A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A genus of RNA fungi viruses in the family TOTIVIRIDAE. Some of the viruses contain additional satellite RNA or defective RNA. Transmission occurs during cell division, sporogenesis and cell fusion. The type species is Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.

Seroepidemiology of California and Bunyamwera serogroup (Bunyaviridae) virus infections in native populations of Alaska. (1/101)

This study investigated the geographic distribution and prevalence of antibodies to California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in Native populations of Alaska, and demographic and ecologic risk factors associated with exposure. Sera (n = 1,635) from 18 communities were screened using an ELISA. All age groups were tested for antibodies to Jamestown Canyon (JC), Inkoo (INK), snowshoe hare (SSH), and Northway (NOR) viruses; persons > or = 45 years old (n = 90) from six communities were additionally tested for antibodies to Tahyna (TAH), Batai (BAT), Cache Valley (CV), and Sindbis (SIN) viruses. Thirty free-ranging mammals were tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for antibodies to all eight viruses and to Getah (GET) virus. In Natives, overall antibody prevalence was 24.9% (JC = 17.6%, monotypic JC = 6.5%, INK = 11.1%, monotypic INK = 0.6%, SSH = 6.8%, monotypic SSH = 3.5%, and NOR = 6.2%). Five TAH, CV, and BAT virus exposures may be serologic cross-reactions, and no SIN virus antibodies were detected. Sindbis-like virus antibodies were found in 30% of the mammals. Most mammals had antibodies to NOR (83.3%) and California serogroup (70.0%) viruses; no GET virus exposures were found. Significant risk factors for human bunyavirus exposures were age group, ethnic-linguistic group, biotic province, climate zone, terrestrial vegetation, and presence of some ungulates and small mammals in communities. Sex was not a significant risk factor.  (+info)

RNA binding properties of bunyamwera virus nucleocapsid protein and selective binding to an element in the 5' terminus of the negative-sense S segment. (2/101)

The genome of Bunyamwera virus (BUN) (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) comprises three negative-sense RNA segments which act as transcriptional templates for the viral polymerase only when encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein (N). Previous studies have suggested that the encapsidation signal may reside within the 5' terminus of each segment. The BUN N protein was expressed as a 6-histidine-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by metal chelate chromatography. An RNA probe containing the 5'-terminal 32 and 3'-terminal 33 bases of the BUN S (small) genome segment was used to investigate binding by the N protein in vitro using gel mobility shift and filter binding assays. On acrylamide gels a number of discrete RNA-N complexes were resolved, and analysis of filter binding data indicated a degree of cooperativity in N protein binding. RNA-N complexes were resistant to digestion with up to 1 microg of RNase A per ml. Competition assays with a variety of viral and nonviral RNAs identified a region within the 5' terminus of the BUN S segment for which N had a high preference for binding. This site may constitute the signal for initiation of encapsidation by N.  (+info)

Bunyamwera bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs is a nonessential gene product that contributes to viral pathogenesis. (3/101)

Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) contains a tripartite negative-sense RNA genome. The smallest RNA segment, S, encodes the nucleocapsid protein N and a nonstructural protein, NSs, in overlapping reading frames. We have generated a mutant virus lacking NSs, called BUNdelNSs, by reverse genetics. Compared with the wild-type (wt) virus, BUNdelNSs exhibited a smaller plaque size and generated titers of virus approximately 1 log lower. In mammalian cells, the mutant expressed greatly increased levels of N protein; significantly, the marked inhibition of host cell protein synthesis shown by wt virus was considerably impaired by BUNdelNSs. When inoculated by the intracerebral route BUNdelNSs killed BALB/c mice with a slower time course than wt and exhibited a reduced cell-to-cell spread, and titers of virus in the brain were lower. In addition, the abrogation of NSs expression changed Bunyamwera virus from a noninducer to an inducer of an interferon-beta promoter. These results suggest that, although not essential for growth in tissue culture or in mice, the bunyavirus NSs protein has several functions in the virus life cycle and contributes to viral pathogenesis.  (+info)

The Bunyamwera virus nonstructural protein NSs inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a minireplicon system. (4/101)

The small (S) genomic segment of Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) encodes the nucleocapsid protein, N, and a nonstructural protein, NSs, in overlapping reading frames. In order to elucidate the function of NSs, we established a plasmid-based minireplicon system using mammalian cells that express large amounts of T7 RNA polymerase. Expression of N, the viral polymerase protein (L), and a minireplicon containing a reporter gene was sufficient to reconstitute functional virus nucleocapsids. Coexpression of NSs, however, led to a dose-dependent decrease in reporter activity without affecting expression of controls. The inhibition could not be reversed by overexpression of N, L or the minireplicon, indicating that the NSs effect was not caused by a reduction in virus gene expression. The NSs proteins of two other members of the Bunyavirus genus, Guaroa virus and Lumbo virus, were also inhibitory in our system. The intracellular localisation of Bunyamwera virus NSs was investigated and found to be predominantly cytoplasmic, but intranuclear inclusion was also detected. Taken together, these data suggest that, in mammalian cells, the bunyavirus NSs protein controls the activity of the viral polymerase by a highly conserved mechanism.  (+info)

Protein synthesis in Bunyamwera virus-infected cells. (5/101)

In Vero cells infected with Bunyamwera virus there is a rapid inhibition of cell RNA and protein synthesis to levels of 30 and 3% respectively of the control rate, both the rate of inhibition and the time lag before its initiation being multiplicity dependent. Using u.v.-irradiated virus, investigation of the mechanism of inhibition of host cell protein synthesis indicates that synthesis of new virus components is required for inhibition to occur. Quantitative comparison of the proteins synthesized in infected cells shows that at higher m.o.i. synthesis of virus, as well as cellular proteins, is inhibited. Bunyamwera virus-infected Vero cells synthesized three virus-specific proteins identified as the structural virion proteins. Nucleoprotein is synthesized predominantly early in infection while the major envelope glycoprotein and the minor glycoprotein are synthesized predominantly late in the infection cycle.  (+info)

A reassortant bunyavirus isolated from acute hemorrhagic fever cases in Kenya and Somalia. (6/101)

In late 1997 and early 1998, a large outbreak of hemorrhagic fever occurred in East Africa. Clinical samples were collected in Kenya and southern Somalia, and 27 of 115 (23%) hemorrhagic fever patients tested showed evidence of acute infection with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus as determined by IgM detection, virus isolation, detection of virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or immunohistochemistry. However, two patients (one from Kenya and the other from Somalia) whose illness met the hemorrhagic fever case definition yielded virus isolates that were not RVF. Electron microscopy suggested these two virus isolates were members of the family Bunyaviridae. RT-PCR primers were designed to detect bunyavirus RNA in these samples. Regions of the S and L segments of the two isolates were successfully amplified, and their nucleotide sequences exhibited nearly complete identity with Bunyamwera virus, a mosquito-borne virus not previously associated with severe human disease. Unexpectedly, the virus M segment appeared to be reassorted, as the sequences detected exhibited 32-33% nucleotide and 28% amino acid differences relative to the corresponding M segment sequence of Bunyamwera virus. The association of this reassortant bunyavirus, proposed name Garissa virus, with severe disease is supported by the detection of the virus RNA in acute-phase sera taken from 12 additional hemorrhagic fever cases in the region.  (+info)

Bunyamwera bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs counteracts the induction of alpha/beta interferon. (7/101)

Production of alpha/beta interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) in response to viral infection is one of the main defense mechanisms of the innate immune system. Many viruses therefore encode factors that subvert the IFN system to enhance their virulence. Bunyamwera virus (BUN) is the prototype of the Bunyaviridae family. By using reverse genetics, we previously produced a recombinant virus lacking the nonstructural protein NSs (BUNdelNSs) and showed that NSs is a nonessential gene product that contributes to viral pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that BUNdelNSs is a strong inducer of IFN-alpha/beta, whereas in cells infected with the wild-type counterpart expressing NSs (wild-type BUN), neither IFN nor IFN mRNA could be detected. IFN induction by BUNdelNSs correlated with activation of NF-kappaB and was dependent on virally produced double-stranded RNA and on the IFN transcription factor IRF-3. Furthermore, both in cultured cells and in mice lacking a functional IFN-alpha/beta system, BUNdelNSs replicated to wild-type BUN levels, whereas in IFN-competent systems, wild-type BUN grew more efficiently. These results suggest that BUN NSs is an IFN induction antagonist that blocks the transcriptional activation of IFN-alpha/beta in order to increase the virulence of Bunyamwera virus.  (+info)

Polymorphism and structural maturation of bunyamwera virus in Golgi and post-Golgi compartments. (8/101)

The Golgi apparatus is the assembly site for a number of complex enveloped viruses. Using high-preservation methods for electron microscopy, we have detected two previously unknown maturation steps in the morphogenesis of Bunyamwera virus in BHK-21 cells. The first maturation takes place inside the Golgi stack, where annular immature particles transform into dense, compact structures. Megalomicin, a drug that disrupts the trans side of the Golgi complex, reversibly blocks transformation, showing that a functional trans-Golgi is needed for maturation. The second structural change seems to take place during the egress of viral particles from cells, when a coat of round-shaped spikes becomes evident. A fourth viral assembly was detected in infected cells: rigid tubular structures assemble in the Golgi region early in infection and frequently connect with mitochondria. In Vero cells, the virus induces an early and spectacular fragmentation of intracellular membranes while productive infection progresses. Assembly occurs in fragmented Golgi stacks and generates tubular structures, as well as the three spherical viral forms. These results, together with our previous studies with nonrelated viruses, show that the Golgi complex contains key factors for the structural transformation of a number of enveloped viruses that assemble intracellularly.  (+info)

The NSs proteins of bunyaviruses are the viral interferon antagonists, counteracting the hosts antiviral response to infection. During high-multiplicity infection of cultured mammalian cells with Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), NSs is rapidly degraded after reaching peak levels of expression at 12hpi. Through the use of inhibitors this was shown to be the result of proteasomal degradation. A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs protein (NSs4KR) that is resistant to degradation, confirming that degradation is lysine-dependent. However, despite repeated attempts, no direct ubiquitylation of NSs in infected cells could be demonstrated. This suggests that degradation of NSs, although lysine-dependent, may be achieved through an indirect mechanism. Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: in fact rBUN4KR had a slight growth ...
A cDNA containing the complete coding sequence of the Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae) L genome segment has been constructed and cloned into two recombinant vaccinia virus expression systems. In the first, the L gene is under control of vaccinia virus P7.5 promoter; in the second, the L gene is under control of the bacteriophage T7 phi 10 promoter, and expression of the L gene requires coinfection with a second recombinant vaccinia virus which synthesizes T7 RNA polymerase. Both systems express a protein which is the same size as the Bunyamwera virus L protein and is recognized by a monospecific L antiserum. The expressed L protein was shown to be functional in synthesizing Bunyamwera virus RNA in a nucleocapsid transfection assay: recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells were transfected with purified Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsids, and subsequently, total cellular RNA was analyzed by Northern (RNA) blotting. No Bunyamwera virus RNA was detected in control transfections, but in cells ...
Summary Purified preparations of Belmont virus were shown to be very similar morphologically and biochemically to those of Bunyamwera virus. Comparisons of the synthesis of virus-specifed proteins in Vero and BHK-21 cells confirm the close taxonomic relationship. Total protein synthesis was inhibited 95% by 23 h post-infection with Belmont virus; a similar reduction occurred earlier in Bunyamwera virus-infected cells. This inhibition was multiplicity dependent, and synthesis of the host protein component was inhibited more severely. When cells were labelled late during infection at an m.o.i. of 1, the four structural proteins were readily resolved by gel electrophoresis. A small possibly non-structural protein (p14 for Belmont, p13 for Bunyamwera) was also identified late in infection in both hosts. As in the virion, the small envelope protein (P28) of Belmont virus was not glycosylated, whereas the large envelope protein G107, and the corresponding G1 and G2 of Bunyamwera virus, were labelled
The first line of defence against viral infection is the interferon (IFN) response, which must be overcome by a virus for successful replication. Pattern recognition receptors detect virus which triggers induction of IFNβ. Secreted IFNβ stimulates the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway and the upregulation of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) culminating with expression of hundreds of antiviral proteins. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype virus for the genus Orthobunyavirus and the family Bunyaviridae. BUNV is a trisegmented single stranded negative sense RNA virus whose genome comprises the Large (L), Medium (M) and Small (S) RNA segments. The L segment encodes the RNA polymerase, the M segment the two glycoproteins Gn and Gc and a non-structural protein NSm, and the S segment the nucleoprotein and a non-structural protein NSs in overlapping reading frames. The NSs protein interferes with RNA polymerase II mediated transcription thereby inhibiting cellular mRNA production, including IFN ...
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which is responsible for replication and transcription of the viral RNA genome using antigenomic RNA as an intermediate. During transcription, synthesizes subgenomic RNAs and assures their capping by a cap-snatching mechanism. It consists in the hijacking and cleavage via N-terminal endonuclease activity of host capped pre-mRNAs. These short capped RNAs are then used as primers for viral transcription. The 3-end of subgenomic mRNAs molecules are not polyadenylated. As a consequence of the use of the same enzyme for both transcription and replication, these mechanisms need to be well coordinated.
Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a member of the Bunyavirales order, Orthobunyavirus genus, and Bunyamwera serogroup, which was first isolated in 1956 from Culiseta inornata mosquitos collected in Utahs Cache Valley. CVV is an enveloped arbovirus, nominally 80-120 nm in diameter, whose genome is composed of three single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The large segment of related bunyaviruses is approximately 6800 bases in length and encodes a probable viral polymerase. The middle CVV segment has a 4463-nucleotide sequence and the smallest segment encodes for the nucleocapsid, and a second non-structural protein. CVV has been known to cause outbreaks of spontaneous abortion and congenital malformations in ruminants such as sheep and cattle. CVV rarely infects humans, but when they are infected it has caused encephalitis and multiorgan failure. The Cache Valley Virus genome is split into three parts. The three parts are called the small, medium, and large segments, based on the number of ...
Morphological changes of nucleoli were long known as a hallmark of orthobunyavirus infection (60). Moreover, recently a nucleolar localization sequence important for NSs action was described for the orthobunyavirus SBV (45). Our findings that Elongin C (i) colocalizes with nucleolin in uninfected cells, (ii) contributes to the NSs-mediated RNAP II degradation, and (iii) becomes redistributed in the presence of NSs are in line with those earlier observations. Thus, Elongin C appears to be a player in the anti-IFN strategy of LACV, a view further underscored by the increase in IFN induction and RNAP II activity by, log10 step in Elongin C-deficient cells that were infected with wt LACV.. The cellular Elongin complex consisting of Elongin A, B, and C is able to foster both the elongation of mRNA transcription by RNAP II (56) and (the B/C complex) the degradation of RPB1 under conditions of stress (53-55). These activities are congruent with the action of orthobunyavirus NSs, which targets exactly ...
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Falls are an all-too common occurrence among seniors, and the causes of falls can vary widely-from biological factors like changes in eyesight or hearing to environmental ones, such as missing a step or tripping on a rug.. While Belmont Village is in the process of piloting a new fall-prevention program with TIRR Memorial Hermann at our West University and Hunters Creek communities this summer, all Belmont Village communities take proactive measures to prevent falls-starting from the first day residents arrive.. Prevention Starts from Day One. Upon move-in, Belmont Villages teams evaluate each resident closely to determine the full continuum of care each resident requires. This includes evaluating levels of fitness, such as agility and range of motion, as well as questionnaires to determine seniors confidence in tending to their own self-care. This baseline is then used to provide ongoing monitoring and care.. To reduce the chance of falls, Belmont Village partners with professional ...
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The Kimberly-Clark Professional molding plant in Belmont that produces highway work zone safety products will close in June, resulting in the loss of about 180 jobs here, according to an announcement from Kimberly-Clark in Dallas. Meetings were conducted earlier this week with the 180 employees who work at the Belmont facility to notify them of the plans to close the mill, according to a statement from Bob Brand of the Kimberly-Clark Corp. communications department. Brand said eligible employees will receive a severance package, and Kimberly-Clark Professional . . .
For once were on the same page, TJ, but Id have felt the same about any change in distance.. The above announcement is yet another example of the short-sighted, self-serving thinking that plagues American Thoroughbred racing.. Does this decision actually allay the fears of horsemen reluctant to compete in a delayed first leg of the Triple Crown at a different venue with the most demanding distance?. The setting sequence switches could have been avoided with cooperation. Churchill Downs and Pimlico are gambling that the disease can be managed without another infection wave so that live attendance will eventually be allowed. Belmont has chosen to conduct their event while the window of opportunity still exists which should have been to their credit.. Regardless of where and when the race is viewed, NYRA was obligated to maintain the quality of their product for its customers as well as for the contestants and their connections. The Belmont Stakes is an industry cornerstone; built on its ...
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Horse Racing Forum - Belmont Stakes - I too needed the Fencer to get up to at least 3rd but no. I thought I had it but the finish line came a bit too early. Should have taken Winters observation a little more serious on Jovias works at Belmont earlier in the year. Nice call Winter you always give us unique advice. I did look into it but kept him off. Like my earlier posts I wheeled Sir Winston and Master Fencer in all spots in exotics so I still got the exacta to cover my bets but no profit. Good analysis by many on here. Im getting closer :) North
Horse Racing Forum - Belmont Stakes - zowcownow said... Maybe the best way to handicap the race is betting on the 4 jockeys who you think can win with a competent ride. Lets see --- Ortiz jr (wins a lot) - Ortiz (wins a lot at Belmont) - Lepareaux (really hot right now) - and Johnny V (Pletcher angle). Ok Ill box these 4 in an exacta and call it a day. No handicapping required. IF you think its a jockeys race, then you would have to play Lezcano wouldnt you? Hes the top rider at BEL
The crowd of over 100,000 at Elmont was once again on its feet with a huge roar, ready to see history. Each fan in Belmont Park anticipated a triumph like many had never seen in their lifetimes...
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BABA President:. Constance Ihrke Email: [email protected] Meetings: Second Thur, 9 am. Historic Belmont Firehouse,. 900 SE 35th. www.belmontbusiness.org. Be a member: Belmont Area Business Association is having a great beginning of the new year with a strong start to the annual membership drive.. Mix and mingle: Buy your tickets for the Belmont Area Business Association Annual Dinner taking place Thursday, February 20 at Tabor Space, 5441 SE Belmont St. Great food, silent auction and business networking. $20 per person or two guests for $35.. Buy tickets read about membership and join online at: www.belmontdistrict.org. Yoga for kids: BABA member business Shakti House at 1401 Morrison is excited to be offering special kids acroyoga workshops: 5-8 year olds on 3-4 and 9-13 year olds 4:30-5:30 pm Saturday, February 1.. For other classes and programs and registration information: shaktihousepdx.com.. ...
This years topsy-turvy Triple Crown trail comes to an end in a Belmont Stakes without the Kentucky Derby and Preakness winners or the expected favorite who dropped out. It does come with questions about...
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Favored Tiz the Law has won the 152nd Belmont Stakes in a race thats the first to open the Triple Crown rescheduled during the coronavirus pandemic.
Weekend horse racing features a three-day Belmont Stakes festival in New York that oozes class from start to finish, the Epsom Derby and Oaks, the French Derby and a Breeders Cup Win and Youre In event in Japan.
Tiz the Law won an unprecedented Belmont Stakes, claiming victory Saturday at the first race of a rejiggered Triple Crown schedule in front of eerily empty grandstands.
Champion Royal Delta, who will defend her title in the June 15 Fleur de Lis at Churchill Downs, grazes outside Hall of Fame trainer Bill Motts barn at Belmont June 6. ...
Helwan, a 4-year-old colt from France making his first start in the United States, broke down in the backstretch during the fourth race at Belmont Park on Saturday and had to be euthanized. Jose Ortiz
Trainer Todd Pletcher, who has won two of the last five Belmont Stakes, will once again be a participant in the race this year. How many runners he has, however, will depend upon decisions that will be forthcoming from his owners.
Belmont Stakes Odds, Contender and Post Positions PP Horse Odds Jockey Trainer 1 Bourbonic 15-1 Kendrick Carmouche Todd Pletcher 2 Essential Quality 2
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AdvantageWagering is the place for expert analysis of the Belmont Stakes, and expert information about the best places to bet the race!
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Statistics: 2018 , 2017. 2017: Scored a goal against Niagara (8/27)... Recorded a shot in every game played... Appeared in three games before redshirting due to injury... Prior to Belmont: Played freshman and sophomore seasons for head coach Aaron Smith at Horizon High School... Played for the Colorado Rush for head coach Sean Bushey.... Personal: Majoring in Neuroscience with an interest in artificial intelligence... ...
Stephen Whyno The Associated Press Horse racings Triple Crown will look different this year from start to finish. The Belmont Stakes will be run...
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Sir Winston gave the Triple Crown another unexpected turn, rallying in the stretch to capture the Belmont Stakes in a 10-1 upset. The win gave trainer Mark Casse the final two jewels of the showcase for 3-year-old thoroughbreds.
Complete information from the post position draw on the 2018 Belmont Stakes, as Justify looks to become the 13th Triple Crown winner
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The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae[16] ... Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03 ...
Evidence that Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in North America are associated with congenital defects such as macrocephaly and/or ... Coleman PH (1969). "Tensaw virus, a new member of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group from the Southern United States". Am. J. Trop ... Tensaw orthobunyavirus is a virus in the genus Orthobunyavirus of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group, order Bunyavirales. It is ... Chamberlain RW, Sudia WD, Coleman PH (1969). "Isolations of an arbovirus of the Bunyamwera group (Tensaw virus) from mosquitoes ...
A closely associated disease is the Bunyamwera virus, which is of the same family and genus as the Batai virus (BATV); it is ... Batai virus is part of a diverse group of arthropod-borne viruses. Classified via the Baltimore scheme, Batai virus is a ... Associated viruses include Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia ... Batai virus is geographically spread throughout Asia and Europe. It has been shown that batai viruses from Japan, Malaysia and ...
... where the type virus of the genus, Bunyamwera virus, was first isolated. ICTV Report: Peribunyaviridae. ... These include Akhtuba virus, Fulton virus, Khurdun virus, Lakamha virus, largemouth bass bunyavirus, Eriocheir sinensis bunya- ... like virus and Wenling crustacean virus 9. "Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV ... Its name partially derives from Bunyamwera, Uganda, where the founding species was first isolated. A number of viruses that ...
Bunya: from Bunyamwera, place in Uganda, where type virus was isolated. Smithburn, K. C.; Haddow, A. J.; Mahaffy, A. F. (March ... California encephalitis virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus and Snowshoe hare virus vector: mosquitoes ... "Bunyaviridae - Negative Sense RNA Viruses - Negative Sense RNA Viruses (2011)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ... Viruses. 12 (9): 1010. doi:10.3390/v12091010. Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ...
Virus genomes (either DNA or RNA) are extremely tightly packed into the viral capsid. Many viruses are therefore little more ... Structurally characterised viral nucleoproteins include influenza, rabies, Ebola, Bunyamwera, Schmallenberg, Hazara, Crimean- ... Baudin, F; Bach, C; Cusack, S; Ruigrok, R W (1994-07-01). "Structure of influenza virus RNP. I. Influenza virus nucleoprotein ... Some viruses are simple ribonucleoproteins, containing only one molecule of RNA and a number of identical protein molecules. ...
Yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika, Bouboui and Bunyamwera viruses have been isolated from members of the furcifer group. Ae. ... Diallo, D; Sall, AA; Diagne, CT; Faye, O; Faye, O; Ba, Y; Hanley, KA; Buenemann, M; Weaver, SC; Diallo, M (2014). "Zika virus ... furcifer is involved in monkey-to-man and man-to-man transmission of yellow fever, is a potential vector of dengue virus ... Jupp, PG; McIntosh, BM (1990). "Aedes furcifer and other mosquitoes as vectors of chikungunya virus at Mica, northeastern ...
... is a species of virus. It was initially considered a strain of Wyeomyia virus, belonging serologically to the Bunyamwera ... Until 2001 this virus has not been reported to cause disease in humans. Lambert, Amy J.; et al. (6 June 2018). "Thirty-eight ... new species within the genus Orthobunyavirus". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 3 March 2020. ... Anhembi orthobunyavirus, formerly simply Anhembi virus (AMBV), ...
However, CVVs Bunyamwera serogroup's two non-structural proteins play an important role in infection. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) ... a teratogenic virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus closely related to Cache Valley virus, the virus was shown to replicate in the ... and Hawaii for antibodies to Cache Valley and antigenically related viruses (Bunyamwera serogroup virus). The American Journal ... Bunyamwera virus NSs protein is a nonessential gene that contributes to viral pathogenesis. It has been shown that in mammalian ...
In 1942, Haddow joined the Virus Research Institute at Entebbe, Uganda (now known as the Uganda Virus Research Institute) as a ... Bunyamwera and West Nile. In 1961, a steel tower was erected in the Zika forest to allow mosquitoes to be caught simultaneously ... including the discovery of the Zika virus, and research into the insect vectors of the yellow fever virus. Other notable work ... The Zika virus has since emerged as an important human disease, but it was not considered so until very recently. Haddow was ...
Bunyamwera serogroup virus may exist in south Florida. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "Virus Name: Maguari" ... MAGV is related to Cache Valley virus and Tensaw virus. In addition to humans, MAGV has been isolated from mosquitoes, horses, ... Human infections with Tensaw virus in south Florida: evidence that Tensaw virus subtypes stimulate the production of antibodies ... The presence of antibodies to Maguari virus in human residents of south Florida can be attributed to either cross-reactivity ...
Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... The virus appears to have originated from its ancestral virus in the mid-1500s in the Indonesia-Malaysia region and evolved ...
Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... the genetic sequence of the virus[97] based on the virus's RNA obtained from the Qatari case.[8][98] ... "Camels in Kenya test positive for MERS virus". Informer East Africa.. *^ "MERS antibody shows promise in rabbits; signs of ... "Mers virus: Saudis warned to wear masks near camels". BBC News. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.. ...
... and Bunyamwera viruses and an undefined viral agent, MTMP 131. Species listed by the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit: ... Viruses isolated from wild-caught Eretmapodites include Rift Valley fever, Semliki forest, Spondweni, Nyando, Okola, Middleburg ...
Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
Uganda Bunamwaya SC Bundibugyo Bundibugyo Airport Bundibugyo District Bundibugyo ebolavirus Bundibugyo virus Bunyamwera virus ... Kichwamba Uganda-United States relations Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Wildlife Authority Uganda women's national ... Acii Oliver Wonekha Olwiyo Omara Atubo Omubanda Omukama of Bunyoro Omukama of Toro Omukuli Onegi Obel O'nyong'nyong virus ... Yasser Mugerwa Youth in Uganda Yoweri Museveni Yumbe Yumbe District Yunus Sentamu Yusuf Lule Zerubabel Nyiira Zika virus ...
Genus Orthobunyavirus Bunyamwera virus California encephalitis virus Jamestown Canyon virus La Crosse encephalitis virus Genus ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow fever ... virus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group Kyasanur forest disease virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Family ... Dengue virus group Dengue virus Japanese encephalitis virus group Japanese encephalitis virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus ...
Bunyamwera, Patois, and Minatitlan". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 32 (4): 877-85. doi:10.4269/ajtmh. ... Abras virus (ABRV) is a member virus of Patois orthobunyavirus. It previously was considered a separate species. Isolated from ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). p. 10. Retrieved 19 June 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ... Virus taxonomy. Seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego. p.608 https:// ...
Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... La Crosse Virus The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus.[3] The Bunyavirales are mainly ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... "La Crosse virus disease cases reported to CDC by state, 2004-2013" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved ...
The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... The modified virus reduced tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice with brain tumours.[9] The modified virus was also ... The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research ... The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents,[4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans.[5] Only one lethal ...
... is where Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first isolated, and it also lends its name to that virus' genus ... Bunya: from Bunyamwera, place in Uganda, where type virus was isolated. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). ... Bunyamwera is a town in Bundibugyo District, Uganda. It lies just outside of Rwenzori Mountains National Park, which is to the ... "Bunyamwera". Mapcarta. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
"Bunyamwera virus (BUNV)". Gerrard SR, Li L, Barrett AD, Nichol ST (2004). "Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that ... Reassortant viruses derived from Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus, such as Ngari virus, have been associated with large outbreaks of ... Bunya: from Bunyamwera, place in Uganda, where type virus was isolated. "ICTV Taxonomy history: Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus" ( ... Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV) is a negative-sense, single-stranded enveloped RNA virus. It is the type species of the ...
... bunyamwera virus MeSH B04.820.087.640.300 - encephalitis virus, california MeSH B04.820.087.640.300.500 - la crosse virus MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... nairobi sheep disease virus MeSH B04.909.777.147.640 - orthobunyavirus MeSH B04.909.777.147.640.147 - bunyamwera virus MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 - GB ...
Tahyna virus *TAHV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever *BUNV ...
... carries Bunyamwera virus, California encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon virus, Sindbis virus, ... carries California encephalitis virus, Keystone virus, trivittatus virus, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis Aedes ... Ross River virus, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever, Zika virus Aedes africanus Aedes albolineatus Aedes alboniveus Aedes ... Louis encephalitis Aedes esoensis Aedes fulvus Bites humans, carries Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus ...
Tahyna virus (TAHV). *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever *RVFV. *Bunyamwera fever (BUNV) ... Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself[1]. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever,[2] Ebola virus ... February 1967). "Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. I. Human isolations-clinical notes". East Afr ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses proposed the name Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus, but the Soviets ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ... This mutation potentially allows the virus to multiply more easily in mosquito cells.[74] The change allows the virus to use ...
Bunyamwera virus)[8],施馬倫貝格病毒[8],哈扎拉病毒(英语:Hazara virus)[9],克里米亚-刚果出血热(英语:Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever)[10],和拉萨病毒(英语:Lassa ... virus)[11] 脱氧核糖核蛋白[编辑]. 一个脱氧核糖核蛋白(Deoxyribonucleoprotein,缩写:DNP)是DNA和蛋白质的复合物[12]。典型的例子是核小体,其中基因组DNA被包裹在真核细胞核中的八种组蛋白(histone)的簇周 ... Structure and sequence analysis of influenza A virus
Gerrard, Sonja R.; Li, Li; Barrett, Alan D.; Nichol, Stuart T. (2004-08-15). "Ngari Virus Is a Bunyamwera Virus Reassortant ... Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever virus, Alkhurma virus, Kyasanur Forest virus (reclassified from B to C) Powassan virus (Deer Tick virus ... Nipah virus Rabies SARS coronavirus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses Other hantaviruses Other ... Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, Lassa fever Bunyaviruses: Hantaviruses, Rift Valley Fever, Crimean-Congo ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Arthropod species & virus source(a) Method of Infection log10/ml (b) Incubation period (c) Transmision by bite (d) Assay of ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... transmission to mice by virus-fed Ae aegypti (33). ... Virus Name: Bunyamwera Abbreviation: BUNV Status. Arbovirus ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Bunyamwera. #section tr td {vertical-align:text-top;}. SECTION I - Full Virus Name and Prototype Number. Prototype Strain ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
sp,P20470,L_BUNYW RNA-directed RNA polymerase L OS=Bunyamwera virus OX=35304 GN=L PE=1 SV=1 ... help/virus_host target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Virus hosti. Aedes aegypti (Yellowfever mosquito) (Culex aegypti) [TaxID: 7159]. ... "Rescue of Hantaan virus minigenomes.". Flick K., Hooper J.W., Schmaljohn C.S., Pettersson R.F., Feldmann H., Flick R.. Virology ... Bunyamwera virus (BUNV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names ...
Bunyamwera virus-induced polypeptide synthesis. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Bunyamwera virus-induced polypeptide synthesis.. T H Pennington, C R Pringle, M A McCrae ... Bunyamwera virus-induced polypeptide synthesis in BSC-1 cell has been studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ... Four virus-induced polypeptides were identified. Their molecular weights were 200 X 10(6) (L), 128 X 10(6) (G1), 31 X 10(6) (G2 ...
... genomic segment of Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) encodes the nucleocapsid protein, N, and a ... Guaroa virus and Lumbo virus, were also inhibitory in our system. The intracellular localisation of Bunyamwera virus NSs was ... The Bunyamwera virus nonstructural protein NSs inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a minireplicon system Virology. 2001 Mar 1;281(1 ... The small (S) genomic segment of Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) encodes the nucleocapsid protein, N, ...
Clarifying Bunyamwera virus riddles of the past. ,i,Virus Genes,/i,, 47 (1), pp. 160-163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-013- ... Ilesha virus; Ngari virus; Calovo virus; Bunyamwera virus; Orthobunyavirus; 454 Pyrosequencing. Journal. Virus Genes: Volume 47 ... Ngari virus and Calovo virus are described clarifying their much discussed relationship within the species Bunyamwera virus of ... Dilcher M, Sall AA, Hufert FT & Weidmann M (2013) Clarifying Bunyamwera virus riddles of the past. Virus Genes, 47 (1), pp. 160 ...
Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype virus for the genus Orthobunyavirus and the family Bunyaviridae. BUNV is a ... Impact of interferon β and interferon stimulated gene induction on Bunyamwera virus replication ... A recombinant virus, rBUNdelNSs, that is unable to express the NSs protein, does not inhibit cellular transcription and is thus ... The first line of defence against viral infection is the interferon (IFN) response, which must be overcome by a virus for ...
Expression of functional Bunyamwera virus L protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses.. H Jin, R M Elliott ... Expression of functional Bunyamwera virus L protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ... recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells were transfected with purified Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsids, and subsequently, ... No Bunyamwera virus RNA was detected in control transfections, but in cells which had previously been infected with recombinant ...
... also the virus was isolated from the blood of a dog. No evidence of infection was noted in wild birds or in sentinel chickens. ... a member of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group, was isolated on 156 occasions from 365,654 mosquitoes tested between 1960-1963 from ... Tensaw virus, a member of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group, was isolated on 156 occasions from 365,654 mosquitoes tested between ... Isolations of an Arbovirus of the Bunyamwera Group (Tensaw Virus) from Mosquitoes in the Southeastern United States, 1960-1963 ...
Transmission of Tensaw virus from infected dogs to suckling mice was accomplished in the laboratory by Anopheles ... Results obtained from intrathoracic inoculation of Tensaw virus into Culex quinquefasciatus Say indicated this species to be an ... Abstract Tensaw virus inoculated into various vertebrates by the subcutaneous route produced no outward signs of infection. ... Experimental Vector-Host Studies with Tensaw Virus, a Newly Recognized Member of the Bunyamwera Arbovirus Group * W. D. Sudia, ...
Leonard, V.H.J., Kohl, A. , Osborne, J.C., McLees, A. and Elliott, R.M. (2005) Homotypic interaction of Bunyamwera virus ...
The kinetics of synthesis of the proteins for both viruses were similar, the events occurring earlier in Bunyamwera virus- ... and the corresponding G1 and G2 of Bunyamwera virus, were labelled intracellularly in mannose, galactose and glucosamine. ... a similar reduction occurred earlier in Bunyamwera virus-infected cells. This inhibition was multiplicity dependent, and ... A small possibly non-structural protein (p14 for Belmont, p13 for Bunyamwera) was also identified late in infection in both ...
A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs ... Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: ... The transient nature of bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein expression : effects of increased stability of NSs protein on ... van Knippenberg , I , Fragkoudis , R & Elliott , R M 2013 , The transient nature of bunyamwera orthobunyavirus NSs protein ...
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The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... The modified virus reduced tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice with brain tumours.[9] The modified virus was also ... The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research ... The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents,[4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans.[5] Only one lethal ...
"Bunyamwera virus (BUNV)". Gerrard SR, Li L, Barrett AD, Nichol ST (2004). "Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that ... Reassortant viruses derived from Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus, such as Ngari virus, have been associated with large outbreaks of ... Bunya: from Bunyamwera, place in Uganda, where type virus was isolated. "ICTV Taxonomy history: Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus" ( ... Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV) is a negative-sense, single-stranded enveloped RNA virus. It is the type species of the ...
Polymorphism and structural maturation of bunyamwera virus in Golgi and post-Golgi compartments.. J Virol. 77(2):1368-81. ... we have detected two previously unknown maturation steps in the morphogenesis of Bunyamwera virus in BHK-21 cells. The first ... The Golgi apparatus is the assembly site for a number of complex enveloped viruses. Using high-preservation methods for ... These results, together with our previous studies with nonrelated viruses, show that the Golgi complex contains key factors for ...
Thogoto Virus. Mononegavirales. Bunyaviridae. Bunyavirus. Bunyamwera. Virus. Mononegavirales. Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus. Hantaan ... The term "vaccine" refers to a composition containing virus, inactivated virus, attenuated virus, split virus, or viral protein ... Mononegavirales viruses, Rhabdoviruses, Flaviviridae viruses, Picornaviridae viruses, Coronaviridea viruses, Togaviridae ... wherein the virus is an influenza A virus. 20. The plasmid-based system of claim 18, wherein the virus is an influenza B virus ...
Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that can be associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa. J ... Snowshoe hare virus. North America, Far-Eastern Europe. Lagomorphs, rodents. Yes. Serology, case reports. Febrile illness. NR. ... California encephalitis virus. North America. Rodents, lagomorphs. Yes. Endemic, common. Febrile illness, encephalitis. NR. (31 ... Iquitos virus. South America. Humans, unknown. Yes. Unexplained fever surveillance. Febrile illness, arthralgia, diarrhea. NR. ...
91 Barmah Forest & Ross River Virus Disease, 191. 92 Bunyamwera Viral Fever, 193 ... from well-known scourges such as malaria and cholera to oddballs like strongyloidiasis and Onyongnyong virus disease. Maps ... but apart from agents of general public health importance such as bloodborne viruses, health care-associated infections are not ...
Melao virus; KEY, Keystone virus; LUMV, Lumbo virus; TVTV, Trivittatus virus; BUNV, Bunyamwera virus. Highlighted in grey are ... SBV, Schmallenberg virus; SHAV, Shamonda virus; DOUV, Douglas virus; AKV, Akabane virus; SATV, Sathuperi virus; LACV, La Crosse ... virus; CEV, California encephalitis virus; SAV, San Angelo virus; JSV, Jerry Slough virus; JCV, Jamestown Canyon virus; MELV, ... MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, UK.. 2. MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, ...
Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System? ... Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System?. ... Presence of antibody to Cache Valley and Tensaw viruses in mothers of macrocephalic infants and in matched controls ...
Calisher CH, Francy DB, Smith GC, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS, Karabatsos N, Distribution of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in North ... Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System? ... Mouse or sheep serum samples containing IgM antibody to CV virus or mouse serum with IgM antibody to TEN virus served as ... Fresh human serum at a final concentration of 8% was added to all virus suspensions. Serum-virus mixtures were incubated at 4ºC ...
Bunyamwera virus. Vertebrates. Hantavirus. Hantaan virus. Vertebrates. Nairovirus. Nairobi sheep disease virus. Vertebrates. ... Viral Diseases - Virus Names - Virus Families - Virus Hosts - Viruses By Genome Type Big Picture Book of Viruses - FAQ - Submit ... Group I: dsDNA Viruses *Group II: The ssDNA Viruses *Group III: dsRNA Viruses *Group IV: (+)sense RNA Viruses *Group V: (-) ... Nudaurelia capensis b-like viruses. Nudaurelia capensis b virus. Invertebrates. Nudaurelia capensis w-like viruses. Nudaurelia ...
As for all negative-sense RNA viruses, the 3- and 5-terminal nontranslated regions (NTRs) of the BUNV S, M, and L segments ... is the prototype of both the Orthobunyavirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. The ... Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype of both the Orthobunyavirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative- ... Oropouche Virus Minigenome 23 Animal -negative-strand Rna Viruses 24. *Gustavo Olszanski Acrani, Natasha L Tilston-Lunel, +6 ...
Bunyamwera is where Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first isolated, and it also lends its name to that virus genus ... Bunya: from Bunyamwera, place in Uganda, where type virus was isolated. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). ... Bunyamwera is a town in Bundibugyo District, Uganda. It lies just outside of Rwenzori Mountains National Park, which is to the ... "Bunyamwera". Mapcarta. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
... and WN viruses, Ae. vexans and Ae. ochraceus of RVF virus, Mansonia of WN and BAG viruses, Mimomyia of WN and BAG viruses, and ... Bunyamwera (BUN) and Ngari (NRI); two Phleboviruses, Rift Valley fever (RVF) and Gabek Forest (GF); one Orbivirus, Ar D 66707 ( ... Four isolates of Ross River virus and nine isolates of Sindbis (SIN) virus were also recovered from members of the Culex ... Detection of Dengue Viruses in Field Caught Male Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore by Type- ...
Information on Cache Valley virus. Provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Isolation of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) in New York state. J Med Entomol 2006;43:1004-9. ... Cache valley virus in a patient diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 2013;51:1966-9. ... Fatal Cache Valley virus meningoencephalitis associated with rituximab maintenance therapy. Am J Hematol 2018;93:590-4. ...
  • Pyrosequencing data and phylogenetic analysis for the full genome of Ilesha virus, Ngari virus and Calovo virus are described clarifying their much discussed relationship within the species Bunyamwera virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the Bunyaviridae. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype virus for the genus Orthobunyavirus and the family Bunyaviridae. (bl.uk)
  • During high-multiplicity infection of cultured mammalian cells with Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), NSs is rapidly degraded after reaching peak levels of expression at 12hpi. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • The virus, named novel orthobunyavirus, in ruminants in Europe triggered a Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was isolated from blood of joint veterinary and public health response to address the affected cattle, and similar clinical manifestations were possible consequences to human health. (cdc.gov)
  • Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV) is a negative-sense, single-stranded enveloped RNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus can infect both humans and Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reassortant viruses derived from Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus, such as Ngari virus, have been associated with large outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fever in Kenya and Somalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus causes Bunyamwera fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICTV Taxonomy history: Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus" (html). (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) in New York state. (cdc.gov)
  • Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype of both the Orthobunyavirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family of segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Complementarity, sequence and structural elements within the 3' and 5' non-coding regions of the Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus S segment determine promoter strength. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus, in ruminants in Europe triggered a joint veterinary and public health response to address the possible consequences to human health. (cdc.gov)
  • All those viruses are members of the Simbu serogroup, family Bunyaviridae , genus Orthobunyavirus , and known as arthropod-borne viruses that can cause illness in ruminants ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Cache Valley virus (CVV), a mosquitoborne member of the Bunyamwera serogroup, family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, is geographically widespread in North America, where it circulates between mosquitoes and mammals (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Bunyamwera is where Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first isolated, and it also lends its name to that virus' genus Orthobunyavirus, its family Peribunyaviridae, and its order Bunyavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early November 2011, a new orthobunyavirus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, was detected by metagenomic analysis and virus isolation from infected cattle in Germany. (flutrackers.com)
  • However, it should be noted that Schmallenberg virus cannot be excluded as the cause of malformations in these calves, since it has been reported in literature that in orthobunyavirus infections in cattle (like Akabane virus), the virus is often not detected in newborn calves with deformities unless they are aborted well before term. (flutrackers.com)
  • Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging orthobunyavirus of ruminants associated with outbreaks of congenital malformations in aborted and stillborn animals. (prolekare.cz)
  • A negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Orthobunyavirus, which receives M-segment sequences from the Batai virus, resulting in a so-called reassortment virus associated with outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever in Kenya and Somalia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ngari virus (NRIV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ngari virus , a reassortant bunyavirus with RNA segments from both a Bunyamwera serogroup virus and an unidentified member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, has recently been associated with epidemic hemorrhagic fever in Africa (9). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Orthobunyavirus, Bunyamwera virus group serotype. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged orthobunyavirus that has caused widespread disease in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Schmallenberg virus' - a novel orthobunyavirus emerging in Europe. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In this chapter the term ''bunyavirus'' refers to a member of the Bunyaviridae family, while the terms '' orthobunyavirus '' '' phlebovirus '' refer to viruses in the eponymous genus. (asmscience.org)
  • Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus coding strategy (not to scale). (asmscience.org)
  • This inconsistency might have resulted from the lack of published Shamonda virus M and L segment sequences and does not necessarily indicate that the novel orthobunyavirus is a reassortant. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The phylogenetic tree (Figure 2, panel A) shows that the S segment sequence is distinct but clusters closely with Shamonda viruses within the Simbu serogroup, which suggests that the novel virus is a Shamonda-like virus within the genus Orthobunyavirus. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Information is only available for viruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus . (ictvonline.org)
  • The small (S) genomic segment of Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) encodes the nucleocapsid protein, N, and a nonstructural protein, NSs, in overlapping reading frames. (nih.gov)
  • A cDNA containing the complete coding sequence of the Bunyamwera virus (family Bunyaviridae) L genome segment has been constructed and cloned into two recombinant vaccinia virus expression systems. (asm.org)
  • Schmaljohn C.S. & Hooper, J.W. 2001: Bunyaviridae: The viruses and their replication. (wikimedia.org)
  • Index of Viruses - Bunyaviridae (2009). (wikimedia.org)
  • By using primers targeted to a highly conserved 251-base portion of the smallest of the 3 RNA segments (RNA-S) of members of the Bunyamwera and California serogroups of the family Bunyaviridae, strain WI-03BS7669 was shown by PCR to share considerable homology with members of these serogroups (3). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. (definitions.net)
  • The family Bunyaviridae is the largest family of animal viruses and includes many viruses that are known human pathogens. (asmscience.org)
  • The Bunyaviridae family includes a growing number of viruses that have contributed to the burden of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases around the globe. (worldwidescience.org)
  • This chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge about how the viruses of the Bunyaviridae succeed in establishing infection in the face of a powerful innate immune system. (asmscience.org)
  • Bunyaviridae A large family of arthropod-borne, enveloped, spherical or pleomor-phic viruses 80-120nm in diameter with glycoprotein surface projections. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Bunyavirus A genus of the family Bunyaviridae consisting of some 170 recognized viruses. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype of the family Bunyaviridae. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Bunyaviridae is one of the biggest known viral families, and includes many viruses of clinical and economic importance. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • BUNV is a trisegmented single stranded negative sense RNA virus whose genome comprises the Large (L), Medium (M) and Small (S) RNA segments. (bl.uk)
  • To aid screening, recombinant BUNV that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) were employed, including an NSs deletion virus with GFP fused to the Gc, rBUNGceGFPdelNSs, that I created and characterised. (bl.uk)
  • By a combination of virus yield assays, Western blotting and fluorescence techniques, three cell lines that inducibly express PKR, viperin or MTAP44 were shown to restrict BUNV replication. (bl.uk)
  • Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) A species in the genus Bunyavirus. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • The NSs proteins of two other members of the Bunyavirus genus, Guaroa virus and Lumbo virus, were also inhibitory in our system. (nih.gov)
  • There are currently ~170 viruses recognised in this genus. (definitions.net)
  • Hantaviruses and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus) are National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogens in the United States. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Bunyip Creek virus (BCV) A serotype of Palyam virus in the genus Orbivirus. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Tensaw virus, a member of the Bunyamwera arbovirus group, was isolated on 156 occasions from 365,654 mosquitoes tested between 1960-1963 from southwest Alabama, southeast Georgia, and central and south Florida. (ajtmh.org)
  • The Zika virus, a group B arbovirus (flavivirus), has cross reaction with other flavivirus antibodies, for instance with dengue, West Nile and yellow fever. (frontline.in)
  • Approximately 30 percent of all infectious diseases that emerged between 1990 and 2000 were caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arbovirus) [1] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Several European countries are currently experiencing the emergence of a previously uncharacterized arbovirus of domesticated ruminants, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) [2] , [3] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Burg el Arab virus An unclassified arbovirus belonging to the Matariya serogroup. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • The relationship of the four or five identified virus-specified translation products to the three bunyavirus messenger RNAs remains obscure. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bunyamwera bunyavirus RNA synthesis requires cooperation of 3'- and 5'-terminal sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plasmids were constructed containing full-length cDNA copies of the three Bunyamwera bunyavirus RNA genome segments flanked by bacteriophage T7 promoter and hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequences. (pnas.org)
  • When cells expressing both bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and recombinant Bunyamwera bunyavirus proteins were transfected with these plasmids, full-length antigenome RNAs were transcribed intracellularly, and these in turn were replicated and packaged into infectious bunyavirus particles. (pnas.org)
  • Reassortant viruses containing two genome segments of Bunyamwera bunyavirus and one segment of Maguari bunyavirus were also produced following transfection of appropriate plasmids. (pnas.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Bonn and the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) have discovered two new groups of viruses within the Bunyavirus family in the tropical forest of Ivory Coast. (healthcanal.com)
  • The bunyavirus family includes five different groups of viruses which trigger serious illnesses in humans and animals and which can also cause significant damage to vegetables, such as tomatoes. (healthcanal.com)
  • In 2011, the "Schmallenberg virus" gained much attention: also a part of the Bunyavirus family and transmitted by gnats, it caused severe fetal malformations in ruminant animals including sheep in the German Sauerland region. (healthcanal.com)
  • During the comparison of the genetic information with other viruses, it was found that Jonchet and Ferak viruses are two phylogenetically independent bunyavirus lineages. (healthcanal.com)
  • This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus -vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Are North American Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses Etiologic Agents of Human Congential Defects of the Central Nervous System? (cdc.gov)
  • Although a human positive control for detecting IgM antibody by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays was not available, serum specimens were tested by a modification of a published technique for detecting IgM antibody to California serogroup viruses (21) . (cdc.gov)
  • Expression of N, the viral polymerase protein (L), and a minireplicon containing a reporter gene was sufficient to reconstitute functional virus nucleocapsids. (nih.gov)
  • A recombinant virus, rBUNdelNSs, that is unable to express the NSs protein, does not inhibit cellular transcription and is thus a strong IFN inducer. (bl.uk)
  • Expression of functional Bunyamwera virus L protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses. (asm.org)
  • Both systems express a protein which is the same size as the Bunyamwera virus L protein and is recognized by a monospecific L antiserum. (asm.org)
  • The expressed L protein was shown to be functional in synthesizing Bunyamwera virus RNA in a nucleocapsid transfection assay: recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells were transfected with purified Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsids, and subsequently, total cellular RNA was analyzed by Northern (RNA) blotting. (asm.org)
  • No Bunyamwera virus RNA was detected in control transfections, but in cells which had previously been infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the L protein, both positive- and negative-sense Bunyamwera virus S segment RNA was detected. (asm.org)
  • The suitability of this system to delineate functional domains within the Bunyamwera virus L protein is discussed. (asm.org)
  • Leonard, V.H.J. , Kohl, A. , Osborne, J.C. , McLees, A. and Elliott, R.M. (2005) Homotypic interaction of Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsid protein. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A small possibly non-structural protein (p14 for Belmont, p13 for Bunyamwera) was also identified late in infection in both hosts. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • As in the virion, the small envelope protein (P28) of Belmont virus was not glycosylated, whereas the large envelope protein G107, and the corresponding G1 and G2 of Bunyamwera virus, were labelled intracellularly in mannose, galactose and glucosamine. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A recombinant virus (rBUN4KR), in which all four lysine residues in NSs were replaced by arginine residues, expresses an NSs protein (NSs4KR) that is resistant to degradation, confirming that degradation is lysine-dependent. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Infection of cultured mammalian cells or mice indicated no disadvantage for the virus in having a non-degradable NSs protein: in fact rBUN4KR had a slight growth advantage over wtBUNV in interferon-competent cells, presumably due to the increased and prolonged presence of NSs. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus counteracts the antiviral response of the cell by inhibiting its transcriptional machinery. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that the NSs protein of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) induces the degradation of the RPB1 subunit of RNA polymerase II and consequently inhibits global cellular protein synthesis and the antiviral response. (nih.gov)
  • The N protein is the most abundant protein in virus particles and infected cells and, therefore, the main target in many serological and molecular diagnostics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay was carried out using a single-step reverse transcription (or transcriptase)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RT-PCR) followed by a semi-nested PCR using an upstream consensus primer and four type-specific primers within the nonstructural protein three gene (NS3) of dengue viruses. (bioone.org)
  • The S segment encodes for the virus nucleoprotein and glycoprotein, whereas the L segment encodes for the virus polymerase (L) and Z protein. (pnas.org)
  • The L segment encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (or L polymerase), and a small (≈12 kDa) RING finger protein Z that is functionally the counterpart of the matrix protein found in many enveloped NS RNA viruses. (pnas.org)
  • 2004. Conformational change and protein-protein interactions of the fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus. (springer.com)
  • Bunyaviruses are a large family of segmented RNA viruses which, like influenza virus, use a cap-snatching mechanism for transcription whereby short capped primers derived by endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs are used by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L-protein) to transcribe viral mRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • We expressed N-terminal fragments of the LACV L-protein and found that residues 1-180 have metal binding and divalent cation dependent nuclease activity analogous to that of influenza virus endonuclease. (nih.gov)
  • The nonstructural (NS) protein, which is a major virulence factor for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), is encoded on the S-segment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An Interferon-gamma-binding protein of novel structure encoded by the fowlpox virus. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Bunyamwera virus nonstructural protein NSs counteracts interferon regulatory factor 3-mediated induction of early cell deaath. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Active Borna Disease Virus polymerase complex requires a distinct nucleoprotein-to-phosphoprotein ratio but no viral X protein. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Billecocq A, Spiegel M, Vialat P, Kohl A, Weber F, Bouloy M, Haller O (2004) NSs protein of Rift Valley fever virus blocks interferon production by inhibiting host gene transcription. (springer.com)
  • Bouloy M, Janzen C, Vialat P, Khun H, Pavlovic J, Huerre M, Haller O (2001) Genetic evidence for an interferon-antagonistic function of Rift Valley fever virus nonstructural protein NSs. (springer.com)
  • The ORF for the non-structural NSs protein, encoded on the smallest genome segment, was disrupted by introduction of translation stop codons in the appropriate cDNA, and when this plasmid was used in reverse genetics, a recombinant virus that lacked NSs expression was recovered. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This virus had reduced capacity to shut-off host-cell protein synthesis compared with the wild-type virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The mechanisms underlying viperin?s sweeping antiviral activity remain enigmatic and it is unclear how a single protein (i.e., viperin) can participate in such a broad playlist of interactions to inhibit this wide array of viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • The S segment sequence encoding the nucleocapsid protein region (702 nt) was aligned with sequences of the Simbu, Bunyamwera, and California serogroups by using ClustalW (www.clustal.org) for codons. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In influenza A viruses, the M2 protein which possesses ion channel activity (Pinto et al. (wipo.int)
  • Generation of a Recombinant Akabane Virus Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • the S-RNA encodes the N protein, and in some viruses a non-structural protein NSS. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • To identify proteins that interact with the U(L)28-encoded DNA binding protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a previously undescribed rabbit polyclonal antibody directed against the U(L)28 protein fused to glutathione S-transferase was used to immunopurify U(L)28 and the proteins with which it associated. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Enveloped virus fusion is mediated by viral transmembrane proteins, and mounting evidence suggests that these proteins have converged on the same overall strategy among different viruses and classes of fusion protein. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • We have previously analysed the structural intermediates of Influenza Virus fusion protein (hemagglutinin, HA) and M1 matrix protein prior to viral fusion. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • This result, together with physiological data, allowed us to conclude that this protein assembles as a virus-like icosahedral shell to protect bacteria from oxidative stress through iron sequestration. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • The Fusion Loops of the Initial Prefusion Conformation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Fusion Protein Point Toward the Membrane mBio , 8(4). (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Bunyaviruses used for all tests were prototypes: (Bunyamwera serogroup) CV (strain 6V-633), TEN (A9-171b), Lokern (FMS-4332), Main Drain (BFS-5015), (California serogroup) La Crosse (Original), Jamestown Canyon (61V-2235), (Simbu serogroup), Buttonwillow (A-7956), and Mermet (AV-782). (cdc.gov)
  • Arboviruses of the California complex and the Bunyamwera group. (osu.edu)
  • Synthesis and processing of Sindbis virus nonstructural proteins in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparisons of the synthesis of virus-specifed proteins in Vero and BHK-21 cells confirm the close taxonomic relationship. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The kinetics of synthesis of the proteins for both viruses were similar, the events occurring earlier in Bunyamwera virus-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis, proteolytic processing and complex formation of N-terminally nested precursor proteins of the Rift Valley fever virus glycoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Though mostly genetic material, viruses usually have other chemicals such as sugars, fats and proteins. (bioedonline.org)
  • Using structure based sequence alignments we show that a similar endonuclease almost certainly exists at the N-terminus of L-proteins or PA polymerase subunits of essentially all known negative strand and cap-snatching segmented RNA viruses including arenaviruses (2 segments), bunyaviruses (3 segments), tenuiviruses (4-6 segments), and orthomyxoviruses (6-8 segments). (nih.gov)
  • A "reverse-genetic" system for influenza A viruses (whose genome comprises eight separate segments of RNA) was developed in which an influenza virus-like RNA molecule containing a reporter gene was mixed with disrupted virion core proteins, and the resulting in vitro -reconstituted RNP complexes transfected into influenza virus-infected cells, where they were replicated and packaged into viral particles ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The unsegmented genomes of rhabdoviruses (rabies and vesicular stomatitis viruses) and paramyxoviruses (measles, Sendai, and respiratory syncytial viruses) have been rescued from cDNA to produce infectious virus in a helper-independent manner (i.e., not requiring help from homologous virus) using a different strategy: full-length cDNA clones of antigenomes were transcribed intracellularly and then replicated by expressed recombinant nucleocapsid and polymerase proteins to give genome RNAs. (pnas.org)
  • The amplified genomes then acted as template for transcription of all viral mRNAs, thus producing all the viral proteins required for genome packaging and viral assembly, and infectious viruses were recovered ( 8 - 12 , 33 ). (pnas.org)
  • Oligomeric rearrangement of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins induced by an acidic pH. (springer.com)
  • These trVLPs can continuously infect cells expressing the Ebola virus proteins responsible for genome replication and transcription, allowing us to safely model multiple infectious cycles under biosafety level 2 conditions. (jove.com)
  • After the synthesis of new copies of viral proteins and genes, these components assemble into progeny virus particles, which then exit the cell (reviewed by Roizman and Palese, 1996). (wipo.int)
  • The influenza A virus genome codes for up to 12 proteins. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest , Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942 and described by Smithburn and Haddow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results showed that in Singapore 1.33% and 2.15% of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus adult male mosquitoes, respectively, were positive for dengue viruses. (bioone.org)
  • Mosquitoes are the carriers of this virus that leads to high fever, arthritis and rash. (bioedonline.org)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a previously little-known flavivirus closely related to Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses, all of which are primarily transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes. (springer.com)
  • Virus transmission studies with Trinidadian mosquitoes. (deepdyve.com)
  • The CDC has released a map of potential Zika virus spread in the United States based on the estimated range of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. (medscape.com)
  • The forest, now owned by the Uganda Virus Research Institute, has for decades been at the centre of a massive project to study viruses and the mosquitoes that carry them. (frontline.in)
  • The virus was isolated for the first time in Uganda in 1947 from a sentinel monkey and later from Aedes africanus mosquitoes. (frontline.in)
  • Bagaza - Bagaza virus has been recovered from mosquitoes in Senegal (Aedes fowleri, Culex neavei, Cx. (gideononline.com)
  • Bangui - Bangui virus was identified in mosquitoes in the Senegal River basin in 1988. (gideononline.com)
  • Bunyamwera - Bunyamwera virus has been identified in mosquitoes in the Barkedji region. (gideononline.com)
  • Chandipura - Chandipura virus has been identified in mosquitoes in the Barkedji region, and in phlebotomines in the Kedougou district. (gideononline.com)
  • Koutango - Koutango virus (similar to Spondweni virus) has been identified in mosquitoes ( Culex neavei ) in the Barkedji region. (gideononline.com)
  • Rift Valley virus was identified in mosquitoes in Barkedji in 1993, and re-emerged in 2002. (gideononline.com)
  • Semliki Forest - Semliki Forest virus has been recovered from mosquitoes (Aedes vittatus) and ticks (Rhipicephalus guilhoni) in Senegal. (gideononline.com)
  • Isolation of Germiston virus, a hitherto unknown agent, from culicine mosquitoes, and a report of infection in two laboratory workers. (atcc.org)
  • In 1990, entomologists reported they had isolated the so-called Potosi virus from specimens of Asian tiger mosquitoes collected in Potosi, Mo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Isolation of west nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut. (osu.edu)
  • First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of west nile virus in Culex univitattus complex mosquitoes from rift valley province, Kenya. (osu.edu)
  • They add functional insights to previous observations of this protein's antiviral and RNA interference regulatory activities in Drosophila melanogasterIMPORTANCE Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are vectors of human-infecting arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (pasteur.fr)
  • Lipkin, W. I. 2007-12-01 00:00:00 Recently, we identified Batai virus as the M-segment reassortment partner of Ngari virus. (deepdyve.com)
  • The first line of defence against viral infection is the interferon (IFN) response, which must be overcome by a virus for successful replication. (bl.uk)
  • Tensaw virus inoculated into various vertebrates by the subcutaneous route produced no outward signs of infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • In Vero cells, the virus induces an early and spectacular fragmentation of intracellular membranes while productive infection progresses. (scienceexchange.com)
  • 6 ). The teratogenic effects in ruminants are hypothesized to In November 2011, scientists in Germany identifi ed novel refl ect virus circulation in late summer/early autumn 2011, viral sequences in serum from cattle affected by a febrile leading to intrauterine infection with SBV during a specifi c syndrome that was reported during August-September 2011 period of gestation ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • van den Brom R , Luttikholt SJ , Lievaart-Peterson K , Peperkamp NH , Mars MH , van der Poel WH , Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Life-threatening Cache Valley virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The teratogenic effects in ruminants are hypothesized to reflect virus circulation in late summer/early autumn 2011, leading to intrauterine infection with SBV during a specific period of gestation ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Subsequently, it was shown that RNA transcribed in vitro from cloned cDNA copies of a number of positive-strand genomes is a much more efficient initiator of infection, and these studies have revolutionized experimental analysis of the replication processes of these viruses ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2015. Zika virus infection, Philippines, 2012. (springer.com)
  • In most cases, Zika virus infection causes a mild, self-limited illness. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Owing to the mild nature of the disease, more than 80% of Zika virus infection cases likely go unnoticed. (medscape.com)
  • In April 2016, a deputy director at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warned that the risk of Zika virus infection in the United States may have been previously underestimated, citing the increased range of the mosquito vectors (now in 30 US states, up from 12 as previously thought) and the travel risks associated with the 2016 Olympics in Brazil. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus infection is among the nationally notifiable diseases in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • State and local health departments should be informed by healthcare professionals of suspected cases of Zika virus infection to facilitate diagnosis and to reduce the risk of local transmission. (medscape.com)
  • The global prevalence of Zika virus infection has not been widely reported owing to asymptomatic clinical course, clinical resemblance to other infection with other flaviviruses ( dengue , chikungunya ), and difficulty in confirming diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Since then, the virus has spread further, with a total of 86 countries reporting evidence of Zika infection (WHO 2018). (mdpi.com)
  • Human infection with foamy viruses. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Rapid detection of herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infection by real-time PCR. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • At least twenty arthropod-borne viruses are associated with known or suspected human infection in Senegal. (gideononline.com)
  • We developed an experimental mouse model to study SBV infection and showed that this virus replicates abundantly in neurons where it causes cerebral malacia and vacuolation of the cerebral cortex. (prolekare.cz)
  • The most well-known bunyaviruses include, for example, the Rift Valley fever virus, which can cause febrile illnesses with severe bleeding in humans," says Dr. Sandra Junglen from the Bonn Institute of Virology, also affiliated with the German Center for Infection Research. (healthcanal.com)
  • We hope our temperature test for estimating the risk of vertebrate infection can be useful for assessing other viruses that keep being discovered," says Dr. Junglen. (healthcanal.com)
  • Zika virus infection has rapidly emerged as a significant global threat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These are specifically Alzheimer's disease, infection by unicellular parasites (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Entamoeba histolytica and Plasmodium falciparum), maturation of hepatitis C virus, Bunyamwera virus and swine influenza virus, and mitochondrial dysfunction. (cuni.cz)
  • A high number of severe neurologic clinical forms during an epidemic of West Nile virus infection. (osu.edu)
  • Schmidt J, El Mansboury H. Natural and experimaental infection of Egyptian equines with West Nile virus. (osu.edu)
  • To maximize the effectiveness of DNA replication, African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection recruits the mitochondria around the viral factories, associated with the morphology change and accumulation of the mitochondria. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Reverse genetics systems have been now developed for LCMV ( 11 ), LASV ( 12 ), and Tacaribe virus ( 13 ), which are allowing investigators to examine the cis -acting sequences and trans -acting factors that control arenavirus replication and gene expression, as well as assembly and budding ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Development of analogous techniques to analyze negative-strand virus replication has been slower, in part because neither isolated genome nor antigenome RNA of negative-strand viruses is infectious, in contrast to the positive-strand viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Tetracistronic minigenomes, which consist of Ebola virus non-coding regions, a reporter gene, and three Ebola virus genes involved in morphogenesis, budding, and entry (VP40, GP 1,2 , and VP24), can be used to produce replication and transcription-competent virus-like particles (trVLPs) containing these minigenomes. (jove.com)
  • Replication of primate foamy viruses in natural and experimental hosts. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • The in vitro replication kinetics and yields of the chimeric virus were similar to MODV but the chimeric virus produced larger plaques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The life cycle of viruses generally involves attachment to cell surface receptors, entry into the cell and uncoating ofthe viral nucleic acid, followed by replication ofthe viral genes inside the cell. (wipo.int)
  • Bunyamwera virus can repair both insertions and deletions during RNA replication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The characterisation of the replication complexes formed by Bunyamwera and Rubella viruses, both of which replicate their genome in cytoplasmic viral factories. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • This study allowed the proposal of novel working models for each replication complex, which helped to elucidate the mechanism by which viral macromolecular complexes interact with cellular components to create the unique architecture of virus factories. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Virus trigger the rearrangement and morphology remodeling of intracellular organelles, including the quality control of intracellular organelles, the hijacking of the modified organelle membranes, morphology remodeling for viral replication, and degradation of intracellular organelles by virus-triggered selective autophagy. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Viruses have evolved several strategies to remodel the mitochondria for viral replication and assembly, including spatial distribution, morphology remodeling, and metabolism reprogramming. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • It was speculated that the translation and ATP synthesis are coupled and compartmentalized around viral factories to promote virus replication [ 16 ] (Figure 1C). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • in the second, the L gene is under control of the bacteriophage T7 phi 10 promoter, and expression of the L gene requires coinfection with a second recombinant vaccinia virus which synthesizes T7 RNA polymerase. (asm.org)
  • Fluorescent-antibody test results of cell culture material were negative for adenoviruses, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for enteroviruses were negative. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It was recently shown that the cap-snatching endonuclease of influenza virus resides in a discrete N-terminal domain of the PA polymerase subunit. (nih.gov)
  • Functional L polymerase of La Crosse virus allows in vivo reconstitution of recombinant nucleocapsids. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • RNA polymerase I-mediated expression of viral RNA for the rescue of infectious virulent and avirulent Rift Valley fever viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences indicated that the virus belongs to the Ngari virus group and showed high homology to previous NRIV isolates in all 3 segments (Figure). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the chikungunya virus was isolated from Aedes africanus collected from African forests. (frontline.in)
  • Tête de moustique femelle Aedes albopictus, vecteur du virus de la dengue et du chikungunya. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here, we show that the Domino ortholog p400 has antiviral activity against the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (Togaviridae) both in Aedes aegypti-derived cells and in vivo Antiviral activity of p400 was also demonstrated against chikungunya virus (Togaviridae) and Bunyamwera virus (Peribunyaviridae) but not Zika virus (Flaviviridae). (pasteur.fr)
  • Kurogi H , Inaba Y , Takahashi E , Sato K , Omori T , Miura Y , Epizootic congenital arthrogryposis- hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle: isolation of Akabane virus from affected fetuses. (cdc.gov)
  • There is, however no record, as yet, of the isolation of the Zika virus from the Indian subcontinent. (frontline.in)
  • 5. The expression plasmid of claim 1, further comprising a negative strand RNA virus viral gene segment inserted between the pol I promoter and the termination signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • More recently, a plasmid-based system allowing intracellular reconstitution of influenza virus RNP has been described but again rescue of a cDNA-derived genome segment requires coinfection with helper influenza virus ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Whereas the relative phylogenetic positions of all three genome segment sequences were similar for Northway and Kairi viruses, the relative positions of Potosi and Main Drain virus M-segment sequences diverged from those of their S- and L-segments. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our findings indicate M-segment reassortment in Potosi and Main Drain viruses and demonstrate natural genome reassortment as a driving force in the evolution of viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup. (deepdyve.com)
  • Novel gene product of Thogoto Virus segment 6 codes for an interferon antagonist. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Recent data suggest that CHLV is a reassortant that acquired its small RNA segment from CVV and medium and large RNA segments from Potosi virus (POTV) (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brennan B, Rezelj VV, Elliott RM (2017) Mapping of transcription termination within the S segment of SFTS phlebovirus facilitated generation of NSs deletant viruses. (springer.com)
  • One application of the system is production of attenuated, reassortant influenza viruses for use as antigens in vaccines. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The reassortant viruses generated by cotransfection of plasmids may comprise genes encoding the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from an influenza virus currently infecting the population and the internal genes from an attenuated influenza virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Based on the discovered viruses researchers conclude that the ancester to all bunyaviruses must have existed in arthropods such as insects. (healthcanal.com)
  • While pathogenic bunyaviruses can multiply at temperatures that include the human body temperature, growth of Jonchet and Ferak viruses ceases above 32 degrees Celsius, making it unlikely that the viruses infect humans or other vertebrates. (healthcanal.com)
  • The genome of the virus has similarities to bunyaviruses from both plants and animals. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • 2003) and the emergence of Sin Nombre virus (1993) (Hjelle and Glass, 2000) and most recently Schmallenberg virus (2011) (DEFRA, 2012) are prime examples of the devastating and worldwide toll bunyaviruses have on health and economies. (worldwidescience.org)
  • A well-established animal model for pathogenicity of arthropod-transmitted bunyaviruses does exist for La Crosse virus (LACV) virus in mice. (asmscience.org)
  • Despite the significant economic and medical impact of the huge RNA virus family, the interactions of bunyaviruses with the innate immune system are only incompletely understood. (asmscience.org)
  • Thus, a better understanding of the interplay between bunyaviruses and the innate immune response, as with most other viruses, can help in the design of new strategies for prevention and therapy. (asmscience.org)
  • Of the identified viruses, more than one thousand infect people. (bioedonline.org)
  • We present a new antiviral strategy and research tool that could be applied to a wide range of enveloped viruses that infect human beings via membrane fusion. (jove.com)
  • However, their ability to infect a variety of different species as well as their high genomic variability additionally bears the constant risk of a zoonosis introducing a virus with completely new immunogenic properties into the human population. (frontiersin.org)
  • The virus could infect vertebrate but not mosquito cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies have identified small molecule inhibitors of Tacaribe virus ( 7 ) and LASV ( 8 ) cell entry, but their antiviral activity in animal models of HF arenaviruses has not been examined. (pnas.org)
  • The use of protocells that interact with, but do not accumulate, viruses may provide significant advantages over current antiviral drugs, and this general approach may have wide potential for antiviral development. (jove.com)
  • All viruses encode for at least one viral interferon (IFN) antagonist, which is used to subvert the cellular IFN response, a powerful antiviral innate immune response. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene of Zika virus. (springer.com)
  • Zika virus produces noncoding RNAs using a multiseudoknot structure that confounds a cellular exonuclease. (springer.com)
  • [ 2 ] The spectrum of Zika virus disease overlaps with other that of arboviral infections, but rash (maculopapular and likely immune-mediated) typically predominates. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus was first described in a febrile rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Entebbe, Uganda, and was reported in a human field worker shortly thereafter. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Currently, Zika virus is known to be widely distributed outside of Africa. (medscape.com)
  • For the latest information concerning Zika virus, see also Medscape's Zika Virus Resource Center . (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus is well-adapted to grow in various hosts, ranging from arthropods to vertebrates. (medscape.com)
  • Sirohi et al described the structure of mature Zika virus based on cryoelectron microscopy. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus recently re-emerged and caused global outbreaks mainly in Central Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands and in Central and South America. (mdpi.com)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda from an infected rhesus macaque monkey [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The Zika virus was first identified, in 1947, in the blood sample of a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. (frontline.in)
  • Angelica Pereira with her daughter, Luiza, who was born with microcephaly because of the Zika virus, and her husband at their home in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil. (frontline.in)
  • Thailand confirmed two cases of microcephaly caused by the Zika virus in September 2016. (frontline.in)
  • Uganda's success in containing the Zika outbreak is the product of a long history of cutting-edge infectious disease research that resulted in the discovery of dozens of diseases and the establishment of a virus surveillance system to curb potential epidemics. (frontline.in)
  • The most recent example that has come to our notice is the Zika virus, which has created a stir (or fear) in the Americas, particularly Brazil. (frontline.in)
  • Actually, evidence of the presence of the Zika virus in India was available as early as the 1950s. (frontline.in)
  • Has the Zika virus been looked at seriously enough in India? (frontline.in)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has newly emerged as a significant global threat, especially to pregnancy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arthropod-borne virus antibodies in sera of residents of Kainji Lake Basin, Nigeria 1980. (springer.com)
  • They had collected blood samples from indigenous residents from several States and tested them for neutralising antibody against each of 15 different viruses known or believed to be arthropod-borne. (frontline.in)
  • Buritirana virus An unclassified arthropod-borne virus isolated in the Amazon region of Brazil. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2.5%), Powassan (4.2%), St. Louis encephalitis, (3.7%), West Nile (6.0%), Maguari (19.4%), La Crosse (30.3%), and bluetongue (7.8%) viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Results obtained from intrathoracic inoculation of Tensaw virus into Culex quinquefasciatus Say indicated this species to be an unlikely vector. (ajtmh.org)
  • 9 ). The orthobunyaviruses comprise 170 virus isolates, cohorts were not available because SBV is a novel emerging assigned to 48 distinct species, arranged in 18 serogroups, virus with unknown zoonotic potential. (cdc.gov)
  • It is named for Bunyamwera, a town in western Uganda, where the type species was isolated in 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yellow Fever is caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of a female mosquito of several species. (bioedonline.org)
  • Further testing on CSF included real-time PCR for cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HSV1/2, West Nile virus (WNV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and free-living amoebae ( Acanthamoeba species, Balamuthia mandrillaris , and Naegleria fowleri ), all of which were negative. (asm.org)
  • Since its discovery, the virus has been detected in different species of Aedes mosquitos followed by the identification of the first infected human case in Uganda in 1962 [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The type species is Bunyamwera virus. (definitions.net)
  • The virus has been found in a variety of local mosquito species, notably Aedes furcifer-taylori, Ae. (gideononline.com)
  • Gabek Forest - Gabek Forest virus, a Phlebovirus, has been identified in sandflies (Phlebotomus species) in Senegal (1990 to 1995). (gideononline.com)
  • In the present report, in vitro translation analyses of the S mRNA species recovered from virus-infected cells indicate that a single size class of mRNA directs the synthesis of N and NSS. (semanticscholar.org)
  • They can be divided into 47 species and four ungrouped viruses (Table B1). (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • The inhibition could not be reversed by overexpression of N, L or the minireplicon, indicating that the NSs effect was not caused by a reduction in virus gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Reporter gene expression in r3LCMV-infected cells provided an accurate surrogate of levels of virus multiplication. (pnas.org)
  • 7. The expression plasmid of claim 6, wherein the virus is an influenza A virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The in vitro activity of the LACV endonuclease could be abolished by point mutations in the active site or by binding 2,4-dioxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid (DPBA), a known influenza virus endonuclease inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, our structure of a known influenza endonuclease inhibitor bound to LACV endonuclease suggests that compounds targeting a potentially broad spectrum of segmented RNA viruses, several of which are serious or emerging human, animal and plant pathogens, could be developed using structure-based optimisation. (nih.gov)
  • This then led to the development of a helper virus-dependent procedure to introduce cDNA-derived influenza virus genome segments into the genome of an influenza virus by reassortment and appropriate selection for transfectant virus (refs. (pnas.org)
  • Influenza A viruses occur in annual seasonal outbreaks. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the occurrence of a future influenza pandemic is almost certain, it is impossible to predict the characteristics of the virus and the severity of the symptoms it induces. (frontiersin.org)
  • The influenza A virus is an enveloped negative-strand virus with eight RNA segments encapsidated with nucleoprotein (NP) (reviewed by Lamb and Krug, 1996). (wipo.int)
  • The extracellular domains (ectodomains) of HA and NA are quite variable, while the ectodomain domain of M2 is essentially invariant among influenza A viruses. (wipo.int)
  • My laboratory is interested in the structural characterization of viruses that are a current public health risk, like HIV, Influenza and herpesviruses. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Using cryo-EM as a main approach, I plan to capture fusion intermediates of Influenza and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) that will help us unravel the mechanisms of fusion for these viruses. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Influenza virus A (e.g. (roclar.co.uk)
  • Field male Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) adults caught from fixed monitoring stations weekly for 1 yr were screened for dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4). (bioone.org)
  • Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease that can be caused by four different Dengue virus serotypes. (bioedonline.org)
  • Functional entry of dengue virus into Aedes albopictus mosquito cells is dependent on clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (springer.com)
  • Long-range RNA-RNA interactions circularize the dengue virus genome. (springer.com)
  • The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents, [4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • We test this strategy on two emerging zoonotic henipaviruses that cause fatal encephalitis in humans, Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses. (jove.com)
  • Tick-borne flaviviruses associated with serious human disease include tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Origin of the west nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. (osu.edu)
  • The emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a decreased milk production and diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
  • Schmallenberg" virus: analysis of the epidemiological data and assessment of impact. (cdc.gov)
  • Gariglinay MM , Hoffmann B , Dive M , Sartelet A , Bayrou C , Cassart D , Schmallenberg virus in calf born at term with porencephaly, Belgium. (cdc.gov)
  • Bilk S , Schulze C , Fischer M , Beer M , Hlinak A , Hoffmann B , Organ distribution of Schmallenberg virus RNA in malformed newborns. (cdc.gov)
  • Schmallenberg virus-Europe (45): Denmark, serological evidence. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was isolated from blood of affected cattle, and similar clinical manifestations were observed in experimentally infected calves ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • in 2 lambs from the same farm, the Schmallenberg virus was detected in brain tissue by RT-PCR (FLI, Germany). (flutrackers.com)
  • On 19 Dec 2011, another 27 lambs from 9 farms had been tested, and Schmallenberg virus was found in another 14 lambs (from 4 farms). (flutrackers.com)
  • It was concluded that the Schmallenberg virus is the cause of the disease. (flutrackers.com)
  • Two calves with arthrogryposis (from 2 farms) were also tested for Schmallenberg virus by RT-PCR, but in these 2 calves, the virus was not detected. (flutrackers.com)
  • These virus-induced acute lesions are useful in understanding the progression from vacuolation to porencephaly and extensive tissue destruction, often observed in aborted lambs and calves in naturally occurring Schmallenberg cases. (prolekare.cz)
  • Not in Schmallenberg but instead in the African tropical forest of the Ivory Coast, where the virologist has been conducting research for more than ten years, she set off on the search for new viruses. (healthcanal.com)
  • Comparative analysis of the L, M, and S RNA segments of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus isolates from southern Africa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has proven to be a superb workhorse in the field of virology and immunology ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The latest development in negative strand virology, reverse genetics, the ability to rescue live virus from a DNA copy of the RNA genome, is being used to address questions concerning virus pathogenicity at the molecular level and to produce "marker" vaccines, i.e. vaccines that allow serological identification of all vaccinated animals. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • This is a list of representative viruses (grouped by genome structure) compiled from: 'Virus Taxonomy', the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 1995. (virology.net)
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (wikipedia.org)
  • NS2B-3 proteinase-mediated processing in the yellow fever virus structural region: in vitro and in vivo studies. (springer.com)
  • Ebola virus disease ( EVD ), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( EHF ) or simply Ebola , is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever , sore throat , muscular pain , and headaches . (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a globe-shaped virus covered by a dense icosahedral array of glycoproteins Gn/Gc that mediate the attachment of the virus to host cells and the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. (springer.com)
  • 2012. Heparan sulfate facilitates Rift Valley fever virus entry into the cell. (springer.com)
  • Crystal structure of glycoprotein C from Rift Valley fever virus. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of the Golgi retention motif of Rift Valley fever virus G(N) glycoprotein. (springer.com)
  • Severe fever with thrombocytopenia virus glycoproteins are targeted by neutralizing antibodies and can use DC-SIGN as a receptor for pH-dependent entry into human and animal cell lines. (springer.com)
  • All tests with yellow fever, Bwamba fever, and Bunyamwera viruses were negative. (frontline.in)
  • Rift Valley fever (RVF) - RVF virus was first isolated in West Africa in 1974, from Aedes (Aedimorphus) dalzieli in Senegal. (gideononline.com)
  • At first, the basic structures of the viral genomes of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and related viruses are shown. (springer.com)
  • Carnec X, Ermonval M, Kreher F, Flamand M, Bouloy M (2014) Role of the cytosolic tails of Rift Valley fever virus envelope glycoproteins in viral morphogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Chen X, Ye H, Li S, Jiao B, Wu J, Zeng P, Chen L (2017) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus inhibits exogenous Type I IFN signaling pathway through its NSs in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Rift Valley fever virus vaccine lacking the NSs and NSm genes is safe, nonteratogenic, and confers protection from viremia, pyrexia, and abortion following challenge in adult and pregnant sheep. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Creation of a recombinant Rift Valley fever virus with a two-segmented genome. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Just as it is described for crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), high levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are present in hantavirus patients. (asmscience.org)
  • All classical endemic and emerging viruses, such as pestiviruses, bovine herpesvirus type 1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and bovine ephemeral fever virus, could be excluded as the causative agent. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This paper describes major pathogenetic mechanisms of African and Classical Swine Fever virus infections. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Sandfly fever virus (e.g. (roclar.co.uk)
  • Two nurses standing near Mayinga N'Seka , a nurse with Ebola virus disease in the 1976 outbreak in Zaire . (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus is in the same family as Ebola virus. (bioedonline.org)
  • There are no approved vaccines or specific treatments for the disease caused by these viruses, and work with infectious Ebola viruses is restricted to biosafety level 4 laboratories, significantly limiting the research on these viruses. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, the tetracistronic trVLP assay represents the most comprehensive lifecycle modeling system available for Ebola viruses, and has tremendous potential for use in investigating the biology of Ebola viruses in future. (jove.com)
  • Triggered by epidemics such as SARS and Ebola, virologists are now reaching out to discover the plethora of unknown viruses lurking in natural reservoirs such as insects, in an attempt to forecast pandemic risks. (healthcanal.com)
  • Hepatitis A is a virus transmitted through contaminated food or water or direct contact with a person who already is infected with the virus and is the mildest form of viral hepatitis infections. (bioedonline.org)
  • Hepatitis B is a virus that is transmitted by contacting blood and other body fluids from a person already infected with the virus. (bioedonline.org)
  • Hepatitis C is a virus that also is transmitted through body fluids and is the one of the leading causes for the need for a liver transplant in the United States. (bioedonline.org)
  • Best JM , O'Shea S . Rubella virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Polymorphism and structural maturation of bunyamwera virus in Golgi and post-Golgi compartments. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Using high-preservation methods for electron microscopy, we have detected two previously unknown maturation steps in the morphogenesis of Bunyamwera virus in BHK-21 cells. (scienceexchange.com)
  • 1992. Maturation of Hantaan virus glycoproteins G1 and G2. (springer.com)
  • The morphogenesis of Herpes Simplex Virus, including capsid maturation and exit from the nucleus. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Activation of PKR by Bunyamwera virus is independent of the viral interferon anatagonist NSs. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Viral Evasion of the Interferon system: Old viruses, new tricks. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • In addition, the NSs-deleted virus induced interferon (IFN) in cells, indicating that, like other orthobunyaviruses, NSs functions as an IFN antagonist, most probably by globally inhibiting host-cell metabolism. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bunya: from Bunyamwera, place in Uganda, where type virus was isolated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bunyamwera is a town in Bundibugyo District, Uganda. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first viruses of this family were discovered in a place known as Bunyamwera in Uganda, from which they derive their name. (healthcanal.com)
  • Calvert AE, Brault AC (2015) Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein of heartland virus. (springer.com)
  • The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids , such as blood from infected humans or other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • These rodents are often found in human homes, greatly increasing the chance of passing the virus from rodent to humans. (bioedonline.org)
  • It is therefore unlikely that this virus will cause disease in humans, but it cannot be excluded at this stage. (flutrackers.com)
  • How dangerous are the two new groups of viruses - can they be easily transmitted to humans and animals? (healthcanal.com)
  • The intracellular localisation of Bunyamwera virus NSs was investigated and found to be predominantly cytoplasmic, but intranuclear inclusion was also detected. (nih.gov)
  • The resulting progeny virus contained specific genetic tags characteristic of the parental cDNA clones. (pnas.org)
  • Study of the molecular biology of viruses with RNA genomes has been hampered by the inherent limitations imposed by the nature of their genetic material. (pnas.org)
  • Extension of genetic analyses to other orthobunyaviruses related to the Bunyamwera serogroup indicates additional natural genome reassortments. (deepdyve.com)
  • The genetic elements that modulate the differential host ranges and transmission cycles of these viruses have not been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The virus is transmitted by the day-biting mosquito Aedes aegypti . (frontline.in)
  • Semliki Forest virus is spread mainly by mosquito bites. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group can be further divided into mosquito-borne and tick-borne viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lundstrom J. Mosquito-borne viruses in western Europe: A review. (osu.edu)
  • Cache Valley virus disease is rarely diagnosed in North America, in part because laboratories rarely test for it. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) poses the highest public health concern among HF arenaviruses. (pnas.org)
  • Likewise, several New World arenaviruses, chiefly Junin virus, cause viral HF disease ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Arenaviruses are enveloped viruses with a bisegmented negative-strand (NS) RNA genome ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • LeDantec - LeDantec virus is a rhabdovirus which is distinct from the vesicular stomatitis group 1. (gideononline.com)
  • Okuno T. Immunological studies relating two recently isolated viruses, Germiston virus from South Africa and Ilesha virus from West Africa, to the Bunyamwera group. (atcc.org)
  • The first group is comprised of viruses that are transmitted horizontally between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The resultant minimal plasmid-based system may be used to synthesize any RNA virus, preferably viruses with a negative single stranded RNA genome. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Second human case of Cache Valley virus disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Cache valley virus in a patient diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. (cdc.gov)
  • A novel cause of chronic viral meningoencephalitis: Cache Valley virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Fatal Cache Valley virus meningoencephalitis associated with rituximab maintenance therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • We document the second known case of Cache Valley virus disease in a human. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Bunyamwera virus-induced polypeptide synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Bunyamwera virus-induced polypeptide synthesis in BSC-1 cell has been studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. (asm.org)
  • Attenuation of SBV virulence depends on the inability of SBVΔNSs to block IFN synthesis in virus infected cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • Virus Genes , 47 (1), pp. 160-163. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The ability to generate recombinant LCMV (rLCMV) expressing additional foreign genes of interest would open novel avenues for the study of virus-host interactions and the development of novel vaccine strategies and high-throughput screens to identify antiarenaviral molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Identification of differentially expressed genes in brains of newborn Borna disease virus-infected rats in the absence of inflammation. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Chimeric virus was recovered in cells transfected with the fusion product containing the prM-E genes of WNV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potosi virus , meanwhile, has not been found to be similar to any other U.S. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It remains unclear whether this microbe, dubbed Potosi virus , can cause human illness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The SFV virus was genetically modified with microRNA target sequences so that it only replicated in brain tumour cells and not in normal brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major advance in the investigation of positive-strand RNA viruses was the demonstration that cloned poliovirus cDNA was infectious ( 1 ), since in the DNA form viral sequences can be manipulated using recombinant DNA techniques and then reintroduced into viable virus. (pnas.org)
  • O'nyong nyong - Although specific data are lacking for Senegal, circulation of O'nyong nyong virus is reported in this region of West Africa. (gideononline.com)
  • The virus resembles other known flavivirus structures with the exception of approximately 10 amino acids surrounding the Asn154 glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins comprising the icosahedral shell, the carbohydrate moiety of which may be the attachment site of the virus to host cells. (medscape.com)
  • Other flaviviruses such as Modoc virus (MODV) and Culex flavivirus (CxFV) have host ranges restricted to vertebrates and insects, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)