A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
Small sets of evidence-based interventions for a defined patient population and care setting.
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.
Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
The sensory areas on the vertical wall of the saccule and in the floor of the utricle. The hair cells in the maculae are innervated by fibers of the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
An alkaloid found in the root of RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA, among other plant sources. It is a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent that apparently acts by changing the shape and threshold of cardiac action potentials.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A non-heme iron protein consisting of eight apparently identical subunits each containing 2 iron atoms. It binds one molecule of oxygen per pair of iron atoms and functions as a respiratory protein.
Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A serine endopeptidase isolated from Bacillus subtilis. It hydrolyzes proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds, and a preference for a large uncharged residue in P1. It also hydrolyzes peptide amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Extra impulse-conducting tissue in the heart that creates abnormal impulse-conducting connections between HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used for experiments in molecular genetic studies in plant physiology and development.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used in the treatment of TUBERCULOSIS.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Birth defect that results in a partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. It may be isolated or a part of a syndrome (e.g., AICARDI'S SYNDROME; ACROCALLOSAL SYNDROME; ANDERMANN SYNDROME; and HOLOPROSENCEPHALY). Clinical manifestations include neuromotor skill impairment and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY of variable severity.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.
The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Coordination of nursing services by various nursing care personnel under the leadership of a professional nurse. The team may consist of a professional nurse, nurses' aides, and the practical nurse.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The behaviors of materials under force.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A subclass of myosins originally found in the photoreceptor of DROSOPHILA. The heavy chains can occur as two alternatively spliced isoforms of 132 and 174 KDa. The amino terminal of myosin type III is highly unusual in that it contains a protein kinase domain which may be an important component of the visual process.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentrant conduction over the accessory pathways between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. The impulse can also travel in the reverse direction, as in some cases, atrial impulses travel to the ventricles over the accessory pathways and back to the atria over the BUNDLE OF HIS and the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE.

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (1/251)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

Modulation of AV nodal and Hisian conduction by changes in extracellular space. (2/251)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the extracellular space (ECS) component of the atrioventricular (AV) node and His bundle region is larger than the ECS in adjacent contractile myocardium. The potential physiological significance of this observation was examined in a canine blood-perfused AV nodal preparation. Mannitol, an ECS osmotic expander, was infused directly into either the AV node or His bundle region. This resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the AV nodal or His-ventricular conduction time and in the AV nodal effective refractory period. Mannitol infusion eventually resulted in Wenckebach block (n = 6), which reversed with mannitol washout. The ratio of AV nodal to left ventricular ECS in tissue frozen immediately on the development of heart block (n = 8) was significantly higher in the region of block (4.53 +/- 0.61) compared with that in control preparations (2.23 +/- 0.35, n = 6, P < 0.01) and donor dog hearts (2.45 +/- 0.18, n = 11, P < 0.01) not exposed to mannitol. With lower mannitol rates (10% of total blood flow), AV nodal conduction times increased by 5-10% and the AV node became supersensitive to adenosine, acetylcholine, and carbachol, but not to norepinephrine. We conclude that mannitol-induced changes in AV node and His bundle ECS markedly alter conduction system electrophysiology and the sensitivity of conductive tissues to purinergic and cholinergic agonists.  (+info)

LocaLisa: new technique for real-time 3-dimensional localization of regular intracardiac electrodes. (3/251)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the 3-dimensional (3D) position of ablation electrodes from fluoroscopic images is inadequate if a systematic lesion pattern is required in the treatment of complex arrhythmogenic substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new technique for online 3D localization of intracardiac electrodes. Regular catheter electrodes are used as sensors for a high-frequency transthoracic electrical field, which is applied via standard skin electrodes. We investigated localization accuracy within the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle by comparing measured and true interelectrode distances of a decapolar catheter. Long-term stability was analyzed by localization of the most proximal His bundle before and after slow pathway ablation. Electrogram recordings were unaffected by the applied electrical field. Localization data from 3 catheter positions, widely distributed within the right atrium, right ventricle, or left ventricle, were analyzed in 10 patients per group. The relationship between measured and true electrode positions was highly linear, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.996, 0.997, and 0.999 for the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle, respectively. Localization accuracy was better than 2 mm, with an additional scaling error of 8% to 14%. After 2 hours, localization of the proximal His bundle was reproducible within 1.4+/-1.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique enables accurate and reproducible real-time localization of electrode positions in cardiac mapping and ablation procedures. Its application does not distort the quality of electrograms and can be applied to any electrode catheter.  (+info)

Reversion to sinus rhythm 11 years after surgically induced heart block. (4/251)

A patient is presented in whom the heart reverted spontaneously to sinus rhythm 11 years after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect complicated by complete heart block. It seems unlikely that regeneration of fibres in the bundle of His, if these had indeed been destroyed, could account for the restoration of sinus rhythm after so long an interval.  (+info)

Electrophysiological effects of mexiletine in man. (5/251)

The electrophysiological effects of intravenous mexiletine in a dose of 200 to 250 mg given over 5 minutes, followed by continuous infusion of 60 to 90 mg per hour, were studied in 5 patients with normal conduction and in 20 patients with a variety of disturbances of impulse formation and conduction, by means of His bundle electrography, atrial pacing, and the extrastimulus method. In all but 2 patients the plasma level was above the lower therapeutic limit. Mexiletine had no consistent effects on sinus frequency and atrial refractoriness. The sinoatrial recovery time changed inconsistently in both directions; however, of the 5 patients in whom an increase was evident, 3 had sinus node dysfunction. In most patients mexiletine increased the AV nodal conduction time at paced atrial rates and shifted the Wenckebach point to a lower atrial rate. The effective refractory period of the AV node was not consistently influenced, while the functional refractory period increased in 12 out of 14 patients. The HV intervals increased by a mean of 11 ms in 8 patients and were unchanged in 17. Both the relative and effective refractory period of the His-Purkinje system increased after mexiletine. Non-cardiac side effects occurred in 7 out of 25 patients, and cardiac side effects, including one serious, in 2. The results indicate that mexiletine shares some electrophysiological properties with procainamide and quinidine, when given to patients with conduction defects, and that the drug should not be used in patients with pre-existing impairment of impulse formation or conduction. It has additional effects on AV nodal conduction which may be of value in the treatment of re-entrant tachycardias involving the AV node.  (+info)

Chronic His bundle block. Clinical, electrocardiographic, electrophysiological, and follow-up studies on 16 patients. (6/251)

This report describes 16 patients with block within the His bundle seen over a period of 55 months. Ten were women and 6 men, with an average age of 76 years, range, 42 to 98 years. All patients had His bundle recordings showing split His bundle potentials (H and H) (13 patients) or narrow QRS with block distal to the His bundle potential (3 patients). Of the 16 patients, 10 had complete heart block, 4 second degree AV block (2 patients with Mobitz type II, and 2 with 2:1), and 2 first degree AV block. Ten patients had a narrow QRS in the conducted beats or escape rhythms. Intravenous atropine (1 to 2 mg) had a variable effect on AV conduction and the rate of the escape rhythm. Twelve patients have had a permanent pacemaker implanted. During the follow-up period, 10 patients died 1 to 31 months from the time of initial examination. The remaining 6 patients (5 with pacemaker) are alive 3 to 58 months later.  (+info)

Living anatomy of the atrioventricular junctions. A guide to electrophysiologic mapping. A Consensus Statement from the Cardiac Nomenclature Study Group, Working Group of Arrhythmias, European Society of Cardiology, and the Task Force on Cardiac Nomenclature from NASPE. (7/251)

Current nomenclature for the atrioventricular (AV) junctions derives from a surgically distorted view, placing the valvar rings and the triangle of Koch in a single plane with antero-posterior and right-left lateral coordinates. Within this convention, the aorta is considered to occupy an anterior position, although the mouth of the coronary sinus is shown as being posterior. Although this nomenclature has served its purpose for the description and treatment of arrhythmias dependent on accessory pathways and atrioventricular nodal reentry, it is less than satisfactory for the description of atrial and ventricular mapping. To correct these deficiencies, a consensus document has been prepared by experts from the Working Group of Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. It proposes a new anatomically sound nomenclature that will be applicable to all chambers of the heart. In this report, we discuss its value for description of the AV junctions, establishing the principles of this new nomenclature.  (+info)

Double component action potentials in the posterior approach to the atrioventricular node: do they reflect activation delay in the slow pathway? (8/251)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to elucidate the mechanism of double component action potentials in the posterior approach to the atrioventricular (AV) junctional area. BACKGROUND: Double component action potentials are often associated with activation delay and therefore might be a marker of the location of the so-called slow pathway. METHODS: The AV junction was scanned for double component action potentials in Langendorff perfused pig and dog hearts, using conventional microelectrode recordings. Characteristics of these action potentials were investigated during basic and premature stimulation and cooling of the anterior approach to the node. RESULTS: During basic stimulation, double component action potentials were recorded in 19 out of 20 hearts. In 74% of these cases, the second component occurred before the His deflection. During premature stimulation this percentage was 50%, while delay between the two components always increased. In 80% of the cases, the amplitude of the two components became <20 mV during progressive shortening of the coupling interval. The first component was generated by activation in superficial layers, the second one by activation in deeper layers. Cooling of the anterior region revealed that the second component was caused by activation arriving from the anterior region. CONCLUSIONS: Double component action potentials in the posterior approach to the AV node are generated by the asynchronous arrival of wave fronts in different, weakly coupled layers or by the summation of asynchronously arriving wave fronts. They are not always associated with activation delay in the slow pathway.  (+info)

The preface of this text indicates that it would be of value as a guide for people starting to perform His bundle electrocardiography and also useful to those established in the field. Unfortunately, it has not reached these goals. Anatomical description has been stretched out over four chapters, but it lacks such pertinent details as the dimensions of the His bundle and bundle branches, and histology of the sinus node, A-V node, and accessory pathways. Chapter four on methodology for recording His bundle electrograms fails to mention the arm approach or the left heart techniques. The methodology used by the ...
The evolution of bilateral bundle branch block (BBB) was studied in ten anesthetized dogs by recording electrical activity from the bundle of His (Hb), right (Rb) and left bundles (Lb) for precise localization and characterization of the conduction disorder. Records were obtained before and at intervals up to 8 hours after ligation of the anterior septal artery. Forty to 140 min after ligation conduction was impaired in either the Rb or Lb showing complete BBB both at rapid heart rates (tachycardia-dependent) and slow rates (bradycardia-dependent) with normal QRS or incomplete BBB at control rates. Later complete BBB became constant at all heart rates. When both bundles were significantly involved, various combinations of intraventricular and atrioventricular conduction disorders occurred. Unequal delay in both bundles (unequal 1° bilateral BBB) gave rise to prolonged H-V interval and a QRS pattern of incomplete or complete bundle branch block corresponding to the branch in which the conduction ...
Procainamide (PA) increases the effective refractory period of the atria, and to a lesser extent the bundle of His-Purkinje system and ventricles of the heart. It reduces impulse conduction velocity in the atria, His-Purkinje fibers, and ventricular muscle, but has variable effects on the atrioventricular (A-V) node, a direct slowing action and a weaker vagolytic effect which may speed A-V conduction slightly. Myocardial excitability is reduced in the atria, Purkinje fibers, papillary muscles, and ventricles by an increase in the threshold for excitation, combined with inhibition of ectopic pacemaker activity by retardation of the slow phase of diastolic depolarization, thus decreasing automaticity especially in ectopic sites. Contractility of the undamaged heart is usually not affected by therapeutic concentrations, although slight reduction of cardiac output may occur, and may be significant in the presence of myocardial damage. Therapeutic levels of PA may exert vagolytic effects and produce ...
This is an example of a normal finding on intracardiac electrophysiologic (EP) study. The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is represented in different colors, with its corresponding intervals (ie, PR, QT) on top. A catheter with several electrodes is placed inside the heart, close to the superior vena cava-right atrial junction. This catheter records the sinoatrial node (SN) activity and is depicted here as the high-right atrial (HRA) deflection. Beneath the HRA intracardiac electrogram is the His-bundle intracardiac electrogram, which is recorded by the electrodes of a second catheter placed across the posterior aspect of the tricuspid valve. The His-bundle electrogram provides the most information about atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Three main deflections are present, with 2 intervals: (1) the A deflection corresponds to the activation of the low-right atrium, (2) the H deflection corresponds to the activation of the His-bundle before its branching into the Purkinje system, and (3) the V ...
The PR interval is the time between atrial depolarisation and ventricular depolarisation. It is an indicator of atrioventricular conduction time, involving conduction from the atria, through the AV node and down the His-Purkinje system.
Besides enhanced automaticity, ischemia also provides the substrate for reentry by increasing dispersion of excitability, reducing conduction velocities, and shortening refractory periods in ischemic areas (Coronel, 1994). Occlusion of the LAD resulted in a significant increase in Q-J time. The Q-J time reflects ventricular activation, the time needed for the electrical impulse to travel through the fast-conducting His-Purkinje system to the cardiomyocytes, and to activate the majority of these cells so that their action potential is in phase 2. Regional ischemic injury within the myocardium disturbs intraventricular conduction (Gettes and Cascio, 1992), in both space and time, leading to an altered spectrum of the QRS complex (Hatala et al., 1995) and an increase in Q-J time. The latter is mainly due to the slower or even blocked impulse conduction in the ischemic region. An altered spectrum of the QRS complex and an increase in the Q-J time have been demonstrated in the ischemic control group ...
Increased understanding of the cell migration may lead to the development of new therapies for controlling invasive tumour cells.
1st Bites is made under the most hygienic conditions using quality certified ingredients and supplemented with vitamins and minerals to give your child the right nutrition, good eating experience and the organic advantage.Suitable for 6 months and above.
An example of bilateral bundle-branch block (RBBB) in the presence of WPW syndrome in which diagnosis was established with the aid of His bundle recordings is presented. Complete RBBB and intermittent block of the superior and inferior divisions of the left bundle branch were coexistent for at least 2 years before complete heart block (trifascicular block) occurred. It was demonstrated that the preexcitation pathway conducted and blocked together with the normal pathways. It is suggested that the anomalous bundle in this case traveled with the normal pathways and that this close relationship is more common than has been suspected.. Retrograde V-A conduction at 1:1 ratio was present during electrical stimulation of the right ventricle and the anomalous bundle was used for retrograde spread of activation from the ventricles to the atria. The retrograde P waves, thus produced, conducted antegrade through the His bundle (reciprocation) but reached the ventricles only when they appeared near the end ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low-energy transvenous ablation of the canine atrioventricular conduction system with a suction electrode catheter. AU - Saksena, S.. AU - Tarjan, P. P.. AU - Bharati, S.. AU - Boveja, B.. AU - Cohen, D.. AU - Joubert, T.. AU - Lev, M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - A single suction electrode catheter was used for His bundle electrogram recording, His bundle pacing, and low-energy (20 or 30 J) His bundle ablation in seven dogs. The suction electrode catheter was actively fixed to the atrial endocardium at the His bundle level. Electrophysologic studies were performed in the control state, immediately after, and late (, 40 days) after His bundle ablation and results were correlated with histologic findings in the conduction system. Unipolar His bundle recording and pacing were successfully performed in all dogs with the suction electrode catheter before and after ablation. Complete heart block developed after a ...
Under normal physiologic conditions, the dominant pacemaker cells of the heart lie within the sinoatrial node; in adults, these pacemaker cells fire at rates between 60 to 100 beats per minute (i.e., faster than cells in any other cardiac region, See Figure 3). Even at rest, modulation by the autonomic nervous system dominates, with the primary drive from the parasympathetics; at rest or during sleep, the sinoatrial nodal rate decreases to about 75 beats per minute (bpm) or even slower.. In addition to pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node, other cells within the conduction system are capable of developing autorhythmicity, specifically those within the atrioventricular node (junction region) and His-Purkinje system. Yet, rhythms generated within these cells are in a much lower range (25 to 55 bpm), hence not altering the intrinsic atrial rates (Figure 2). These lower rate rhythms are commonly referred to as ventricular escape rhythms and are important for patient survival, since they maintain ...
Several features remained to be clarified concerning the developmental origin of the atrioventricular conduction axis. For example, is the embryonic atrioventricular canal the major source of the atrial part of the conduction axis,10,11,13 or are major contributions made by adjacent tissues, such as the atrial chamber myocardium, the left sinus horn, the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion, or the atrioventricular bundle?15,17,-,20 What are the lineage origins of the atrial and ventricular parts of the axis, respectively?19,20 By our use of genetic lineage tracing, we have excluded the notion that contributions to the atrial part of the axis are made from the sinus horns or the epicardium (Tbx18+), from the ventricular myocardium, including the atrioventricular bundle, or from the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion (Mef2c-AHF-Cre+). The majority of the atrial components is derived from the embryonic atrioventricular canal, except for the lower nodal cells, which are derived from the embryonic ventricular ...
A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a normal QRS complex. In this syndrome, the atrial impulse conducts via the JAMES FIBERS which connect the atrium to BUNDLE OF HIS bypassing the upper ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. HEART VENTRICLES are depolarized normally through the His-Purkinje system ...
The present study has several limitations. First, electrograms from the region of Kochs triangle were recorded simultaneously only from two atrial sites (i.e., the His bundle recording site and the CS orifice), and simple broad anatomic terms (anterior, middle and posterior) were used to define the anatomic sites of the atrial septum. More detailed endocardial mapping over the triangle of Koch or along the tendon of Todaro (31)may have yielded more information about the exact FP and SP location. However, unlike intraoperative computerized mapping (32), fluoroscopy cannot identify precise endocardial anatomy and, therefore, the presumed FP or SP location has only been inferential, even with the use of decapolar electrode catheters-an inherent limitation to clinical electrophysiologic study. In addition, mapping restricted over the right endocardial surface can only provide limited information about the excitation of the AV node and the atrial septum, which are three-dimensional subendocardial ...
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical services has an estimated incidence of 54.99 per 100,000 person years, which translates to some 155,000 episodes annually in the United States. Bradyasystole is the first recorded rhythm in up to 52 percent of cardiac arrests, and many additional patients with an initial cardiac arrest rhythm of ventricular fibrillation deteriorate to bradyasystole after defibrillation efforts. Survival to hospital discharge occurs in less than 3 percent of patients presenting with bradyasystole; however, due to its frequency, this rhythm accounts for over 17 percent of all cardiac arrest survivors. As a result, even a small improvement in survival from bradyasystolic cardiac arrest would result in thousands of lives saved annually.. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that depresses the sinoatrial node, blocks atrioventricular conduction, inhibits the pacemaker activity of the His-Purkinje system and attenuates the effects of catecholamines. ...
Individual compartments of cardiac conduction system (CCS) became functional in order which correlates with cardiac morphogenesis. Ventricular CCS compartments mature with ventricular septation and it is accompanied by shift of activation pattern from primitive base to apex, which follows blood flow
Eleven patients with an accessory pathway and reciprocating tachycardia were studied using both fixed rate atrial pacing and the atrial extrastimulus technique. Six of the patients had an accessory pathway that conducted in both the anterograde and r
The purpose of this study is to explore if there is a less harmful way to pace patients with first-degree AV-block to ensure that the negative effects inferred by the pacing do not outweigh the positive effects of AV-synchrony. The main hypothesis of the study is that His-bundle pacing will offer a more physiological mode of pacing in patients with first-degree AV-block than conventional pacing.. Patients scheduled for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in sinus rhythm, with first degree AV-block, normal QRS duration less than 120 ms and normal left ventricular ejection fraction will be included. During the AF ablation three different pacing modes (atrial, AV-synchronous and His-bundle pacing) at two different rates (5 to10 bpm above the basal rate and at 100 bpm) will be performed and evaluated using echocardiography. After the completion of all six pacing protocols (i.e., three modes at two different rates) the experimental part of the procedure ends.. The primary end-point will be ...
Definisi Hambatan Atrioventrikuler (Atrioventricular block) adalah kelainan pada sistem koduksi jantung dimana depolarisasi atrium gagal untuk mencapai ventrikel atau depoilarisasi atrial yang terkonduksikan dengan terlambat. Hambatan Atrioventrikuler (Blok AV) kerap menjadi penyebab bradikardia meskipun lebih jarang dibandingkan dengan kelainan fungsi nodus SA yang juga menyebabkan gejala bradikardia. 2.2. Klasifikasi Berdasarkan derajat hambatan, gangguan ini dibagi menjadi blok AV derajat 1, blok AV derajat 2, dan blok AV derajat 3 ( total ). Blok AV Derajat 1 terjadi bila semua impuls dari atrium dapat dihantarkan ke ventrikel dengan waktu hantaran yang lebih lama ( pada EKG interval PR, 0,20 detik ). Kelainannya biasanya pada tingkat nodus AV dan jarang pada sistem His-Purkinje. Karena semua impuls dari atrium dapat dihantarkan ke ventrikel maka biasanya tidak menimbulkan gejala. Blok AV Derajat 2 terjadi pada keadaan dimana tidak semua impuls dari atrium dapat dihantarkan melalui nodus AV ...
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Right bundle branch block Differential diagnosis of right bundle branch block / causes of right bundle branch block are : -pulmonary embolism
The cardiac conduction system is a complex network of cells that together orchestrate the rhythmic and coordinated depolarization of the heart. The molecular mechanisms regulating the specification and patterning of cells that form this conductive network are largely unknown. Studies in avian models have suggested that components of the cardiac conduction system arise from progressive recruitment of cardiomyogenic progenitors, potentially influenced by inductive effects from the neighboring coronary vasculature. However, relatively little is known about the process of conduction system development in mammalian species, especially in the mouse, where even the histological identification of the conductive network remains problematic. We have identified a line of transgenic mice where lacZ reporter gene expression delineates the developing and mature murine cardiac conduction system, extending proximally from the sinoatrial node to the distal Purkinje fibers. Optical mapping of cardiac electrical ...
Left bundle branch blocks. In left bundle branch block (LBBB) the left ventricle is not directly activated by impulses travelling through the left bundle branch. The right ventricle, however, is still activated as normal by the right bundle branch.. The left ventricle is activated by impulses travelling through the myocardium across the septum. As this occurs more slowly than conduction through the bundle of His the QRS complex becomes widened.. Normally the septum is activated from left to right, which produces small Q waves in the lateral leads. In the presence of LBBB, however, this septal activation is reversed, which eliminates these normal septal Q waves.. The right to left depolarization of the myocardium produces deep S waves in the right praecordial leads (V1-V3) and tall R waves in the lateral leads (I, V5 and V6). It also usually causes left axis deviation. As the ventricles are activated sequentially from right to left, rather than simultaneously, the R wave in the lateral leads is ...
SCN5A_HUMAN] Defects in SCN5A are a cause of progressive familial heart block type 1A (PFHB1A) [MIM:113900]; also known as Lenegre-Lev disease or progressive cardiac conduction defect (PCCD). PFHB1A is an autosomal dominant cardiac bundle branch disorder that may progress to complete heart block. PFHB1A is characterized by progressive alteration of cardiac conduction through the His-Purkinje system with right or left bundle branch block and widening of QRS complexes, leading to complete atrioventricular block and causing syncope and sudden death.[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Defects in SCN5A are the cause of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) [MIM:603830]. Long QT syndromes are heart disorders characterized by a prolonged QT interval on the ECG and polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. They cause syncope and sudden death in response to exercise or emotional stress. LQT3 inheritance is an autosomal dominant.[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [:][15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] ...
Disease of the CCS is common and can result from congenital abnormalities or can be acquired later in life. As such, a better understanding of the basic biology and molecular pathways underlying cardiac conduction tissue development, maintenance, and function may have significant impact on the clinical care of patients with conduction disorders.. In this report, we show that Hop is highly expressed in the adult CCS of mice and modulates cardiac conduction system function. Hop is a transcriptional target of Nkx2-5, which is also highly expressed in the CCS12 and is required for normal development and maintenance of adult cardiac conduction tissue.4,5 Mutations in Nkx2-5 are associated with proximal conduction system defects in humans and with congenital heart disease.6 Tissue-specific inactivation of Nkx2-5 in adult mouse hearts leads to progressive loss of conduction tissue and downregulation of Hop.4 Our data suggest that Hop is robustly expressed in the adult CCS. However, unlike Nkx2-5, Hop ...
The classification of cardiac conduction disease has long been dominated by concepts anchored in macroscopic anatomical structures within the heart. The sinoatrial node, atrioventricular (AV) node and proximal His-Purkinje system can each be seen with the naked eye in humans, and in the most commonly used large animal models. Early physiologic data established the distinctive cellular electrical properties of these tissues and enshrined the fundamentals of physiologic and pathophysiologic conduction.1 Clinical cases where conduction disease was the predominant presenting feature were recognised as electrocardiography spread. Painstaking postmortem histomorphometric reconstructions of hearts from such cases resulted in the concepts of focal fibrosis, or a restricted degenerative process, as the mechanisms of isolated conduction disease.2. Parallel early work in surface electrocardiography and intracardiac recording documented the electrophysiologic correlates of proximal conduction-system ...
Learn about right bundle branch block, an abnormal finding on the electrocardiogram that is often associated with underlying heart disease.
The most common causes of a right bundle branch block are a previous heart attack, a congenital deformity, cardiovascular disease...
Right bundle branch block treatment is not always necessary but it can be essential to ensure the condition doesnt exacerbate. Complication and prevention is also available.
The development and structure of the cardiac conduction system, including the known molecular and cellular factors that regulate development of the conduction system are outlined. Part II includes...
The AV node receives two inputs from the atria: posteriorly via the crista terminalis, and anteriorly via the interatrial septum.[1] An important property that is unique to the AV node is decremental conduction, in which the more frequently the node is stimulated, the slower it conducts. This is the property of the AV node that prevents rapid conduction to the ventricle in cases of rapid atrial rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The atrioventricular node delays impulses for ~0.1 second before allowing impulses through to the His-Purkinje conduction system, which spreads impulses to the ventricular walls. The reason it is important to delay the cardiac impulse is to ensure that the atria have ejected their blood into the ventricles before the ventricles contract.[2] ...
Definition of bundle branch block, complete in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is bundle branch block, complete? Meaning of bundle branch block, complete as a legal term. What does bundle branch block, complete mean in law?
The Conduction System of the Mammlian Heart: An Anatomico-Histological Study of the Atrioventricular Bundle and the Purkinje Fibers (Cardiopulmonary Medicine from I*C*P*, Volume 234) http://s10.postimg.org/ws4yk7trt/The_Conduction_System_of_the_Mammlian_Heart.jpg By Sunao Tawara, Kozo Suma, Munehiro Shimada Hardcover: 256 pages Publisher: WSP Co; 1 edition (September 1, 1998) Language: English ISBN-10: 1860941168 ISBN-13: 978-1860941160
Importance of Retrograde Atrial Activation in Atrial Fibrillation Genesis in the Initiation of Atrial Fibrillation in Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. Comparison of Atrial Electrophysiologic Parameters between Patients with Different Atrial Fibrillation Genesis (Initiation Sites) in Atria. (1999 ...
Introduction to the 12-lead ECG Gustav Schellack SASOCP Workshop 10 March 2012 © G Schellack; 2012 Electrocardiogram (ECG)    The ECG is a graphic recording of the electrical activity of the heart, at a specific moment in time. Note: Electrical activity refers to the depolarisation and repolarisation of the atria and ventricles. Note: The ECG cannot tell us anything about the mechanical activity (i.e. contraction and relaxation) of the myocardium. Cardiac Conduction System Anatomical orientation: Figure 1: (Marquette Electronics, 1996) (From: Yanowitz, FG. The Alan E Lindsay ECG Learning Centre in Cyberspace [homepage on the Internet]. c2012. Available from: http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/index.html.) The Cardiac Impulse Originates from the SA-node (in the RA) Spreads through both atria [virtually] simultaneously RA Spreads through both atria [virtually] simultaneously LA Activates both ventricles via the His-Purkinje network; first the septum from (L) to (R), then the RV, then ...
Dr. Stern responded: None necessary. No treatment necessary and it is not serious unless other |a href=/topics/heart track_data={
How do the interpretation rules for ST segment proportionality, concordance and discordance apply to right bundle branch block in patients with chest pain ...
There are a lot of things I miss about being pregnant but there are a select few that really stick out and feel ever-present as this year comes to a close. The consistent intense feeling of grief fades a bit over time but the shorter, intermittent bursts of sadness are hella powerful even 6 months…
MalaCards based summary : Right Bundle Branch Block, also known as right bundle branch block with left posterior fascicular block, is related to heart block, progressive, type ia and rheumatic heart disease. An important gene associated with Right Bundle Branch Block is SCN5A (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 5), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA and Developmental Biology. The drugs Tolvaptan and Arginine Vasopressin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, testes and spinal cord, and related phenotype is cardiovascular system ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the pacing site in sinus node reentrant tachycardia. AU - Castellanos, Agustin. AU - Aranda, Juan. AU - Moleiro, Federico. AU - Mallon, Stephen M.. AU - Befeler, Benjamin. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - His bundle recordings and premature atrial stimulation from coronary sinus, mid-right atrium and high-right atrium were performed in a patient with repetitive supraventricular tachycardias. Regardless of the paced site, there was a range of coupling intervals during which testing stimuli elicited short runs of premature beats. The corresponding P waves were positive in leads I, II and II and had a high-to-low right atrial activation sequence. Their morphology was similar to that of sinus beats. However, sustained tachycardia occurred only when pacing was performed from the coronary sinus. Therefore, it is postulated that the site of stimulation might be important in the genesis and (perhaps) perpetuation of this arrhythmia by changing the site and (or) mode of entry into ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and genetic heterogeneity of right bundle branch block and ST-segment elevation syndrome. T2 - A prospective evaluation of 52 families. AU - Priori, Silvia G.. AU - Napolitano, Carlo. AU - Gasparini, Maurizio. AU - Pappone, Carlo. AU - Della Bella, Paolo. AU - Brignole, Michele. AU - Giordano, Umberto. AU - Giovannini, Tiziana. AU - Menozzi, Carlo. AU - Bloise, Raffaella. AU - Crotti, Lia. AU - Terreni, Liana. AU - Schwartz, Peter J.. PY - 2000/11/14. Y1 - 2000/11/14. N2 - Background - The ECG pattern of right bundle branch block and ST-segment elevation in leads V1 to V3 (Brugada syndrome) is associated with high risk of sudden death in patients with a normal heart. Current management and prognosis are based on a single study suggesting a high mortality risk within 3 years for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients alike. As a consequence, aggressive management (implantable cardioverter defibrillator) is recommended for both groups. Methods and Results - Sixty patients ...
The aim of this study was to perform a pilot histological and quantitative analysis of the blood vessels accompanying the epicardial nerves (vasa nervorum) in the porcine hearts. Twenty healthy porcine hearts were used in this study. The blood vessels were analyzed by light microscopy using four different staining techniques in transverse sections taken from the upper, middle, and lower segments of the anterior part of the interventricular region and the adjacent parts of the right and left ventricles containing epicardial nerves and the endocardial peripheral parts of the Purkinje fibers. In total, 317 epicardial nerves were detected. The vasa nervorum were present in 75.7% of these nerves. The vasa nervorum resembled arterioles and postcapillary and collecting venules. One hundred and forty nine epicardial nerves were perivascular, located in the adventitia of the anterior interventricular artery and vein. The remaining 168 nerves ran freely through the epicardial interstitium. The presence of ...
LGL syndrome is diagnosed in a person who has experienced episodes of abnormal heart racing (arrhythmias) who has a PR interval less than or equal to 0.12 second (120 ms) with normal QRS complex configuration and duration on their resting ECG.[1] A short PR interval found incidentally on an ECG without episodes of tachycardia is simply a benign ECG variant. LGL can be distinguished from WPW syndrome because the delta waves seen in WPW syndrome are not seen in LGL syndrome. The QRS complex will also be narrow in LGL syndrome, as opposed to WPW, because ventricular conduction is via the His-Purkinje system. Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome is a clinical diagnosis that came about before the advent of electrophysiology studies. It is important to be aware that not all WPW ECGs have a delta wave; the absence of a delta wave does not conclusively rule out WPW. ...
FLEC : Flecainide (Tambocor) is a class I cardiac antiarrhythmic agent with electrophysiologic properties similar to lidocaine, quinidine, procainamide, and tocainide. Flecainide produces a dose-related decrease in intracardiac conduction in all parts of the heart, with the greatest effect on the His-Purkinje system. Atrial effects are limited. Flecainide causes a dose-related and plasma concentration-related decrease in single and multiple premature ventricular contractions and can suppress recurrence of ventricular tachycardia.   Flecainide is eliminated from blood by hepatic metabolism as well as renal clearance; significant changes in either organ system will cause impaired clearance. During preclinical trials, patients with congestive heart failure were observed to have radically altered clearance properties. Cardiac toxicity attributed to flecainide is related to its cardiac conduction slowing properties. Excessive prolongation of PR, QRS, and QT intervals occurs with increased amplitude
Arrhythmias that originate in the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system include premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardias that can be sustained or nonsustained, and ventricular fibrillation. Arrhythmia may emerge from a focus of myocardial or Purkinje cells capable of automaticity, or triggered automaticity, or from reentry through areas of scar or a diseased Purkinje system. Ventricular arrhythmias are often associated with structural heart disease and are an important cause of sudden death (Chap. 327). They also occur in some structurally normal hearts, in which case they are usually benign. Evaluation and management are guided by the risk of arrhythmic death, which is assessed based on symptoms, type of arrhythmia, and associated underlying heart disease. ...
We report the case of a 56-year-old male with ischemic cardiomyopathy, severe left ventricular dysfunction and right bundle branch block (RBBB) with a wide QRS duration (180ms) who received dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for prim
Question - Is right bundle branch block related to kidney problem?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, Ask a Cardiac Surgeon
Dear Doctor, I have been diagnost with an incomplete right bundle branch block. I am 45 and 108 punds. All physical, stress test and blood work is fine. The doctor tells me not to worry. However ...
Karel Frederik Wenckebach (March 24, 1864 - November 11, 1940) was a Dutch anatomist who was a native of the Hague. He studied medicine in Utrecht, and in 1901 become a professor of medicine at the University of Groningen. Later he was a professor at the Universities of Strasbourg (1911-14) and Vienna (1914-29). Wenckebach (pronounced ven-kĕ-bak) is primarily remembered for his work in cardiology. In 1899 he provided a description of irregular pulses due to partial blockage of atrioventricular conduction, creating a progressive lengthening of conduction time in cardiac tissue. The condition was referred to as a second degree AV block and later named the Wenckebach phenomenon and reclassified as Mobitz type I block in Mobitzs 1924 paper. A similar phenomenon can also occur in the Sinoatrial node where it gives rise to Type I second degree SA block, and this is also known as a Wenckebach block; the two have distinct features on an ECG however. Wenckebach is credited for describing the ...
Cardiac conduction in the adult heart begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, which is located at the junction between the SVC and the right atrium. The impulses generated here spread through the atria, initiating contraction. The impulses travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node which acts to slow the transmission of an impulse between the atria and ventricles. After this time lag, impulses travel to the ventricles via the common atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) to the bundle branches in the IV septum. The branches split and terminate throughout the myocardium in a network of Purkinje fibres. The adult conduction system is shown below ...
Bundle branches are clusters of pathways that carry electrical impulses to different parts of your heart. A bundle branch block is a delay or obstruction in one of the pathways. These can keep your heart from pumping normally. Many blocks are caused by heart disease, some are there at birth. If the condition is serious, a pacemaker may be prescribed.   The key bundle is the bundle of His, the him in question being the discoverer, Wilhelm His, Jr. This bundle distributes the electrical impulse from the AV node to each ventricle, where it branches into the left and right bundle branches.
AV node - atrioventricular node located near the orifice of the coronary sinus in the annular and septal fibres of the right atrium ...
This ECG was obtained from an 84-year-old woman who was scheduled for surgery. When the anesthesiologist did this ECG, the surgery was cancelled. It is a very good example of fascicular-level blocks. The underlying rhythm is a regular sinus rhythm at about 95 bpm. There are some non-conducted P waves which are part of the sinus rhythm (not premature beats). When the P waves DO conduct, the PR interval is steady at about .15 seconds (148 ms).. In addition, there is a LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK. The ECG criteria for LBBB are: 1) A supraventricular rhythm, 2) A wide QRS, and 3) A negative QRS in Lead V1 and a positive QRS in Leads I and V6. The QRS duration in this ECG is 136 ms.. There are generally two fascicles (branches) in the left bundle branch, and one main fascicle in the right bundle branch. So, a LBBB represents a bi-fascicular block. That means that A-V conduction is proceeding down only one fascicle (the right bundle branch). In that fascicle, there is an intermittent block. When the ...
Properties of the cardiac muscle AUTOMATICITY CONDUCTIVITY CONTRACTILITY EXCITABILITY REFRACTORY PERIODS 1. AUTOMATICITY is the unique ability of the cells in the SA node (pacemaker cells) to generate an action potential without being stimulated.
The term cardiac preexcitation was originally used to describe premature activation of the ventricles in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern. This term has been broadened to include all conditions in which antegrade ventricular acti
Aphids ingest their food from sieve tubes (Auclair, 1963; Miles, 1987; Prado and Tjallingii, 1994) that contain a concentrate of nutrients (Hayashi and Chino, 1990; van Bel, 2003). Sieve-tube sap is withdrawn by specialized aphid mouth parts (stylets) (Auclair, 1963; Miyazaki, 1987). Prior to ingestion, aphids secrete watery saliva, probably to interfere with plant occlusion reactions induced by stylet damage (Will and van Bel, 2006; Will et al., 2007; Will et al., 2009; Carolan et al., 2009).. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reconstructions demonstrate relatively straightforward stylet progression through the extravascular tissue that occurs largely intercellularly. The stylet orientation becomes increasingly diffuse within the vascular bundle region, as the TEM reconstructions show several dead-end tracks of gel saliva, which is secreted to function as a lubrication and protection sheath for the fragile mouth parts (Tjallingii and Hogen Esch, 1993). Even punctured sieve tubes are ...
Aims We investigated the applicability of the Ventricular Capture Control (VCC) and Atrial Capture Control (ACC) algorithms for automatic management of cardiac stimulation featured by Biotronik pacemakers in a broad, unselected population of pacemaker recipients. Methods and results Ventricular Capture Control and Atrial Capture Control were programmed to work at a maximum adapted output voltage as 4.8 V in consecutive recipients of Biotronik pacemakers. Ambulatory threshold measurements were made 1 and 12 months after pacemaker implant/replacement in all possible pacing/sensing configurations, and were compared with manual measurements. Among 542 patients aged 80 (73-85) years, 382 had a pacemaker implant and 160 a pacemaker replacement. Ventricular Capture Control could work at long term in 97% of patients irrespectively of pacing indication, lead type, and lead service life, performance being superior with discordant pacing/sensing configurations. Atrial Capture Control could work in 93% of ...
Junctional rhythm is an abnormal heart rhythm in the atrioventricular node. Though its not always dangerous, it can be a sign of...
Destiné aux professionnels de la santé, Cardio-FR offre une aide précieuse au diagnostic et au traitement des principales maladies cardiovasculaires fréquentes.
I have RBBB, and occasional PVCs, sometimes during exercise. Should answer 1 say or you have PVCs with right bundle branch block morphology on EKG?? Could you tell me, are there PVCs with a left and right bbb morphology (and which is visible on the EKG?) The first answer scared me a little bit, to be honest.. Sometimes I have a tachycardia which I cannot explain. It starts with me feeling my heart beating in my throat. It feels like my heart has suddenly shifted 20 cm upwards in my chest and I can feel it beat high in my chest / throat. One time this happened before going to the gym. It started to accelerate to about 160 bpm, then I tried to relax and it went back to about 100 bpm. I refused to give in to anxiety, so I started to work out anyway. However, as soon as I started lifting weights (and thus my heartrate would go up) I would immediately feel it back in my throat. It was so annoying (and still scary) that I gave up working out after 10 mins, because it didnt feel good ...
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
DENVER/November 30, 2018 - Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers have developed a new treatment for dogs with a rare, but life-threatening, arrhythmia caused by atrioventricular accessory ...
Is there a P Wave before each QRS? Are P waves upright and uniform? occur before, during or after the QRS depending on where the pacemaker is located in the AV junction.; P wave may be inverted ...
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His bundle electrography is a test that measures electrical activity in a part of the heart that carries the signals that ... His bundle electrogram; HBE; His bundle recording; Electrogram - His bundle; Arrhythmia - His; Heart block - His ... The bundle of His is a group of fibers that carry electrical impulses through the center of the heart. If these signals are ... His bundle electrography is a test that measures electrical activity in a part of the heart that carries the signals that ...
Her data show improvement in adherence during the study in both the traditional bundle and the relaxed bundle (23% to 27.9% and ... Results indicate that with the relaxed bundle, 30-day mortality attributable to sepsis was reduced from 4.8% to 2.5% (P , .001 ... IPSO researchers found that "[i]f you do that bundle of elements, which includes more liberalized fluid and antibiotics, that ... IPSO offers more evidence of improved outcomes with adherence to a bundle that includes early antibiotics, early fluids, and ...
Save on our amazing Computer Bundles with Free Shipping when you buy now online. Get our best deals when you shop direct with ... HP computer bundles for everything you need. It doesnt matter if youre a professional gamer or a CEO, a computer bundle makes ... HP Slim Desktop PC + 23.8 Monitor Bundle. Save instantly when you bundle!HP M24f 23.8-in FHD IPS LED Backlit Monitor (2D9K0AA# ... Victus by HP Gaming Desktop PC + HP X27c Curved 165hz Gaming Monitor Bundle. Save instantly when you bundle!HP X27c 27-inch ...
Introducing Xbox Series X, our fastest, most powerful console ever, designed for a console generation that has you, the player, at its center. Includes Xbox Series X console, your choice of a selection of digital games, select controllers, and an option to add Microsoft Complete for Xbox. Limit 1 console purchase per customer.
Left bundle branch block (LBBB) occurs when transmission of the cardiac electrical impulse is delayed or fails to be conducted ... along the rapidly conducting fibers of the main left bundle branch or in both left anterior and posterior fascicles. Thus, the ... penetrating bundle) to the branching bundle, the bundle branches, the distal Purkinje fibers, and, finally, the ventricular ... Left bundle branch block. Left bundle branch (LBB) block (LBBB) is not a benign entity; risk factors include the following:. * ...
تتضمن هذه الحزمة: - Demon Hunter: Ascendance - The Secret Order: Return to the Buried Kingdom - Endless Fables: Dark Moor
The Xbox One Elite Bundle promises faster load times and a slick new gamepad. ... The bundles Xbox One Elite Controller looks really cool. Its designed with premium materials and can be fully customized. It ... The Xbox One Elite Bundle comes with a 1 TB hard drive and the new Xbox Elite Wireless Controller. The hard drive is a solid ... The Xbox One Elite Bundle comes out this November, just in time for holiday shopping season. For now at least its going to be ...
git bundle create master.bundle master $ echo master , git bundle create master.bundle --stdin $ git bundle create master-and- ... git bundle create HEAD.bundle $(git rev-parse HEAD) fatal: Refusing to create empty bundle. $ git bundle create master- ... git bundle create recent-master.bundle master~10..master $ git bundle create recent-updates.bundle master~10..master next~5.. ... git bundle create. will create a bundle file that contains all the objects reachable from the revision new. . That bundle can ...
Includes Disgaea 5 Alliance of Vengeance and all 8 bonus scenarios, 4 fan-favorite characters, and 3 character classes that were originally DLC. Scenario Disgaea D2 Laharl Episode Scenario Disgaea 4 Valvatorez Episode Scenario Disgaea 4 Fuka Episode Scenario Disgaea 3 Mao Episode Scenario Disgaea 3 Almaz Episode Scenario Disgaea 2 Adell Episode Scenario Makai Kingdom Zetta Episode Scenario La Pucelle Priere Episode Character Celestial Hostess Character Girl Laharl Character Nisa Character Kunoichi Character Sorcerer Character Metallia Complete DLC Bonus Pleinair
As always with MacUpdates bundles, its a great value. The retail value for all these apps is over $500 - with this bundle, ... MacUpdates Summer Mac App Bundle. My thanks to MacUpdate for sponsoring this weeks DF RSS feed to promote their Summer Mac ... For visual artists, the bundle includes Corel Aftershot and Next Flipbook Maker. Nerdy utilities include iStat Menus and ... App Bundle. It includes brand new releases of Toast 15 Titanium, Folx 5 Pro, Myriad 4, and free upgrades for the soon-to-be- ...
Click the bundle to display its properties, then check the following:. * Enabled: Is the bundle enabled? Disabled bundles are ... Bundle chaining: Does the bundle have dependencies on other bundles that are causing the install or launch to fail? To check ... If the Dependency Bundles field shows a Display Bundle Dependencies link, the bundle has dependencies. See the Cool Solutions ... 1.0 A bundle is not displaying on a device. * If the bundle is displayed in the ZENworks Agent but not in the NAL window, ...
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Dynamite Teams With BitTorrent Bundle for $6 Deal. Dynamite Teams With BitTorrent Bundle for $6 Deal. Over the past year or so ... The publisher's Mega Bundle from BitTorrent Bundle includes 200-some issues of comics from 30 different series including ... BitTorrent Bundle. Bill Sienkiewicz Discusses H8 Society and Artistic Process Bill Sienkiewicz Discusses H8 Society and ... comics publishers have jumped onto the online bundle bandwagon with both feet, offering up deals via HumbleBundle and ...
Get all the latest new about EverQuest II Kingdom of Sky Bundle from GameSpots industry-leading news coverage! ... EverQuest II Kingdom of Sky Bundle * First Released Feb 22, 2006 released ... EverQuest II Kingdom of Sky Bundle. First Released Feb 22, 2006. released ...
This organizational bundle is one of the tools I have in my back pocket when it comes to getting a handle on my everyday ... Organizational Printable Bundle - Instant Download. Daily To-Do List, Weekly Planner, Menu Planner. ... Organizational Printable Bundle - Instant Download. Daily To-Do List, Weekly Planner, Menu Planner. ... Organizational Printable Bundle - Instant Download. Daily To-Do List, Weekly Planner, Menu Planner. ...
Title: PAYDAY 2: Lost in Transit Bundle. Genre: Action, RPG. Developer: OVERKILL - a Starbreeze Studio. ... Picking up the bundle will net you a 44% discount (may vary based on currency) for purchasing now!. The Lost in Transit ... This bundle contains 4 DLCs: the High Octane Tailor Pack, the Tijuana Music Pack, the McShay Weapon Pack 2 and the Lost in ... All Games , Action Games , PAYDAY 2 , Downloadable Content , PAYDAY 2: Lost in Transit Bundle ...
Launch yourself on an epic adventure in space and time with this bundle of Minecraft Doctor Who Skins Volume I and Volume II. ... Launch yourself on an epic adventure in space and time with this bundle of Minecraft Doctor Who Skins Volume I and Volume II. ... you will still be charged the full price of this bundle regardless of any previous ownership. ... you will still be charged the full price of this bundle regardless of any previous ownership. ...
Bundle or Bundling may refer to: Bundling (packaging), the process of using straps to bundle up items Bundle of His, a ... including a song of the same title The Bundles, an anti-folk supergroup The Bundles (album), a 2010 album by the group Bundling ... a similar concept to product bundling that occurs in electoral republics Bundle of rights (property law) Bundling (antitrust ... Fiber bundle, a topology space that looks locally like a product space Optical fiber bundle, a cable consisting of a collection ...
Prove your brilliance and save the world once again in our Mastermind Bundle, which includes: - Family Mysteries 2: Echoes of ... Prove your brilliance and save the world once again in our Mastermind Bundle, which includes: - Family Mysteries 2: Echoes of ...
The ML25LT accessory bundle includes: White Safety Wand - Turns the ML25LT into a hands free area light when used in candle ... The ML25LT accessory bundle includes:. * White Safety Wand - Turns the ML25LT into a hands free area light when used in candle ... ":"ML25LT Accessory Bundle","public_title":null,"options":["Default Title"],"price":1650,"weight":136,"compare_at_price":null," ...
Bundle is the top-rated news aggregator in both App Store and Play Store, delivering all the news stories that matter to you. ...
Feeds proto bundle. Stay organized with collections Save and categorize content based on your preferences. // Feeds declaration ...
Bundle Subscriptions. Gain access to some of the most knowledgeable and experienced attorneys with our 2 bundle options! Our ... Wedding Romance and Finance COSTS A BUNDLE !!. Elisabeth Posner Schouten and Peter Schouten didnt want a lawyer to help them ... Our second option allows you to build your bundle and strategically select the content that pertains to your needs. Both ... Compliance bundles are curated by CLE Counselors and include current legal topics and challenges within the industry. ...
Humble Bundle is introducing a new $12 a month subscription service and the first digital delivery will go out on Novem… ... Humble Bundle is introducing a new $12 a month subscription service and the first digital delivery will go out on November 6. ... Humble Bundle introduces subscription service $12 a month for a variety of specially curated games ... Humble Bundle will also give 5 per cent of all proceeds to charitable causes. ...
Bundle size is adjusted for the length of the board, so there are the same amount of 2x4s in a 2x4x8 bundle as there are in a ... There are about 294 2x4s in a bundle. This is based on a bundle size of 1,568 foot board measures. One 2x4x8 is equal to 5.33 ... How Many 2x4s Are in a Bundle?. By Staff WriterLast Updated April 09, 2020 ... which means that length takes on a more significant role in the calculation of bundle than width and thickness. ...
Comes bundled with a compact carrying case at an awesome value. ... It all comes bundled with a convenient carrying case at an ...
SPECIAL OFFERFree Avon Defense Cloth Mask, with every $10 purchase from the C26 Good Buys Flyer! ...
... Dailymotion UP NEXT. * Cannons Undercover Assignment Doesnt Go as Planned on CBS FBI: Most Wanted. ...
  • The 2022 Masters in Cyber Security Certification Bundle delivers over 60 hours of high-quality educational content on the tools ethical hackers utilize every day. (pcworld.com)
  • Today's highlighted deal comes via our Online Courses section of the Neowin Deals store , where you can save 95% off the 2022 Ultimate Ethical Hacker Training Bundle . (neowin.net)
  • This bundle gives you lifetime access to 13 courses with the latest exam practice questions for 2022. (neowin.net)
  • Humble Bundle is introducing a new $12 a month subscription service and the first digital delivery will go out on November 6. (gamesindustry.biz)
  • Humble Bundle will also give 5 per cent of all proceeds to charitable causes. (gamesindustry.biz)
  • As great as Humble Bundle is at bringing content to your devices on the cheap , it's worth pointing out that its Android app has been a bit lackluster -- at least until today. (engadget.com)
  • The good news is there's a new Humble Bundle app on Google Play , featuring a redesigned, cleaner user interface and some novel tools for fans of the service to use. (engadget.com)
  • Humble Bundle is a distributor of digital content with a mission to raise funds for charity through everything it sells. (worldlandtrust.org)
  • Customers purchasing a bundle can name their price and decide how to allocate their payment between the creators, Humble Bundle and charity. (worldlandtrust.org)
  • Thanks to Humble Bundle customers, over a two week period, sales of the game saved 1466 acres of tropical forest. (worldlandtrust.org)
  • Since then, Humble Bundle has continued to generously support various WLT programmes and Special Appeals through game bundles, saving threatened habitat for wildlife in many countries across the world, including Cloud Forest in Ecuador and Mexico, Rainforest in Brazil, and wildlife corridors in Argentina, Borneo and India. (worldlandtrust.org)
  • In February 2018, WLT was a Featured Charity of Humble Bundle, and during the month more than £200,000 was raised which is funding the protection of critically threatened tropical forest in Guatemala. (worldlandtrust.org)
  • During the Featured Charity month, Humble Bundle has helped to raise more than USD$ 600,000 for charity. (worldlandtrust.org)
  • In 2018, Humble Bundle announced that the Humble community had contributed an incredible US$125 million to charity. (worldlandtrust.org)
  • Today, just in time for Maker Faire Bay Area , Humble Bundle launched an awesome new cosplay ebook bundle packed with great ideas for building your own weapons, armor, fantastical costumes, and props. (makezine.com)
  • As with all Humble Bundle deals, y ou can pay as little as $1 to access some of the titles gathered , or $15 to own them all. (makezine.com)
  • During the same announcement Jacqui O'Sullivan, head of corporate affairs executive at MTN SA, said that, from Friday, customers would be able to purchase 1GB data bundles through the network's cellphone app for R50 which will be valid for a week. (news24.com)
  • If you choose to move to a Prime Bundle, you will have both data bundles to use. (digicelgroup.com)
  • Save as modified above, these Terms and Conditions are supplemental to and subject to the published Safaricom PrePay Service Terms and Conditions, Safaricom PrePay and PostPay Data Bundles, Okoa Jahazi Terms, Bonga Terms and other Services that you may be using. (co.ke)
  • Ensure that DNS is working correctly by performing an nslookup (on the device) of the IP address or DNS name of the Primary or Satellite Server from which the device receives its bundle content. (novell.com)
  • If the installation or launch error states that the device can't download the bundle content because the ZENworks server is not available, the problem is the result of a content replication issue among the ZENworks servers. (novell.com)
  • PLEASE NOTE: if you already own some or all of the content included here, you will still be charged the full price of this bundle regardless of any previous ownership. (xbox.com)
  • Our second option allows you to build your bundle and strategically select the content that pertains to your needs. (law.com)
  • Avid Technology today announced three new Pro Tools Essential bundles, hardware-software combinations that target consumers and hobbyists who are interested in musical composition, editing, and production, or who want to create and share music, podcasts, narrations, and other audio content. (macworld.com)
  • By bundling our enormous catalogues of content together in a single, highly compelling offer, we're making it easier for people to enjoy all of the TV and music they love, whenever and wherever they want. (ajc.com)
  • This bundle gives you convenient access to more than 38 hours of instructional cybersecurity content. (pcmag.com)
  • IPSO researchers found that "[i]f you do that bundle of elements, which includes more liberalized fluid and antibiotics, that actually improves outcomes far more than adhering to the original bundle recommended," Paul said. (medscape.com)
  • IPSO offers more evidence of improved outcomes with adherence to a bundle that includes early antibiotics, early fluids, and early recognition, he said, adding, "It certainly makes biological sense that those elements of care, done in an expedited fashion and in a systematic way, can further improve outcomes for children with sepsis and septic shock. (medscape.com)
  • This includes checks on the bundle format itself as well as checking that the prerequisite commits exist and are fully linked in the current repository. (git-scm.com)
  • For visual artists, the bundle includes Corel Aftershot and Next Flipbook Maker. (daringfireball.net)
  • The publisher's 'Mega Bundle' from BitTorrent Bundle includes 200-some issues of comics from 30 different series including Vampirella, Red Sonja, Bob's Burgers, Django/Zorro, The Green Hornet and Shaft, all for just $6. (comicsalliance.com)
  • Our Happy Hat Bundle includes enough big, wonderful, squishy Gentle Giant for two baby- or kid-size hats, if you switch the colors of the stripes, or two adult-size hats, if you also add an extra skein of the main color. (purlsoho.com)
  • While the bundle includes lessons in social media and SEO, it also includes a self-publishing course to take things into your own hands to see your work in bookshops. (mentalfloss.com)
  • The course bundle also includes lessons in freelance writing that teach how to make a career working from home. (mentalfloss.com)
  • As a bonus, this bundle also includes 2 free retests and a FREE Stretching and Flexibility Program. (nasm.org)
  • SensioGeneratorBundle is an optional bundle that includes commands to create different elements of your application, such as bundles. (symfony.com)
  • The PXIe-AI5100 Bundle includes the 5-slot PXIe-1083 PXI Chassis and the PXIe-4309 PXI Analog Input Module. (ni.com)
  • This bundle also includes the industrial PXI front-mounting TB-4309 Terminal Block for PXIe-4309, which features a 15 V maximum voltage measurement range. (ni.com)
  • You can choose a bundle option that also includes a power cable for the chassis. (ni.com)
  • Get everything you need to get started with PS VR in this incredible value bundle, containing the PS VR headset, PlayStation Camera and a copy of PlayStation VR worlds, which includes five great games. (playstation.com)
  • This bundle includes the popular Artisan Stand Mixer, model number KSM150PS. (kohls.com)
  • Aside from the mixer, this bundle includes lots of other accessories and add-ons that allow you to complete plenty of other food-prep activities you need for all the recipes in your arsenal! (kohls.com)
  • This bundle includes zodiac-inspired armor sets for both male and female characters, a Scorpio-themed set of tattoos, plus a fearsome and futuristic Scorpion Mecha companion. (daz3d.com)
  • The bundle includes the following parchment reproductions: The United States Constitution, The Bill of Rights, The Declaration of Independence, and Gettysburg Address. (billoreilly.com)
  • The method's origins can be traced to early 20th-century Germany and the advent of paper filters.This bundle includes 1 8.8oz can of Ground Drip Classico - Medium Roast Coffee, 1 8.8oz can of Ground Drip Dark Roast Coffee, and 1 8.8oz can of Ground Drip Extra Dark Roast Coffee. (illy.com)
  • It's durable and lightweight with a customizable fit, and this bundle includes an 18-liter Osprey Ultralight Stuff Pack. (rei.com)
  • This bundle includes: 1 BRAND NEW Earthquaker Devices Interstellar Orbiter. (kidkoala.com)
  • SOLD OUT *** This bundle includes: 1 x Vinyl. (kidkoala.com)
  • Core bundle includes (1) Coozy Case (no D-Rings), (1) 3-Pen Coozy, (1) 2-Pen Coozy and (1) Solo Pen Sleeve, PLUS optional add-ons of (1) 6-Pen Coozy Roll (no flap) and/or (1) 6-Pen Deluxe Roll (with flap). (rickshawbags.com)
  • The Military Premium Starter Bundle includes the essential oil and oil-infused products military personnel need to support whole-body wellness at a great value. (youngliving.com)
  • The Military Premium Starter Bundle includes products that help support the whole-body wellness of military personnel around the world. (youngliving.com)
  • The Twinkle Twinkle baby invitation bundle includes 25 thank you postcards, 25 white envelopes, 25 invitations, 25 books for baby cards and 25 diaper raffle cards. (beau-coup.com)
  • The CompactDAQ Sound and Vibration Measurement Bundle includes the C Series Sound and Vibration Input Module and a CompactDAQ Chassis. (ni.com)
  • Find the best business phone and internet bundles in Jewell, KS. (cox.com)
  • Save $840 on select Optik TV and Internet bundles on a 2 year term. (telus.com)
  • Are DIRECTV STREAM + AT&T Internet Bundles available in Blacksburg? (att.com)
  • See http://www.eclipse.org/org/documents/Eclipse_Policy_and_Procedure_for_3r d_Party_Dependencies_Final.pdf for full details on the policy and procedures for 'non distributed' third-party bundles. (eclipse.org)
  • This gives you the flexibility to use pre-built features packaged in third-party bundles or to distribute your own bundles. (symfony.com)
  • High speed data is a great product in Comcast's bundling strategy, said Cohen, because it offers high monthly revenue per subscriber, a high cash flow margin of over 40 percent, and, when bundled with other products, a lower churn. (internetnews.com)
  • The program "appears to be effective in luring subscribers to take a bundled service, and on average, roughly 40 percent of new subscribers are taking two to three products," Cohen noted. (internetnews.com)
  • The table below is used to reference the products that would have been included in those bundles. (adobe.com)
  • Please refer to your contract to determine which products where included in your custom bundles. (adobe.com)
  • The listing below are the common products included in the customer bundle. (adobe.com)
  • Founded in 2010, the company began by offering game 'bundles'- groupings of products at great prices - and have branched out to include ebooks, a monthly subscription service, an online storefront, and more. (worldlandtrust.org)
  • Product bundling is a marketing strategy that involves offering several products for sale as one combined product. (thenextweb.com)
  • A bundle of products is sometimes referred to as a package deal or a compilation or an anthology. (thenextweb.com)
  • In the AEJuice Animation Presets Bundle, get 3 products for Pack Manager at a discounted price! (toolfarm.com)
  • This Botanics All Bright bundle contains all your go-to products to ensure your skin feels clean, radiant and moisturised all day. (boots.com)
  • Whether you're just starting out on your wellness journey, looking for new products to support your healthy lifestyle, or want to ditch that expensive (or unhealthy) morning habit - we've created one sweet bundle for you! (lifesabundance.com)
  • Starter bundles offer a substantial savings on some of our most popular products and provide a simple way to discover the power of nature's living energy-essential oils. (youngliving.com)
  • This bundle was live from Sep 17, 2019 to Oct 8, 2019 with 104,895 bundles sold, leading to $0 raised for charity. (humblebundle.com)
  • You just have to know what you're doing, and The 2021 Ultimate Mixology & Cocktail Trainer Bundle is a great place to learn. (askmen.com)
  • Right now, The 2021 Ultimate Mixology & Cocktail Trainer Bundle is just $29.99. (askmen.com)
  • During its presentation at the online version of the Computex 2021 show, MSI unveiled a rather neat bundle, the MSI MPG Gaming Maverik, featuring its own motherboard, cooler, and case, as well as Intel 11th gen CPU and a 32GB DDR4 memory kit from G.Skill. (fudzilla.com)
  • Nintendo unveiled a swathe of new Switch and 3DS titles last night, including a brand new Super Mario Odyssey-themed Switch hardware bundle and the news that Bethesda's critically acclaimed Doom (2016) and upcoming Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus titles will also be heading to Switch over the next year. (mcvuk.com)
  • The A to Z Microsoft Excel Certification Training Bundle will teach you everything you need to know in order to gain a competitive edge , and it's available for just $49. (entrepreneur.com)
  • Get the skills you need to land the best careers in a data-driven world with the A to Z Microsoft Excel Certification Training Bundle for just $49 for a limited time. (entrepreneur.com)
  • These electrocardiograms show a normal sinus rhythm and a sinus rhythm with a left bundle branch block. (medscape.com)
  • Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is an abnormal pattern seen on an electrocardiogram (ECG) . (verywellhealth.com)
  • Therefore, anyone diagnosed with left bundle branch block on their ECG should have a cardiac evaluation. (verywellhealth.com)
  • On the other hand, right bundle branch block does not imply an underlying heart condition. (verywellhealth.com)
  • With left bundle branch block, the bundle branch that distributes the electrical impulse to the left ventricle is wholly or partially blocked. (verywellhealth.com)
  • As such, left bundle branch block can reduce the efficiency of the heartbeat. (verywellhealth.com)
  • However, in people who have heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction reduced to less than 50%, left bundle branch block can produce a significant drop-off in cardiac efficiency. (verywellhealth.com)
  • in contrast, nearly 6% of 80-year-olds have left bundle branch block. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Left bundle branch block most often occurs as a result of some underlying heart problem. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Left bundle branch block produces characteristic changes on an ECG. (verywellhealth.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Bundle branch block. (who.int)
  • Rastogi SK, Gupta SR. Bundle branch block. (who.int)
  • Although the risk of right bundle branch block (RBBB) progressing to complete heart block and sudden death is low, patients require workup and consultation with a pediatric cardiologist. (medscape.com)
  • Stein R, Nguyen P, Abella J, Olson H, Myers J, Froelicher V. Prevalence and prognostic significance of exercise-induced right bundle branch block. (medscape.com)
  • Stephan E, Chedid R, Loiselet J, Bouvagnet P. Clinical and molecular genetics of familial bundle branch block related to chromosome 19 [in French]. (medscape.com)
  • Adams JC, Nelson MR, Chandrasekaran K, Jahangir A, Srivathsan K. Novel ECG criteria for right ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with right bundle branch block. (medscape.com)
  • Utility of incomplete right bundle branch block as an isolated ECG finding in children undergoing initial cardiac evaluation. (medscape.com)
  • Perez-Riera AR, Barbosa Barros R, Daminello-Raimundo R, de Abreu LC, Nikus K. Transient high-degree right bundle branch block masking the type 1 Brugada ECG pattern associated with possible transient early repolarization syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Marterer R, Hongchun Z, Tschauner S, Koestenberger M, Sorantin E. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters. (medscape.com)
  • Does surgically induced right bundle branch block really effect ventricular function in children after ventricular septal defect closure? (medscape.com)
  • Right bundle branch block (RBBB) occurs when transmission of the electrical impulse is delayed or not conducted along the right bundle branch. (medscape.com)
  • These electrocardiographs demonstrate a normal sinus rhythm and a sinus rhythm with a right bundle branch block. (medscape.com)
  • Right bundle branch block occurs when the electrical impulse from the bundle of His does not conduct along the right bundle branch. (medscape.com)
  • This image depicts the electrophysiologic events of right bundle branch block. (medscape.com)
  • Pathophysiology of right bundle branch block is described. (medscape.com)
  • Exercise-induced right bundle branch block has been rarely noted and appears to be benign. (medscape.com)
  • Palpitations, bradycardia, bundle branch block, or myocarditis alone are not criteria for cardiovascular involvement. (cdc.gov)
  • R. K. Lashof "Equivariant bundles," Illinois Journal of Mathematics, Illinois J. Math. (projecteuclid.org)
  • 1. Which customers can activate a 7-Day Starter Bundle? (digicelgroup.com)
  • 2. What's included in my 7-Day Starter Bundle? (digicelgroup.com)
  • For your convenience, your 7-Day Starter Bundle will auto-renew, provided you have enough credit. (digicelgroup.com)
  • No, when your 7-Day Starter Bundle expires, unused data and minutes will be removed at 11:59:59 P.M. on the day of expiry. (digicelgroup.com)
  • Our variety of starter bundle options allow you to customize how you begin your Young Living journey. (youngliving.com)
  • This Starter Bundle purchase qualifies you for reward points as part of our Loyalty Rewards program. (youngliving.com)
  • TuneCore is a new partner for the KORG Software Bundle. (korg.com)
  • Though commonly empty, this class is powerful and can be used to customize the behavior of the bundle. (symfony.com)
  • Choose from the WORKS and the PERKS bundles for the most savings, or customize your booking and purchase your travel options individually. (flyfrontier.com)
  • Make your selections from the 1 steps below to customize your bundle. (microsoft.com)
  • Save instantly when you bundle! (hp.com)
  • If you've been thinking about investing in a dual-monitor system or you're simply ready to upgrade to a sleek all-in-one PC to save on desk real estate, a computer bundle is a perfect option. (hp.com)
  • Sure, it's easy enough for Apple to say, "If you already have Apple Music, you could subscribe to Apple TV+ for just an extra …" (while potential bundle prices are unclear, they are designed to save consumers $2-$5 per month depending on the tier, per Bloomberg). (variety.com)
  • Cox Business Bundles help you save money by combining services into affordable packages. (cox.com)
  • Yes, Cox Business offers several ways to save time & money by bundling your business Internet and business phone services, as well as business TV. (cox.com)
  • Save $68 by purchasing this bundle. (toolfarm.com)
  • You save $23 (19-percent) on the core bundle (regular price $122) - plus FREE USA SHIPPING - AND you can add-on a Coozy Roll and/or Deluxe Roll for $39 each - an extra savings of $10 each on the regular price of $49. (rickshawbags.com)
  • Save 12% with this bundle! (nationalnotary.org)
  • Bloomberg also reported last week that Apple is working on a slew of bundles that would group Apple services such as Apple TV+ and Apple Music at a lower monthly price. (variety.com)
  • When the bundle eventually returns, you'll be able to pick up five, really quite good, games for a price that seems fair to you. (escapistmagazine.com)
  • By having a fixed price subscription at $12 per month, it allows us to deliver the same kind of value our users expect from Humble Bundles while also curating an entirely new tier of games from developers and franchises that haven't been featured in bundles before. (gamesindustry.biz)
  • The Adobe Video Bundle couples Adobe Production Studio and Flash Professional 8 for an estimated street price of US$1999. (videomaker.com)
  • This is a special price savings bundle. (techstreet.com)
  • The CompTIA Secure Cloud Professional Bundle prepares you for a rewarding career in information technology, and it's on sale today for $29.99-more than 90 percent off its original price of $590. (pcmag.com)
  • Left bundle branch (LBB) block (LBBB) occurs when transmission of the cardiac electrical impulse is delayed or fails to be conducted along the rapidly conducting fibers of the main LBB or in both left anterior and posterior fascicles. (medscape.com)
  • Knowledge of the anatomy and electrophysiology of the cardiac conduction system from the atrioventricular (AV) junction to the distal Purkinje fibers is essential to understanding the pathophysiology of left bundle branch (LBB) block (LBBB). (medscape.com)
  • Conduction down the left bundle branch proceeds normally, and the interventricular septum and left ventricle rapidly depolarize in the normal fashion. (medscape.com)
  • One of the most common complaints the ADA receives concerning bundling issues pertains to radiographs. (ada.org)
  • Most theme packs are small bundles of channels of a similar genre (e.g. news, lifestyle, movies, etc. (telus.com)
  • The site provides documentation on how to verify this signature for different operating systems at https://www.torproject.org/docs/verifying-signatures.html.en , but since you use Linux, here you will run the following commands. (linuxjournal.com)
  • Contact a Cox Business representative and ask about our current special offers, or explore business bundle packages . (cox.com)
  • High Street retailer GAME is to start selling a new 1TB PlayStation 4 bundle that comes with a slew of first-party titles for the platform. (mcvuk.com)
  • files (see git-pack-objects[1] ) with a header indicating what references are contained within the bundle. (git-scm.com)
  • Lists the references defined in the bundle. (git-scm.com)
  • Passes the objects in the bundle to git index-pack for storage in the repository, then prints the names of all defined references. (git-scm.com)
  • This is principally of use to git fetch , which expects to receive only those references asked for and not necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, git bundle acts like git fetch-pack ). (git-scm.com)
  • In addition, HP computer bundles are a more economical choice than buying each accessory separately. (hp.com)
  • Bundle your home services and TELUS mobility on our best networks to enjoy rebates on your bills. (telus.com)
  • The Zenbivy Light Bed 25˚ Bundle provides a hybrid sleeping bag-a capacious quilt and hooded sheet that integrate with an air mattress-that provides various options for users to regulate mobility and temperature regulation. (trailspace.com)
  • One bundle will make two hats with pom poms if you swap Colors A and B. Adult sizes need to also add an additional skein of the Main Color. (purlsoho.com)
  • The Bundle resources will have utilisation priority over Main account and Okoa. (co.ke)
  • We believe the new bands represent small diameter nanotube bundles or ropes, which were part of larger bundles before sonication, and the small frequency shift of the main band from 190 to 200 cm(-1) shows the thinning of large bundles after the separation of smaller diameter bundles. (cdc.gov)
  • Be the first to find out about our Computer Bundle, latest deals on all computer accessories, and get a special product offer just for joining us at the Official HP Store. (hp.com)
  • Instead, Apple could be mindful of not adopting a mentality of "the more bundle flexibility and options we offer, the better. (variety.com)
  • More games have continued to be added to the bundle throughout the offer, and have since included acclaimed indie titles Celeste and Baba Is You . (nme.com)
  • Spotify and Hulu are partnering up to offer a bundle deal just for students. (ajc.com)
  • Limited Edition Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 20th Anniversary Bundle! (kidkoala.com)
  • A bundle saves you the effort, time, and the frustration of trying to figure out which compatible computer accessories to add to your primary purchase. (hp.com)
  • Saves a LispWorks for Macintosh image with an application bundle, thus allowing it to work properly in the Cocoa windowing system. (lispworks.com)
  • and then saves the LispWorks image in the bundle. (lispworks.com)
  • it copies the application bundle of the running image to the bundle path with the minimal necessary modifications, and then saves an image in it. (lispworks.com)
  • There's no corresponding "write" support, i.e.a git push into a bundle is not supported. (git-scm.com)
  • This log/configuration information is called an agent support bundle. (oracle.com)
  • DIRECTORY is the directory where you want the agent support bundle ZIP archive to be generated. (oracle.com)
  • In the following example, you are generating an agent support bundle. (oracle.com)
  • This bundle provides those in uniform, serving at home and abroad, with full mind and body support through the power of premium essential oils. (youngliving.com)
  • However all three countries have bundles of interventions including all or part of four types of intervention identified by systematic review as a strategy, especially financial incentives and personal and professional support were used in all countries. (who.int)
  • For example, Pure Storage recently teamed with Nvidia to release an integrated software and hardware bundle that's tuned for AI workloads and data requirements. (networkworld.com)
  • The GPU maker named after a Roman vengence demon, Nvidia is bundling its higher-end RTX 30-series graphics cards with a copy of Marvel's Spider-Man: Remastered . (fudzilla.com)
  • Nvidia has updated its Frames Wins Games promotion, bundling Rainbow Six: Siege Gold Edition with select Geforce RTX series cards. (fudzilla.com)
  • It has been a while since we saw a game bundle from Nvidia or AMD, and Nvidia was first to break that cycle and introduce The Crew 2 bundle with Geforce GTX 1080 or GTX 1080 Ti graphics cards as well as desktop and notebook systems with these GPUs. (fudzilla.com)
  • HTC has launched a rather neat bundle that offers the Vive VR headset together with Nvidia GTX 1070 Founders Edition and a copy of Fallout VR, all for $799. (fudzilla.com)
  • Don't waste your time searching for additional computer accessories, simply choose one of HP's convenient bundles for a complete package with all the essentials. (hp.com)
  • You can also opt for a package with a widescreen monitor so nothing escapes your omniscient view or a bundle with headphones granting you the ability to hear even the quietest footsteps of an enemy. (hp.com)
  • Although you still can set it up that way if you want, these days, everything is wrapped up in a tidy little package called the Tor browser bundle. (linuxjournal.com)
  • If you are browsing the site from a Linux system (which of course you are), you will be presented with links to a 32-bit and 64-bit browser bundle package, so click the one that corresponds with the appropriate architecture for your system. (linuxjournal.com)
  • Those intrigued by any Apple bundle proposition could just do their homework online to see what package works best for them. (variety.com)
  • Now that Apple has one SVOD package offering already out the door, initially rolling out bundles with only its more heavily used services, like Apple Music, and then gradually expanding from there, could be the way to go. (variety.com)
  • Called the "Power Package," the bundle combines three of Billtrust's most popular services-Invoice Central, Print/Mail Services and CustomerCare-into a single package that is implemented with a 60-day setup guarantee. (finextra.com)
  • As part of its new bundle, Billtrust is offering a "Go Live Guarantee": if the customer is live with the Power Package within 60 days from signing, Billtrust will rebate the plan's setup fee. (finextra.com)
  • Verizon's new custom TV bundles starts at $59.99 for a base package of 35 channels, plus two additional genre-based channel packs. (mediapost.com)
  • A bundle is similar to a plugin in other software, but even better. (symfony.com)
  • Information about this product can be found at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/routers/ps341/prod_bulletin0900aecd80205255.html . (cisco.com)
  • However, this section creates and enables a new bundle by hand to show how simple it is to do it. (symfony.com)
  • Billtrust, the leader in Customer Centric Billing, today announced the availability of a new service bundle that creates significantly greater cost efficiencies in a company's billing process. (finextra.com)
  • The Ultimate Creative Writing Course Bundle is offering 10 courses for $29.99 , which are broken down into 422 bite-sized lessons to make learning manageable and enjoyable. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Take your time perfecting your craft with lifetime access to the 10 courses included in The Ultimate Creative Writing Course Bundle . (mentalfloss.com)
  • This five-course bundle is taught by Paul Martin, a professional mixologist with more than 25 years of experience as a bartender and bar owner who has quite an impressive resume. (askmen.com)
  • Another theory describes a single ring of tissue located between the bulbus cordis and the primitive ventricle, which gives rise to the AV node, His bundle, right bundle branch, and left bundle branch. (medscape.com)
  • Acceptance of CHG use for adherence to the CLIP bundle in this patient population does not reflect a recommendation of its use by the NHSN. (cdc.gov)
  • Adherence to a bundle requires a "Yes" to all of these criteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Her data show improvement in adherence during the study in both the traditional bundle and the relaxed bundle (23% to 27.9% and 52% to 56.7%, respectively). (medscape.com)
  • So stay ahead of the competition with a computer bundle for gamers filled with the right accessories to enhance your gaming rig. (hp.com)
  • At least three Apple One bundles with Apple services were laid out by Bloomberg last Thursday. (variety.com)
  • In a new report about cable's bundling approach, Lozides said "cable operators are increasingly focusing on the delivery of service bundles combining video, high-speed data (HSD), and telephony services. (internetnews.com)
  • Cable operators benefit from being primary suppliers of video and data services and should continue seeking ways to introduce new bundled services such as telephony. (internetnews.com)
  • However, telecommunications companies, despite lacking video services, are equally adept at the bundling strategy. (internetnews.com)
  • Bundle Business Phone and Internet with other Cox Business services for even greater savings. (cox.com)
  • Business Bundles are packages that provide an opportunity to combine the best business Internet and business phone services to meet the needs of your business. (cox.com)
  • What are the benefits of bundling my services? (cox.com)
  • There are many benefits to bundling your business Internet, phone, and TV services . (cox.com)
  • By bundling with Cox Business, you can have confidence that your Internet, phone and TV services are working together to provide your employees and customers with the best experience possible. (cox.com)
  • You cannot purchase data resources, SMS resources, Skiza and Premium rated services with the flexible talk-time bundle resources. (co.ke)
  • Overall, The CompTIA Secure Cloud Professional Bundle prepares you for a rewarding career in IT by teaching you everything you need to know to pass valuable professional certifications for cloud-based infrastructure and services. (pcmag.com)
  • Do you bundle your telephone,cable and internet services? (answerbag.com)
  • which means EMF does not distribute the bundle, but does document that if someone happens to have it installed, then they will take advantage of it. (eclipse.org)
  • HP® offers computer bundles perfect for those looking to stream their favorite show or simply browse their favorite blogs to pass the time. (hp.com)
  • His bundle electrography is a test that measures electrical activity in a part of the heart that carries the signals that control the time between heartbeats (contractions). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The time it takes for the electrical signals to travel through the bundle of His is normal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's time to streamline your workflow with a computer bundle built for professionals who want only the best. (hp.com)
  • The Xbox One Elite Bundle comes out this November, just in time for holiday shopping season. (forbes.com)
  • Debug logging considerably increases the amount of time required to display bundles in the NAL window. (novell.com)
  • But at the same time, the bundle strategy - specifically Apple's multi-tiered, intra-Apple service strategy internally dubbed "Apple One" - has the potential to further complicate the Apple TV+ consumer pitch, which would be counterproductive to accelerating growth. (variety.com)
  • Launch yourself on an epic adventure in space and time with this bundle of Minecraft Doctor Who Skins Volume I and Volume II. (xbox.com)
  • Denver - Archos is bundling a free 8GB SanDisk SD card with versions of its 605 Flash Wi-Fi and 405 portable media players for a limited time. (twice.com)
  • We would like to see out-of-bundle data drop even further for our customers and every time we have the opportunity to engage with government we ask for more spectrum to be released, because we understand the positive impact that more spectrum allocation has on the SA GDP," Motsa said. (news24.com)
  • This Service aims at giving Safaricom subscribers an opportunity to buy flexible talk time bundles that give resources in flexible units. (co.ke)
  • You will receive an SMS confirming successful purchase of the Flexible Talk time bundle. (co.ke)
  • The bundle minutes and the preferred calling rates will be valid for twenty-four (24) hours from the time of purchase. (co.ke)
  • You will accumulate Bonga Points on purchase of Flexible talk-time bundle as per current Safaricom Loyalty Programme (Bonga) published terms. (co.ke)
  • Flexible talk-time bundle will not be considered as spend for accumulation of the storo bonus targets. (co.ke)
  • We spend less time outside in winter, and when we do, we bundle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NOWHERE on the 'home' page for purchasing the bundle does it state that the Moscow game is for iPAD ONLY! (apple.com)
  • You have to go to the Moscow game's page to find out that info, but since I navigated to the bundle page from a i-PHONE game page, and the previously mentioned lack of disclosure on this page makes it seem that both games would be playable on an iPhone, I purchased the bundle, and have one game that is totally useless. (apple.com)
  • The retail value for all these apps is over $500 - with this bundle, you get them all for just $49.99. (daringfireball.net)
  • Used to create a bundle named file . (git-scm.com)
  • To create a bundle containing all changesets, use -a/--all (or --base null). (mozilla.org)
  • This bundle features an assortment of brown twigs that have been tied together with a pair of jute strings. (hobbylobby.com)
  • Date: 08/23/2009 03:21 AM Subject: [tools-pmc] Adding Bundle to Orbit Sent by: [email protected] Hi, This email follows the ?Adding Bundle to Orbit? (eclipse.org)