A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
An organothiophosphate insecticide.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Benzoate derivatives that contain one or more alkyl or aryl groups linked to the benzene ring structure by OXYGEN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An aromatic perennial plant species that has been used to treat migraines, arthritis, and as a febrifuge. It contains TANNINS, volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), and sesquiterpene lactones, especially parthenolide.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
A genus in the family Monascaceae, order EUROTIALES. One species, Monascus purpureus, has multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

cDNA sequence analysis of a novel member of the three loop protein family from the Chinese continental banded krait. (1/40)

The cDNA encoding a novel three loop protein was cloned from cellular RNA isolated from the venom gland of Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus by RT-PCR. The mature protein has 82 amino acid residues. It shared only 25-38% similarity with some cardiotoxins and did not have sequence similarity with neurotoxins, while its cDNA was about 70% similar to both the cDNAs encoding neurotoxins and the cDNAs encoding cardiotoxins.  (+info)

Production of an immunoenzymatic tracer combining a scFv and the acetylcholinesterase of Bungarus fasciatus by genetic recombination. (2/40)

We constructed a plasmid containing a chimeric gene composed of the gene encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Bungarus fasciatus venom and a gene encoding a single chain antibody fragment (scFv) directed against one of the two subunits of a presynaptic neurotoxin from rattlesnake. Large quantities of the fusion protein were produced in the culture medium of transfected COS cells. Fusion to AChE did not affect the ability of the scFv to recognise its antigen. Similarly, the AChE activity was not impaired in the fusion. The fusion protein was purified from the culture medium in a single step by affinity chromatography. The immunoconjugate obtained consisted of a soluble monomeric form of AChE fused to scFv. It was monovalent and had a molecular weight of 94 kDa. The properties of this scFv-AChE fusion show that the simple, reproducible preparation of various recombinant monovalent immunoenzymatic tracers with low molecular weight is possible. In addition, in the construct presented, the scFv domain can be easily changed to another one taking advantage of the SfiI-NotI restriction sites surrounding this domain.  (+info)

Genetic organization of alpha-bungarotoxins from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait): evidence showing that the production of alpha-bungarotoxin isotoxins is not derived from edited mRNAs. (3/40)

Two genomic DNAs with a size of approximately 2.8 kb, isolated from the liver of Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait), encode the precursors of the long neurotoxins, alpha-Bgt(A31) and alpha-Bgt(V31), respectively. Both genes share virtually identical overall organization with three exons separated by two introns, which were inserted in the same positions in the coding regions of the genes. Moreover, their nucleotide sequences share approximately 98% identity. This result indicates that the two genes co-exist in the genome of B.multicinctus, and probably arose from gene duplication. The exon/intron structures of the alpha-Bgt genes were essentially the same as those reported for the short neurotoxins. This reflects that the long and short neurotoxins should share a common evolutionary origin. Comparative analyses on long neurotoxin and short neurotoxin genes showed that the protein coding regions of the exons were more diverse than the introns except for the signal peptide domain. This implies that the protein coding regions of the neurotoxins may have evolved via accelerated evolution. PCR amplification of venom gland cDNA mixtures revealed that only two amino acid sequences corresponding to alpha-Bgt(A31) and alpha-Bgt(V31) could be deduced from the cDNAs. The results of chromatographic analyses and protein sequencing again emphasized the view that, with the exception of alpha-Bgt(A31) and alpha-Bgt(V31), no other alpha-Bgt isotoxins with amino acid substitutions were present in B.multicinctus venom. In contrast to the proposition of Liu et al. ( Nucleic Acids Res., 1998,26, 5624-5629), our findings strongly suggest that each alpha-Bgt isotoxin is derived from the respective gene, and that alpha-Bgt RNA polymorphism does not originate from one single, intronless gene by the mechanism of RNA editing.  (+info)

Comparative expression of homologous proteins. A novel mode of transcriptional regulation by the coding sequence folding compatibility of chimeras. (4/40)

Recombinant acetylcholinesterases (AChE) are produced at systematically different levels, depending on the enzyme species. To identify the cause of this difference, we designed expression vectors that differed only by the central region of the coding sequence, encoding Torpedo, rat, and Bungarus AChEs and two reciprocal rat/Bungarus and Bungarus/rat chimeras. We found that folding is a limiting factor in the case of Torpedo AChE and the chimeras, for which only a limited fraction of the synthesized polypeptides becomes active and is secreted. In contrast, the fact that rat AChE is less well produced than Bungarus AChE reflects the levels of their respective mRNAs, which seem to be controlled by their transcription rates. A similar difference was observed in the coding and noncoding orientations; it seems to depend on multiple cis-elements. Using CAT constructs, we found that a DNA fragment from the Bungarus AChE gene stimulates expression of the reporter protein, whereas a homologous fragment from the rat AChE gene had no influence. This stimulating effect appears different from that of classical enhancers, although its mechanism remains unknown. In any case, the present results demonstrate that the coding region contributes to control the level of gene expression.  (+info)

Genetic organization of A chain and B chain of beta-bungarotoxin from Taiwan banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus). A chain genes and B chain genes do not share a common origin. (5/40)

beta-Bungarotoxin, the main presynaptic neurotoxin purified from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus, consists of two dissimilar polypeptide chains, the A chain and the B chain, cross-linked by an interchain disulfide bond. In this study, A and B chain genes isolated from the liver of B. multicinctus encoded the A and B chain precursors, respectively. Analyses of the coding regions of the A and B chain genes revealed that both consist of three exons and two introns. The sequences of all exon/intron junctions agree with the GT/AG rule. However, sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis did not support that the evolution of A and B chain genes are closely related. Comparative analysis of A chain genes with Viperinae and Crotalinae phospholipase A2 genes indicated that genetic divergence of the A chain and phospholipase A2s was in accordance with their family. Moreover, evolutionary divergence of the intron and exon regions of the A chain, as observed for phospholipase A2 genes, was not consistent. Noticeably, the transcription of A and B chain genes may be regulated under different transcription factors as revealed by analyses of their promoter sequences. In terms of the finding that A and B chains are encoded separately by different genes, this strongly supports the view that the intact beta-bungarotoxin molecules should be derived from the pairing of A and B chains after their mRNAs are translated.  (+info)

Thermal stability of acetylcholinesterase from Bungarus fasciatus venom as investigated by capillary electrophoresis. (6/40)

Previous studies on the conformation of the monomeric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the krait (Bungarus fasciatus) venom showed that the protein possesses a large permanent dipole moment. These studies predicted that thermal irreversible denaturation must occur via partially unfolded states. The thermal stability of Bungarus AChE was determined using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with optimized conditions. Runs performed at convenient temperature scanning rates provided evidence for an irreversible denaturation process according to the Lumry and Eyring model. The mid-transition temperature, T(m), and the effective enthalpy change, DeltaH(m) were determined at different pH. The temperature dependence of the free energy, DeltaG, of Bungarus AChE unfolding was drawn using values of T(m), DeltaH(m) and DeltaC(p) determined by CE. The thermodynamic parameters for the thermal denaturation of the monomeric snake enzyme were compared with those of different dimeric and tetrameric ChEs. It was shown that the changes in the ratio of DeltaH(cal/)DeltaH(vH) and DeltaC(p) reflect the oligomerization state of these proteins. All these results indicate that wild-type monomeric Bungarus AChE is a stable enzyme under standard conditions. However, designed mutants of this enzyme capable of degrading organophosphates have to be engineered to enhance their thermostability.  (+info)

Solution structure of a Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from the elapid snake Bungarus fasciatus. (7/40)

Bungarus fasciatus fraction IX (BF9), a chymotrypsin inhibitor, consists of 65 amino acid residues with three disulfide bridges. It was isolated from the snake venom of B. fasciatus by ion-exchange chromatography and belongs to the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-like superfamily. It showed a dissociation constant of 5.8 x 10(-8) m with alpha-chymotrypsin as measured by a BIAcore binding assay system. The isothermal titration calorimetry revealed a 1:1 binding stoichiometry between this inhibitor and chymotrypsin and apparently no binding with trypsin. We further used CD and NMR to determine the solution structure of this venom-derived chymotrypsin inhibitor. The three-dimensional NMR solution structures of BF9 were determined on the basis of 582 restraints by simulated annealing and energy minimization calculations. The final set of 10 NMR structures was well defined, with average root mean square deviations of 0.47 A for the backbone atoms in the secondary structure regions and 0.86 A for residues The side chains of Phe(23), Tyr(24), Tyr(25), Phe(35), and Phe(47) exhibited many long-range nuclear Overhauser effects and were the principal components of the hydrophobic core in BF9. To gain insight into the structure-function relationships among proteins in the BPTI-like superfamily, we compared the three-dimensional structure of BF9 with three BPTI-like proteins that possess distinct biological functions. These proteins possessed similar secondary structure elements, but the loop regions and beta-turn were different from one another. Based on residues at the functional site of each protein, we suggest that the flexibility, rigidity, and variations of the amino acid residues in both the loop and beta-turn regions are related to their biological functions.  (+info)

NMR structure of bucandin, a neurotoxin from the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus). (8/40)

A high-resolution solution structure of bucandin, a neurotoxin from Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus), was determined by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics. The average backbone root-mean-square deviation for the 20 calculated structures and the mean structure is 0.47 A (1 A=0.1 nm) for all residues and 0.24 A for the well-defined region that spans residues 23-58. Secondary-structural elements include two antiparallel beta-sheets characterized by two and four strands. According to recent X-ray analysis, bucandin adopts a typical three-finger loop motif and yet it has some peculiar characteristics that set it apart from other common alpha-neurotoxins. The presence of a fourth strand in the second antiparallel beta-sheet had not been observed before in three-finger toxins, and this feature was well represented in the NMR structure. Although the overall fold of the NMR structure is similar to that of the X-ray crystal structure, there are significant differences between the two structures that have implications for the pharmacological action of the toxin. These include the extent of the beta-sheets, the conformation of the region spanning residues 42-49 and the orientation of some side chains. In comparison with the X-ray structure, the NMR structure shows that the hydrophobic side chains of Trp(27) and Trp(36) are stacked together and are orientated towards the tip of the middle loop. The NMR study also showed that the two-stranded beta-sheet incorporated in the first loop, as defined by residues 1-22, and the C-terminus from Asn(59), is probably flexible relative to the rest of the molecule. On the basis of the dispositions of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic side chains, the structure of bucandin is clearly different from those of cytotoxins.  (+info)

1 Candoxin (MW 7334.6), a novel toxin isolated from the venom of the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus, belongs to the poorly characterized subfamily of nonconventional three-finger toxins present in Elapid venoms. The current study details the pharmacological effects of candoxin at the neuromuscular junction. 2 Candoxin produces a novel pattern of neuromuscular blockade in isolated nerve-muscle preparations and the tibialis anterior muscle of anaesthetized rats. In contrast to the virtually irreversible postsynaptic neuromuscular blockade produced by curaremimetic a-neurotoxins, the neuromuscular blockade produced by candoxin was rapidly and completely reversed by washing or by the addition of the anticholinesterase neostigmine. 3 Candoxin also produced significant train-of-four fade during the onset of and recovery from neuromuscular blockade, both, in vitro and in vivo. The fade phenomenon has been attributed to a blockade of putative presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that ...
Kraits (genus Bungarus) and cobras (genus Naja) are two representative toxic genera of elapids in the old world. Although they are closely related genera and both of their venoms are very toxic, the compositions of their venoms are very different. To unveil their detailed venoms and their evolutionary patterns, we constructed venom gland cDNA libraries and genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries for Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra, respectively. We sequenced about 1500 cDNA clones for each of the venom cDNA libraries and screened BAC libraries of the two snakes by blot analysis using four kinds of toxin probes; i.e., three-finger toxin (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), kunitz-type protease inhibitor (Kunitz), and natriuretic peptide (NP). In total, 1092 valid expressed sequences tags (ESTs) for B. multicinctus and 1166 ESTs for N. atra were generated. About 70% of these ESTs can be annotated as snake toxin transcripts. 3FTx (64.5%) and β bungarotoxin (25.1%) comprise the main toxin
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Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that inhibits neuromuscular transmission by blocking acetylcholine release from the nerve termini. PLA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides (By similarity).
Chinese Herb Bai Hua She, (Agkistrodon Acutus), Bungarus multicinctus; Bungarus Parvus 白花蛇 (蕲蛇) Bai Hua She comes from a number of sources, usually either the Agkistrodon Pit Viper or the Bungarus Sea Krait. Bai Hua She is for EXTERNAL USE ONLY! Bai Hua She acts to dispel wind, open channels and collaterals, and dispe
Bungarus in Chinese translation, English Chinese dictionary, English Chinese translation, with pronunciation, a lot of example sentences
Background The Red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps, Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae) is a medically important venomous snake that inhabits South-East Asia. Although the venoms of most species of the snake genus Bungarus have been well characterized, a detailed compositional analysis of B. flaviceps is currently lacking. Results Here, we have sequenced 845 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the venom gland of a B. flaviceps. Of the transcripts, 74.8% were putative toxins; 20.6% were cellular; and 4.6% were unknown. The main venom protein families identified were three-finger toxins (3FTxs), Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (including chain B of β-bungarotoxin), phospholipase A2 (including chain A of β-bungarotoxin), natriuretic peptide (NP), CRISPs, and C-type lectin. Conclusion The 3FTxs were found to be the major component of the venom (39%). We found eight groups of unique 3FTxs and most of them were different from the well-characterized 3FTxs. We found three groups of Kunitz-type serine
The kraits, as they are commonly known, belong to the family Elapidae and the genus Bungarus. The genus is endemic to the continent of Asia. They are morphologically well connected, forming a close-knit and cohesive unit. The genus has 12-13 species who are morphologically distinct from the genus Naja and the Afro-elapids according to McDowell (1987). McDowell stated species diversity is greatest in Africa, but the Asiatic Bungarus and Ophiophagus are each so peculiar in anatomy as to suggest an ancient divergence.[10] Others, including Slowinski, believed that the kraits (Bungarus), are part of a clade that clusters with a group including the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and oddly enough, with the African mambas (Dendroaspis) on the most-parsimonious tree or with Elapsoidea on the maximum-likelihood tree. This result calls into question the monophyly of cobras and underscores the uncertainty of the homology of the hood spreading behavior in cobras and mambas. The relationships of ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Summary A case is presented of a 43 year old white male who was bitten by the deadly snake, Bungarus caeruleus, and who made a complete recovery without specific therapy. The recovery of this individual presents the possibility of a cross protection existing between the venoms of the species Bungarus and those of the Indian, African and Egyptian cobras. The phenomenon of cross protection should be investigated further with the possibility of producing a common antivenin. This would not only be of great value to the Armed Forces but to the ever increasing number of individuals who travel to areas where poisonous reptiles abound.
Amino acid sequences of three .BETA.-bungarotoxins (.BETA.3-,.BETA.4-, and .BETA.5-bungarotoxins) from Bungarus multicinctus venom. Amino acid substitutions in the A chains. (1982 ...
Background: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of GACA/GATA have been implicated with differentiation of sex-chromosomes and speciation. However, the organization of these repeats within genomes and transcriptomes, even in the best characterized organisms including human, remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to explore the buffalo transcriptome for its association with GACA/GATA repeats, and study the structural organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA repeat tagged transcripts. Moreover, the distribution of GACA and GATA repeats in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes was studied to highlight their significance in genome evolution. Results: We explored several genomes and transcriptomes, and observed total absence of these repeats in the prokaryotes, with their gradual accumulation in higher eukaryotes. Further, employing novel microsatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA) approach using varying length oligos based on GACA and GATA repeats; we ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Krait bite poisoning in Manipal region of Southern India. AU - Monteiro, Francis N.P.. AU - Kanchan, Tanuj. AU - Bhagavath, Prashantha. AU - Kumar, G. Pradeep. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Krait commonly inhabits the South Asian countries and is regarded as the most dangerous species of venomous snake in the Indian subcontinent. This prospective research included the consecutive cases of Krait bite cases admitted to Kasturba Hospital, Manipal during August 2003 and November 2005. All the victims of Krait bite were females aged between 17 and 35 years. Victims were from a rural background and most of them were bitten indoors and during the night time. Most of the bites involved the lower limbs. Signs of envenomation (neurological symptoms) were observed in 50% of the cases. In the only case of fatal outcome in our study, there was a delay in diagnosis of Krait bite owing to the absence of bite marks. The case emphasizes on the fact that the possibility of snake bite should ...
Dissorophus (DI-soh-ROH-fus) is an extinct genus of the early temnospondyl amphibian families that flourished in the Late Carboniferous to the Late Permian, 273 million years ago. Most recent discovery of the Dissorophus species is D. multicinctus. Their remains have been found in the Northern and Central Texas, and distinguished from other members of its clade by its small body size, disproportionately large head and short trunk. Dermal ossification in the sacral region and skull suggests that D. multicinctus are among the non-amniotes that were successful on land. The name dissorphus was used by Edward Drinker Cope to describe the first dissorophid, Dissorophus multicinctus. He did not formulate a standing definition as of this name, however, upon examination, he commented that it was a veritable bratrachian armadillo which translates to looking like an amphibian armadillo. On the same context,DeMar [3] mentions that Boulengers interpretation on dissorophus is remarkable for an ...
OP: London dispersion can maybe be best imagined similarly to the resonance structures you might know from organic chemistry. The wave function of the molecule (even of a pure state at zero temperature) can be described by simultaneous linear combination of many different resonance structures, which can be thought of as frozen combinations of electrons placed in specific orbitals. Even in molecules which do not have permanent dipole moments, some of the resonance structures which make up the full wave function, do have dipole moments. And if you have, for example, two interacting molecules, the resonance structures in which these instantaneous dipole moments are favourably aligned have a larger weight in the total two-molecule wave function than the configurations in which they do not ...
I think you should approach it from the ideas developed in chapter 10. The text gives you the permanent dipole moment, p, of a water molecule. It also explains how to go from dipole moment per molecule to the polarization P. From P you can get the surface charge density ...
We study narrowing of nonlinear two photon absorption line shape in system with non-zero permanent dipole moment difference between the ground- and excited state. The temperature-induced broadening of one photon absorption (1PA) and two photon absorption (2PA) line shapes is modeled by subjecting the resonance transition frequency to random fluctuations of varying amplitude and by solving numerically the corresponding two-level density matrix equation of motion. We show that under conditions, when 1PA and 2PA transitions are both far from saturation, the 2PA homogeneous line width may be as much as 25% narrower than the corresponding 1PA line width. This offers novel possibilities for reducing the temperature-induced dephasing in quantum computing, quantum memory and other applications based on coherent multi-photon interactions ...
The cDNA encoding the A chain ofΒ-bungarotoxin (Β-Bgt) was constructed from the cellular RNA isolated from the venom glands ofBungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait). The deduced amino acid sequen
I thought I would put together a BH Ultralight with some weenie parts. If I can drop weight elsewhere, please let me know how. I used AICAN Bungarus housing with PowerCordz for shifting. The performance on this combination is absolutely terrible as the PoweCordz seem to stick inside the housing/liner. Any advice on how to get this combo to work better would be appreciated. I am probably gonna just switch them out to steel cables or maybe the KCNC Ti Cables. I was also thinking about using the Ax Lightness Ax6000 fork that I have. I decided not too because I wanted to live past my 40th birthday. The Cirrus Ultralite Ti pedals are also very scary as it is not an easy task to clip out of them. In fact, I snapped my TUNE bottle cage trying to get my right foot out of them. I will probably switch the pedals out too. Thanks for looking ...
Sea snakes and kraits are occasional visitors to New Zealands waters, arriving here naturally from time to time on ocean currents.
General area of use PCBs, pesticides, herbicides The 007-1301 is a (6% cyanopropylphenyl) methylpolysiloxane phase. Overall, 007-1301 is a low polarity phase which exhibits excellent thermal stability. The cyanopropyl (permanent dipole) and the phenyl
Somatic DNA variability in human breast carcinoma.: Bkm-related probe 2[8], consisting mainly of GATA repeats, detects a hypervariable pattern of restriction fr
Une base de donn es mycologique interactive avec fiches descriptives et photos de champignons, cartographie des r coltes, classification du r gne fongique, cl de d termination macroscopique des familles et cl s de d termination informatique pour chaque famille
Hello, thank you for lending opportunity of The snake charmer. It would be really great and I would appreciate to read it. I am a kind of hobby thaland snake fan and study your great homepage alot. I love it. By the way I saw the tail and I thought about bungarus fasciatus maybe a varity more ocker yellow but bungarus has a linear triangle shape and is so great glossy on the skins surface… Then I detect the small thorns in the top and I thougt it is a leguan. Funny ...
Hello, thank you for lending opportunity of The snake charmer. It would be really great and I would appreciate to read it. I am a kind of hobby thaland snake fan and study your great homepage alot. I love it. By the way I saw the tail and I thought about bungarus fasciatus maybe a varity more ocker yellow but bungarus has a linear triangle shape and is so great glossy on the skins surface… Then I detect the small thorns in the top and I thougt it is a leguan. Funny ...
Unlike other sea snakes, Sea Kraits still have the long scales running along their bellies. These are great for crawling on land but they are useless for swimming. They also have scales in between their nostrils that push them to the sides of the snout. Other sea snakes lack these, so their nostrils point straight upwards which is much better for taking a breath of air from the waters surface. To make matters worse, they also have the poorest paddle power of any sea snake. The tail is flattened to help push through the water with (prepare yourself) serpentine movements, but the Sea Krait has a tiny little fin compared to those of their fellow seafarers. They probably dont get teased that much, though. Not with that venom ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Asp85 replacement by Thr on the conformation, surface electric properties and stability of bacteriorhodopsin. AU - Taneva, Stefka G.. AU - Gõi, Felix M.. AU - Tuparev, Nikolai P.. AU - Petkanchin, Ivana. AU - Dér, A.. AU - Muga, Arturo. PY - 2002/9/25. Y1 - 2002/9/25. N2 - The role of Asp85 in maintaining bacteriorhodopsin structure has been analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, electric light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. In comparison with the wild type bacteriorhodopsin, the mutant protein D85T shows a different conformation, electric dipole moments and decreased thermal stability. The conformational rearrangements affect both the transmembrane helices and the extramembranous protein segments. Both electric dipoles - the permanent dipole moment and the electric polarizability - have drastically lower values for the membranes containing D85T variant of bacteriorhodopsin. Therefore, this single amino acid mutation not only changes bacteriorhodopsin ...
A single muraenid specimen (genus Uropterygius), recovered from the stomach of a live Yellow-lipped Sea Krait, Laticauda colubrina (Schneider, 1799), captured at Iriomote Island, Japan, was found to possess intermediate traits between 2 rare species, Uropterygius  xenodontus McCosker & Smith, 1997 and Uropterygius golanii McCosker & Smith, 1997. The specimen is provisionally identified as U. xenodontus and is described below with its morphs, as an important addition to material of rare specimens of the genus in the western North Pacific.
T. fasciatus (Takifugu fasciatus) faces the same problem as most warm water fish: the water temperature falls far below the optimal growth temperature in winter, causing a massive death of T. fasciatus and large economic losses. Understanding of the cold-tolerance mechanisms of this species is still limited. Integrated application of multi-omics research can provide a wealth of information to help us improve our understanding of low-temperature tolerance in fish. To gain a comprehensive and unbiased molecular understanding of cold-tolerance in T. fasciatus, we characterized mRNA-seq and metabolomics of T. fasciatus livers using Illumina HiSeq 2500 and UHPLC-Q-TOF MS. We identified 2544 up-regulated and 2622 down-regulated genes in the liver of T. fasciatus. A total of 40 differential metabolites were identified, including 9 down-regulated and 31 up-regulated metabolites. In combination with previous studies on proteomics, we have established an mRNA-protein-metabolite interaction network. There are 17
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USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Setchellanthus caeruleus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10 ...
The PZN-plus Series three-finger gripper features a newly designed jaw guidance that delivers higher load capacities, longer finger capability, and better efficiency.
Banded Quail 18-21·5 cm; 115-160 g, with male averaging 130 g, female 126 g. Breast and belly white with black barring; overall coloration greyish brown to grey; head greyish bro
TY - JOUR. T1 - Substrate activation in acetylcholinesterase induced by low pH or mutation in the π-cation subsite. AU - Masson, Patrick. AU - Schopfer, Lawrence M. AU - Bartels, Cynthia F.. AU - Froment, Marie Thérèse. AU - Ribes, Fabien. AU - Nachon, Florian. AU - Lockridge, Oksana. PY - 2002/2/11. Y1 - 2002/2/11. N2 - Substrate inhibition is considered a defining property of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), whereas substrate activation is characteristic of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). To understand the mechanism of substrate inhibition, the pH dependence of acetylthiocholine hydrolysis by AChE was studied between pH 5 and 8. Wild-type human AChE and its mutants Y337G and Y337W, as well as wild-type Bungarus fasciatus AChE and its mutants Y333G, Y333A and Y333W were studied. The pH profile results were unexpected. Instead of substrate inhibition, wild-type AChE and all mutants showed substrate activation at low pH. At high pH, there was substrate inhibition for wild-type AChE and for the ...
Infrared spectroscopy is used extensively in the study of isolated biomolecules, but it becomes less useful as it is applied to systems of increasing complexity. Even if the individual vibrational bands can be resolved spectroscopically, their assignment becomes problematic when they are more closely spaced than can be determined using ab initio methods. We describe a method that helps to alleviate this difficulty by measuring the direction of the vibrational transition moment for each vibrational band. The molecules of interest (adenine and cytosine) are cooled to 0.37 kelvin in liquid helium nanodroplets and oriented in a large dc electric field. A polarized infrared laser is then used to determine the directions of the infrared transition moments relative to the permanent dipole moment. Comparisons with ab initio calculations provide detailed structural information, including experimental evidence for nonplanarity of adenine and three tautomers of cytosine. ...
Looking for online definition of Malayan gaur in the Medical Dictionary? Malayan gaur explanation free. What is Malayan gaur? Meaning of Malayan gaur medical term. What does Malayan gaur mean?
In recent years the brownheaded ash sawfly, Tomostethus multicinctus, has become a common insect pest along the Front Range. It appeared in the Arkansas Valley area by the early 1980s. Since then, it has steadily expanded its range northward. Given the rapidity of its spread, the insect apparently is a strong flier that can disperse long distances. It is native to the eastern United States, where it rarely causes concern.
Ash sawfly definition is - any of various sawflies (especially Tomostethus multicinctus and Tethida cordigera) having larvae that feed on and defoliate ash trees.
Sea snake, any of more than 60 species of highly venomous marine snakes of the cobra family (Elapidae). There are two groups: the true sea snakes (subfamily Hydrophiinae) and the sea kraits (subfamily Laticaudinae). Although their venom is the most potent of all snakes, human fatalities are rare.
The University of Minnesota is one of the most comprehensive public universities in the United States and ranks among the most prestigious. It is both the state land-grant university, with a strong tradition of education and public service, and the states primary research university, with faculty of national and international reputation.
Malayan Tapir Skull - The Malayan Tapir, Tapirus indicus, is found in Southeast Asia in the following countries: southern Burma, Thailand, the Malay...
The Malayan Emergency was a terrorist uprising in the British Colony of Malaya, now known as the countries of Malaysia and Singapore.
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Hello Everyone, and thanks for the resposes to my previous post of pics Those are pictures of C. fasciatus, C. manningi with and without eggs and an egg carrying P. enoplosternum. I keep and breed a large amount of different crayfish every year and the you are sold or traded to other people interested in keeping rare and unique crays. Granted most are expensive to buy pairs of, but i am always willing to trade for wild caught crays from other states for breeding projects. I just set up
The most exiting moment of the day must be the spotting of this Yellow-lipped Sea Krait (Laticauda colubrina)! By the time I saw the snake, its head had already gone under water. A few of the other fortunate volunteers got to see and photograph it though. We often see other snakes like the Dog-faced Water Snake and Banded File Snake here, but none can certainly match seeing this very venomous sea krait! One bite from this snake can kill a human! However, they are generally not aggressive unless provoked, fortunately, and thats also why we could observe rather closely ...
Two probes previously shown to distinguish the nicotinic ACh receptor of chick ciliary ganglion neurons also recognize a component on the surface of bovine chromaffin cells in culture that displays the properties expected for the chromaffin nicotinic ACh receptor. The first probe is a monoclonal antibody, mAb 35, raised against ACh receptor from Electrophorus electric organ, and the second is an alpha- neurotoxin, Bgt 3.1, purified from B. multicinctus venom. mAb 35 binds specifically to a single class of high-affinity sites on the chromaffin cells in culture. Scatchard analysis indicates a KD of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM for the binding and a Bmax of 1.6 +/- 0.1 X 10(4) mAb 35 sites per cell. The number of sites on the cells can be reduced through modulation by exposure of the cells to Bgt 3.1. The modulation can be blocked by the cholinergic ligands d-tubocurarine and carbamylcholine. Long-term exposure to the agonist carbamylcholine alone also reduces the number of mAb 35 binding sites. Bgt 3.1 inhibits ...
Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoanthid that together jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, which are venomous and predatory, belongs to the Phyllum Cnidaria. The distinguished feature in these marine animals is the cnidocytes in the body tissues, responsible for toxin production and injection that are used majorly for prey capture and defense. With exception for other anthozoans, the toxin cocktails of zoanthids have been scarcely studied and are poorly known. Here, based on the analysis of P. caribaeorum transcriptome, numerous predicted venom-featured polypeptides were identified, including allergens, neurotoxins, membrane-active and Kunitz-like peptides (PcKuz). The three predicted PcKuz isotoxins (1 to 3) were selected for functional studies. Through computational processing comprising structural phylogenetic analysis, molecular docking, and dynamics simulation, PcKuz3 was shown to be a potential voltage gated potassium-channel inhibitor. PcKuz3 fitted well as new functional ...
Terphenyllin is the dominant analogue of a family of polyphenyl fungal metabolites produced by Aspergillus candidus. The occurrence of this metabolite is a criterion in the polyphasic taxonomy of A. candidus. Terphenyllin has not been extensively studied but exhibits anti-oxidative activity, acts as a plant growth inhibitor, and shows weak activity against HIV integrase ...
A unit containing a cluster of eggs, with enough nymphs and adults to illustrate the life cycle of Oncopeltius fasciatus. Desired Date of Arrival can be entered during checkout. If …
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Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Help us to expand this encyclopedia! If you are logged in, you can add new subtaxa, vernacular and scientific names, texts, images or intertaxon relationships for this taxon ...
Caerulomycin is a rare and unusual antibiotic containing a core 2, 2-bispyridyl with an oxime substituent, produced by a strain of Streptomyces caeruleus isolated in Canada in 1959. Caerulomycin is active against fungi and some protozoans, and is weakly active against bacteria. While its discovery has stimulated some synthetic effort, little is known about the mode and spectrum of action of caerulomycin ...
Stacey Konwiser, the Florida zookeeper who was killed by a Malayan tiger in its enclosure screamed desperately into her radio for help before the 350-pound animal crushed her neck.
This species has two known subspecies, the nominate Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus, and Bungarus multicinctus wanghaotingi ... Bungarus fasciatus). It still bears its original name Bungarus multicinctus. The generic name is a Latinisation of Telugu ... Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus multicinctus and phospholipases A2 in Bungarus fasciatus". Toxicon. 107 (Part ... Unlike other Bungarus species, who are primarily snake-eaters, the many-banded krait usually feeds on fish, but it is also ...
N. bungarus". Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Amsterdam: Schonekat. p. 476. Cantor, T. E. (1838). "A notice of the ... Günther considered both N. bungarus and N. vittata a variety of H. elaps. The genus Ophiophagus was proposed by Günther in 1864 ... three captured in the Sundarbans and one in the vicinity of Kolkata.Naja bungarus was proposed by Hermann Schlegel in 1837 who ... ophiophagus for the king cobra and explained that it has dental features intermediate between the genera Naja and Bungarus.Naia ...
Bungarus flaviceps at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 28 February 2020. Tan NH, Fung SY, Ponnudurai G (2010). " ... The red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps), is a large venomous elapid snake with dramatic coloration. The red-headed krait can ... Grismer, L. & Chan-Ard, T. (2012). "Bungarus flaviceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T192075A2036609. ... "Enzymatic and immunological properties of Bungarus flaviceps (red-headed krait) venom". Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins ...
Bungarus caeruleus 1. Daboia russeli The programme also includes the Amblypygi, Python molurus, Cyrtodactylus deccanensis, Rat ...
The common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), also known as the blue krait, is a species of highly venomous snake of the genus ... "Clinical Toxinology-Bungarus caeruleus". Archived from the original on 2016-10-16. Retrieved 2011-11-10. Gopalkrishnakone, P.; ... ISBN 0-89673-110-3. "Medical Management for bites by Kraits (Bungarus species)". Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. ... ISBN 9971-62-217-3. Bungarus caeruleus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 18 November 2013. "LD50". Archived from ...
Bungarus fasciatus); Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia); Striped Water Snake (Enhydris enhydris); Rice Paddy Snake (Enhydris ...
Bungarus caeruleus, the common krait. Daboia russelii, Russell's viper. Echis carinatus, the saw-scaled viper. King Cobra ... Common krait, Bungarus caeruleus Russell's viper, Daboia russelii. Saw-scaled viper, Echis carinatus. Naja naja, the spectacled ...
Bungarus niger, p. 417). Tillack, Frank; Grossmann, Wolfgang (2001). "Ein neuer Nachweis zur Schlangenfauna Nepals: Bungarus ... ISBN 0-88359-056-5. (Bungarus niger, p. 51). Grosselet O, Vauche M, Gupta A, Gupta S (2004). "Bungarus niger Wall, 1908 ( ... Bungarus niger is medium in length, slender-bodied, and triangular in cross-section, with a short, pointed tail. It can grow to ... The greater black krait (Bungarus niger) or black krait, is a species of krait, a venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The ...
The lesser black krait (Bungarus lividus) is a species of venomous elapid snake found in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Bungarus ... "Lesser Black Krait ( Bungarus lividus Cantor, 1839 )". indiansnakes.org. Retrieved 8 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... A phylogenetic analysis of Bungarus (Elapidae) based on morphological characters. Journal of Herpetology 28(4):440-446. v t e. ...
Bungarus spp.), including the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) Lanceheads (Bothrops spp.), including the fer-de-lance (B. ...
Singh, L.; Sharma, T.; Ray-Chaudhuri, S.P. (1970). "Multiple sex chromosomes in the common krait, Bungarus caeruleus Schneider ...
Both krait species mentioned (Bungarus caeruleus and Bungarus ceylonicus) are highly venomous. Boiga ceylonensis (Sri Lanka Cat ...
The common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) is often considered to be the most dangerous snake species in India. Its venom consists ... The Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) is another dangerously venomous species of krait. In mice, the IV LD50 for this species ... In another study, the average venom yield was 11 mg (Sawai, 1976). The venom is possibly the most toxic of any Bungarus (krait ... But unlike some other members of the family Elapidae (the species of the genus Bungarus, genus Oxyuranus, genus Pseudohaje, and ...
"Observations on the venomous effect of Naja bungarus", published in 1929 in English. De Javaansche gifslangen en haar ...
A species of krait, Bungarus romulusi is named in honor of Romulus Whitaker. Romulus Whitaker was awarded the Padma Sri (the ...
New Snakes of the Genera Calamaria, Bungarus and Trimeresurus from Mount Kinabalu, North Borneo. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 51 ...
They also are very similar to another venomous snake, the red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps). This uncommon snake is ...
Bungarus caeruleus), and rat-snake (Ptyas mucosus) are commonly found. The Indian crocodile or naka (Crocodylus palustris), and ...
... s are also often confused with land kraits (genus Bungarus), which are not aquatic. Sea kraits are semiaquatic, so ...
Snakes include the cobra (Naja naja), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), and rat snake (Ptyas mucosus). Trees include teak ( ...
β-Bungarotoxin is a form of bungarotoxin that is fairly common in Krait (Bungarus multicinctus) venoms. It is the prototypic ... from Bungarus multicinctus venom. Amino acid substitutions in the A chains". Journal of Biochemistry. 91 (5): 1531-48. doi: ...
Evidence suggests that Dendroaspis, Ophiophagus, Bungarus, and Hemibungarus form a solid non-coral snake Afro-Asiatic clade. Of ...
D. russelii does not associate as closely with human habitation as Naja and Bungarus species (cobras and kraits). D. russelii ...
Bungarus. Daudin, 1803. 12. 4. kraits. India (incl. Andaman Island), Myanmar, Nepal, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka ...
... imitates the deadly Bungarus ...[T]o make the deception complete, the Lycodon has enlarged front teeth in imitation of the ... fangs of the Bungarus ... Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History), Volume I. ...
She was bitten by a Bungarus fasciatus/ Kattuviriyan snake during the shooting of Manjal Kungumam and was admitted to hospital ...
Bungarus multicinctus). It is a type of α-neurotoxin, a neurotoxic protein that is known to bind competitively and in a ...
Alpha-bungarotoxin, the alpha-neurotoxin from the many-banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus), has a long history of use in ...
Bungarus, new genus, p. 263). (in French). Genus Bungarus at The Reptile Database "Bungarus". Integrated Taxonomic Information ... Bungarus, genus and species, pp. 407-418). Richard Mastenbroeks Elapid Pages: Kraits (Bungarus ssp.) "Living in Indonesia: ... ISBN 81-901873-0-9. "Bungarus fasciatus ". WCH Clinical Toxinology Resources. "Bungarus caeruleus ". WCH Clinical Toxinology ... Bungarus contains some species which are among the most venomous land snakes in the world to mice based on their LD50. They ...
Wall F (1907). "A new krait from Oudh (Bungarus walli)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 155-157. Bungarus sindanus at the ... ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Bungarus sindanus walli, p. 79). Wall (1907). Boulenger GA (1897). "A new krait from Sind (Bungarus ... The geographic ranges of the subspecies are: Bungarus sindanus razai Khan, 1985 - north Pakistan Bungarus sindanus sindanus ... Bungarus sindanus, the Sind krait, is a species of krait, a venomous elapid snake found in India, Iran, Bangladesh, Nepal, and ...
Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bungarus_ceylonicus&oldid=5517981" ... Genus: Bungarus Species: Bungarus ceylonicus Name[edit]. Bungarus ceylonicus Günther, 1864 References[edit]. Links[edit]. *The ...
sp,Q8AY52,3SO92_BUNCA Candiduxin-2 OS=Bungarus candidus OX=92438 PE=3 SV=1 ... Bungarus candidus (Malayan krait). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy% ...
Species : Bungarus flaviceps. Maximum Size : 2.1 metres. The Red-headed Krait is a rare species which inhabits forested ...
sp,Q8QFW3,PA2B2_BUNCE Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain OS=Bungarus caeruleus OX=132961 PE=2 SV=1 ... Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ...
We incubated Bungarus multicintus eggs under three constant and one fluctuating-temperature regimes to evaluate the effects of ... Phenotypic Responses of Hatchlings to Constant Versus Fluctuating Incubation Temperatures in the Multi-banded Krait, Bungarus ... Bungarus multicintus (Elapidae)," Zoological Science, 24(4), 384-390, (1 April 2007) Include:. ... Bungarus multicintus (Elapidae)," Zoological Science 24(4), 384-390, (1 April 2007). https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.24.384 ...
Bungarus flaviceps - COX et al. 1998: 31. Bungarus flaviceps - MATTISON 2007: 257. Bungarus flaviceps - WALLACH et al. 2014: ... Bungarus flaviceps flaviceps - BRONGERSMA 1948. Bungarus flaviceps - GRANDISON 1972: 93. Bungarus flaviceps - WELCH 1994: 37. ... Bungarus flaviceps baluensis LOVERIDGE 1938. Bungarus flaviceps baluensis - MANTHEY 1983. Bungarus flaviceps baluensis - NGUYEN ... Bungarus flaviceps flaviceps REINHARDT 1843. Bungarus flaviceps baluensis LOVERIDGE 1938 Common Names. E: Red-headed Krait. G: ...
Bungarus caeruleus SMITH 1943: 413. Bungarus caeruleus - WELCH 1994: 37. Bungarus caeruleus - JANZEN et al. 2007. Bungarus ... Bungarus candidus var. caeruleus BOULENGER 1896. Bungarus sindanus BOULENGER 1897 (fide SMITH 1943). Bungarus candidus - WALL ... Bungarus arcuatus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1272 (fide SMITH 1943). Bungarus caeruleus - DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1273. Bungarus ... On the Common (Bungarus caeruleus) and Sind Kraits (Bungarus sindanus). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 401 - get paper here ...
Bungarus caeruleus) at 2.4 A resolution: identification and characterization of its pharmacological sites. ... Bungarus caeruleus EC#: 3.1.1.4 IUBMB Fragment: NATURAL PROTEIN Gene Name(s): ... SEQUENCE AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF A BASIC PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 FROM COMMON KRAIT (BUNGARUS CAERULEUS) AT 2.4 RESOLUTION: ...
The essentiality of B chain in stabilizing the structure of the A chain in β1-bungarotoxin fromBungarus multicinctus venom. ...
Five patients were bitten by the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus) in eastern Thailand or north western Malaya. Two ... Severe neurotoxic envenoming by the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus): response to antivenom and anticholinesterase.. ...
Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus, ) Taxonomic Notes: Bungarus javanicus is considered to be a melanistic form of B. candidus (see ... Bungarus candidus - Wikipedia. Journal of Bungaruw 28 4: Occurence of Krait Bungarus candidus and the small-spotted coral snake ... Scientific Name: Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus, ) Taxonomic Notes: Bungarus javanicus is considered to be a melanistic form of B ... Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus). BACKGROUND: Bungarus candidus (Malayan krait) snake is a neurotoxin snake . Previous ...
... libraries for Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra, respectively. We sequenced about 1500 cDNA clones for each of the venom cDNA ... genus Bungarus) and cobras (genus Naja) are two representative toxic genera of elapids in the old world. Although they are ... The intron sequences were from our BAC libraries and the GenBank database, both in the genus of Bungarus and Naja, using a ... From: Venom gland transcriptomes of two elapid snakes (Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra) and evolution of toxin genes ...
... , English Chinese dictionary, English Chinese translation, with pronunciation, a lot of example ... Any of several brightly banded, highly venomous snakes of the genus Bungarus of southeast Asia and adjacent islands. ...
Bungarus multicinctus venom isoenzyme reduced) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. ... Substance Name: Phisogikuoase A2 (Bungarus multicinctus venom isoenzyme reduced). RN: 76774-42-0. ...
... libraries for Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra, respectively. We sequenced about 1500 cDNA clones for each of the venom cDNA ... genus Bungarus) and cobras (genus Naja) are two representative toxic genera of elapids in the old world. Although they are ... From: Venom gland transcriptomes of two elapid snakes (Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra) and evolution of toxin genes ...
Bungarus flaviceps, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2014). *Bungarus flaviceps baluensis, Nguyen Van Sang et al. (2009) ... Bungarus flaviceps. , Johan Reinhardt, 1843. The red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps), is a large venomous elapid snake with ... Range map of Bungarus flaviceps in Thailand. Important note; our range maps are based on limited data we have collected. The ... Bungarus flaviceps, Albert Charles Lewis Günther (1858). *Elaps bi virgatus, André Marie Constant Duméril & Gabriel Bibron ( ...
Bungarus candidus (Malayan krait) snake is a neurotoxin snake. Previous treatment after snakebite was mainly respiratory ... Case 4 did not receive specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus. He did not respond to stimuli 10 hours after snakebite and he ... The present article is the first report on the clinical response to the specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus. OBJECTIVE:. ... The first three patients received specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus and the fourth patient did not receive any. All four ...
Abstract Based on molecular phylogeny of the Chinese white cross-band krait, Bungarus multicinctus, several individuals from ... Molecular phylogeny found the distribution of Bungarus candidus in China (Squamata: Elapidae)[J]. Zoological Systematics, 2018 ... Molecular phylogeny found the distribution of Bungarus candidus in China (Squamata: Elapidae). ...
Dorsal scale count is 15 - 15 - 15.[1] It is syntopic with the lesser black krait (Bungarus lividus), but can be separated by ... "Bungarus niger - General details". Clinical Toxinology Resource. University of Adelaide. Retrieved 17 April 2012.. ... Ein neuer Nachweis zur Schlangenfauna Nepals: Bungarus niger Wall, 1908 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Elapidae). Sauria 23(1):3-9. ... The greater black krait (Bungarus niger) is a species of krait, a venomous elapid snake. ...
"Bungarus multicinctus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 4 January 2014.. *^ a b "Bungarus". Integrated ... This species has two known subspecies, the nominate Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus, and Bungarus multicinctus wanghaotingi. ... Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus multicinctus and phospholipases A2 in Bungarus fasciatus". Toxicon. 107 (Part ... "Bungarus multicinctus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 13 July 2014.. *^ Blyth, E. (1860). "Proceedings of ...
Acetylcholinesterase aus dem Gift von Bungarus multicinctus. Reinigung und Eigenschaften/The Acetylcholinesterase of Bungarus ...
Production and characterization of neutralizing antibodies against Bungarus multicinctus snake venom. Chi Hsin Lee, Yu-Ching ... Production and characterization of neutralizing antibodies against Bungarus multicinctus snake venom. / Lee, Chi Hsin; Lee, Yu- ... The venom of the banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus), one of the major venomous species in Taiwan, contains neurotoxic venom ... N2 - The venom of the banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus), one of the major venomous species in Taiwan, contains neurotoxic ...
... dc.contributor. ... 1 Candoxin (MW 7334.6), a novel toxin isolated from the venom of the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus, belongs to the poorly ... Neuromuscular effects of candoxin, a novel toxin from the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus).. en_US. ...
Solution Structure of a Kunitz-type Chymotrypsin Inhibitor Isolated from the Elapid Snake Bungarus fasciatus. ...
Bungarus fasciatus (Banded krait). Loading... A3FM53 Long neurotoxin 2. Hydrophis hardwickii (Hardwicks spine-bellied seasnake ...
Bungarus caeruleus EC#: 3.1.1.4 IUBMB Fragment: RESIDUES 28-145 Gene Name(s): ...
學名:Bungarus multicinctus ( Blyth ). 科名:Elapidae 蝙蝠蛇科 ...
P79688 (3SO9L_BUNMU) Bungarus multicinctus (Many-banded krait). Cardiotoxin homolog TA-ctx-like UniProtKBInterProInteractive ...
  • Can you confirm these amateur observations of Bungarus caeruleus ? (reptarium.cz)
  • Bungarus caeruleus - JANZEN et al. (reptarium.cz)
  • Note on the breeding of the Krait (Bungarus caeruleus). (reptarium.cz)
  • Studies on the size composition and morphometry of common Krait Bungarus caeruleus (Schneider, 1801) at the Irula Snake catchers' industrial co-operative society, Vadanemmeli, Kanchipuram Distict, Tamil Nadu. (reptarium.cz)
  • The extracts of shade dried leaves of A. tetracantha were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on toxic venom enzymes like phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase etc. from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study suggests that ethylacetate extract of A. tetracantha leaves possesses compounds that inhibit the activity of toxic enzymes from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venom. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common poisonous snakes in the country are cobra ( Naja naja ), krait ( Bungarus caeruleus ), Russell's viper ( Daboia russelli ) and saw-scaled viper ( Echis carinatus ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A case is presented of a 43 year old white male who was bitten by the deadly snake, Bungarus caeruleus , and who made a complete recovery without specific therapy. (ajtmh.org)
  • Neuroparalysis due to envenomation by common cobra (Naja naja) and common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) is a common life-threatening medical emergency in India (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An Indian kraits snake (Bungarus caeruleus). (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Painless venom: Indian kraits (Bungarus caeruleus) are notorious for biting sleeping people at night. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pharmacoinformatic Approach to Explore the Antidote Potential of Phytochemicals on Bungarotoxin from Indian Krait, Bungarus caeruleus . (nih.gov)
  • Bungarus ceylonicus (Ceylon or Sri Lanka krait) inhabits the wet and intermediate climatic zones from 30 m up to 2000 m above the mean sea level and Bungarus caeruleus (Common krait) is mainly confined to the dry zone plains up to about 300 m. (venomousreptiles.org)
  • More prolific are the Indian cobra (Naja naja), saw scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and Daboia russelii viper (Russell's Viper). (anorak.co.uk)
  • Bungarus is a genus of venomous elapid snakes, the kraits ("krait" is pronounced /kraɪt/, rhyming with "kite"), found in South and Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are responsible for 40% of krait bites in Bangladesh Bungarus sindanus is found in India, Nepal, and Pakistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The venom of this species is little studied, but it must be assumed that it is highly venomous and potentially dangerous in the same manner as the Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus . (ecologyasia.com)
  • Bungarus f. flaviceps REINHARD 1843 - Rotkopf-Krait. (reptarium.cz)
  • Severe neurotoxic envenoming by the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus): response to antivenom and anticholinesterase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Five patients were bitten by the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus) in eastern Thailand or north western Malaya. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps), is a large venomous elapid snake with dramatic coloration. (thainationalparks.com)
  • Bungarus candidus (Malayan krait ) snake is a neurotoxin snake . (bvsalud.org)
  • Abstract Based on molecular phylogeny of the Chinese white cross-band krait, Bungarus multicinctus, several individuals from southwestern and southern China were found to be nested within putative species B. candidus (Linnaeus, 1758) with high support values. (zootax.com.cn)
  • The greater black krait ( Bungarus niger ) is a species of krait , a venomous elapid snake. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] It is syntopic with the lesser black krait ( Bungarus lividus ), but can be separated by the enlarged dorsal vertebral scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The many-banded krait ( Bungarus multicinctus ), also known as the Taiwanese krait or the Chinese krait , is a highly venomous species of elapid snake found in much of central and southern China and Southeast Asia . (wikipedia.org)
  • The generic name , Bungarus , is a Latinisation of Telugu baṅgāru , "krait. (wikipedia.org)
  • The venom of the banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus), one of the major venomous species in Taiwan, contains neurotoxic venom proteins (B. multicinctus proteins) that pose a serious medical problem in tropical and subtropical countries. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuromuscular effects of candoxin, a novel toxin from the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus). (edu.au)
  • 1 Candoxin (MW 7334.6), a novel toxin isolated from the venom of the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus, belongs to the poorly characterized subfamily of nonconventional three-finger toxins present in Elapid venoms. (edu.au)
  • Malayan krait ( Bungarus candidus) venom is known to contain highly potent neurotoxins . (bvsalud.org)
  • ثعبان غضوب متعدد الخطوط (الاسم العلمي: Bungarus multicinctus)، والذي يعرف أيضًا باسم ثعبان غضوب التايواني أو ثعبان غضوب الصيني، في اللغة الإنجليزية يسمى Krait (كريت)، هو ثعبان من الأنواع السامة للغاية وينتمي لعائلة العرابيد من جنس غضوب المتواجدة في العديد من المناطق في وسط وجنوب الصين وجنوب شرق آسيا. (dbpedia.org)
  • Der Vielgebänderte Krait (Bungarus multicinctus), auch als Chinesischer Krait oder Vielbindenbungar bezeichnet, ist eine giftige Schlangenart und zählt innerhalb der Familie der Giftnattern zur Gattung der Kraits. (dbpedia.org)
  • El krait con muchas bandas de Taiwán (Bungarus multicinctus) es una especie de elápido venenoso​ que produce α-bungarotoxina (Alfa-Bungarotoxina). (dbpedia.org)
  • It merits mention here, he said that out of 17 species of snakes only 5 species were venomous that are: Common Krait (Bungarus aeruleus ), Black Cobra (Naja naja), Brown Cobra (Naja oxiana), Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis carinatus sochireki ) and Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Proteomic Deep Mining the Venom of the Red-Headed Krait, Bungarus flaviceps . (nih.gov)
  • Bungarus multicinctus (the many-banded krait) and Naja atra (the Chinese cobra). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Chemical properties and amino acid composition of .BETA.1-bungarotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus (formosan banded krait). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Bungarus krait venom is neuro-toxic and attacks the human nervous system, shutting it down. (ageofautism.com)
  • A patient bitten by Bungarus candidus (Malayan krait) developed nausea, vomiting, weakness, and myalgia 30 minutes after being bitten. (ageofautism.com)
  • It merits mention here, he said that out of 17 species of snakes only 5 species were venomous that are: Common Krait (Bungarus aeruleus ), Black Cobra (Naja naja), Brown Cobra (Naja oxiana), Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis carinatus sochireki ) and Russell''s Viper (Daboia russelii). (com.pk)
  • Bungarus candidus var. (reptarium.cz)
  • Scientific Name: Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus, ) Taxonomic Notes: Bungarus javanicus is considered to be a melanistic form of B. candidus (see Kuch. (peaceportal.mobi)
  • Erfahrungen bei der Terrarienhaltung von vier Arten nahrungs - spezialisierter Giftnattern der Gattung Bungarus Daudin,Teil 1 - Bungarus candidus Linnaeus, The snakes of Sulawesi. (peaceportal.mobi)
  • Specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recently specific antivenom for the Bungarus candidus snake was produced by the Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute and distributed in June 2004. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present article is the first report on the clinical response to the specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus. (bvsalud.org)
  • To analyze the signs and symptoms of patients after snakebite and the response of the patients after receiving specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus snake . (bvsalud.org)
  • Four cases of Bungarus candidus snakebite were identified and divided into two groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Group I (Case 1, 2, and 3) had received specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus while group 2 (case 4) had not. (bvsalud.org)
  • The first three patients received specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus and the fourth patient did not receive any. (bvsalud.org)
  • The first two patients received specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus after being bitten at 10 and 12 hours, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Case 4 did not receive specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Molecular phylogeny found the distribution of Bungarus candidus in China (Squamata: Elapidae)[J]. Zoological Systematics, 2018, 43(1): 109-117. (zootax.com.cn)
  • Production of an immunoenzymatic tracer combining a scFv and the acetylcholinesterase of Bungarus fasciatus by genetic recombination. (pasteur.fr)
  • We constructed a plasmid containing a chimeric gene composed of the gene encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Bungarus fasciatus venom and a gene encoding a single chain antibody fragment (scFv) directed against one of the two subunits of a presynaptic neurotoxin from rattlesnake. (pasteur.fr)
  • Pukpinyo shows a Bungarus fasciatus snake which he caught, at a fire station in Bangkok. (rediff.com)
  • Cathelicidin-BF, a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide from Bungarus fasciatus, Attenuates Disease in a Dextran Sulfate Sodium Model of Colitis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A bag of banded kraits (Bungarus fasciatus) seized by authorities from smugglers in Ninh Binh province. (envietnam.org)
  • Status, distribution and threats of kraits (Squamata: Elapidae: Bungarus) in Bangladesh. (reptarium.cz)
  • Bungatus Nature Journal 61 4: A phylogenetic analysis of Bungarus Elapidae based on morphological characters. (peaceportal.mobi)
  • Emmanuel Theophilus, Ashok Captain, Frank Tillack, Ulrich Kuch (2008) Reptilia, Elapidae, Bungarus niger: Distribution extension and first record for the state of Uttarakhand, India, with notes on snakebites in the Gori River valley. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004. Bungarus niger Wall, 1908 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Elapidae): Extension of range to Cachar district, Assam, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of Bungarus (Elapidae) based on morphological characters. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001. Ein neuer Nachweis zur Schlangenfauna Nepals: Bungarus niger Wall, 1908 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Elapidae) . (wikipedia.org)
  • The kraits, as they are commonly known, belong to the family Elapidae and the genus Bungarus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reinigung und Eigenschaften/The Acetylcholinesterase of Bungarus multicinctus Venom. (degruyter.com)
  • One of three (alpha, beta, gamma) closely related anticholinergic neurotoxins derived from venom of the snakes of the genus Bungarus-e.g. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amino acid sequences of the two polypeptide chains in .BETA.1-bungarotoxin from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • bungarotoxins (.BETA.3-,.BETA.4-, and .BETA.5-bungarotoxins) from Bungarus multicinctus venom. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Amino acid sequence of .BETA.2-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus venom. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Extracted from Bungarus multicinctus venom, α-bungarotoxin binds with high affinity to the α-subunit of the nAChR of neuromuscular junctions. (thermofisher.com)
  • Abe, T., Alema, S. and Miledi, R. (1977) Isolation and characterization of presynaptically acting neuro Toxins from the venom of Bungarus snakes. (springer.com)
  • Envenoming by kraits (genus Bungarus) is a medically significant issue in South Asia and Southeast Asia. (peaceportal.mobi)
  • [10] Others, including Slowinski, believed that the kraits ( Bungarus ), are part of a clade that clusters with a group including the king cobra ( Ophiophagus hannah ) and oddly enough, with the African mambas ( Dendroaspis ) on the most-parsimonious tree or with Elapsoidea on the maximum-likelihood tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Bungarus has 15 species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intron sequences were from our BAC libraries and the GenBank database, both in the genus of Bungarus and Naja , using a colubrid ( Boiga dendrophila ) 3FTx as the outgroup. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Any of several brightly banded, highly venomous snakes of the genus Bungarus of southeast Asia and adjacent islands. (chinaorb.com)
  • [9] It is also called as "கட்டுவிரியன்" in Tamil, a common name given to the genus Bungarus . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1983) showed that this species, Bungarus multicinctus was slightly distinct from the other members of its genus and was immunologically more similar to Laticauda , terrestrial Australian elapids, and true sea snakes than it is to Elapsoidea sundevalli (Sundevall's garter snake), Naja naja (Indan cobra) or two Micrurus species (New World or American coral snakes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of several highly venomous snakes of the genus Bungarus of South and Southeast Asia, having a generally black body with brightly colored bands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Naja naja atra is the third, Bungarus multicinctus is the forth and Vipera russelli formosen-sis is the fifth. (hanspub.org)
  • Proteomic characterization and comparison of venoms from two elapid snakes (Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra) from China. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Deinagkistrodon acutus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Daboia russelii siamensis, Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra are the six medically important venomous snake species in Taiwan. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Bungarus contains some species which are among the most venomous land snakes in the world to mice based on their LD50. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of ventral and subcaudals are higher than in all other Bungarus species (216-231 ventrals and 47-57 subcaudals). (wikipedia.org)
  • This species has two known subspecies, the nominate Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus , and Bungarus multicinctus wanghaotingi . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the species' description by zoologist and pharmacist Edward Blyth in 1861, [3] [5] Bungarus multicinctus has been the binomial of the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • McDowell stated "species diversity is greatest in Africa, but the Asiatic Bungarus and Ophiophagus are each so peculiar in anatomy as to suggest an ancient divergence" . (wikipedia.org)
  • The recovery of this individual presents the possibility of a cross protection existing between the venoms of the species Bungarus and those of the Indian, African and Egyptian cobras. (ajtmh.org)
  • Bungarus niger at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database . (wikipedia.org)
  • هذا النوع من الثعابين له سلالتان معروفتان، سلالة Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus، وسلالة Bungarus multicinctus wanghaotingi. (dbpedia.org)
  • Il bungaro fasciato o bungaro di Taiwan (Bungarus multicinctus Blyth, 1861) è un rettile squamato della famiglia degli Elapidi. (dbpedia.org)
  • Aggressive antivenom treatment can reduce snakebite mortality rate, but for Bungarus multicinctus bites, maintaining the patient's airway and supporting their ventilation is vital to reducing mortality rate in addition to antivenom treatment. (hanspub.org)
  • Acetylcholinesterase aus dem Gift von Bungarus multicinctus. (degruyter.com)
  • Notes on Maticora bivirgata (Boie) and on Bungarus flaviceps Reinh. (reptarium.cz)
  • Bungarus multicinctus Bungarus generoko animalia da. (dbpedia.org)
  • The relationships of Dendroaspis , Ophiophagus , and Bungarus differed between the parsimony and likelihood analyses, suggesting that more work is necessary to resolve the relationships of these problematic taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • For dry bites or no en-venomation, the patient should be observed for at least 6 - 12 hours before discharged. (hanspub.org)
  • Furthermore, this substrate can successfully distinguish the secondary protein structure between Bungarus multicinctus and Trimeresurus stejnegeri from their collected SERS spectra. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Rao D., Zhao E. (2004) Bungarus bungaroides, A record new to China (Xizang AR) with a note pn Trimeresurus tibetanus. (indiansnakes.org)