Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Crotoxin: A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Hemicholinium 3: A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.ArchivesTorpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Veratrum Alkaloids: Alkaloids with powerful hypotensive effects isolated from American or European Hellebore (Veratrum viride Ait. Liliaceae and Veratrum album L. Liliaceae). They increase cholinergic and decrease adrenergic tone with appropriate side effects and at higher doses depress respiration and produce cardiac arrhythmias; only the ester alkaloids have been used as hypotensive agents in specific instances. They have been generally replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Veratrum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE with roots that contain VERATRUM ALKALOIDS used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives. It is the main ingredient of Boicil.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.TaiwanElapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Single-Domain Antibodies: An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Tubocurarine: A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.EsterasesAcetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Curare: Plant extracts from several species, including genera STRYCHNOS and Chondodendron, which contain TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINES that produce PARALYSIS of skeletal muscle. These extracts are toxic and must be used with the administration of artificial respiration.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Doxepin: A dibenzoxepin tricyclic compound. It displays a range of pharmacological actions including maintaining adrenergic innervation. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it appears to block reuptake of monoaminergic neurotransmitters into presynaptic terminals. It also possesses anticholinergic activity and modulates antagonism of histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.

Nerve terminal damage by beta-bungarotoxin: its clinical significance. (1/911)

We report here original data on the biological basis of prolonged neuromuscular paralysis caused by the toxic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin. Electron microscopy and immunocytochemical labeling with anti-synaptophysin and anti-neurofilament have been used to show that the early onset of paralysis is associated with the depletion of synaptic vesicles from the motor nerve terminals of skeletal muscle and that this is followed by the destruction of the motor nerve terminal and the degeneration of the cytoskeleton of the intramuscular axons. The postjunctional architecture of the junctions were unaffected and the binding of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptor was not apparently affected by exposure to beta-bungarotoxin. The re-innervation of the muscle fiber was associated by extensive pre- and post-terminal sprouting at 3 to 5 days but was stable by 7 days. Extensive collateral innervation of adjacent muscle fibers was a significant feature of the re-innervated neuromuscular junctions. These findings suggest that the prolonged and severe paralysis seen in victims of envenoming bites by kraits (elapid snakes of the genus Bungarus) and other related snakes of the family Elapidae is caused by the depletion of synaptic vesicles from motor nerve terminals and the degeneration of the motor nerve terminal and intramuscular axons.  (+info)

Selective effects of a 4-oxystilbene derivative on wild and mutant neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic receptor. (2/911)

1. We assessed the pharmacological activity of triethyl-(beta-4-stilbenoxy-ethyl) ammonium (MG624), a drug that is active on neuronal nicotinic receptors (nicotinic AChR). Experiments on the major nicotinic AChR subtypes present in chick brain, showed that it inhibits the binding of [125I]-alphaBungarotoxin (alphaBgtx) to the alpha7 subtype, and that of [3H]-epibatidine (Epi) to the alpha4beta2 subtype, with Ki values of respectively 106 nM and 84 microM. 2. MG624 also inhibited ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha7 and alpha4beta2 chick subtypes with half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of respectively 109 nM and 3.2 microM. 3. When tested on muscle-type AChR, it inhibited [125I]-alphaBgtx binding with a Ki of 32 microM and ACh elicited currents (I(ACh)) in the oocyte-expressed alpha1beta1gammadelta chick subtype with an IC50 of 2.9 microM. 4. The interaction of MG624 with the alpha7 subtype was investigated using an alpha7 homomeric mutant receptor with a threonine-for-leucine 247 substitution (L247T alpha7). MG624 did not induce any current in oocytes expressing the wild type alpha7 receptor, but did induce large currents in the oocyte-expressed L247T alpha7 receptor. The MG624 elicited current (I(MG62)) has an EC50 of 0.2 nM and a Hill coefficient nH of 1.9, and is blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). 5. These binding and electrophysiological studies show that MG624 is a potent antagonist of neuronal chick alpha7 nicotinic AChR, and becomes a competitive agonist following the mutation of the highly conserved leucine residue 247 located in the M2 channel domain.  (+info)

Synaptic transmission at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat hippocampal organotypic cultures and slices. (3/911)

1. Whole-cell clamp recordings of the compound synaptic current elicited by afferent stimulation of Schaffer collaterals showed that blockade of the NMDA, AMPA and GABAA receptor-mediated components by 6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl- benzo(f)quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (R-CPP) and picrotoxin, respectively, left a small residual current in 39 out of 41 CA1 pyramidal neurones in organotypic cultures and 9 out of 16 CA1 cells in acutely prepared slices. 2. This current represented 2. 9 +/- 0.4 % of the compound evoked synaptic response in organoypic cultures and 1.4 +/- 0.5 % in slices. It was characterized by a slightly rectifying I-V curve and a reversal potential of 3.4 +/- 5. 1 mV. 3. This residual current was insensitive to blockers of GABAB, purinergic, muscarinic and 5-HT3 receptors, but it was essentially blocked by the nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine (91 +/- 4 % blockade; 20 microM), and partly blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin (200 nM) and methyllycaconitine (10 nM), two antagonists with a higher selectivity for alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors (48 +/- 3 % and 55 +/- 11 % blockade, respectively). 4. The residual current was of synaptic origin, since it occurred after a small delay; its amplitude depended upon the stimulation intensity and it was calcium dependent and blocked by the sodium channel antagonist tetrodotoxin. 5. We conclude that afferent stimulation applied in the stratum radiatum evokes in some hippocampal neurones a small synaptic current mediated by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors.  (+info)

Local alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic receptors modulate hippocampal norepinephrine release by systemic nicotine. (4/911)

Previous studies have shown that nicotinic receptors (NAChRs) accessible from the cerebral aqueduct of the brainstem mediate the hippocampal norepinephrine (NE) release induced by i.v. nicotine. The present study was designed to investigate the role of hippocampal NAChRs in this process. Nicotinic antagonists were microinjected or microdialyzed into the hippocampus (HP) before administering nicotine (0.09 mg/kg over 60 s, i.v.) to freely moving rats. alpha-Bungarotoxin (0.3 nmol by microinjection) blocked nicotine-induced hippocampal NE release by 47% (p <.05) and abolished the effect of 0.065 mg/kg nicotine. Methyllycaconitine (1.4-5.6 mM in the dialysate) inhibited the stimulatory effect of nicotine 0.09 mg/kg by 48 to 75% (p <.05). In contrast, mecamylamine (2.9-5.8 mM) and dihydro-beta-erythroidine (7-14 mM) were completely ineffective. The role of hippocampal NAChRs was demonstrated further by selectively desensitizing these receptors before the systemic infusion of nicotine. To do so, the HP was pretreated with nicotine (0.1 mM) delivered through the microdialysis probe; this concentration was calculated to yield tissue concentrations similar to those produced by the systemic infusions of nicotine. Dialyzing this concentration of nicotine into the HP inhibited the NE response to i.v. nicotine by 34% (p <.05), and 1.0 mM nicotine reduced the response by 40%. These studies indicate that alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive hippocampal NAChRs, probably containing alpha7 subunits, modulate hippocampal NE release because of systemic nicotine.  (+info)

Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the epsilon form of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (5/911)

Neonatal mice resist the lethal effect of Waglerin-1. Because Waglerin-1 blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of mature end-plates, the appearance of lethality may result from the epsilon- for gamma-subunit substitution. In support of this hypothesis, adult knockout (KO) mice lacking the gene coding for the epsilon-subunit resist the lethal effect of Waglerin-1. In contrast, heterozygous litter mates respond to Waglerin-1 like adult wild-type mice. In vitro application of 1 microM Waglerin-1 inhibited spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials and evoked end-plate potentials of adult wild-type and heterozygous KO mice. Both miniature end-plate potentials and end-plate potentials of neonatal wild-type and adult homozygous KO mice resisted Waglerin-1. Waglerin-1 decreased the end-plate response of adult wild-type mice to iontophoretically applied acetylcholine (ACh) with an IC50 value of 50 nM; 1 microM Waglerin-1 decreased the ACh response to 4 +/- 1% of control for adult heterozygous KO mice. In contrast, 1 microM Waglerin-1 decreased the ACh response to 73 +/- 2% of control for wild-type mice less than 11 days old and had no effect on the ACh response of adult homozygous KO mice. Between 11 and 12 days after birth, the suppressant effect of Waglerin-1 on wild-type end-plate responses to ACh dramatically increased. Waglerin-1 reduced binding of alpha-bungarotoxin to end-plates of adult but not neonatal wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that Waglerin-1 selectively blocks the mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor containing the epsilon-subunit.  (+info)

Subunit interface selectivity of the alpha-neurotoxins for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (6/911)

Peptide toxins selective for particular subunit interfaces of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor have proven invaluable in assigning candidate residues located in the two binding sites and for determining probable orientations of the bound peptide. We report here on a short alpha-neurotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica (NmmI) that, similar to other alpha-neurotoxins, binds with high affinity to alphagamma and alphadelta subunit interfaces (KD approximately 100 pM) but binds with markedly reduced affinity to the alphaepsilon interface (KD approximately 100 nM). By constructing chimeras composed of portions of the gamma and epsilon subunits and coexpressing them with wild type alpha, beta, and delta subunits in HEK 293 cells, we identify a region of the subunit sequence responsible for the difference in affinity. Within this region, gammaPro-175 and gammaGlu-176 confer high affinity, whereas Thr and Ala, found at homologous positions in epsilon, confer low affinity. To identify an interaction between gammaGlu-176 and residues in NmmI, we have examined cationic residues in the central loop of the toxin and measured binding of mutant toxin-receptor combinations. The data show strong pairwise interactions or coupling between gammaGlu-176 and Lys-27 of NmmI and progressively weaker interactions with Arg-33 and Arg-36 in loop II of this three-loop toxin. Thus, loop II of NmmI, and in particular the face of this loop closest to loop III, appears to come into close apposition with Glu-176 of the gamma subunit surface of the binding site interface.  (+info)

The effects of beta-bungarotoxin on the morphogenesis of taste papillae and taste buds in the mouse. (7/911)

Although it has been long accepted that innervation by a taste nerve is essential for maintenance of taste buds, it is not clear what role, if any, innervation plays in the morphogenesis of taste papillae and taste bud development. The following study was undertaken to determine what effects lack of sensory innervation have on the development of taste papillae and the formation of taste buds in the mouse. Timed-pregnant female mice (n = 3) at gestational day 12 (gd12) were anesthetized and a 1 microl solution (1 microg/microl) of beta-bungarotoxin (beta-BTX), a neurotoxin that disrupts sensory and motor neuron development, was injected into the amniotic cavity of two embryos per dam. Two shams were injected with PBS. Fetuses were harvested at gd18, 1 day before birth, and four beta-BTX-injected embryos, two shams and two controls were fixed in buffered paraformaldehyde. Serial sections were examined for the presence and morphology of taste papillae and taste buds. No nerve profiles were observed in beta-BTX-injected tongues. Although circumvallate papillae were present on beta-BTX tongues, only five fungiform papillae could be identified. Taste buds were present on a large percentage of fungiform papillae profiles (24%) and on circumvallate papillae in sham and control fetuses; in contrast, no taste buds were associated with taste papillae in beta-BTX fetuses. These results implicate a significant role for innervation in taste papillae and taste bud morphogenesis.  (+info)

Stress-activated protein kinase-3 interacts with the PDZ domain of alpha1-syntrophin. A mechanism for specific substrate recognition. (8/911)

Mechanisms for selective targeting to unique subcellular sites play an important role in determining the substrate specificities of protein kinases. Here we show that stress-activated protein kinase-3 (SAPK3, also called ERK6 and p38gamma), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle, binds through its carboxyl-terminal sequence -KETXL to the PDZ domain of alpha1-syntrophin. SAPK3 phosphorylates alpha1-syntrophin at serine residues 193 and 201 in vitro and phosphorylation is dependent on binding to the PDZ domain of alpha1-syntrophin. In skeletal muscle SAPK3 and alpha1-syntrophin co-localize at the neuromuscular junction, and both proteins can be co-immunoprecipitated from transfected COS cell lysates. Phosphorylation of a PDZ domain-containing protein by an associated protein kinase is a novel mechanism for determining both the localization and the substrate specificity of a protein kinase.  (+info)

*Bungarotoxin

There are four types: α-Bungarotoxin β-Bungarotoxin γ-Bungarotoxin k-Bungarotoxin Banded krait venom began to be studied by ... α-Bungarotoxin inhibits the binding of acetylcholine (ACh) to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; β- and γ-bungarotoxins act ... Bungarotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxic proteins of the three-finger toxin superfamily found in the venom of ... Bungarotoxins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Chang C (1999). "Looking back on the ...

*Kappa-bungarotoxin

... "bungarotoxin 3.1" were identified by protein sequencing as identical to kappa-bungarotoxin. Kappa-bungarotoxin binds to the ... Like the alpha-bungarotoxins, kappa-bungarotoxin causes a post-synaptic blockade of signaling; this is in contrast to the beta- ... Kappa-bungarotoxin (often written κ-Bgt; historically also called toxin F) is a protein neurotoxin of the bungarotoxin family ... Kappa-bungarotoxin was first reported in 1983 as a component of the venom of Bungarus multicinctus that differed in biological ...

*Alpha-Bungarotoxin

Beta-bungarotoxin Kappa-bungarotoxin Young, Howard S.; Herbette, Leo G.; Skita, Victor (August 2003). "α-Bungarotoxin Binding ... α-Bungarotoxin (α-BTX) is one of the bungarotoxins, components of the venom of the elapid snake the Taiwanese banded krait ( ... α-Bungarotoxin is a 74-amino-acid, 8 kDa α-neurotoxin with five disulfide bridges that binds as a competitive antagonist to ... α-Bungarotoxin has played a large role in determining many of the structural details of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. ...

*Beta-bungarotoxin

... β1-bungarotoxin and β2-bungarotoxin. It has phospholipase A2 activity. It consists of two chains. alpha-Bungarotoxin Cheng YC, ... β-Bungarotoxin is a form of bungarotoxin that is fairly common in Krait (Bungarus multicinctus) venoms. The target of this ... Wang JJ, Chang LS (February 2008). "B chain is a functional subunit of beta-bungarotoxin for inducing apoptotic death of human ...

*Alpha-neurotoxin

α-bungarotoxin and α-cobratoxin are both long-type. For specifics, see Alpha-Bungarotoxin and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... The term α-neurotoxin was coined by C.C. Chang, who designated the postsynaptic bungarotoxin with the α- prefix because it ... Moise, L.; Piserchio, A.; Basus, V. J.; Hawrot, E. (2002). "NMR Structural Analysis of alpha -Bungarotoxin and Its Complex with ... Moise, L.; Piserchio, A.; Basus, V. J.; Hawrot, E. (2002). "NMR Structural Analysis of alpha -Bungarotoxin and Its Complex with ...

*Three-finger toxin

Alpha-bungarotoxin, the alpha-neurotoxin from the many-banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus), has a long history of use in ... The kappa-bungarotoxin group is the best characterized dimeric 3FTx, and interacts through an antiparallel dimer interface ... For example, the crystal structure of alpha-bungarotoxin in complex with the extracellular domain of the alpha-9 nAChR subunit ... Dewan, J. C.; Grant, G. A.; Sacchettini, J. C. (1994-11-08). "Crystal structure of kappa-bungarotoxin at 2.3-A resolution". ...

*Taipoxin

Hyatt, Mark C.; Russell, James A. (1981). "Effects of β-bungarotoxin and taipoxin on contractions of canine airways caused by ... Dixon, R.; Harris, J. B. (1999). "Neurotoxic activity of the toxic phospholipase A2, b-bungarotoxin: Its clinical significance ... β-bungarotoxin is a heterodimer from Chinese banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus) venom, and Textilotoxin is a pentamer from ...

*Many-banded krait

... known as α-bungarotoxins and β-bungarotoxins, among others). By weight, almost half of the protein content of the venom is ... α-Bungarotoxin is important for neuromuscular histology, it is known to bind irreversibly to receptors of the neuromuscular ... composed of β-bungarotoxins. The average venom yield from specimens kept on snake farms is about 4.6 mg-19.4 mg per bite. The ...

*CHRNA4

"Identification of a brain acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit able to bind alpha-bungarotoxin". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (17): 9816- ...

*Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor

Anandamide α-Bungarotoxin α-Conotoxin ArIB[V11L,V16D]: potent and highly subtype-selective; slowly reversible Bupropion (very ...

*Bitis caudalis

1983), this is a presynaptic toxin similar to bungarotoxin, but with different binding sites. A number of authors, including ...

*Anabaseine

"Anabaseine is a potent agonist on muscle and neuronal alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic receptors". The Journal of ...

*Neurotoxin

For example, α-bungarotoxin is specific for nAChRs found in the musculature and κ-bungarotoxin is specific for nAChRs found in ... As there are multiple forms of bungarotoxin, there are different forms of nAChRs to which they will bind, and α-bungarotoxin is ... α-bungarotoxin, which is isolated from the banded krait snake. Though extremely toxic if ingested, α-bungarotoxin has shown ... Bungarotoxin is produced in a number of different forms, though one of the commonly used forms is the long chain alpha form, ...

*Chuan-Chiung Chang

He is best known for having isolated bungarotoxin, a still-important agent in neurobiological research. Chang Chuan-Chiung was ... leading on to isolating bungarotoxin, his most famous research. He had much professional experience, including being an ...

*List of National Taiwan University people

... co-discoverer of bungarotoxin; Professor Emeritus of Pharmacology, National Taiwan University Ding-Shinn Chen, M.D. (陳定信): ... co-discoverer of bungarotoxin; Redi Award, 1976; Former President, International Society on Toxinology Tun-Hou Lee (李惇厚): ...

*Irditoxin

The best-studied exception is kappa-bungarotoxin, a non-covalent homodimer with a very different protein-protein interaction ...

*List of dangerous snakes

... known as α-bungarotoxins and β-bungarotoxins, among others). Due to poor response to antivenom therapy, mortality rates are ...

*Yellow-lipped sea krait

... similar to erabutoxins and α-bungarotoxins. In mice, lethal venom doses caused lethargy, flaccid paralysis, and convulsions in ...

*Acetylcholine receptor

... like α-bungarotoxin. Drugs such as the neuromuscular blocking agents bind reversibly to the nicotinic receptors in the ...

*CHRNA5

Chini B, Clementi F, Hukovic N, Sher E (1992). "Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor ...

*Neuromuscular junction

α-Bungarotoxin is a toxin found in the snake species Bungarus multicinctus that acts as an ACh antagonist and binds to AChRs ... to the α-bungarotoxin, AChRs can be visualized and quantified. Nerve gases and liquor damage this area. Botulinum toxin (aka ...

*Methyllycaconitine

When compared in nAChR-binding studies, MLA was found to compete for 125I-α-bungarotoxin binding sites (i.e. α7 sub-types) over ... Subsequently, Macallan and his co-workers showed that MLA also competed with 125I-α-bungarotoxin (Ki ~1 x 10−9M) and tritiated ... These workers also reported that MLA displaced125I-α-bungarotoxin from purified Torpedo (electric ray) nicotinic acetylcholine ... but its affinity for 125I-α-bungarotoxin binding sites is over 200x lower than that of MLA. If the -NH2 group of ...

*Muscle-type nicotinic receptor

Acetylcholine Carbachol Suxamethonium α-Bungarotoxin α-Conotoxin Hexamethonium Pancuronium Tubocurarine Ganglion type nicotinic ...

*Bungarus

Following envenomation with bungarotoxins, transmitter release is initially blocked (leading to a brief paralysis), followed by ...

*Chen-Yuan Lee

... and separated the deadly α-type and β-type bungarotoxins of the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. This was a big step in ...
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Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that inhibits neuromuscular transmission by blocking acetylcholine release from the nerve termini. PLA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides (By similarity).
The cDNA encoding the A chain ofΒ-bungarotoxin (Β-Bgt) was constructed from the cellular RNA isolated from the venom glands ofBungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait). The deduced amino acid sequen
Cells from a line of transformed quail fibroblasts (QT-6) were transfected with cDNAs coding for subunits of the mouse muscle nicotinic ACh receptor (AChR). Stable clones were selected that expressed subunits of the fetal-type AChR (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) or the adult-type AChR (alpha, beta, epsilon, delta). The receptors had the appropriate burst durations and single-channel conductances for the fetal or adult type, respectively. Each type of receptor had a dose- response relationship that was close to a square law at low concentrations of ACh, implying that they contained two ACh-binding subunits. The metabolic stability of surface fetal and adult receptors was identical (about 10 hr half-life), for two independent clones expressing fetal and two expressing adult AChR. The metabolic stability was unaffected by treatment with okadaic acid, which enhanced receptor phosphorylation. d-Tubocurarine (dTC) blocked both the binding of alpha- bungarotoxin (BTX) to the cells and the ACh-elicited ...
Azanorbornylpurine derivatives were prepared by Mitsunobu reaction of appropriate hydroxyazanorbornane derivative with 6-chloropurine or construction of purine base at azanorbornylamines. The prepared target compounds were evaluated for antiviral activity and effect on neuronal and muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd ...
... , English Chinese dictionary, English Chinese translation, with pronunciation, a lot of example sentences
Radiant insights, inc Neuronal Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Alpha 7 (CHRNA7) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Neuronal Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Alpha 7 (CHRNA7) targeted pipeline therapeutics. The report provides comprehensive information on the Neuronal Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Alpha 7 (CHRNA7) , targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development,…
BioAssay record AID 145983 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity towards rat nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha2-beta2 expressed in HEK293 cells using [3H]EB as radioligand.
Buy our Human Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha 7 peptide. Ab24285 is a blocking peptide for ab23832 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free…
Binding of [125I]α-bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptors of ganglionic homogenate of the marine mollusc Aplysia is blocked by the anticholinesterases eserine (I50 = 4 µM) and neostigmine (I50 = 0.2 mM). The classical acetylcholine antagonist d-tubocurarine blocks with an I50 of 2 µM. Eserine (I50 = 3.2 µM) and neostigmine (I50 , 1 mM) also block toxin binding to a solubilized receptor preparation. In contrast to their relative potency in blocking toxin binding, neostigmine is a more potent inhibitor of Aplysia acetylcholinesterase (I50 = 14 nM) than is eserine (I50 = 250 nM). α-Bungarotoxin does not affect esterase activity or interfere with the ability of eserine to block the esterase. The response to acetylcholine recorded through intracellular microelectrodes is blocked by α-bungarotoxin. Neither eserine nor neostigmine blocks the acetylcholine response; rather, they prolong and increase it, as expected from their effects on the esterase. Eserine (0.1 mM) blocks the α-bungarotoxin ...
Amino acid sequences of three .BETA.-bungarotoxins (.BETA.3-,.BETA.4-, and .BETA.5-bungarotoxins) from Bungarus multicinctus venom. Amino acid substitutions in the A chains. (1982 ...
Two probes previously shown to distinguish the nicotinic ACh receptor of chick ciliary ganglion neurons also recognize a component on the surface of bovine chromaffin cells in culture that displays the properties expected for the chromaffin nicotinic ACh receptor. The first probe is a monoclonal antibody, mAb 35, raised against ACh receptor from Electrophorus electric organ, and the second is an alpha- neurotoxin, Bgt 3.1, purified from B. multicinctus venom. mAb 35 binds specifically to a single class of high-affinity sites on the chromaffin cells in culture. Scatchard analysis indicates a KD of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM for the binding and a Bmax of 1.6 +/- 0.1 X 10(4) mAb 35 sites per cell. The number of sites on the cells can be reduced through modulation by exposure of the cells to Bgt 3.1. The modulation can be blocked by the cholinergic ligands d-tubocurarine and carbamylcholine. Long-term exposure to the agonist carbamylcholine alone also reduces the number of mAb 35 binding sites. Bgt 3.1 inhibits ...
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) contributes to atherosclerosis, restenosis and vascular remodeling. We have recently identified nAChRα1 as a functional cell receptor for uPA in addition to its classic receptor, uPAR. Here, we test the hypothesis that nAChRα1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. C57BL/6J ApoE−/− mice (male) were initially fed a Western diet for 8 wks. Plasmid DNA encoding scramble RNA (pScr) or siRNA (pSir2) for nAChRα1 was then injected into the mice (n=15) using an aortic hydrodynamic gene transfer protocol. Three mice from each group were sacrificed 7 days after DNA injection to confirm the nAChRα1 gene silencing. The rest of the mice continued on the Western diet for an additional 16 wks. Aortas were harvested for paraffin-embedding (aorta root), protein (ascending aorta and aortic arch) and RNA (descending aorta) (n=8). Whole aortas were isolated for oil red staining in 4 mice of each group. The nAChRα1 was highly up-regulated in aortic ...
Endotoxemia induces the release of TNF-α from macrophages, as part of an inflammatory process. Acetylcholine and nicotine inhibit the release of TNF-α from macrophages in vitro, through activation of nicotinic receptors. In animals, vagal nerve stimulation inhibits the increase in plasma TNF-α induced by endotoxemia in vivo (for review, see Tracey KJ. Nature 2002;420:853). It is proposed that acetylcholine diffuses from parasympathetic nerve terminals in reticuloendothelial organs, to inhibit inflammatory cells. Wang et al. studied the receptor subtype that mediates these actions. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a family of ligand-gated pentameric ion channels. In humans, 16 different subunits have been identified (α1-7, α9-10, β1-4, δ, ε, and γ), and pentameric receptors are formed by various combinations of these subunits. It is known that the acetylcholine-sensitive TNF-α response is blocked by α-bungarotoxin, a peptide antagonist that binds to α1, α7, and α9. Biding of ...
Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha 7 antibody (ab10096) has been cited in 24 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat, Snail in ICC/IF, IF, IHC…
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel widely expressed in vertebrates and is associated with numerous physiological functions. As transmembrane ion channels, α7-nAChRs need to be expressed on the surface of the plasma membrane to function. The receptor has been reported to associate with proteins involved with receptor biogenesis, modulation of receptor properties, as well as intracellular signaling cascades and some of these associated proteins may affect surface expression of α7- nAChRs. The putative chaperone resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 3 (Ric-3) has been reported to interact with, and enhance the surface expression of, α7-nAChRs. In this study, we identified proteins that associate with α7-nAChRs when Ric-3 is expressed. Using α-bungarotoxin (α-bgtx), we isolated and compared α7-nAChR-associated proteins from two stably transfected, human tumor-derived cell lines: SH-EP1-hα7 expressing human α7-nAChRs and the
The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron-microscopic study of development of the internal intercostal somatic nerve. Within 24 h of injection, axons in this nerve becam
1IDL: The solution structure of the complex formed between alpha-bungarotoxin and an 18-mer cognate peptide derived from the alpha 1 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.
rs1051730, also known as D398N, is a SNP in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 3 subunit CHRNA3 gene. In two recent (2008) studies, together comprising over 6,000 lung cancer patients of European ancestry, the rs1051730(T) allele was very significantly associated with increased risk. Having one copy (i.e. being a rs1051730(C;T) genotype) increased risk for lung cancer about 1.3x, and having two copies (rs1051730(T;T) individuals) represented 1.8x increased risk. Up to 14% of lung cancer incidence may be attributable to this allele.[PMID 18385738, PMID 18385676] An independent study published at the same time concluded that (T) allele carriers for SNP rs1051730 are not at higher risk of becoming smokers compared to (C) carriers. However, if they do smoke, (T) carriers are quite likely to smoke more cigarettes than (C) carriers, and as an apparent consequence, they are at higher risk for lung cancer as reported in this and other studies. This study therefore links rs1051730 directly to ...
rs1051730, also known as D398N, is a SNP in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 3 subunit CHRNA3 gene. In two recent (2008) studies, together comprising over 6,000 lung cancer patients of European ancestry, the rs1051730(T) allele was very significantly associated with increased risk. Having one copy (i.e. being a rs1051730(C;T) genotype) increased risk for lung cancer about 1.3x, and having two copies (rs1051730(T;T) individuals) represented 1.8x increased risk. Up to 14% of lung cancer incidence may be attributable to this allele.[PMID 18385738, PMID 18385676] An independent study published at the same time concluded that (T) allele carriers for SNP rs1051730 are not at higher risk of becoming smokers compared to (C) carriers. However, if they do smoke, (T) carriers are quite likely to smoke more cigarettes than (C) carriers, and as an apparent consequence, they are at higher risk for lung cancer as reported in this and other studies. This study therefore links rs1051730 directly to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adult forms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are expressed in the absence of nerve during differentiation of a mouse skeletal muscle cell line. AU - Shepherd, Dawn. AU - Brehm, Paul. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Changes in the functional properties of acetylcholine receptor (AchR) channels were followed in the C2 muscle cell line over the period of 1 to 17 days following myotube formation. Up to 1 week after myotube formation, the predominant class of channel exhibited low (45 pS) conductance and long mean channel open time (14 msec), characteristic of the major type of AchR in embryonic skeletal muscle. Three additional Ach-activated currents with conductances lower than 45 pS and long channel open times were also observed. Seven to 10 days following myotube formation, channels of 45 pS and 65 pS and short (2-6 msec) mean open duration were observed, characteristic of receptor channels in adult muscle. Increases in ε subunit mRNA levels preceded the functional expression of ...
0020] Conventionally, it is known that an anti-VGKC complex antibody relates to Isaacs syndrome of which the number of patients is extremely few. Therefore, the development of a diagnostic agent of anti-VGKC complex antibody has not progressed. On the other hand, as indicated in Examples, the anti-VGKC complex antibody is specifically expressed in a certain patient with fibromyalgia. Therefore, the anti-VGKC complex antibody becomes a specific marker of fibromyalgia. On the other hand, a reagent for directly detecting the anti-VGKC complex antibody has not been developed at this moment. Thus, bungarotoxin that is a potassium channel inhibitor is made to be bound to a VGKC. As a result, a complex consisting of a VGKC and bungarotoxin; or a complex containing a VGKC, a protein bound to a VGKC, and bungarotoxin is obtained. Therefore, by using an antibody against bungarotoxin, a VGKC complex may be detected. That is, the level of VGKC complex may be measured by using the level of the antibody ...
Dissorophus (DI-soh-ROH-fus) is an extinct genus of the early temnospondyl amphibian families that flourished in the Late Carboniferous to the Late Permian, 273 million years ago. Most recent discovery of the Dissorophus species is D. multicinctus. Their remains have been found in the Northern and Central Texas, and distinguished from other members of its clade by its small body size, disproportionately large head and short trunk. Dermal ossification in the sacral region and skull suggests that D. multicinctus are among the non-amniotes that were successful on land. The name dissorphus was used by Edward Drinker Cope to describe the first dissorophid, Dissorophus multicinctus. He did not formulate a standing definition as of this name, however, upon examination, he commented that it was "a veritable bratrachian armadillo" which translates to looking like an amphibian armadillo. On the same context,DeMar [3] mentions that Boulengers interpretation on dissorophus is "remarkable for an ...
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Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, Burton J, Gilbert JG, Jones M, Stavrides G, Almeida JP, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Barlow KF, Bates KN, Beard LM, Beare DM, Beasley OP, Bird CP, Blakey SE, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Buck D, Burrill W, Butler AP, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clamp M, Clark G, Clark LN, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley VE, Collier RE, Connor R, Corby NR, Coulson A, Coville GJ, Deadman R, Dhami P, Dunn M, Ellington AG, Frankland JA, Fraser A, French L, Garner P, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths MN, Gwilliam R, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Heath PD, Ho S, Holden JL, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Jekosch K, Johnson CM, Johnson D, Kay MP, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lehvaslaiho MH, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell JD, Marsh VL, Martin SL, McConnachie LJ, McLay K, McMurray AA, Milne S, Mistry D, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Nickerson T, Oliver K, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce TA, Peck AI, Phillimore BJ, Prathalingam SR, Plumb RW, Ramsay H, ...
Although a fair number of genes coding for neuronal nAChRs have already been identified it is clear that reconstitution experiments have failed to describe all the subtypes observed in native cells (Pugh et al., 1995; Sorenson and Gallagher, 1996; Cuevas and Berg, 1998). The sequencing of the full genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has revealed the existence of over 40 potential genes encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in this organism (Littleton and Ganetzky, 2000), whereas to date only 16 nAChR subunits have been cloned in vertebrates (Lindstrom, 1997). Thus, yet undiscovered subunit could account for the existence of novel receptor proteins. In this work, we present evidence for the existence of a new nAChR subtype that would be composed by the association of α9 with a novel α10-subunit.. When expressed in X. laevis oocytes, the human α9-subunit was able to form recombinant homomeric channels activated by acetylcholine with properties similar to those reported ...
The Laboratory of Neurochemistry focuses on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors critical to chemical signaling and electrical wiring in the brain. Read more.
Since 2004, there has been an increasing body of evidence that points to defects in the NMJ as one of the primary pathological events in ALS (Fischer et al., 2004; Dupuis et al., 2009). The T70I model exhibits early abnormalities at the NMJ. At 11 dpf there is a significant reduction in colocalisation of α-bungarotoxin and SV2 in the interseptal region, between homozygous T70I sod1 zebrafish and their WT and heterozygous clutch mates. This observation might be due to either a failure of the NMJs to form correctly during embryogenesis, or due to a later disruption of the NMJ, followed by the dying back of the axon. Further investigation will be required to determine which of these mechanisms is operating. Our data are consistent with evidence from other studies that point to NMJ alteration as an early pathogenic event and support the validity of the T70I zebrafish model (Fischer et al., 2004; Dupuis et al., 2009; Dupuis and Loeffler, 2009; Ramesh et al., 2010).. It should be noted, however, that ...
A 125I-bungarotoxin labelling study of the acetylcholine receptor on the nerve-muscle junctions in the course of aging in the rat is reported. Attention is drawn to the fact that aging leads to an appreciable slowing down of the receptor degradation time, whereas no change occurs in its location.
AP reaches teminal of MN→ Ca++ influx occurs via volt-gated Ca++ channels → synaptic ACh excytosis (1 vesicle = 10,000 molecules of ACh) → ACh diffuses to junct. folds, binds nicotinic AChR → depolarization (endplate potential) ...
It is well established that nicotinic receptors in the mammalian striatum are involved in modulation of the release of several neurotransmitters, including dopamine. In addition, nicotinic receptors with high affinity for agonists have generally been found to be reduced in the striatum in Parkinsons disease. In the present study antibodies have been used to examine which subunits contribute to the striatal nicotinic receptor loss in Parkinsons disease, and whether the reduction in [(3)H]nicotine binding correlates with synaptic loss. Autopsy tissue from the putamen of 12 Parkinsons disease cases and 12 age-matched control subjects was analysed by immunoblotting using antibodies against recombinant peptides specific for alpha3, alpha4, alpha7, beta2 and beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the synaptic marker synaptophysin, in conjunction with assessment of [(3)H]nicotine binding by autoradiography. The data indicate that there is no loss of alpha3, alpha4, alpha7 and beta2
Genetic mutations responsible for CMSs have been identified in relation to proteins in the presynaptic, synaptic and postsynaptic compartments of the neuromuscular endplate. As expected, the frequency of particular gene mutations varies within different ethnic groups, but in most populations the most common form of CMS is due to a deficiency of acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic membrane [3]. These can result from recessive missense, nonsense, frameshift or splice site and promoter region mutations in any of the genes encoding the acetylcholine receptor subunits. However, a high frequency of mutations in the acetylcholine receptor ε subunit (CHRNE) compared with other subunits has been recognised and attributed to the phenotypic rescue by maintained low level expression of the foetal γ subunit that substitutes for the defective ε subunit, but cannot compensate for the other muscle acetylcholine receptor subunits. Our patient was diagnosed with c.183_187dupCTCAC within CHRNE, which is ...
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide, with over one million cases annually. To identify genetic factors that modify disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association study by analysing 317,139 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,989 lung cancer cases and 2,625 controls from six central European countries. We identified a locus in chromosome region 15q25 that was strongly associated with lung cancer (P = 9 x 10(-10)). This locus was replicated in five separate lung cancer studies comprising an additional 2,513 lung cancer cases and 4,752 controls (P = 5 x 10(-20) overall), and it was found to account for 14% (attributable risk) of lung cancer cases. Statistically similar risks were observed irrespective of smoking status or propensity to smoke tobacco. The association region contains several genes, including three that encode nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits (CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4). Such subunits are expressed in neurons and other tissues, in particular ...
This gene encodes a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which belongs to a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that play a role in fast signal transmission at synapses. These pentameric receptors can bind acetylcholine, which causes an extensive change in conformation that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. This protein is an integral membrane receptor subunit that can interact with either nAChR beta-2 or nAChR beta-4 to form a functional receptor. Mutations in this gene cause nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy type 1. Polymorphisms in this gene that provide protection against nicotine addiction have been described. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012 ...
We have investigated the topology of the alpha and delta subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from mammalian muscle synthesized in an in vitro translation system supplemented with dog pancreatic microsomes. Fusion proteins were expressed in which a carboxy-terminal fragment of bovine prolactin was attached downstream of each of the major putative transmembrane domains, M1-M4 and MA, in the AChR subunits. The orientation of the prolactin domain relative to the microsomal membrane was then determined for each protein by a proteolysis protection assay. Since the prolactin domain contains no information which either directs or prevents its translocation, its transmembrane orientation depends solely on sequences within the AChR subunit portion of the fusion protein. When subunit-prolactin fusion proteins with the prolactin domain fused after either M2 or M4 were tested, prolactin-immunoreactive peptides that were larger than the prolactin domain itself were recovered. No ...
Background: The frequent co-abuse of alcohol and tobacco may suggest that they share some common neurological mechanisms. For example, nicotine acts on Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain to release dopamine to sustain addiction. Might nAChRs be entwined with alcohol? Objectives: This review summarizes recent studies on the relationship between alcohol and nAChRs, including the role of nAChRs in molecular biological studies, genetic studies and pharmacological studies on alcohol, which indicate that nAChRs have been potently modulated by alcohol. Methods: We performed a cross-referenced literature search on biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol and nAChRs. Results: Molecular biological and genetic studies indicated that nAChR (genes) may be important in mediating alcohol intake, but we still lack substantial evidence about how it works. Pharmacological studies proved the correlation between nAChRs and alcohol intake, and the association between nicotine and
The effects of mast cell degranulating peptide (MCDP), a toxin from the honey bee, and of dendrotoxin (DTX), a toxin from the green mamba snake, were studied in voltage-clamped experiments with myelinated nerve fibres of Xenopus. MCDP and DTX blocked part of the K+ current. About 20% of the K+ current, however, was resistant to the toxins even in high concentrations. In Ringer solution half-maximal block was reached with concentrations of 33 nM MCDP and 11 nM DTX. In high-K+ solution the potency of both toxins was lower. β-Bungarotoxin (β-BuTX), another snake toxin, also blocked part of the K+ current, but was less potent than MCDP and DTX. Tail currents in high-K+ solution were analysed and three K+ current components were separated according to Dubois (1981b). Both MCDP and DTX selectively blocked a fast deactivating, slowly inactivating K+ current component which steeply activates between E = -60 mV and E = -40 mV (component f1). In concentrations around 100 nM, MCDP and DTX blocked neither ...
The muscle acetylcholine receptor consiststs of 5 subunits of 4 different types: 2 alpha subunits and 1 each of the beta, gamma, and delta subunits. This gene encodes an alpha subunit that plays a role in acetlycholine binding/channel gating. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012 ...
The first recordings from individual ion channels were achieved using the patch-clamp to measure currents through muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor/channels (Neher and Sakmann 1976); a technique that subsequently revolutionized studies of channel function and biophysics (Hamill et al., 1981; Hille 2001). Here, we demonstrate the use of optical techniques to obtain analogous physiological information from these same channels, by imaging single-channel Ca2+ flux (SCCaFTs) as a reporter of channel gating. One major advantage over electrophysiological recording is that optical single-channel imaging is massively parallel, providing simultaneous readout from hundreds of channels (Fig. 3). This enormously enhanced dataset should facilitate detailed statistical analysis of Markovian channel behavior. For example, we had shown that N-type channels within the same optical field display divergent open probabilities, with individual channels displaying transitions between low and high frequency ...
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor beta小鼠单克隆抗体[B3](ab11150)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被5篇文献引用。
Background The Red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps, Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae) is a medically important venomous snake that inhabits South-East Asia. Although the venoms of most species of the snake genus Bungarus have been well characterized, a detailed compositional analysis of B. flaviceps is currently lacking. Results Here, we have sequenced 845 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the venom gland of a B. flaviceps. Of the transcripts, 74.8% were putative toxins; 20.6% were cellular; and 4.6% were unknown. The main venom protein families identified were three-finger toxins (3FTxs), Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (including chain B of β-bungarotoxin), phospholipase A2 (including chain A of β-bungarotoxin), natriuretic peptide (NP), CRISPs, and C-type lectin. Conclusion The 3FTxs were found to be the major component of the venom (39%). We found eight groups of unique 3FTxs and most of them were different from the well-characterized 3FTxs. We found three groups of Kunitz-type serine
Molecular and cell biological characterisation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) provides an insight into their functional roles and potential as therapeutic targets for neurological disorders. Nicotinic receptors are oligomeric ligand-gated ion channels, comprising five subunits. Twelve vertebrate neuronal nAChR subunits (2-10 and 2-4) have been cloned to date, with considerable diversity observed in nAChR subunit composition. Heterologous expression of cloned subunits is a powerful method for investigating ion channel receptor pharmacology and subunit composition, but achieving efficient expression of some nAChRs in cultured cell lines has proved difficult. In this study, chimeras containing the N-terminal domain of the nAChR subunits, fused to the C-terminal region of the 5-hydroxtryptamine type 3 receptor subunit, 5HT3A, were constructed to overcome some of the challenges of recombinant nAChR expression. When combinations of wild-type and chimeric subunits were expressed ...
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) of Torpedo electroplax is a multisubunit transmembrane glycoprotein complex with a subunit stoichiometry of alpha 2 beta gamma delta. The RNAs for the separate subunits were transcribed in vitro from cDNAs inserted in pSP64T vectors and microinjected in Xenopus oocytes. Microinjected in vitro-transcribed RNAs were stable, with a half-life of 72 hr. Xenopus oocytes assembled functional AcChoRs from the subunit-specific RNAs. These receptors were inserted in the cell membrane and could be detected as early as 6 hr after RNA microinjection. The oocyte-expressed AcChoR subunits could be immunoprecipitated with anti-Torpedo AcChoR subunit antibodies. Expression of the AcChoR in oocytes proceeded linearly for 72 hr after microinjection. While the amount of RNA injected did not alter the linearity of the expression time course, the rate of receptor expression in oocytes showed a saturable dependence on RNA concentration. Varying the relative amount of ...
The two subtypes of mammalian muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are generated by the substitution of the epsilon (adult) subunit for the gamma (fetal) subunit within the AChR pentamer. Null mutations of the adult AChR epsilon-subunit gene are the most common cause of the AChR deficiency syndrome. This is a disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by non-progressive fatigable muscle weakness present throughout life. In contrast with the human disorder, mice with AChR epsilon-subunit null mutations die between 10 and 14 weeks of age. We generated transgenic mice that constitutively express the human AChR gamma-subunit in an AChR epsilon-subunit knock-out background. These mice, in which neuromuscular transmission is mediated by fetal AChR, live well into adult life but show striking similarities to human AChR deficiency syndrome. They display fatigable muscle weakness, reduced miniature endplate potentials and endplate potentials, reduced motor endplate AChR number and altered
Overview on acetylcholine receptors pharmacology: differences between muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, classification, location, acetylcholine receptors and
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In recent years the brownheaded ash sawfly, Tomostethus multicinctus, has become a common insect pest along the Front Range. It appeared in the Arkansas Valley area by the early 1980s. Since then, it has steadily expanded its range northward. Given the rapidity of its spread, the insect apparently is a strong flier that can disperse long distances. It is native to the eastern United States, where it rarely causes concern.
Synaptic connections are made and broken in an activity-dependent manner in diverse regions of the nervous system. However, whether activity is strictly necessary for synapse elimination has not been resolved directly. Here we report that synaptic terminals occupying motor endplates made electrically silent by tetrodotoxin and alpha-bungarotoxin block were frequently displaced by regenerating axons that were also both inactive and synaptically ineffective. Thus, neither evoked nor spontaneous activation of acetylcholine receptors is required for competitive reoccupation of neuromuscular synaptic sites by regenerating motor axons ...
When the acetylcholine levels drop listed below a particular level, it is known as acetylcholine deficiency. As a result of a variety of reasons, acetylcholine deficiency is caused. To find out about your particular problem, the physician has to have a checkup first. The specific therapy relies on lots of factors, like for how much time the client has been experiencing acetylcholine deficiency and also to what degree are the levels of acetylcholine reduced. Relying on just how much acetylcholine deficiency is in your case, you will experience various symptoms. A few of the major signs and symptoms of acetylcholine deficiency include bad listening skills, not having the capacity to focus for longer periods of time, poor development of memory and also recalling as well as the sluggish processing of details. The reason that you experience these signs is that, in all these elements, acetylcholine plays an important duty. Reduced degrees of acetylcholine are caused if you do not get it from different ...
SCREEN-WELL(R) Cholinergic ligand library(500 ul/well) https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/bml-2815-0500 https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
high basal levels of fluorescence in flow cytometry - posted in Molecular Biology: I need help with a problem with my cells sh-sy5y I have a stable transfected cell line (they were seleccionated with G418, and they are keeping with G418 all time). When I measure fluoresence for Bgtx-FITC in flow cytometry, I have higher levels of fluorescence in my control cells (non- transfected cells without Bgtx) than my transfected cells (of course, without Bgtx). Can G418 affect to basal fluore...
Bachem offers H-4186 Acetylcholine Receptor α₁ (129-145) (human, bovine, rat, mouse) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
Patient Preparation: This test should not be requested in patients who have recently received radioisotopes, therapeutically or diagnostically, because of potential assay interference. The specific waiting period before specimen collection will depend on the isotope administered, the dose given and the clearance rate in the individual patient. Specimens will be screened for radioactivity prior to analysis. Radioactive specimens received in the laboratory will be held 1 week and assayed if sufficiently decayed, or canceled if radioactivity remains.. Container/Tube:. Preferred: Red top. Acceptable: Serum gel. Specimen Volume: 1.5 mL. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of benzylidene-anabaseine analogues with agonist and allosteric sites on muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. AU - Arias, H. R.. AU - Xing, H.. AU - MacDougall, K.. AU - Blanton, M. P.. AU - Soti, F.. AU - Kern, W. R.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Background and purpose: Benzylidene-anabaseines (BAs) are partial agonists of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) but their mechanism(s) of action are unknown. Our study explores several possibilities, including direct interactions of BAs with the nAChR channel. Experimental approach: Functional and radioligand-binding assays were used to examine the interaction of two BA analogues, 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (DMXBA) and Its primary metabolite 3-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (4OH-DMXBA) with both agonist and non-competitive antagonist (NCA)-bindlng sites on muscle-type nAChRs. Key results: Both BAs non-competitively inhibited ACh activation of human fetal muscle nAChRs and ...
Nicotine is a chemical with multiple biological and neurological actions. It is a natural alkaloid that mimics the effects of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are cholinergic receptors that activate ligand-gated ion channels in the plasma membranes of certain neurons and muscle cells. These ion channels are opened by the binding of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are the best-studied of the ionotropic receptors, being found throughout the nervous system and in the neuromuscular junctions of somatic muscles. When the channel opens, positively-charged sodium ions enter the cell and positively-charged potassium ions exit for a net positive increase inside the cell. Research suggests that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may have a role in cognitive performance, as well as affecting mood, reducing pain sensitivity, and enhancing the release of other neurotransmitters. Sigma-Aldrich offers antibodies that have agonist and antagonist effects on nicotinic
购买Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor beta兔多克隆抗体(ab66429),Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor beta抗体经WB,IHC-Fr验证,可与人样本反应。中国现货速达。
Corfas G., Fischbach G.D.. ARIA is a glycoprotein purified from chick brain on the basis of its ACh receptor-inducing activity (ARIA). In this study we present evidence that ARIA increases the number of voltage-gated sodium channels in chick muscle as well as the number of ACh receptors (AChRs). Exposure of chick myotubes to ARIA increased by twofold the number of 3H-saxitoxin binding, an effect that is comparable to the increase of AChRs assayed by 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin (125I-alpha-BTX) binding. We also documented effects of ARIA on myoblasts: the number of 125I-alpha-BTX binding sites in the mononucleated muscle cells was increased by 1.5-fold, and the peak TTX-sensitive inward currents increased by the same amount. No change was detected in the voltage dependence of channel activation, in mean channel current, or in mean channel open time. Thus, the Na+ channel is the first molecule, other than AChR subunits, whose expression has been shown to be induced by ARIA. Since sodium channels are ...
Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters of cultured rat myotubes, isolated by extraction with saponin (Bloch, R. J., 1984, J. Cell Biol. 99:984-993), contain a polypeptide that co-electrophoreses with purified muscle actins. A monoclonal antibody against actin reacts in immunoblots with this polypeptide and with purified actins. In indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody stains isolated AChR clusters only at AChR domains, strips of membrane within clusters that are rich in receptor. It also stains the postsynaptic region of the neuromuscular junction of adult rat skeletal muscle. Semiquantitative immunofluorescence analyses show that labeling by antiactin of isolated analyses show that labeling by antiactin of isolated AChR clusters is specific and saturable and that it varies linearly with the amount of AChR in the cluster. Filaments of purified gizzard myosin also bind preferentially at AChR-rich regions, and this binding is inhibited by MgATP. These experiments suggest that actin is ...
(E)-5-(Pyrimidin-5-yl)-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexahydroazocine (TC299423) is a novel agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We examined its efficacy, affinity, and potency for α6β2* (α6β2-containing), α4β2*, and α3β4* nAChRs, using [125I]-epibatidine binding, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, and synaptosomal 86Rb+ efflux, [3H]-dopamine release, and [3H]-acetylcholine release. TC299423 displayed an EC50 of 30 - 60 nM for α6β2* nAChRs in patch-clamp recordings and [3H]-dopamine release assays. Its potency for α6β2* in these assays was 2.5-fold greater than that for α4β2*, and much greater than that for α3β4*-mediated [3H]-acetylcholine release. We observed no major off-target binding on 70 diverse molecular targets. TC299423 was bioavailable after intraperitoneal or oral administration. Locomotor assays, measured with gain-of-function mutant α6 (α6L9ʹS) nAChR mice, show that TC299423 elicits α6β2* nAChR-mediated responses at low doses. Conditioned place preference (CPP)
Like many other biologically active substances, acetylcholine exerts its effects by binding to and activating receptors located on the surface of cells. There are two main classes of acetylcholine receptor, nicotinic and muscarinic. They are named for chemicals that can selectively activate each type of receptor without activating the other: muscarine is a compound found in the mushroom Amanita muscaria; nicotine is found in tobacco.. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels permeable to sodium, potassium, and calcium ions. In other words, they are ion channels embedded in cell membranes, capable of switching from a closed to open state when acetylcholine binds to them; in the open state they allow ions to pass through. Nicotinic receptors come in two main types, known as muscle-type and neuronal-type. The muscle-type can be selectively blocked by curare, the neuronal-type by hexamethonium. The main location of muscle-type receptors is on muscle cells, as described in more ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of "NTU Repository" with "Academic Hub" to form NTU Scholars.. ...
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BojoBass (bojobass at aol.com) wrote: : I am a biology professor. I was wondering what curare actually does to a : working nerve fiber on the molecular and then organismic level. [stuff deleted] Curare is a crude form; the active agent is d-tubocurarine. (d-, as in dextro-, for the d- stereoisomer). d-tubocurarine binds with high affinity to the nicotinic cholinergic receptor. Normally, this receptor binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released by motor neurons (nerve cells which control muscle). When d-tubocurarine is present, it blocks the acetylcholine binding site of the receptor and prevents acetylcholine from depolarizing the muscle. This, in turn, prevents muscle contraction. Curare causes death by paralysis of the respiratory muscles, particularly the diaphragm. Presumably, cooking the meat renders the d-tubocurarine inactive, although Im not certain about this. Reference: Goodman and Gilman, _Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics_, 6th ed. pp. 223-231. If you dont have ...
Nerve ion channel: 3-D composite electron micrograph of an acetylcholine receptor, a large molecule that controls the transmission of a nerve impulse. Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, is released across the junction (synapse) between adjacent nerve cells to bind to receptors on the target cell membrane. A shape change associated with bound neurotransitter/receptor results in pores (ion channels) opening for a fraction of a second. Sodium & potassium ions flood through, altering the electrical potential & firing a second nerve impulse. The ion channel here appears closed. - Stock Image P360/0096
Neurons, Prefrontal Cortex, Acetylcholine, Attention, Brain, Mice, Role, Acetylcholine Receptors, Adult, Play, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, 5-ht, 5-ht(1a) Receptor, Cell, Serotonin, Feedback, Nicotinic Receptor, Thalamus, Anxiety, Patients
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... definition, a torpedo guided by sound that either emanates from the target or is emitted by the torpedo and bounces off the target. See more.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are excitatory ligand‐gated ion channels that perform important roles throughout the nervous systems of both vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. Impairments to human nAChRs and cholinergic transmission are thought to underlie the pathophysiologies of several neurological and psychological diseases including schizophrenia, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease and certain forms of epilepsy. They are also the receptors that mediate the effects of tobacco smoking and contribute to the physiological and psychological changes associated with nicotine addiction. The aim of this thesis is to further our understanding of neuronal nAChRs from a pharmacological and molecular viewpoint. Research described in this thesis focuses on numerous aspects of neuronal nAChRs; allosteric modulators, insect nAChRs and chaperone proteins. Allosteric modulators of nAChRs are ligands that alter the receptors responsiveness to agonists via sites that are ...
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels and are distributed widely in the human and nonhuman brain. Several nAChRs have been identified and characterized pharmacologically and have distinct patterns of distribution in the brain. The nicotine alpha 4 beta 2 receptor subtypes are thought to play a role in various diseases, including various brain disorders (e.g., Alzheimers disease), behavioral disorders (e.g., schizophrenia or substance abuse), various neoplasms (e.g., lung cancer), and other diseases, and may also be involved in the addiction to nicotine in chronic tobacco users (tobacco use may increase the number of the alpha 4 beta 2 receptor sites). The development of noninvasive imaging methods using PET and SPECT of the alpha 4 beta 2 receptor system has gained significant interest. Therefore, and not surprisingly, the development of noninvasive imaging methods using PET and SPECT of the alpha 4 beta 2 receptor system has gained
Introduction: alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to assess the role of alpha 7 nAChRs in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in male and female mouse. We first compared disease activity and pathogenesis of colitis in alpha 7 knockout and wild-type mice. We then evaluated the effect of several alpha 7 direct and indirect agonists on the severity of disease in the DSS-induced colitis.
Tested Applications: Immunohistochemistry. Rat monoclonal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (alpha4 Subunit) monoclonal antibody. 100% Bioguaranteed
The aim of this study was to explore the modulation by α7 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) of dopamine and glutamate release in the rat prefrontal cortex where these receptors are implicated in attentional processes and are therapeutic targets for cognitive deficits. The presence of presynaptic α7 nAChRs on glutamate terminals is supported by the ability of the subtype-selective agonist Compound A to evoke [3H]D-aspartate release from synaptosomes: This response was potentiated by the selective allosteric potentiator PNU-120596 and blocked by αbungarotoxin. Compound A also evoked dopamine overflow in the prefrontal cortex in vivo, and this was potentiated by PNU-120596. α7 nAChR-evoked [3H]dopamine release from tissue prisms in vitro was blocked by antagonists of NMDA and AMPA receptors. These data are consistent with a model in which α7 nAChRs present on glutamate terminals increase glutamate release that (1) contributes to presynaptic facilitation and synaptic plasticity and (2) co-ordinately ...
The stabilisation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction depends on muscle activity and the cooperative action of myosin Va and protein kinase A (PKA) type I. To execute its function, PKA has to be present in a subsynaptic microdomain where it is enriched by anchoring proteins. Here, we show that the AChR-associated protein, rapsyn, interacts with PKA type I in C2C12 and T-REx293 cells as well as in live mouse muscle beneath the neuromuscular junction. Molecular modelling, immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches identify an α-helical stretch of rapsyn to be crucial for binding to the dimerisation and docking domain of PKA type I. When expressed in live mouse muscle, a peptide encompassing the rapsyn α-helical sequence efficiently delocalises PKA type I from the neuromuscular junction. The same peptide, as well as a rapsyn construct lacking the α-helical domain, induces severe alteration of acetylcholine receptor turnover as well as
In the February 2009 issue of the Journal of General Physiology, we published a paper in which we presented (among several other results) a novel, single-channel-based approach to estimating the fractional Ca2+ currents through neurotransmitter-gated ion channels (Elenes et al., 2009). We applied the method to a variety of mutant and wild-type muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and to the NMDA receptor composed of NR1 and NR2A subunits, all heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells. Our goal was to estimate the impact of a panel of naturally occurring mutations on the Ca2+-permeation properties of the AChR.. Our methodology is based on the observation that (in the presence of saturating concentrations of, say, Na+ in the pipette solution of cell-attached patches) increasing concentrations of Ca2+ in the pipette reduce the inward single-channel conductance, eventually reaching a nonzero value that coincides with the single-channel conductance measured in the presence of Ca2+ alone ...
From NCBI Gene:. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. The nAChRs are thought to be hetero-pentamers composed of homologous subunits. The proposed structure for each subunit is a conserved N-terminal extracellular domain followed by three conserved transmembrane domains, a variable cytoplasmic loop, a fourth conserved transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal extracellular region. The protein encoded by this gene forms a homo-oligomeric channel, displays marked permeability to calcium ions and is a major component of brain nicotinic receptors that are blocked by, and highly sensitive to, alpha-bungarotoxin. Once this receptor binds acetylcholine, it undergoes an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. This gene is located in a region identified as a major susceptibility locus for ...
An acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody test is used to help diagnose myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disease that affects skeletal muscle strength. AChR antibodies are autoantibodies that mistakenly target proteins called acetylcholine receptors that are located on skeletal muscle fibers.
Hello, thank you for lending opportunity of "The snake charmer". It would be really great and I would appreciate to read it. I am a kind of hobby thaland snake fan and study your great homepage alot. I love it. By the way I saw the tail and I thought about bungarus fasciatus maybe a varity more ocker yellow but bungarus has a "linear" triangle shape and is so great glossy on the skins surface… Then I detect the small thorns in the top and I thougt it is a leguan. Funny ...
Hello, thank you for lending opportunity of "The snake charmer". It would be really great and I would appreciate to read it. I am a kind of hobby thaland snake fan and study your great homepage alot. I love it. By the way I saw the tail and I thought about bungarus fasciatus maybe a varity more ocker yellow but bungarus has a "linear" triangle shape and is so great glossy on the skins surface… Then I detect the small thorns in the top and I thougt it is a leguan. Funny ...
Patch pipettes, filled with a solution consisting of 140 mm KCl, 5 mm EGTA, 5 mm MgCl2, and 10 mm HEPES, pH 7.3, had resistances of 3-6 MΩ. An outside-out patch24 with a seal resistance of 5 GΩ or greater was excised from a cell and moved into position at the outflow of a HSSE-2 rapid perfusion device (ALA Scientific Instruments, Westbury, NY). The perfusion system consisted of solution reservoirs, manual switching valves, a solenoid-driven pinch valve, and two tubes inserted into the culture dish and had a time resolution of less than 100 μs.25 One tube contained extracellular solution without agonist (normal solution); the other contained extracellular solution with 300 μm acetylcholine (test solution). In the control protocol, the patch, initially perfused with normal solution, was exposed to a series of ten 0.25-s exposures to the test solution at 5-s intervals. Manual valves were used to connect to reservoirs containing a defined concentration of competitive antagonist with or without ...
Renegade immune system. Since the 1970s, its been understood that most MG is due to the immune systems mistaken attack on multiprotein structures called acetylcholine receptors, docking sites on muscle fibers that receive a chemical called acetylcholine from nerve cells. Normally, the presence of acetylcholine causes a muscle fiber to contract, allowing muscle activity to occur.. In most cases of MG, the immune systems inappropriate target is these docking sites. An immune response, in the form of immune system proteins called antibodies, blocks or destroys the acetylcholine receptors, preventing them from receiving the "go" signal from acetylcholine.. In fact, MG is a classic autoimmune disease, a type of disorder in which the body produces an immune response against itself.. These days, its known that the acetylcholine receptors are the most common but not the only target of the immune system in MG. In some people with MG, the target is a protein known as muscle-specific kinase, or MuSK. ...
A publication in Amino Acids by researchers from UPF, CRG and other centers provides the first in vivo evidence of the involvement of the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster in nicotine addiction. It happens through modifying the activity of brain regions responsible for the balance between the rewarding and the aversive properties of this drug. CHRNA5/A3/B4 codes…
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Nerve ion channel: Contour map (from electron micrograph data) of an acetylcholine receptor, a large molecule that controls the transmission of a nerve impulse. Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, is released across the junction (synapse) between adjacent nerve cells to bind to receptors on the target cell membrane. A shape change associated with bound neurotransmitter/receptor results in pores (ion channels) opening for a fraction of a second. Sodium & potassium ions flood through, altering the electrical potential & firing a second nerve impulse. The ion channel (centre) appears closed. - Stock Image P360/0097
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, the molecular mechanisms by which detergents influence membrane protein stability and function remain poorly understood, and elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC (Gas Chromatography)-FID (Flame Ionization) and/or GC-MSD (Mass Selective Detectors), stability and aggregation state using A-SEC (Analytical Size-Exclusion Chromatography) and EM (Electron Microscopy), and planar lipid bilayers to measure ion channel function. Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analog ...
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, the molecular mechanisms by which detergents influence membrane protein stability and function remain poorly understood, and elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC (Gas Chromatography)-FID (Flame Ionization) and/or GC-MSD (Mass Selective Detectors), stability and aggregation state using A-SEC (Analytical Size-Exclusion Chromatography) and EM (Electron Microscopy), and planar lipid bilayers to measure ion channel function. Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analog ...
Ethylbenzene and para-xylene (p-xylene), but not the chemically closely related organic solvents ortho-xylene (o-xylene) and meta-xylene (m-xylene), are known to cause ototoxicity and irreversible hearing loss, though the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, effects of ethylbenzene and of p-, o-, and m-xylene on human heteromeric α9α10 nicotinic ... read more acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes were investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. ACh dose-dependently evoked an α9α10 nAChR-mediated ion current with an EC50 of 137 μM. When ACh is applied at a low concentration (10 μM), the nAChR-mediated ion current is inhibited by a low concentration (10 μM) of ethylbenzene and p-xylene, but not by the same concentration of the non-ototoxic solvents. At a high solvent concentration (300 μM), all solvents cause inhibition of the ion currents evoked by 10 μM ACh. Ion currents evoked by a near maximum-effective concentration ACh (1 ...
Small fiber polyneuropathy is a well-recognized syndrome mitigated by somatic sensory afferent and autonomic efferent nerve fibers that respectively mediate pain, heat and cold temperature afferent and autonomic efferent function in the skin. A patient with low serum titers of neuronal acetylcholine receptor ganglionic antibodies and autonomic failure had symptomatic small fiber polyneuropathy late in life in the setting of autoimmune dementia and encephalopathy and prostate cancer. Large and small fiber polyneuropathy and dysautonomia were detected in routine electrodiagnostic and autonomic laboratory studies, and epidermal nerve fiber analysis of the calf and thigh. Clinical improvement for one year concomitant with intravenous immune globulin therapy preceded a clinical decline in neurocognitive function and death. Postmortem examination showed typical features of Alzheimer disease with neuropathic neuropathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, and viable autonomic
Botulinum toxin type A shots are one of the most popular beauty techniques for diminishing the looks of creases due to habitual facial muscles contractions. terminal and blocks the discharge of acetylcholine on the neuromuscular junction selectively, preventing muscle contraction thereby. The effect is normally short-term and reversible following sprouting of brand-new axons and advancement of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors as time passes. Electric motor function is restored in approximately 3C6 a few months typically. Acetylcholine synthesis and storage space arent affected (Frampton and Easthope 2003; Klein 2004; Allergan PI 2005). BTX-A is normally most reliable for lines and wrinkles that form due to muscles contraction, where weakening from the muscles smoothes and flattens the overlying epidermis. After a BTX-A shot, an improvement to look at takes place within 1 to 2 weeks, peaks at four weeks around, and begins putting on off after 10C12 weeks; as a result, a repeat shot around ...
RIC-3 (resistant to inhibitor of cholinesterase) is a transmembrane protein, found in invertebrates and vertebrates, that modulates the surface expression of a variety of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in neurons and other cells. To understand its mechanism of action, we have investigated the cellular location, transmembrane topology and roles of the functional domains of RIC-3 in facilitating α7 assembly and surface expression in cultured mammalian cells. We show that the mouse protein is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the first 31 amino acids which act as a cleavable signal sequence. The mature protein is a single-pass type I transmembrane protein whose N-terminus resides in the lumen of the ER with the coiled-coil domain in the cytoplasm. Functional analysis shows that facilitation of surface expression of α7 in mammalian cells is reduced in mutants lacking the signal peptide, the lumenal segment and the coiled-coil domain, but not in those lacking the long ...
BioAssay record AID 145668 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro displacement of [3H]methylcarbamylcholine from nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat brain cortex.
addiction and schizophrenia. In the ERA-NET NEURON awarded research project iPS&BRAIN, Huib Mansvelder (CNCR, VU) collaborates with researchers at the Pasteur Institute in Paris and the Medical University of Vienna. The consortium aims to elucidate mechanisms of nicotine addiction and schizophrenia. In both disorders, genetic variants of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved that increase the disposition for both addiction as well as schizophrenia, but we do not understand how. The nicotinic receptors are involved in neuronal communication in our brain, but the role of the genetic variants is unclear. In addition to fundamental studies to investigate the communication between neurons based on these genetic variants, the consortium will use iPSCs derived from patient cells to test potential therapeutic strategies ...
In Germany, septic diseases kill approximately 68,000 patients each year [1]. About 280,000 (335 of 100,000) contract sepsis, approximately 115,000 of whom (138 of 100,000) experience severe sepsis or septic shock [1]. For those with severe sepsis, the probability of dying in hospital is about 44%, and increases to 59% for septic shock [1].. In view of these alarming figures, new approaches in treatment are required. One new treatment concept is based on the results of the group of Tracey [2].. In an in vitro test series with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human macrophage cultures, acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system, significantly inhibited the release of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-18, but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 [2]. Suppression of TNF-α was reversed with α-bungarotoxin, but not with atropine, a specific muscarinic inhibitor [2]. Additionally, the ...
We and others have shown that one of the mechanisms of growth regulation of small cell lung cancer cell lines and cultured pulmonary neuroendocrine cells is by the binding of agonists to the α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In addition, we have shown that the nicotine-derived carcinogenic nitrosamine, 4(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is a high affinity agonist for the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In the present study, our goal was to determine the extent of α7 mRNA and protein expression in the human lung. Experiments were done using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a nuclease protection assay and western blotting using membrane proteins. We detected mRNA for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 receptor in seven small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, in two pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell lines, in cultured normal human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC), one carcinoid cell line, three squamous cell lines and tissue

Human Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha 7 peptide (ab24285)Human Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha 7 peptide (ab24285)

The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.. * Sequence similarities. Belongs to the ligand-gated ion channel (TC 1.A.9) ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/human-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-alpha-7-peptide-ab24285.html

Hemicholinium-3 : définition de Hemicholinium-3 et synonymes de Hemicholinium-3 (anglais)Hemicholinium-3 : définition de Hemicholinium-3 et synonymes de Hemicholinium-3 (anglais)

β-Bungarotoxin; Acetylcholine release inhibitors: Botulinum toxin (Botox); Acetylcholinesterase reactivators: Asoxime. * ...
more infohttp://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Hemicholinium-3/en-en/

Transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland of the red-headed krait (Bu by Ang Swee Siang, Robin Doley et al."Transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland of the red-headed krait (Bu" by Ang Swee Siang, Robin Doley et al.

... one group was comparable to the classical SPIs and the other two groups to chain B of β-bungarotoxins (with or without the ... including chain A of β-bungarotoxin), natriuretic peptide (NP), CRISPs, and C-type lectin. Conclusion The 3FTxs were found to ... including chain B of β-bungarotoxin), phospholipase A2 ( ... Kunitz type SPI and B chain of β-bungarotoxin of Bungarus sp ... including chain B of β-bungarotoxin), phospholipase A2 (including chain A of β-bungarotoxin), natriuretic peptide (NP), CRISPs ...
more infohttps://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/bioc_pubs/7/

Bungarus in Chinese translationBungarus in Chinese translation

... , English Chinese dictionary, English Chinese translation, with pronunciation, a lot of example sentences
more infohttp://www.chinaorb.com/index-ec.php?s_word=Bungarus

Bungarotoxin - WikipediaBungarotoxin - Wikipedia

There are four types: α-Bungarotoxin β-Bungarotoxin γ-Bungarotoxin k-Bungarotoxin Banded krait venom began to be studied by ... α-Bungarotoxin inhibits the binding of acetylcholine (ACh) to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; β- and γ-bungarotoxins act ... Bungarotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxic proteins of the three-finger toxin superfamily found in the venom of ... Bungarotoxins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Chang C (1999). "Looking back on the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bungarotoxin

Kappa-bungarotoxin - WikipediaKappa-bungarotoxin - Wikipedia

... "bungarotoxin 3.1" were identified by protein sequencing as identical to kappa-bungarotoxin. Kappa-bungarotoxin binds to the ... Like the alpha-bungarotoxins, kappa-bungarotoxin causes a post-synaptic blockade of signaling; this is in contrast to the beta- ... Kappa-bungarotoxin (often written κ-Bgt; historically also called toxin F) is a protein neurotoxin of the bungarotoxin family ... Kappa-bungarotoxin was first reported in 1983 as a component of the venom of Bungarus multicinctus that differed in biological ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kappa-bungarotoxin

β-Bungarotoxin-induced phospholipid hydro... & related info | Mendeleyβ-Bungarotoxin-induced phospholipid hydro... & related info | Mendeley

β-Bungarotoxin-induced phospholipid hydrolysis in rat brain synaptosomes: effect of replacement of calcium by strontium. ... β-Bungarotoxin-induced phospholipid hydrolysis in rat brain synaptosomes: Effect of replacement of calcium by strontium. * ... β-Bungarotoxin-induced phospholipid hydrolysis in rat brain synaptosomes: effect of replacement of calcium by strontium. ... We tested whether, upon substitution of Ca2+by Sr2+in a medium containing β-bungarotoxin, sufficient Ca2+remained bound to the ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/papers/%CE%B2bungarotoxininduced-phospholipid-hydrolysis-rat-brain-synaptosomes-effect-replacement-calcium-stron/

Bungarotoxin | definition of bungarotoxin by Medical dictionaryBungarotoxin | definition of bungarotoxin by Medical dictionary

... bungarotoxin explanation free. What is bungarotoxin? Meaning of bungarotoxin medical term. What does bungarotoxin mean? ... Looking for online definition of bungarotoxin in the Medical Dictionary? ... bungarotoxin. bungarotoxin. One of three (alpha, beta, gamma) closely related anticholinergic neurotoxins derived from venom of ... Bungarotoxin , definition of bungarotoxin by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bungarotoxin ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bungarotoxin

Embryonic somatic nerve destruction with beta-bungarotoxin.Embryonic somatic nerve destruction with beta-bungarotoxin.

The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron- ... Bungarotoxins / toxicity*. Embryo, Mammalian / drug effects. Embryonic and Fetal Development / drug effects. Female. Microscopy ... beta-Bungarotoxin applied on E17 destroyed developing axons in a similar manner, but the perineurium remained in place, and ... The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Embryonic-somatic-nerve-destruction-with/3829119.html

Biotin-XX-α-Bungarotoxin | BiotiumBiotin-XX-α-Bungarotoxin | Biotium

α-Bungarotoxin, CF® Dye and Other Conjugates Conjugates of α-Bungarotoxin labeled with a selection of our CF® dyes and other ... Biotin-XX-α-Bungarotoxin Biotinylated α-bungarotoxin is useful in the affinity column isolation of the nicotinic AChR using an ... We also offer unlabeled α-bungarotoxin and CF® Dye α-Bungarotoxin conjugated to our next-generation fluorescent dyes. See our ... Biotinylated α-bungarotoxin is useful in the affinity column isolation of the nicotinic AChR using an avidin or streptavidin ...
more infohttps://biotium.com/product/biotin-xx-a-bungarotoxin/

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Alpha-bungarotoxin isoform V31 - P60616 (3L21V BUNMU)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Alpha-bungarotoxin isoform V31 - P60616 (3L21V BUNMU)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P60616

RCSB PDB 









- 1IDL: THE NMR SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF ALPHA-BUNGAROTOXIN Methods Report PageRCSB PDB - 1IDL: THE NMR SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF ALPHA-BUNGAROTOXIN Methods Report Page

The solution structure of the complex formed between alpha-bungarotoxin and an 18-mer cognate peptide derived from the alpha 1 ... 2.0 mM free alpha-Bungarotoxin, 50 mM perdeuterated potassium acetate buffer (pH 4.0) with 5% D2O and 0.05% sodium azide. ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/materialsAndMethods.do?structureId=1IDL

Bungarotoxin, Alexa Fluor 647 conjugate - Thermo Fisher ScientificBungarotoxin, Alexa Fluor 647 conjugate - Thermo Fisher Scientific

Our bright and photostable Alexa Fluor 647 -bungarotoxin may prove to be one of the best probes for v ... Bungarotoxin, a 74-amino acid peptide extracted from Bungarus multicinctus venom, binds with high affinity to the -subunit of ... α-Bungarotoxin, a 74-amino acid peptide extracted from Bungarus multicinctus venom, binds with high affinity to the α-subunit ... Our bright and photostable Alexa Fluor® 647 α-bungarotoxin may prove to be one of the best probes for visualizing this receptor ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/order/catalog/product/B35450

Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain precursor - Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait)Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain precursor - Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait)

Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chainAdd BLAST. 120. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,Q8QFW3,PA2B2_BUNCE Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain OS=Bungarus caeruleus OX=132961 PE=2 SV=1 ... Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain (EC:3.1.1.4). Short name: ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8QFW3

Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain precursor - Bungarus flaviceps flaviceps (Red-headed krait)Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain precursor - Bungarus flaviceps flaviceps (Red-headed krait)

Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chainAdd BLAST. 119. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,Q7T1R1,PA2B2_BUNFL Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain OS=Bungarus flaviceps flaviceps OX=8615 PE=1 SV=1 ... Basic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A2 chain (EC:3.1.1.4). Short name: ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q7T1R1

Plus itPlus it

1995) α-Bungarotoxin receptor subtypes. in Effects of nicotine on biological systems, Pt II, eds Clarke PBS, Quik M, Adlkofer F ... 1989) [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding marks primary sensory areas of developing rat neocortex. Brain Res 501:223-234. ... 1986) α-Bungarotoxin binds to low-affinity nicotine binding sites in rat brain. J Neurochem 47:1706-1712. ... 1990) Brain α-bungarotoxin binding protein cDNAs and mAbs reveal subtypes of this branch of the ligand-gated ion channel gene ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/17/23/9165

Plus itPlus it

Regulation of alpha-bungarotoxin receptor accumulation in chick retina cultures: effects of membrane depolarization, cyclic ... Regulation of alpha-bungarotoxin receptor accumulation in chick retina cultures: effects of membrane depolarization, cyclic ... Regulation of alpha-bungarotoxin receptor accumulation in chick retina cultures: effects of membrane depolarization, cyclic ... Regulation of alpha-bungarotoxin receptor accumulation in chick retina cultures: effects of membrane depolarization, cyclic ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/3/7/1333

The essentiality of B chain in stabilizing the structure of the A chain in β1-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus venom |...The essentiality of B chain in stabilizing the structure of the A chain in β1-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus venom |...

The dynamic of Trp residue in Β1-bungarotoxin ( gb1-Bgt), the A chain of Β1-Bgt and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was assessed by ... The dynamic of Trp residue inΒ1-bungarotoxin (gb1-Bgt), the A chain ofΒ1-Bgt and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was assessed by ... The essentiality of B chain in stabilizing the structure of the A chain in β1-bungarotoxin fromBungarus multicinctus venom. ... Snake venom Trp fluorescence Β1-bungarotoxin role of the B chain ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01891981

Acidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin elisa and antibodyAcidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Acidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant ... Shop Acidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin ELISA Kit, ... Acidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin Beta bungarotoxin is ... Acidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A chain. Acidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A chain ELISA Kit. Acidic ... Acidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A3 chain. Acidic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin A3 chain ELISA Kit. Acidic ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/proteins-family/acidic-phospholipase-a2-beta-bungarotoxin

cDNA sequence analysis and mutagenesis studies on the a chain of Β-bungarotoxin from Taiwan banded krait | SpringerLinkcDNA sequence analysis and mutagenesis studies on the a chain of Β-bungarotoxin from Taiwan banded krait | SpringerLink

The cDNA encoding the A chain ofΒ-bungarotoxin (Β-Bgt) was constructed from the cellular RNA isolated from the venom glands ... The cDNA encoding the A chain ofΒ-bungarotoxin (Β-Bgt) was constructed from the cellular RNA isolated from the venom glands of ... A chain ofΒ-bungarotoxin cDNA sequence analysis mutagenesis of cysteine residues refolding of the recombinant A chain ... cDNA sequence analysis and mutagenesis studies on the a chain of Β-bungarotoxin from Taiwan banded krait. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01887150

sup|125|/sup|I]α-bungarotoxin | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYsup|125|/sup|I]α-bungarotoxin | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

sup>125I]α-bungarotoxin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and ...
more infohttp://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=3972

Plus itPlus it

Membrane-bound α-bungarotoxin-binding entities derived from rat brain are found to interact specifically with the affinity ... Interaction of Nicotinic Receptor Affinity Reagents with Central Nervous System α-Bungarotoxin-Binding Entities. RONALD J. ... Interaction of Nicotinic Receptor Affinity Reagents with Central Nervous System α-Bungarotoxin-Binding Entities. RONALD J. ... Interaction of Nicotinic Receptor Affinity Reagents with Central Nervous System α-Bungarotoxin-Binding Entities. RONALD J. ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/17/2/149

Plus itPlus it

Effects of Eserine and Neostigmine on the Interaction of α-Bungarotoxin with Aplysia Acetylcholine Receptors. DAVID O. ... Effects of Eserine and Neostigmine on the Interaction of α-Bungarotoxin with Aplysia Acetylcholine Receptors. DAVID O. ... Effects of Eserine and Neostigmine on the Interaction of α-Bungarotoxin with Aplysia Acetylcholine Receptors. DAVID O. ... Binding of [125I]α-bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptors of ganglionic homogenate of the marine mollusc Aplysia is blocked by ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/12/6/999

Plus itPlus it

α-bungarotoxin. CNS. central nervous system. GABA. γ-amino butyric acid. MEM. minimum essential medium. HEPES. (N-[2- ... 1990) Brain α-bungarotoxin binding protein, cDNAs and MAbs reveal subtypes of this branch of the ligand-gated ion channel gene ... Strychnine (2 μM) decreased the peak amplitude of the α-bungarotoxin-sensitive type IA current in a voltage-independent manner ... 1996) α-Conotoxin-ImI: A competitive antagonist at α-bungarotoxin-sensitive neuronal nicotinic receptors in hippocampal neurons ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/284/3/904
  • The kappa-bungarotoxin polypeptide is 66 amino acids long and folds into an antiparallel beta sheet structure stabilized by five conserved disulfide bonds, a structural feature shared by many peptide toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Bungarotoxin is a 74-amino acid (~8000 dalton) peptide containing 5 lysine residues and 10 cysteine residues paired in 5 disulfide bridges. (thermofisher.com)
  • Separately identified toxins designated "toxin F" and "bungarotoxin 3.1" were identified by protein sequencing as identical to kappa-bungarotoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurologists, pharmacologists, toxicologists, and other medical specialists and scientists from around the world also discuss the use of other neurotoxins like tetanus toxin, bungarotoxins , conotoxins, and spider and wasp neurotoxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The labeled bungarotoxins are then chromatographically separated from unlabeled molecules to ensure adequate labeling of the product. (thermofisher.com)
  • α-Bungarotoxin does not affect esterase activity or interfere with the ability of eserine to block the esterase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Paulo, J.A., Hawrot, E. (2009), Effect of homologous serotonin receptor loop substitutions on the heterologous expression in Pichia of a chimeric acetylcholine-binding protein with α-bungarotoxin-binding activity, Protein Expression and Purification, Volume 67, Issue 2, Pages 76-81. (perkinelmer.com)