 1962, using miniature, battery-operated light traps. These were tested in suckling mice in 1,114 pools. A total of 19 isolations of St. Louis encephalitis virus was made, 18 from Culex nigripalpus and a single one from Anopheles crucians. Twenty-nine other virus isolations were made. Twenty-eight were from An. crucians and have been identified as a new virus related to Cache Valley virus of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group; the other was an unidentified virus of the California arbovirus group from Aedes atlanticustormentor.
LOGAN - Police have arrested a 32-year-old man suspected of severely beating a woman last week. Courtney Wood was booked into the Cache County Jail Friday night, where he is being held without bail.. The Logan City Police Department began investigating Wood after a woman was treated at Intermountain Logan Regional Hospital May 13. The victim allegedly had severe facial injuries, believed to have been caused from a violent beating.. Officers investigated the case and identified Wood as a person of interest. They believed he was on the run and asked for the publics help locating him Friday afternoon.. According to jail booking records, Wood is being held on multiple offenses, including aggravated kidnapping, aggravated assault, possession of a dangerous weapon and domestic violence in the presence of a child.. Formal charges are pending completion of the investigation. Wood will likely be arraigned in 1st District Court this week.. ...
Summary Sera collected from 60 selected South Florida patients with undiagnosed infectious disease in 1961, 1962, and 1963 were studied in hemagglutination-inhibition tests with 22 selected arboviruses. This was done in order to determine whether or not any one of the viruses caused the disease of each patient and to determine the HI antibody status of representative South Florida residents against a spectrum of arboviruses. Among the 60 patients, 11 had encephalitis, 39 had aseptic meningitis, and the illnesses of the remaining 10 were characterized as undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies were observed to 10 arboviruses in one or more of the late sera from nine patients: three were cases of encephalitis, three were aseptic meningitis and three were classified as undifferentiated febrile illnesses. The antibodies were to eight Group B viruses including bat salivary gland, Bussuquara, dengue type 2, Ilheus, Modoc, MVE, Powassan, and SLE, as well as Bunyamwera, Guaroa
This chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge about how the viruses of the Bunyaviridae succeed in establishing infection in the face of a powerful innate immune system. Members of the Bunyaviridae are classified into five genera: Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, Hantavirus, Nairovirus, and Tospovirus. In this chapter the term bunyavirus refers to a member of the Bunyaviridae family, while the terms orthobunyavirus phlebovirus refer to viruses in the eponymous genus. A well-established animal model for pathogenicity of arthropod-transmitted bunyaviruses does exist for La Crosse virus (LACV) virus in mice. Just as it is described for crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are present in hantavirus patients. A similar scenario is conceivable for those bunyaviruses that use arthropods as vectors. The first interferon (IFN) antagonists described for bunyaviruses were the NSs proteins of the orthobunyavirus
Upon graduation from the Institute he offered his services to the Royal Engineers, but they were not accepted. He attended the Plattsburg officers training camp in 1917, and in November was commissioned second lieutenant in the Aviation Section of the United States Signal Corps. In June, 1918, he sailed for France, to be employed in the construction of airdromes. In October he had a severe attack of influenza, recovered sufficiently to leave the hospital, but suffered a relapse. An operation for mastoiditis was necessary, and shortly afterward another from which he died at Savenay, France, on April 14, 1919 ...
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The transient nature of bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein expression : effects of increased stability of NSs protein on...The transient nature of bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein expression : effects of increased stability of NSs protein on...

A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs ... Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: ... The transient nature of bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein expression : effects of increased stability of NSs protein on ... van Knippenberg , I , Fragkoudis , R & Elliott , R M 2013 , The transient nature of bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein ...
more infohttps://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/3914

ArboCat Virus: Bunyamwera (BUNV)ArboCat Virus: Bunyamwera (BUNV)

Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Arthropod species & virus source(a) Method of Infection log10/ml (b) Incubation period (c) Transmision by bite (d) Assay of ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... transmission to mice by virus-fed Ae aegypti (33). ... Virus Name: Bunyamwera Abbreviation: BUNV Status. Arbovirus ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/arbocat/VirusDetails.aspx?ID=79&SID=9

ArboCat Virus: Bunyamwera (BUNV)ArboCat Virus: Bunyamwera (BUNV)

Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Bunyamwera. #section tr td {vertical-align:text-top;}. SECTION I - Full Virus Name and Prototype Number. Prototype Strain ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/Arbocat/VirusDetails.aspx?ID=79

Bunyamwera virus - WikipediaBunyamwera virus - Wikipedia

Reassortant viruses derived from Bunyamwera virus, such as Ngari virus, which has been associated with large outbreaks of viral ... The Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is a negative-sense single stranded enveloped RNA virus. It is the type species of the ... Bunyamwera virus can infect both humans and Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito). It is named for Bunyamwera, a town in ... The genetic structure of Bunyamwera virus is typical for Bunyavirales viruses, which are a family of enveloped negative-sense ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bunyamwera_virus

Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System? -...Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System? -...

Antibodies to CV virus and other viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup are prevalent in livestock and large wild mammals and in ... Calisher CH, Francy DB, Smith GC, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS, Karabatsos N, Distribution of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in North ... indicating recent infections with CV virus or with a closely related Bunyamwera virus group. Six of the eight women in this ... differences between local virus strains and prototype viruses, or travel to an area in which the virus does occur (23). The two ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/1/4/95-0409_article

British Library EThOS: Impact of interferon β and interferon stimulated gene induction on Bunyamwera virus replicationBritish Library EThOS: Impact of interferon β and interferon stimulated gene induction on Bunyamwera virus replication

Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype virus for the genus Orthobunyavirus and the family Bunyaviridae. BUNV is a ... Impact of interferon β and interferon stimulated gene induction on Bunyamwera virus replication ... A recombinant virus, rBUNdelNSs, that is unable to express the NSs protein, does not inhibit cellular transcription and is thus ... The first line of defence against viral infection is the interferon (IFN) response, which must be overcome by a virus for ...
more infohttp://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.558118

Isolations of an Arbovirus of the Bunyamwera Group (Tensaw Virus) from Mosquitoes in the Southeastern United States, 1960-1963 ...Isolations of an Arbovirus of the Bunyamwera Group (Tensaw Virus) from Mosquitoes in the Southeastern United States, 1960-1963 ...

... also the virus was isolated from the blood of a dog. No evidence of infection was noted in wild birds or in sentinel chickens. ... a member of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group, was isolated on 156 occasions from 365,654 mosquitoes tested between 1960-1963 from ... Tensaw virus, a member of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group, was isolated on 156 occasions from 365,654 mosquitoes tested between ... Isolations of an Arbovirus of the Bunyamwera Group (Tensaw Virus) from Mosquitoes in the Southeastern United States, 1960-1963 ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1969.18.92

Experimental Vector-Host Studies with Tensaw Virus, a Newly Recognized Member of the Bunyamwera Arbovirus Group | The American...Experimental Vector-Host Studies with Tensaw Virus, a Newly Recognized Member of the Bunyamwera Arbovirus Group | The American...

Transmission of Tensaw virus from infected dogs to suckling mice was accomplished in the laboratory by Anopheles ... Results obtained from intrathoracic inoculation of Tensaw virus into Culex quinquefasciatus Say indicated this species to be an ... Abstract Tensaw virus inoculated into various vertebrates by the subcutaneous route produced no outward signs of infection. ... Experimental Vector-Host Studies with Tensaw Virus, a Newly Recognized Member of the Bunyamwera Arbovirus Group * W. D. Sudia, ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1969.18.98

Homotypic interaction of Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsid protein  - Enlighten: PublicationsHomotypic interaction of Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsid protein - Enlighten: Publications

Leonard, V.H.J., Kohl, A. , Osborne, J.C., McLees, A. and Elliott, R.M. (2005) Homotypic interaction of Bunyamwera virus ...
more infohttp://eprints.gla.ac.uk/26423/

Comparison By Electron Microscopy Of Bunyamwera Uganda S And Ilheus VirusesComparison By Electron Microscopy Of Bunyamwera Uganda S And Ilheus Viruses

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Ebola virus disease - WikipediaEbola virus disease - Wikipedia

The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebola_hemorrhagic_fever

Lassa virus - WikipediaLassa virus - Wikipedia

Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lassa_virus

DNA transfection system for the generation of infectious influenza virus - St. Jude Childrens Research HospitalDNA transfection system for the generation of infectious influenza virus - St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

Thogoto Virus. Mononegavirales. Bunyaviridae. Bunyavirus. Bunyamwera. Virus. Mononegavirales. Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus. Hantaan ... The term "vaccine" refers to a composition containing virus, inactivated virus, attenuated virus, split virus, or viral protein ... Mononegavirales viruses, Rhabdoviruses, Flaviviridae viruses, Picornaviridae viruses, Coronaviridea viruses, Togaviridae ... wherein the virus is an influenza A virus. 20. The plasmid-based system of claim 18, wherein the virus is an influenza B virus ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2002/0164770.html

Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases | Infectious Disease | Infectious Disease & Microbiology | Medicine, Nursing & Dentistry |...Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases | Infectious Disease | Infectious Disease & Microbiology | Medicine, Nursing & Dentistry |...

91 Barmah Forest & Ross River Virus Disease, 191. 92 Bunyamwera Viral Fever, 193 ... from well-known scourges such as malaria and cholera to oddballs like strongyloidiasis and Onyongnyong virus disease. Maps ... but apart from agents of general public health importance such as bloodborne viruses, health care-associated infections are not ...
more infohttps://www.wiley.com/en-us/Atlas+of+Human+Infectious+Diseases-p-9781444354690

NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus counteracts the antiviral response of the cell by inhibiting its transcriptional machinery. ...NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus counteracts the antiviral response of the cell by inhibiting its transcriptional machinery. ...

Melao virus; KEY, Keystone virus; LUMV, Lumbo virus; TVTV, Trivittatus virus; BUNV, Bunyamwera virus. Highlighted in grey are ... SBV, Schmallenberg virus; SHAV, Shamonda virus; DOUV, Douglas virus; AKV, Akabane virus; SATV, Sathuperi virus; LACV, La Crosse ... virus; CEV, California encephalitis virus; SAV, San Angelo virus; JSV, Jerry Slough virus; JCV, Jamestown Canyon virus; MELV, ... MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, UK.. 2. MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24828331?dopt=Abstract

Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System? -...Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System? -...

Antibodies to CV virus and other viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup are prevalent in livestock and large wild mammals and in ... Calisher CH, Francy DB, Smith GC, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS, Karabatsos N, Distribution of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in North ... indicating recent infections with CV virus or with a closely related Bunyamwera virus group. Six of the eight women in this ... differences between local virus strains and prototype viruses, or travel to an area in which the virus does occur (23). The two ...
more infohttps://wwwnc-origin.cdc.gov/eid/article/1/4/95-0409

Table 3 - Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous...Table 3 - Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous...

Antibody to CV virus. Antibody to TEN virus. Location. In women with macrocephalic infants: no.(%). In controls: no.(%). In ... Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System? ... Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System?. ... Antibody to Cache Valley and Tensaw viruses in women, by location and birth outcome . ...
more infohttps://wwwnc-origin.cdc.gov/eid/content/1/4/147-t3.htm

The Big Picture Book of Viruses - Baltimore ListingThe Big Picture Book of Viruses - Baltimore Listing

Bunyamwera virus. Vertebrates. Hantavirus. Hantaan virus. Vertebrates. Nairovirus. Nairobi sheep disease virus. Vertebrates. ... Viral Diseases - Virus Names - Virus Families - Virus Hosts - Viruses By Genome Type Big Picture Book of Viruses - FAQ - Submit ... Group I: dsDNA Viruses *Group II: The ssDNA Viruses *Group III: dsRNA Viruses *Group IV: (+)sense RNA Viruses *Group V: (-) ... Nudaurelia capensis b-like viruses. Nudaurelia capensis b virus. Invertebrates. Nudaurelia capensis w-like viruses. Nudaurelia ...
more infohttp://www.virology.net/Big_Virology/BVFamilyGroup.html

Volume 38 Issue 4 | Journal of Medical EntomologyVolume 38 Issue 4 | Journal of Medical Entomology

... and WN viruses, Ae. vexans and Ae. ochraceus of RVF virus, Mansonia of WN and BAG viruses, Mimomyia of WN and BAG viruses, and ... Bunyamwera (BUN) and Ngari (NRI); two Phleboviruses, Rift Valley fever (RVF) and Gabek Forest (GF); one Orbivirus, Ar D 66707 ( ... Four isolates of Ross River virus and nine isolates of Sindbis (SIN) virus were also recovered from members of the Culex ... Detection of Dengue Viruses in Field Caught Male Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore by Type- ...
more infohttps://bioone.org/journals/journal-of-medical-entomology/volume-38/issue-4

Links and References | Cache Valley virus | CDCLinks and References | Cache Valley virus | CDC

Information on Cache Valley virus. Provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Isolation of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) in New York state. J Med Entomol 2006;43:1004-9. ... Cache valley virus in a patient diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 2013;51:1966-9. ... Fatal Cache Valley virus meningoencephalitis associated with rituximab maintenance therapy. Am J Hematol 2018;93:590-4. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/cache-valley/references/index.html

Generation of recombinant lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses with trisegmented genomes stably expressing two additional genes...Generation of recombinant lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses with trisegmented genomes stably expressing two additional genes...

Our results would suggest that unlike the influenza virus (29 and references therein) but similar to bunyamwera virus (30), ... Bluetongue Virus VP6 Acts Early in the Replication Cycle and Can Form the Basis of Chimeric Virus Formation ... The S segment encodes for the virus nucleoprotein and glycoprotein, whereas the L segment encodes for the virus polymerase (L) ... To prepare stocks from rescued viruses, we infected BHK-21 cells and collected virus-containing tissue culture supernatants at ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/106/9/3473.long

Entry of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus | SpringerLinkEntry of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus | SpringerLink

... is a globe-shaped virus covered by a dense icosahedral array of glycoproteins Gn/Gc that mediate the attachment of the virus to ... Role of N-linked glycans on bunyamwera virus glycoproteins in intracellular trafficking, protein folding, and virus infectivity ... Hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins: key structural units for virus cell entry and virus assembly. Viruses, 6: 1801- ... Key Golgi factors for structural and functional maturation of bunyamwera virus. J Virol, 79: 10852-10863.CrossRefPubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12250-016-3858-6

S.I. No. 248/1998 - Safety, Health and Welfare At Work (Biological Agents) (Amendment) Regulations, 1998S.I. No. 248/1998 - Safety, Health and Welfare At Work (Biological Agents) (Amendment) Regulations, 1998

e) Two viruses are identified: one a buffalopox type and the other a variant of the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccination against hepatitis B virus will therefore protect workers who are not affected by hepatitis B virus against ... b) Hepatitis D virus is pathogenic in workers only in the presence of simultaneous or secondary infection caused by hepatitis B ...
more infohttp://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1998/si/248/made/en/print

Peribunyaviridae - WikispeciesPeribunyaviridae - Wikispecies

ICTV Virus Taxonomy 2016. Vernacular names[edit]. English: Vector-borne Bunyamwera virus & relatives. ... Index of Viruses - Bunyaviridae (2009). In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C (Ed), Columbia ... Regnum: Virus. Group V: ssRNA(-) Ordo: Bunyavirales Familia: Peribunyaviridae Genera: Herbevirus - Orthobunyavirus ... Schmaljohn C.S. & Hooper, J.W. 2001: Bunyaviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Fields Virology, 4 Edn, (D.M. Knipe ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Peribunyaviridae
  • A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs protein (NSs4KR) that is resistant to degradation, confirming that degradation is lysine-dependent. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: in fact rBUN4KR had a slight growth advantage over wtBUNV in interferon-competent cells, presumably due to the increased and prolonged presence of NSs. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • The first line of defence against viral infection is the interferon (IFN) response, which must be overcome by a virus for successful replication. (bl.uk)
  • Lassa virus replicates very rapidly, and demonstrates temporal control in replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reverse genetics systems have been now developed for LCMV ( 11 ), LASV ( 12 ), and Tacaribe virus ( 13 ), which are allowing investigators to examine the cis -acting sequences and trans -acting factors that control arenavirus replication and gene expression, as well as assembly and budding ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Subsequently, it was shown that RNA transcribed in vitro from cloned cDNA copies of a number of positive-strand genomes is a much more efficient initiator of infection, and these studies have revolutionized experimental analysis of the replication processes of these viruses ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Tetracistronic minigenomes, which consist of Ebola virus non-coding regions, a reporter gene, and three Ebola virus genes involved in morphogenesis, budding, and entry (VP40, GP 1,2 , and VP24), can be used to produce replication and transcription-competent virus-like particles (trVLPs) containing these minigenomes. (jove.com)
  • The in vitro replication kinetics and yields of the chimeric virus were similar to MODV but the chimeric virus produced larger plaques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replication of primate foamy viruses in natural and experimental hosts. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Bunyamwera virus can repair both insertions and deletions during RNA replication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study allowed the proposal of novel working models for each replication complex, which helped to elucidate the mechanism by which viral macromolecular complexes interact with cellular components to create the unique architecture of virus factories. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • This technique has been applied to study different steps in virus replication and virus-host interactions. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Reverse genetics is an efficient method to study different aspects of RNA viruses replication and interaction with the host ( 4 ). (ijbiotech.com)
  • Everett R, Meredith M, Orr A. The ability of herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein Vmw110 to bind to a ubiquitin-specific protease contributes to its roles in the activation of gene expression and stimulation of virus replication. (labome.org)
  • Recent advances in potexvirus research have produced new models describing virus replication, cell-to-cell movement, encapsidation, R gene-mediated resistance and gene silencing. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In this study, the sequence requirements of the PN motif for yellow fever virus 17D (YFV) replication were determined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In general, individual mutations at either the second, third or fourth positions were tolerated and resulted in replication-competent virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Overall, these experiments suggest that YFV is less dependent on sequence conservation of the PN motif for replication in animal cells than West Nile virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The N-terminal half of the Gc ectodomain was previously shown to be dispensable for virus replication in cell culture (X. Shi, J. Goli, G. Clark, K. Brauburger, and R. M. Elliott, J. Gen. Virol. (ru.nl)
  • The recombinant viruses showed bright autofluorescence under UV light and were competent for replication in various mammalian cell lines. (ru.nl)
  • Although rubella virus infection usually causes a mild disease comprising fever and rash, rubella epidemics have been associated with congenital defects in children of women who became infected during their first trimester of pregnancy (2) . (cdc.gov)
  • Serologic and temporal associations of infection with CV virus and congenital malformations, including primarily AGH, were observed in sheep near San Angelo, Texas, between December 1986 and February 1987, suggesting that this virus causes AGH (13) . (cdc.gov)
  • Tensaw virus inoculated into various vertebrates by the subcutaneous route produced no outward signs of infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Life-threatening Cache Valley virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The teratogenic effects in ruminants are hypothesized to reflect virus circulation in late summer/early autumn 2011, leading to intrauterine infection with SBV during a specific period of gestation ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 2015. Zika virus infection, Philippines, 2012. (springer.com)
  • In most cases, Zika virus infection causes a mild, self-limited illness. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Owing to the mild nature of the disease, more than 80% of Zika virus infection cases likely go unnoticed. (medscape.com)
  • In April 2016, a deputy director at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warned that the risk of Zika virus infection in the United States may have been previously underestimated, citing the increased range of the mosquito vectors (now in 30 US states, up from 12 as previously thought) and the travel risks associated with the 2016 Olympics in Brazil. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus infection is among the nationally notifiable diseases in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • State and local health departments should be informed by healthcare professionals of suspected cases of Zika virus infection to facilitate diagnosis and to reduce the risk of local transmission. (medscape.com)
  • The global prevalence of Zika virus infection has not been widely reported owing to asymptomatic clinical course, clinical resemblance to other infection with other flaviviruses ( dengue , chikungunya ), and difficulty in confirming diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • At least twenty arthropod-borne viruses are associated with known or suspected human infection in Senegal. (gideononline.com)
  • We developed an experimental mouse model to study SBV infection and showed that this virus replicates abundantly in neurons where it causes cerebral malacia and vacuolation of the cerebral cortex. (prolekare.cz)
  • The most well-known bunyaviruses include, for example, the Rift Valley fever virus, which can cause febrile illnesses with severe bleeding in humans," says Dr. Sandra Junglen from the Bonn Institute of Virology, also affiliated with the German Center for Infection Research. (healthcanal.com)
  • We hope our temperature test for estimating the risk of vertebrate infection can be useful for assessing other viruses that keep being discovered," says Dr. Junglen. (healthcanal.com)
  • Human infection with foamy viruses. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Zika virus infection has rapidly emerged as a significant global threat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These are specifically Alzheimer's disease, infection by unicellular parasites (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Entamoeba histolytica and Plasmodium falciparum), maturation of hepatitis C virus, Bunyamwera virus and swine influenza virus, and mitochondrial dysfunction. (cuni.cz)
  • A high number of severe neurologic clinical forms during an epidemic of West Nile virus infection. (osu.edu)
  • Schmidt J, El Mansboury H. Natural and experimaental infection of Egyptian equines with West Nile virus. (osu.edu)
  • Clinical samples were collected in Kenya and southern Somalia, and 27 of 115 (23%) hemorrhagic fever patients tested showed evidence of acute infection with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus as determined by IgM detection, virus isolation, detection of virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or immunohistochemistry. (utmb.edu)
  • The tumors are visible within 4-5 days after infection of the virus. (readtiger.com)
  • Currently the best known treatment for the virus is the removal of the cutaneous tumors and subsequent treatment with antibiotics to prevent infection of the open wounds. (readtiger.com)
  • Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro: preliminary report [published online March 4, 2016]. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed Zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil [published online February 9, 2016]. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Zika virus infection with prolonged maternal viremia and fetal brain abnormalities. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? (jamanetwork.com)
  • Zika virus infection and stillbirths: a case of hydrops fetalis, hydranencephaly and fetal demise. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to identify evidence of Zika virus infection in humans from 1947 to 2007. (bmj.com)
  • Data extracted included seroprevalence of Zika virus infection, age distributions of positive test results and serologic test modalities used. (bmj.com)
  • Evidence of Zika virus infection in humans was found in 29 countries in Africa, 8 countries in Asia and 1 country in Europe. (bmj.com)
  • Historical evidence of Zika virus infection exists regardless of the serologic test modality used. (bmj.com)
  • Existing historical reviews of Zika virus infection have documented the countries where Zika virus infection of humans has been reported, but there still exist gaps in completeness, pertinent detail and accuracy. (bmj.com)
  • Some non-English language articles have not been included in these reviews, which results in the omission of evidence of Zika virus infection in some countries. (bmj.com)
  • Without context, these historical reports of Zika virus infection may not be helpful to current efforts to understand and address the current outbreak in the Americas. (bmj.com)
  • Autofluorescence of the recombinant viruses allowed visualization of different stages of the infection cycle, including virus attachment to the cell surface, budding of virus particles in Golgi membranes, and virus-induced morphological changes to the Golgi compartment at later stages of infection. (ru.nl)
  • Regions of the S and L segments of the two isolates were successfully amplified, and their nucleotide sequences exhibited nearly complete identity with Bunyamwera virus, a mosquito-borne virus not previously associated with severe human disease. (utmb.edu)
  • The woolly monkey lived in the same household as a pet gibbon, Hylobates lar, and the woolly monkey must have been infected by the Gibbon ape leukemia virus, since the isolates are of the same virus species. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Thus, the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has proven to be a superb workhorse in the field of virology and immunology ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2.5%), Powassan (4.2%), St. Louis encephalitis, (3.7%), West Nile (6.0%), Maguari (19.4%), La Crosse (30.3%), and bluetongue (7.8%) viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Thailand confirmed two cases of microcephaly caused by the Zika virus in September 2016. (frontline.in)
  • Estimating contraceptive needs and increasing access to contraception in response to the Zika virus disease outbreak: Puerto Rico, 2016. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Thus, ISG20 sensitivity/resistance may influence the pathogenesis of bunyaviruses, many of which are emerging viruses of clinical or veterinary significance. (asm.org)
  • Based on the discovered viruses researchers conclude that the ancester to all bunyaviruses must have existed in arthropods such as insects. (healthcanal.com)
  • 2003) and the emergence of Sin Nombre virus (1993) (Hjelle and Glass, 2000) and most recently Schmallenberg virus (2011) (DEFRA, 2012) are prime examples of the devastating and worldwide toll bunyaviruses have on health and economies. (worldwidescience.org)
  • A well-established animal model for pathogenicity of arthropod-transmitted bunyaviruses does exist for La Crosse virus (LACV) virus in mice. (asmscience.org)
  • Despite the significant economic and medical impact of the huge RNA virus family, the interactions of bunyaviruses with the innate immune system are only incompletely understood. (asmscience.org)
  • Thus, a better understanding of the interplay between bunyaviruses and the innate immune response, as with most other viruses, can help in the design of new strategies for prevention and therapy. (asmscience.org)
  • There is, however no record, as yet, of the isolation of the Zika virus from the Indian subcontinent. (frontline.in)
  • Field male Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) adults caught from fixed monitoring stations weekly for 1 yr were screened for dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4). (bioone.org)
  • Functional entry of dengue virus into Aedes albopictus mosquito cells is dependent on clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (springer.com)
  • The virus is transmitted by the day-biting mosquito Aedes aegypti . (frontline.in)
  • the chikungunya virus was isolated from Aedes africanus collected from African forests. (frontline.in)
  • The virus has been found in a variety of local mosquito species, notably Aedes furcifer-taylori, Ae. (gideononline.com)
  • Reporter gene expression in r3LCMV-infected cells provided an accurate surrogate of levels of virus multiplication. (pnas.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene of Zika virus. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have identified small molecule inhibitors of Tacaribe virus ( 7 ) and LASV ( 8 ) cell entry, but their antiviral activity in animal models of HF arenaviruses has not been examined. (pnas.org)
  • The use of protocells that interact with, but do not accumulate, viruses may provide significant advantages over current antiviral drugs, and this general approach may have wide potential for antiviral development. (jove.com)
  • All viruses encode for at least one viral interferon (IFN) antagonist, which is used to subvert the cellular IFN response, a powerful antiviral innate immune response. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • A C57U nucleotide mutation in a predicted RNA stem structure (nt 11-16/56-61) of the 5′ non-coding region (5′NCR) of dengue 2 (DEN-2) 16681 virus is partially attenuating, but unstable during serial passage of certain candidate DEN-2 PDK-53-based vaccine viruses containing this mutation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1992. Maturation of Hantaan virus glycoproteins G1 and G2. (springer.com)
  • 2014. Hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins: key structural units for virus cell entry and virus assembly. (springer.com)
  • The virus resembles other known flavivirus structures with the exception of approximately 10 amino acids surrounding the Asn154 glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins comprising the icosahedral shell, the carbohydrate moiety of which may be the attachment site of the virus to host cells. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus produces noncoding RNAs using a multiseudoknot structure that confounds a cellular exonuclease. (springer.com)
  • [ 2 ] The spectrum of Zika virus disease overlaps with other that of arboviral infections, but rash (maculopapular and likely immune-mediated) typically predominates. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus was first described in a febrile rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Entebbe, Uganda, and was reported in a human field worker shortly thereafter. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Currently, Zika virus is known to be widely distributed outside of Africa. (medscape.com)
  • For the latest information concerning Zika virus, see also Medscape's Zika Virus Resource Center . (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus is well-adapted to grow in various hosts, ranging from arthropods to vertebrates. (medscape.com)
  • Sirohi et al described the structure of mature Zika virus based on cryoelectron microscopy. (medscape.com)
  • The Zika virus was first identified, in 1947, in the blood sample of a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. (frontline.in)
  • Angelica Pereira with her daughter, Luiza, who was born with microcephaly because of the Zika virus, and her husband at their home in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil. (frontline.in)
  • The most recent example that has come to our notice is the Zika virus, which has created a stir (or fear) in the Americas, particularly Brazil. (frontline.in)
  • Actually, evidence of the presence of the Zika virus in India was available as early as the 1950s. (frontline.in)
  • Has the Zika virus been looked at seriously enough in India? (frontline.in)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has newly emerged as a significant global threat, especially to pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: a case study. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Computed tomographic findings in microcephaly associated with Zika virus. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Zika virus associated with microcephaly. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Ventura CV, Maia M, Bravo-Filho V, Góis AL, Belfort R Jr. Zika virus in Brazil and macular atrophy in a child with microcephaly. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Zika virus and birth defects: reviewing the evidence for causality. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Comunicado de prensa: presentan informe arboviral con actualizacion de datos relacionados al virus del Zika. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Considering 6 decades have passed since the first identification of the virus, it is perhaps unexpected that Zika virus was recognised only recently as capable of causing disease epidemics. (bmj.com)
  • however, there has been little study of the earlier data on Zika virus. (bmj.com)
  • thus, little is known about the historical epidemiology of Zika virus. (bmj.com)
  • Consequently, conclusions about Zika virus epidemiology have been drawn based on incomplete data. (bmj.com)
  • To provide context for past reports of Zika virus, we synthesised the data on country-level seroprevalence, age distribution of seroprevalence and estimates of seroprevalence by serologic test modality. (bmj.com)
  • The virus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was isolated from blood of affected cattle, and similar clinical manifestations were observed in experimentally infected calves ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These virus-induced acute lesions are useful in understanding the progression from vacuolation to porencephaly and extensive tissue destruction, often observed in aborted lambs and calves in naturally occurring Schmallenberg cases. (prolekare.cz)
  • Not in Schmallenberg but instead in the African tropical forest of the Ivory Coast, where the virologist has been conducting research for more than ten years, she set off on the search for new viruses. (healthcanal.com)
  • The vaccinia virus is a known prevention method for the Monkey Poxvirus through intradermal inoculation, it has been found that intradermal inoculation of the vaccinia virus does not provide resistance to the Yaba monkey tumor virus however. (readtiger.com)
  • The geographic distribution of this virus includes all North America, except the extreme southeastern states and southern Mexico (11) . (cdc.gov)
  • Cache Valley virus disease is rarely diagnosed in North America, in part because laboratories rarely test for it. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Tick-borne flaviviruses associated with serious human disease include tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results obtained from intrathoracic inoculation of Tensaw virus into Culex quinquefasciatus Say indicated this species to be an unlikely vector. (ajtmh.org)
  • and Grand Arbaud virus , Precarious Point virus , and Manawa virus would each be given individual species status. (asm.org)
  • Further testing on CSF included real-time PCR for cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HSV1/2, West Nile virus (WNV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and free-living amoebae ( Acanthamoeba species, Balamuthia mandrillaris , and Naegleria fowleri ), all of which were negative. (asm.org)
  • Gabek Forest - Gabek Forest virus, a Phlebovirus, has been identified in sandflies (Phlebotomus species) in Senegal (1990 to 1995). (gideononline.com)
  • In the present report, in vitro translation analyses of the S mRNA species recovered from virus-infected cells indicate that a single size class of mRNA directs the synthesis of N and NSS. (semanticscholar.org)
  • From these tumors the virus was isolated and determined to be its own species of virus. (readtiger.com)
  • They can be divided into 47 species and four ungrouped viruses (Table B1). (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • We showed that SBV has a wide tropism in cell culture and "synthetic" SBV replicates in vitro as efficiently as wild type virus. (prolekare.cz)
  • Transcription and translation of Newcastle disease virus mRNA's in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • West Nile Virus Recombinant DNA Vaccine Protects Mouse and Horse from Virus Challenge and Expresses In Vitro a Noninfectious Recombinant Antigen That Can Be Used in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays. (osu.edu)
  • Other flaviviruses such as Modoc virus (MODV) and Culex flavivirus (CxFV) have host ranges restricted to vertebrates and insects, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Names on the left of each sequence indicate the name of the virus and the corresponding GenBank accession number. (nih.gov)
  • negative Gram by nucleic acid sequence analysis and a BLAST search, showed 98% sequence identity with 6 CVV strains but only 77% identity with Maguari virus ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • SBV has been identified as most related to Sathuperi virus, and for the small and large segments, Shamonda virus segments show the highest sequence identity. (cdc.gov)
  • Construction of a Minigenome Rescue System for Measles Virus, AIK-c Strain', Iranian Journal of Biotechnology , 12(2), pp. 56-62. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Measles virus is a negative-stranded non-segmented RNA virus. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Objectives:Here, we describe the construction of a new helper cell line for rescue of measles virus minigenome. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Results:Our results indicated that measles virus minigenome could be rescued in this constructed helper cell line. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Conclusions:Through this system, the measles virus minigenome was rescued. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Finally, the recent descriptions of SFTSV and Heartland virus also indicate that the public health importance of the Uukuniemi group viruses must be reevaluated. (asm.org)
  • Uukuniemi virus strain S23, the prototype of the latter group, was originally isolated in 1960 from a pool of Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in southern Finland ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • LeDantec - LeDantec virus is a rhabdovirus which is distinct from the vesicular stomatitis group 1. (gideononline.com)
  • The first group is comprised of viruses that are transmitted horizontally between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This group can be further divided into mosquito-borne and tick-borne viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The resulting progeny virus contained specific genetic tags characteristic of the parental cDNA clones. (pnas.org)
  • Study of the molecular biology of viruses with RNA genomes has been hampered by the inherent limitations imposed by the nature of their genetic material. (pnas.org)
  • The genetic elements that modulate the differential host ranges and transmission cycles of these viruses have not been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background:In the recent decade, the reverse genetics method has been broadly used for rescue of negative-stranded RNA viruses from cDNA or viral minigenomes. (ijbiotech.com)
  • By reverse genetics, RNA viruses could be rescued from cDNA ( 5-10 ). (ijbiotech.com)
  • Reverse genetics has also been used to design new vaccines and to produce oncolytic viruses ( 11-16 ). (ijbiotech.com)
  • Infections of livestock with these viruses may produce low-titer viremia with no apparent clinical disease, or high-titer viremia and severe clinical illness in the dam. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatitis A is a virus transmitted through contaminated food or water or direct contact with a person who already is infected with the virus and is the mildest form of viral hepatitis infections. (bioedonline.org)
  • In Brasier A, García-Sastre A, Lemon S (ed), Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Virus Infections . (asmscience.org)
  • Apoptotic cell death is regarded as the predominant cause of lymphopenia in both virus infections. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • This virus is in the same family as Ebola virus. (bioedonline.org)
  • There are no approved vaccines or specific treatments for the disease caused by these viruses, and work with infectious Ebola viruses is restricted to biosafety level 4 laboratories, significantly limiting the research on these viruses. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, the tetracistronic trVLP assay represents the most comprehensive lifecycle modeling system available for Ebola viruses, and has tremendous potential for use in investigating the biology of Ebola viruses in future. (jove.com)
  • Triggered by epidemics such as SARS and Ebola, virologists are now reaching out to discover the plethora of unknown viruses lurking in natural reservoirs such as insects, in an attempt to forecast pandemic risks. (healthcanal.com)