A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.
A complex group of fibers arising from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region, and the septal nuclei, and passing to the lateral hypothalamus. Some fibers continue into the tegmentum.
Small sets of evidence-based interventions for a defined patient population and care setting.
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.
Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
The sensory areas on the vertical wall of the saccule and in the floor of the utricle. The hair cells in the maculae are innervated by fibers of the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
An alkaloid found in the root of RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA, among other plant sources. It is a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent that apparently acts by changing the shape and threshold of cardiac action potentials.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A non-heme iron protein consisting of eight apparently identical subunits each containing 2 iron atoms. It binds one molecule of oxygen per pair of iron atoms and functions as a respiratory protein.
Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A serine endopeptidase isolated from Bacillus subtilis. It hydrolyzes proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds, and a preference for a large uncharged residue in P1. It also hydrolyzes peptide amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Extra impulse-conducting tissue in the heart that creates abnormal impulse-conducting connections between HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used for experiments in molecular genetic studies in plant physiology and development.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used in the treatment of TUBERCULOSIS.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Birth defect that results in a partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. It may be isolated or a part of a syndrome (e.g., AICARDI'S SYNDROME; ACROCALLOSAL SYNDROME; ANDERMANN SYNDROME; and HOLOPROSENCEPHALY). Clinical manifestations include neuromotor skill impairment and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY of variable severity.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.
The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Coordination of nursing services by various nursing care personnel under the leadership of a professional nurse. The team may consist of a professional nurse, nurses' aides, and the practical nurse.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The behaviors of materials under force.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A subclass of myosins originally found in the photoreceptor of DROSOPHILA. The heavy chains can occur as two alternatively spliced isoforms of 132 and 174 KDa. The amino terminal of myosin type III is highly unusual in that it contains a protein kinase domain which may be an important component of the visual process.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentrant conduction over the accessory pathways between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. The impulse can also travel in the reverse direction, as in some cases, atrial impulses travel to the ventricles over the accessory pathways and back to the atria over the BUNDLE OF HIS and the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE.

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (1/251)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

Modulation of AV nodal and Hisian conduction by changes in extracellular space. (2/251)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the extracellular space (ECS) component of the atrioventricular (AV) node and His bundle region is larger than the ECS in adjacent contractile myocardium. The potential physiological significance of this observation was examined in a canine blood-perfused AV nodal preparation. Mannitol, an ECS osmotic expander, was infused directly into either the AV node or His bundle region. This resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the AV nodal or His-ventricular conduction time and in the AV nodal effective refractory period. Mannitol infusion eventually resulted in Wenckebach block (n = 6), which reversed with mannitol washout. The ratio of AV nodal to left ventricular ECS in tissue frozen immediately on the development of heart block (n = 8) was significantly higher in the region of block (4.53 +/- 0.61) compared with that in control preparations (2.23 +/- 0.35, n = 6, P < 0.01) and donor dog hearts (2.45 +/- 0.18, n = 11, P < 0.01) not exposed to mannitol. With lower mannitol rates (10% of total blood flow), AV nodal conduction times increased by 5-10% and the AV node became supersensitive to adenosine, acetylcholine, and carbachol, but not to norepinephrine. We conclude that mannitol-induced changes in AV node and His bundle ECS markedly alter conduction system electrophysiology and the sensitivity of conductive tissues to purinergic and cholinergic agonists.  (+info)

LocaLisa: new technique for real-time 3-dimensional localization of regular intracardiac electrodes. (3/251)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the 3-dimensional (3D) position of ablation electrodes from fluoroscopic images is inadequate if a systematic lesion pattern is required in the treatment of complex arrhythmogenic substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new technique for online 3D localization of intracardiac electrodes. Regular catheter electrodes are used as sensors for a high-frequency transthoracic electrical field, which is applied via standard skin electrodes. We investigated localization accuracy within the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle by comparing measured and true interelectrode distances of a decapolar catheter. Long-term stability was analyzed by localization of the most proximal His bundle before and after slow pathway ablation. Electrogram recordings were unaffected by the applied electrical field. Localization data from 3 catheter positions, widely distributed within the right atrium, right ventricle, or left ventricle, were analyzed in 10 patients per group. The relationship between measured and true electrode positions was highly linear, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.996, 0.997, and 0.999 for the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle, respectively. Localization accuracy was better than 2 mm, with an additional scaling error of 8% to 14%. After 2 hours, localization of the proximal His bundle was reproducible within 1.4+/-1.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique enables accurate and reproducible real-time localization of electrode positions in cardiac mapping and ablation procedures. Its application does not distort the quality of electrograms and can be applied to any electrode catheter.  (+info)

Reversion to sinus rhythm 11 years after surgically induced heart block. (4/251)

A patient is presented in whom the heart reverted spontaneously to sinus rhythm 11 years after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect complicated by complete heart block. It seems unlikely that regeneration of fibres in the bundle of His, if these had indeed been destroyed, could account for the restoration of sinus rhythm after so long an interval.  (+info)

Electrophysiological effects of mexiletine in man. (5/251)

The electrophysiological effects of intravenous mexiletine in a dose of 200 to 250 mg given over 5 minutes, followed by continuous infusion of 60 to 90 mg per hour, were studied in 5 patients with normal conduction and in 20 patients with a variety of disturbances of impulse formation and conduction, by means of His bundle electrography, atrial pacing, and the extrastimulus method. In all but 2 patients the plasma level was above the lower therapeutic limit. Mexiletine had no consistent effects on sinus frequency and atrial refractoriness. The sinoatrial recovery time changed inconsistently in both directions; however, of the 5 patients in whom an increase was evident, 3 had sinus node dysfunction. In most patients mexiletine increased the AV nodal conduction time at paced atrial rates and shifted the Wenckebach point to a lower atrial rate. The effective refractory period of the AV node was not consistently influenced, while the functional refractory period increased in 12 out of 14 patients. The HV intervals increased by a mean of 11 ms in 8 patients and were unchanged in 17. Both the relative and effective refractory period of the His-Purkinje system increased after mexiletine. Non-cardiac side effects occurred in 7 out of 25 patients, and cardiac side effects, including one serious, in 2. The results indicate that mexiletine shares some electrophysiological properties with procainamide and quinidine, when given to patients with conduction defects, and that the drug should not be used in patients with pre-existing impairment of impulse formation or conduction. It has additional effects on AV nodal conduction which may be of value in the treatment of re-entrant tachycardias involving the AV node.  (+info)

Chronic His bundle block. Clinical, electrocardiographic, electrophysiological, and follow-up studies on 16 patients. (6/251)

This report describes 16 patients with block within the His bundle seen over a period of 55 months. Ten were women and 6 men, with an average age of 76 years, range, 42 to 98 years. All patients had His bundle recordings showing split His bundle potentials (H and H) (13 patients) or narrow QRS with block distal to the His bundle potential (3 patients). Of the 16 patients, 10 had complete heart block, 4 second degree AV block (2 patients with Mobitz type II, and 2 with 2:1), and 2 first degree AV block. Ten patients had a narrow QRS in the conducted beats or escape rhythms. Intravenous atropine (1 to 2 mg) had a variable effect on AV conduction and the rate of the escape rhythm. Twelve patients have had a permanent pacemaker implanted. During the follow-up period, 10 patients died 1 to 31 months from the time of initial examination. The remaining 6 patients (5 with pacemaker) are alive 3 to 58 months later.  (+info)

Living anatomy of the atrioventricular junctions. A guide to electrophysiologic mapping. A Consensus Statement from the Cardiac Nomenclature Study Group, Working Group of Arrhythmias, European Society of Cardiology, and the Task Force on Cardiac Nomenclature from NASPE. (7/251)

Current nomenclature for the atrioventricular (AV) junctions derives from a surgically distorted view, placing the valvar rings and the triangle of Koch in a single plane with antero-posterior and right-left lateral coordinates. Within this convention, the aorta is considered to occupy an anterior position, although the mouth of the coronary sinus is shown as being posterior. Although this nomenclature has served its purpose for the description and treatment of arrhythmias dependent on accessory pathways and atrioventricular nodal reentry, it is less than satisfactory for the description of atrial and ventricular mapping. To correct these deficiencies, a consensus document has been prepared by experts from the Working Group of Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. It proposes a new anatomically sound nomenclature that will be applicable to all chambers of the heart. In this report, we discuss its value for description of the AV junctions, establishing the principles of this new nomenclature.  (+info)

Double component action potentials in the posterior approach to the atrioventricular node: do they reflect activation delay in the slow pathway? (8/251)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to elucidate the mechanism of double component action potentials in the posterior approach to the atrioventricular (AV) junctional area. BACKGROUND: Double component action potentials are often associated with activation delay and therefore might be a marker of the location of the so-called slow pathway. METHODS: The AV junction was scanned for double component action potentials in Langendorff perfused pig and dog hearts, using conventional microelectrode recordings. Characteristics of these action potentials were investigated during basic and premature stimulation and cooling of the anterior approach to the node. RESULTS: During basic stimulation, double component action potentials were recorded in 19 out of 20 hearts. In 74% of these cases, the second component occurred before the His deflection. During premature stimulation this percentage was 50%, while delay between the two components always increased. In 80% of the cases, the amplitude of the two components became <20 mV during progressive shortening of the coupling interval. The first component was generated by activation in superficial layers, the second one by activation in deeper layers. Cooling of the anterior region revealed that the second component was caused by activation arriving from the anterior region. CONCLUSIONS: Double component action potentials in the posterior approach to the AV node are generated by the asynchronous arrival of wave fronts in different, weakly coupled layers or by the summation of asynchronously arriving wave fronts. They are not always associated with activation delay in the slow pathway.  (+info)

The preface of this text indicates that it would be of value as a guide for people starting to perform His bundle electrocardiography and also useful to those established in the field. Unfortunately, it has not reached these goals. Anatomical description has been stretched out over four chapters, but it lacks such pertinent details as the dimensions of the His bundle and bundle branches, and histology of the sinus node, A-V node, and accessory pathways. Chapter four on methodology for recording His bundle electrograms fails to mention the arm approach or the left heart techniques. The methodology used by the ...
The evolution of bilateral bundle branch block (BBB) was studied in ten anesthetized dogs by recording electrical activity from the bundle of His (Hb), right (Rb) and left bundles (Lb) for precise localization and characterization of the conduction disorder. Records were obtained before and at intervals up to 8 hours after ligation of the anterior septal artery. Forty to 140 min after ligation conduction was impaired in either the Rb or Lb showing complete BBB both at rapid heart rates (tachycardia-dependent) and slow rates (bradycardia-dependent) with normal QRS or incomplete BBB at control rates. Later complete BBB became constant at all heart rates. When both bundles were significantly involved, various combinations of intraventricular and atrioventricular conduction disorders occurred. Unequal delay in both bundles (unequal 1° bilateral BBB) gave rise to prolonged H-V interval and a QRS pattern of incomplete or complete bundle branch block corresponding to the branch in which the conduction ...
Procainamide (PA) increases the effective refractory period of the atria, and to a lesser extent the bundle of His-Purkinje system and ventricles of the heart. It reduces impulse conduction velocity in the atria, His-Purkinje fibers, and ventricular muscle, but has variable effects on the atrioventricular (A-V) node, a direct slowing action and a weaker vagolytic effect which may speed A-V conduction slightly. Myocardial excitability is reduced in the atria, Purkinje fibers, papillary muscles, and ventricles by an increase in the threshold for excitation, combined with inhibition of ectopic pacemaker activity by retardation of the slow phase of diastolic depolarization, thus decreasing automaticity especially in ectopic sites. Contractility of the undamaged heart is usually not affected by therapeutic concentrations, although slight reduction of cardiac output may occur, and may be significant in the presence of myocardial damage. Therapeutic levels of PA may exert vagolytic effects and produce ...
This is an example of a normal finding on intracardiac electrophysiologic (EP) study. The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is represented in different colors, with its corresponding intervals (ie, PR, QT) on top. A catheter with several electrodes is placed inside the heart, close to the superior vena cava-right atrial junction. This catheter records the sinoatrial node (SN) activity and is depicted here as the high-right atrial (HRA) deflection. Beneath the HRA intracardiac electrogram is the His-bundle intracardiac electrogram, which is recorded by the electrodes of a second catheter placed across the posterior aspect of the tricuspid valve. The His-bundle electrogram provides the most information about atrioventricular (AV) conduction. Three main deflections are present, with 2 intervals: (1) the A deflection corresponds to the activation of the low-right atrium, (2) the H deflection corresponds to the activation of the His-bundle before its branching into the Purkinje system, and (3) the V ...
The PR interval is the time between atrial depolarisation and ventricular depolarisation. It is an indicator of atrioventricular conduction time, involving conduction from the atria, through the AV node and down the His-Purkinje system.
Besides enhanced automaticity, ischemia also provides the substrate for reentry by increasing dispersion of excitability, reducing conduction velocities, and shortening refractory periods in ischemic areas (Coronel, 1994). Occlusion of the LAD resulted in a significant increase in Q-J time. The Q-J time reflects ventricular activation, the time needed for the electrical impulse to travel through the fast-conducting His-Purkinje system to the cardiomyocytes, and to activate the majority of these cells so that their action potential is in phase 2. Regional ischemic injury within the myocardium disturbs intraventricular conduction (Gettes and Cascio, 1992), in both space and time, leading to an altered spectrum of the QRS complex (Hatala et al., 1995) and an increase in Q-J time. The latter is mainly due to the slower or even blocked impulse conduction in the ischemic region. An altered spectrum of the QRS complex and an increase in the Q-J time have been demonstrated in the ischemic control group ...
Increased understanding of the cell migration may lead to the development of new therapies for controlling invasive tumour cells.
1st Bites is made under the most hygienic conditions using quality certified ingredients and supplemented with vitamins and minerals to give your child the right nutrition, good eating experience and the organic advantage.Suitable for 6 months and above.
An example of bilateral bundle-branch block (RBBB) in the presence of WPW syndrome in which diagnosis was established with the aid of His bundle recordings is presented. Complete RBBB and intermittent block of the superior and inferior divisions of the left bundle branch were coexistent for at least 2 years before complete heart block (trifascicular block) occurred. It was demonstrated that the preexcitation pathway conducted and blocked together with the normal pathways. It is suggested that the anomalous bundle in this case traveled with the normal pathways and that this close relationship is more common than has been suspected.. Retrograde V-A conduction at 1:1 ratio was present during electrical stimulation of the right ventricle and the anomalous bundle was used for retrograde spread of activation from the ventricles to the atria. The retrograde P waves, thus produced, conducted antegrade through the His bundle (reciprocation) but reached the ventricles only when they appeared near the end ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low-energy transvenous ablation of the canine atrioventricular conduction system with a suction electrode catheter. AU - Saksena, S.. AU - Tarjan, P. P.. AU - Bharati, S.. AU - Boveja, B.. AU - Cohen, D.. AU - Joubert, T.. AU - Lev, M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - A single suction electrode catheter was used for His bundle electrogram recording, His bundle pacing, and low-energy (20 or 30 J) His bundle ablation in seven dogs. The suction electrode catheter was actively fixed to the atrial endocardium at the His bundle level. Electrophysologic studies were performed in the control state, immediately after, and late (, 40 days) after His bundle ablation and results were correlated with histologic findings in the conduction system. Unipolar His bundle recording and pacing were successfully performed in all dogs with the suction electrode catheter before and after ablation. Complete heart block developed after a ...
Under normal physiologic conditions, the dominant pacemaker cells of the heart lie within the sinoatrial node; in adults, these pacemaker cells fire at rates between 60 to 100 beats per minute (i.e., faster than cells in any other cardiac region, See Figure 3). Even at rest, modulation by the autonomic nervous system dominates, with the primary drive from the parasympathetics; at rest or during sleep, the sinoatrial nodal rate decreases to about 75 beats per minute (bpm) or even slower.. In addition to pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node, other cells within the conduction system are capable of developing autorhythmicity, specifically those within the atrioventricular node (junction region) and His-Purkinje system. Yet, rhythms generated within these cells are in a much lower range (25 to 55 bpm), hence not altering the intrinsic atrial rates (Figure 2). These lower rate rhythms are commonly referred to as ventricular escape rhythms and are important for patient survival, since they maintain ...
Several features remained to be clarified concerning the developmental origin of the atrioventricular conduction axis. For example, is the embryonic atrioventricular canal the major source of the atrial part of the conduction axis,10,11,13 or are major contributions made by adjacent tissues, such as the atrial chamber myocardium, the left sinus horn, the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion, or the atrioventricular bundle?15,17,-,20 What are the lineage origins of the atrial and ventricular parts of the axis, respectively?19,20 By our use of genetic lineage tracing, we have excluded the notion that contributions to the atrial part of the axis are made from the sinus horns or the epicardium (Tbx18+), from the ventricular myocardium, including the atrioventricular bundle, or from the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion (Mef2c-AHF-Cre+). The majority of the atrial components is derived from the embryonic atrioventricular canal, except for the lower nodal cells, which are derived from the embryonic ventricular ...
A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a normal QRS complex. In this syndrome, the atrial impulse conducts via the JAMES FIBERS which connect the atrium to BUNDLE OF HIS bypassing the upper ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. HEART VENTRICLES are depolarized normally through the His-Purkinje system ...
The present study has several limitations. First, electrograms from the region of Kochs triangle were recorded simultaneously only from two atrial sites (i.e., the His bundle recording site and the CS orifice), and simple broad anatomic terms (anterior, middle and posterior) were used to define the anatomic sites of the atrial septum. More detailed endocardial mapping over the triangle of Koch or along the tendon of Todaro (31)may have yielded more information about the exact FP and SP location. However, unlike intraoperative computerized mapping (32), fluoroscopy cannot identify precise endocardial anatomy and, therefore, the presumed FP or SP location has only been inferential, even with the use of decapolar electrode catheters-an inherent limitation to clinical electrophysiologic study. In addition, mapping restricted over the right endocardial surface can only provide limited information about the excitation of the AV node and the atrial septum, which are three-dimensional subendocardial ...
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical services has an estimated incidence of 54.99 per 100,000 person years, which translates to some 155,000 episodes annually in the United States. Bradyasystole is the first recorded rhythm in up to 52 percent of cardiac arrests, and many additional patients with an initial cardiac arrest rhythm of ventricular fibrillation deteriorate to bradyasystole after defibrillation efforts. Survival to hospital discharge occurs in less than 3 percent of patients presenting with bradyasystole; however, due to its frequency, this rhythm accounts for over 17 percent of all cardiac arrest survivors. As a result, even a small improvement in survival from bradyasystolic cardiac arrest would result in thousands of lives saved annually.. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that depresses the sinoatrial node, blocks atrioventricular conduction, inhibits the pacemaker activity of the His-Purkinje system and attenuates the effects of catecholamines. ...
Individual compartments of cardiac conduction system (CCS) became functional in order which correlates with cardiac morphogenesis. Ventricular CCS compartments mature with ventricular septation and it is accompanied by shift of activation pattern from primitive base to apex, which follows blood flow
Eleven patients with an accessory pathway and reciprocating tachycardia were studied using both fixed rate atrial pacing and the atrial extrastimulus technique. Six of the patients had an accessory pathway that conducted in both the anterograde and r
The purpose of this study is to explore if there is a less harmful way to pace patients with first-degree AV-block to ensure that the negative effects inferred by the pacing do not outweigh the positive effects of AV-synchrony. The main hypothesis of the study is that His-bundle pacing will offer a more physiological mode of pacing in patients with first-degree AV-block than conventional pacing.. Patients scheduled for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in sinus rhythm, with first degree AV-block, normal QRS duration less than 120 ms and normal left ventricular ejection fraction will be included. During the AF ablation three different pacing modes (atrial, AV-synchronous and His-bundle pacing) at two different rates (5 to10 bpm above the basal rate and at 100 bpm) will be performed and evaluated using echocardiography. After the completion of all six pacing protocols (i.e., three modes at two different rates) the experimental part of the procedure ends.. The primary end-point will be ...
Definisi Hambatan Atrioventrikuler (Atrioventricular block) adalah kelainan pada sistem koduksi jantung dimana depolarisasi atrium gagal untuk mencapai ventrikel atau depoilarisasi atrial yang terkonduksikan dengan terlambat. Hambatan Atrioventrikuler (Blok AV) kerap menjadi penyebab bradikardia meskipun lebih jarang dibandingkan dengan kelainan fungsi nodus SA yang juga menyebabkan gejala bradikardia. 2.2. Klasifikasi Berdasarkan derajat hambatan, gangguan ini dibagi menjadi blok AV derajat 1, blok AV derajat 2, dan blok AV derajat 3 ( total ). Blok AV Derajat 1 terjadi bila semua impuls dari atrium dapat dihantarkan ke ventrikel dengan waktu hantaran yang lebih lama ( pada EKG interval PR, 0,20 detik ). Kelainannya biasanya pada tingkat nodus AV dan jarang pada sistem His-Purkinje. Karena semua impuls dari atrium dapat dihantarkan ke ventrikel maka biasanya tidak menimbulkan gejala. Blok AV Derajat 2 terjadi pada keadaan dimana tidak semua impuls dari atrium dapat dihantarkan melalui nodus AV ...
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Right bundle branch block Differential diagnosis of right bundle branch block / causes of right bundle branch block are : -pulmonary embolism
The cardiac conduction system is a complex network of cells that together orchestrate the rhythmic and coordinated depolarization of the heart. The molecular mechanisms regulating the specification and patterning of cells that form this conductive network are largely unknown. Studies in avian models have suggested that components of the cardiac conduction system arise from progressive recruitment of cardiomyogenic progenitors, potentially influenced by inductive effects from the neighboring coronary vasculature. However, relatively little is known about the process of conduction system development in mammalian species, especially in the mouse, where even the histological identification of the conductive network remains problematic. We have identified a line of transgenic mice where lacZ reporter gene expression delineates the developing and mature murine cardiac conduction system, extending proximally from the sinoatrial node to the distal Purkinje fibers. Optical mapping of cardiac electrical ...
Left bundle branch blocks. In left bundle branch block (LBBB) the left ventricle is not directly activated by impulses travelling through the left bundle branch. The right ventricle, however, is still activated as normal by the right bundle branch.. The left ventricle is activated by impulses travelling through the myocardium across the septum. As this occurs more slowly than conduction through the bundle of His the QRS complex becomes widened.. Normally the septum is activated from left to right, which produces small Q waves in the lateral leads. In the presence of LBBB, however, this septal activation is reversed, which eliminates these normal septal Q waves.. The right to left depolarization of the myocardium produces deep S waves in the right praecordial leads (V1-V3) and tall R waves in the lateral leads (I, V5 and V6). It also usually causes left axis deviation. As the ventricles are activated sequentially from right to left, rather than simultaneously, the R wave in the lateral leads is ...
SCN5A_HUMAN] Defects in SCN5A are a cause of progressive familial heart block type 1A (PFHB1A) [MIM:113900]; also known as Lenegre-Lev disease or progressive cardiac conduction defect (PCCD). PFHB1A is an autosomal dominant cardiac bundle branch disorder that may progress to complete heart block. PFHB1A is characterized by progressive alteration of cardiac conduction through the His-Purkinje system with right or left bundle branch block and widening of QRS complexes, leading to complete atrioventricular block and causing syncope and sudden death.[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Defects in SCN5A are the cause of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) [MIM:603830]. Long QT syndromes are heart disorders characterized by a prolonged QT interval on the ECG and polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. They cause syncope and sudden death in response to exercise or emotional stress. LQT3 inheritance is an autosomal dominant.[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [:][15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] ...
Disease of the CCS is common and can result from congenital abnormalities or can be acquired later in life. As such, a better understanding of the basic biology and molecular pathways underlying cardiac conduction tissue development, maintenance, and function may have significant impact on the clinical care of patients with conduction disorders.. In this report, we show that Hop is highly expressed in the adult CCS of mice and modulates cardiac conduction system function. Hop is a transcriptional target of Nkx2-5, which is also highly expressed in the CCS12 and is required for normal development and maintenance of adult cardiac conduction tissue.4,5 Mutations in Nkx2-5 are associated with proximal conduction system defects in humans and with congenital heart disease.6 Tissue-specific inactivation of Nkx2-5 in adult mouse hearts leads to progressive loss of conduction tissue and downregulation of Hop.4 Our data suggest that Hop is robustly expressed in the adult CCS. However, unlike Nkx2-5, Hop ...
The classification of cardiac conduction disease has long been dominated by concepts anchored in macroscopic anatomical structures within the heart. The sinoatrial node, atrioventricular (AV) node and proximal His-Purkinje system can each be seen with the naked eye in humans, and in the most commonly used large animal models. Early physiologic data established the distinctive cellular electrical properties of these tissues and enshrined the fundamentals of physiologic and pathophysiologic conduction.1 Clinical cases where conduction disease was the predominant presenting feature were recognised as electrocardiography spread. Painstaking postmortem histomorphometric reconstructions of hearts from such cases resulted in the concepts of focal fibrosis, or a restricted degenerative process, as the mechanisms of isolated conduction disease.2. Parallel early work in surface electrocardiography and intracardiac recording documented the electrophysiologic correlates of proximal conduction-system ...
Learn about right bundle branch block, an abnormal finding on the electrocardiogram that is often associated with underlying heart disease.
The most common causes of a right bundle branch block are a previous heart attack, a congenital deformity, cardiovascular disease...
Right bundle branch block treatment is not always necessary but it can be essential to ensure the condition doesnt exacerbate. Complication and prevention is also available.
The development and structure of the cardiac conduction system, including the known molecular and cellular factors that regulate development of the conduction system are outlined. Part II includes...
The AV node receives two inputs from the atria: posteriorly via the crista terminalis, and anteriorly via the interatrial septum.[1] An important property that is unique to the AV node is decremental conduction, in which the more frequently the node is stimulated, the slower it conducts. This is the property of the AV node that prevents rapid conduction to the ventricle in cases of rapid atrial rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The atrioventricular node delays impulses for ~0.1 second before allowing impulses through to the His-Purkinje conduction system, which spreads impulses to the ventricular walls. The reason it is important to delay the cardiac impulse is to ensure that the atria have ejected their blood into the ventricles before the ventricles contract.[2] ...
Definition of bundle branch block, complete in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is bundle branch block, complete? Meaning of bundle branch block, complete as a legal term. What does bundle branch block, complete mean in law?
The Conduction System of the Mammlian Heart: An Anatomico-Histological Study of the Atrioventricular Bundle and the Purkinje Fibers (Cardiopulmonary Medicine from I*C*P*, Volume 234) http://s10.postimg.org/ws4yk7trt/The_Conduction_System_of_the_Mammlian_Heart.jpg By Sunao Tawara, Kozo Suma, Munehiro Shimada Hardcover: 256 pages Publisher: WSP Co; 1 edition (September 1, 1998) Language: English ISBN-10: 1860941168 ISBN-13: 978-1860941160
Importance of Retrograde Atrial Activation in Atrial Fibrillation Genesis in the Initiation of Atrial Fibrillation in Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. Comparison of Atrial Electrophysiologic Parameters between Patients with Different Atrial Fibrillation Genesis (Initiation Sites) in Atria. (1999 ...
Introduction to the 12-lead ECG Gustav Schellack SASOCP Workshop 10 March 2012 © G Schellack; 2012 Electrocardiogram (ECG)    The ECG is a graphic recording of the electrical activity of the heart, at a specific moment in time. Note: Electrical activity refers to the depolarisation and repolarisation of the atria and ventricles. Note: The ECG cannot tell us anything about the mechanical activity (i.e. contraction and relaxation) of the myocardium. Cardiac Conduction System Anatomical orientation: Figure 1: (Marquette Electronics, 1996) (From: Yanowitz, FG. The Alan E Lindsay ECG Learning Centre in Cyberspace [homepage on the Internet]. c2012. Available from: http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/index.html.) The Cardiac Impulse Originates from the SA-node (in the RA) Spreads through both atria [virtually] simultaneously RA Spreads through both atria [virtually] simultaneously LA Activates both ventricles via the His-Purkinje network; first the septum from (L) to (R), then the RV, then ...
Dr. Stern responded: None necessary. No treatment necessary and it is not serious unless other |a href=/topics/heart track_data={
How do the interpretation rules for ST segment proportionality, concordance and discordance apply to right bundle branch block in patients with chest pain ...
MalaCards based summary : Right Bundle Branch Block, also known as right bundle branch block with left posterior fascicular block, is related to heart block, progressive, type ia and rheumatic heart disease. An important gene associated with Right Bundle Branch Block is SCN5A (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 5), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA and Developmental Biology. The drugs Tolvaptan and Arginine Vasopressin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, testes and spinal cord, and related phenotype is cardiovascular system ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the pacing site in sinus node reentrant tachycardia. AU - Castellanos, Agustin. AU - Aranda, Juan. AU - Moleiro, Federico. AU - Mallon, Stephen M.. AU - Befeler, Benjamin. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - His bundle recordings and premature atrial stimulation from coronary sinus, mid-right atrium and high-right atrium were performed in a patient with repetitive supraventricular tachycardias. Regardless of the paced site, there was a range of coupling intervals during which testing stimuli elicited short runs of premature beats. The corresponding P waves were positive in leads I, II and II and had a high-to-low right atrial activation sequence. Their morphology was similar to that of sinus beats. However, sustained tachycardia occurred only when pacing was performed from the coronary sinus. Therefore, it is postulated that the site of stimulation might be important in the genesis and (perhaps) perpetuation of this arrhythmia by changing the site and (or) mode of entry into ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and genetic heterogeneity of right bundle branch block and ST-segment elevation syndrome. T2 - A prospective evaluation of 52 families. AU - Priori, Silvia G.. AU - Napolitano, Carlo. AU - Gasparini, Maurizio. AU - Pappone, Carlo. AU - Della Bella, Paolo. AU - Brignole, Michele. AU - Giordano, Umberto. AU - Giovannini, Tiziana. AU - Menozzi, Carlo. AU - Bloise, Raffaella. AU - Crotti, Lia. AU - Terreni, Liana. AU - Schwartz, Peter J.. PY - 2000/11/14. Y1 - 2000/11/14. N2 - Background - The ECG pattern of right bundle branch block and ST-segment elevation in leads V1 to V3 (Brugada syndrome) is associated with high risk of sudden death in patients with a normal heart. Current management and prognosis are based on a single study suggesting a high mortality risk within 3 years for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients alike. As a consequence, aggressive management (implantable cardioverter defibrillator) is recommended for both groups. Methods and Results - Sixty patients ...
The aim of this study was to perform a pilot histological and quantitative analysis of the blood vessels accompanying the epicardial nerves (vasa nervorum) in the porcine hearts. Twenty healthy porcine hearts were used in this study. The blood vessels were analyzed by light microscopy using four different staining techniques in transverse sections taken from the upper, middle, and lower segments of the anterior part of the interventricular region and the adjacent parts of the right and left ventricles containing epicardial nerves and the endocardial peripheral parts of the Purkinje fibers. In total, 317 epicardial nerves were detected. The vasa nervorum were present in 75.7% of these nerves. The vasa nervorum resembled arterioles and postcapillary and collecting venules. One hundred and forty nine epicardial nerves were perivascular, located in the adventitia of the anterior interventricular artery and vein. The remaining 168 nerves ran freely through the epicardial interstitium. The presence of ...
LGL syndrome is diagnosed in a person who has experienced episodes of abnormal heart racing (arrhythmias) who has a PR interval less than or equal to 0.12 second (120 ms) with normal QRS complex configuration and duration on their resting ECG.[1] A short PR interval found incidentally on an ECG without episodes of tachycardia is simply a benign ECG variant. LGL can be distinguished from WPW syndrome because the delta waves seen in WPW syndrome are not seen in LGL syndrome. The QRS complex will also be narrow in LGL syndrome, as opposed to WPW, because ventricular conduction is via the His-Purkinje system. Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome is a clinical diagnosis that came about before the advent of electrophysiology studies. It is important to be aware that not all WPW ECGs have a delta wave; the absence of a delta wave does not conclusively rule out WPW. ...
FLEC : Flecainide (Tambocor) is a class I cardiac antiarrhythmic agent with electrophysiologic properties similar to lidocaine, quinidine, procainamide, and tocainide. Flecainide produces a dose-related decrease in intracardiac conduction in all parts of the heart, with the greatest effect on the His-Purkinje system. Atrial effects are limited. Flecainide causes a dose-related and plasma concentration-related decrease in single and multiple premature ventricular contractions and can suppress recurrence of ventricular tachycardia.   Flecainide is eliminated from blood by hepatic metabolism as well as renal clearance; significant changes in either organ system will cause impaired clearance. During preclinical trials, patients with congestive heart failure were observed to have radically altered clearance properties. Cardiac toxicity attributed to flecainide is related to its cardiac conduction slowing properties. Excessive prolongation of PR, QRS, and QT intervals occurs with increased amplitude
Arrhythmias that originate in the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system include premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardias that can be sustained or nonsustained, and ventricular fibrillation. Arrhythmia may emerge from a focus of myocardial or Purkinje cells capable of automaticity, or triggered automaticity, or from reentry through areas of scar or a diseased Purkinje system. Ventricular arrhythmias are often associated with structural heart disease and are an important cause of sudden death (Chap. 327). They also occur in some structurally normal hearts, in which case they are usually benign. Evaluation and management are guided by the risk of arrhythmic death, which is assessed based on symptoms, type of arrhythmia, and associated underlying heart disease. ...
We report the case of a 56-year-old male with ischemic cardiomyopathy, severe left ventricular dysfunction and right bundle branch block (RBBB) with a wide QRS duration (180ms) who received dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for prim
Question - Is right bundle branch block related to kidney problem?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, Ask a Cardiac Surgeon
Dear Doctor, I have been diagnost with an incomplete right bundle branch block. I am 45 and 108 punds. All physical, stress test and blood work is fine. The doctor tells me not to worry. However ...
Karel Frederik Wenckebach (March 24, 1864 - November 11, 1940) was a Dutch anatomist who was a native of the Hague. He studied medicine in Utrecht, and in 1901 become a professor of medicine at the University of Groningen. Later he was a professor at the Universities of Strasbourg (1911-14) and Vienna (1914-29). Wenckebach (pronounced ven-kĕ-bak) is primarily remembered for his work in cardiology. In 1899 he provided a description of irregular pulses due to partial blockage of atrioventricular conduction, creating a progressive lengthening of conduction time in cardiac tissue. The condition was referred to as a second degree AV block and later named the Wenckebach phenomenon and reclassified as Mobitz type I block in Mobitzs 1924 paper. A similar phenomenon can also occur in the Sinoatrial node where it gives rise to Type I second degree SA block, and this is also known as a Wenckebach block; the two have distinct features on an ECG however. Wenckebach is credited for describing the ...
Cardiac conduction in the adult heart begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, which is located at the junction between the SVC and the right atrium. The impulses generated here spread through the atria, initiating contraction. The impulses travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node which acts to slow the transmission of an impulse between the atria and ventricles. After this time lag, impulses travel to the ventricles via the common atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) to the bundle branches in the IV septum. The branches split and terminate throughout the myocardium in a network of Purkinje fibres. The adult conduction system is shown below ...
Bundle branches are clusters of pathways that carry electrical impulses to different parts of your heart. A bundle branch block is a delay or obstruction in one of the pathways. These can keep your heart from pumping normally. Many blocks are caused by heart disease, some are there at birth. If the condition is serious, a pacemaker may be prescribed.   The key bundle is the bundle of His, the him in question being the discoverer, Wilhelm His, Jr. This bundle distributes the electrical impulse from the AV node to each ventricle, where it branches into the left and right bundle branches.
AV node - atrioventricular node located near the orifice of the coronary sinus in the annular and septal fibres of the right atrium ...
This ECG was obtained from an 84-year-old woman who was scheduled for surgery. When the anesthesiologist did this ECG, the surgery was cancelled. It is a very good example of fascicular-level blocks. The underlying rhythm is a regular sinus rhythm at about 95 bpm. There are some non-conducted P waves which are part of the sinus rhythm (not premature beats). When the P waves DO conduct, the PR interval is steady at about .15 seconds (148 ms).. In addition, there is a LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK. The ECG criteria for LBBB are: 1) A supraventricular rhythm, 2) A wide QRS, and 3) A negative QRS in Lead V1 and a positive QRS in Leads I and V6. The QRS duration in this ECG is 136 ms.. There are generally two fascicles (branches) in the left bundle branch, and one main fascicle in the right bundle branch. So, a LBBB represents a bi-fascicular block. That means that A-V conduction is proceeding down only one fascicle (the right bundle branch). In that fascicle, there is an intermittent block. When the ...
Properties of the cardiac muscle AUTOMATICITY CONDUCTIVITY CONTRACTILITY EXCITABILITY REFRACTORY PERIODS 1. AUTOMATICITY is the unique ability of the cells in the SA node (pacemaker cells) to generate an action potential without being stimulated.
The term cardiac preexcitation was originally used to describe premature activation of the ventricles in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern. This term has been broadened to include all conditions in which antegrade ventricular acti
Aphids ingest their food from sieve tubes (Auclair, 1963; Miles, 1987; Prado and Tjallingii, 1994) that contain a concentrate of nutrients (Hayashi and Chino, 1990; van Bel, 2003). Sieve-tube sap is withdrawn by specialized aphid mouth parts (stylets) (Auclair, 1963; Miyazaki, 1987). Prior to ingestion, aphids secrete watery saliva, probably to interfere with plant occlusion reactions induced by stylet damage (Will and van Bel, 2006; Will et al., 2007; Will et al., 2009; Carolan et al., 2009).. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reconstructions demonstrate relatively straightforward stylet progression through the extravascular tissue that occurs largely intercellularly. The stylet orientation becomes increasingly diffuse within the vascular bundle region, as the TEM reconstructions show several dead-end tracks of gel saliva, which is secreted to function as a lubrication and protection sheath for the fragile mouth parts (Tjallingii and Hogen Esch, 1993). Even punctured sieve tubes are ...
Aims We investigated the applicability of the Ventricular Capture Control (VCC) and Atrial Capture Control (ACC) algorithms for automatic management of cardiac stimulation featured by Biotronik pacemakers in a broad, unselected population of pacemaker recipients. Methods and results Ventricular Capture Control and Atrial Capture Control were programmed to work at a maximum adapted output voltage as 4.8 V in consecutive recipients of Biotronik pacemakers. Ambulatory threshold measurements were made 1 and 12 months after pacemaker implant/replacement in all possible pacing/sensing configurations, and were compared with manual measurements. Among 542 patients aged 80 (73-85) years, 382 had a pacemaker implant and 160 a pacemaker replacement. Ventricular Capture Control could work at long term in 97% of patients irrespectively of pacing indication, lead type, and lead service life, performance being superior with discordant pacing/sensing configurations. Atrial Capture Control could work in 93% of ...
Junctional rhythm is an abnormal heart rhythm in the atrioventricular node. Though its not always dangerous, it can be a sign of...
I have RBBB, and occasional PVCs, sometimes during exercise. Should answer 1 say or you have PVCs with right bundle branch block morphology on EKG?? Could you tell me, are there PVCs with a left and right bbb morphology (and which is visible on the EKG?) The first answer scared me a little bit, to be honest.. Sometimes I have a tachycardia which I cannot explain. It starts with me feeling my heart beating in my throat. It feels like my heart has suddenly shifted 20 cm upwards in my chest and I can feel it beat high in my chest / throat. One time this happened before going to the gym. It started to accelerate to about 160 bpm, then I tried to relax and it went back to about 100 bpm. I refused to give in to anxiety, so I started to work out anyway. However, as soon as I started lifting weights (and thus my heartrate would go up) I would immediately feel it back in my throat. It was so annoying (and still scary) that I gave up working out after 10 mins, because it didnt feel good ...
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
DENVER/November 30, 2018 - Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers have developed a new treatment for dogs with a rare, but life-threatening, arrhythmia caused by atrioventricular accessory ...
Is there a P Wave before each QRS? Are P waves upright and uniform? occur before, during or after the QRS depending on where the pacemaker is located in the AV junction.; P wave may be inverted ...
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Home Bundle Edition[edit]. National Instruments provides a low cost LabVIEW Home Bundle Edition.[9] ... "LabVIEW Home Bundle for Windows - National Instruments". sine.ni.com. Archived from the original on 2016-07-04.. ...
See also: Wikipedia:Citing sources § Bundling citations. Template {{harvnb}}. can be used to bundle citations. {{sfnm}}. also ... is inappropriate for bundled citations; use {{harvnb}}. or {{sfnm}}. . More exotic Harvard citations {{harvid}}. or {{harvs}}. ...
His bundle pacing[edit]. Conventional placement of ventricular leads in or around the tip or apex of the right ventricle, or RV ... His bundle pacing (HBP) leads to a more natural or perfectly natural ventricular activation and has generated strong research ... In the first half of the tracing, pacemaker stimuli at 60 beats per minute result in a wide QRS complex with a right bundle ... "Focus on Electrophysiology: His Bundle Pacing: A More Physiologic Alternative For Pacing". American College of Cardiology. ...
... holds that the self cannot be reduced to a bundle because the concept of a self is incompatible with the idea of a bundle. ... Bundle theory of the self[edit]. A Treatise Of Human Nature: Being An Attempt To Introduce The Experimental Method Of Reasoning ... James Giles, a principal exponent of this view, argues that the no-self or eliminativist theory and the bundle or reductionist ... When we start introspecting, "we are never intimately conscious of anything but a particular perception; man is a bundle or ...
A line bundle, such as the tangent bundle of S1 is trivial if and only if there is a section that vanishes nowhere, see ... the trivial bundle X × V). For example, the Möbius strip can be seen as a line bundle over the circle S1 (by identifying open ... to the trivial bundle U × V → U. Despite their locally trivial character, vector bundles may (depending on the shape of the ... The case dim V = 1 is called a line bundle. For any vector space V, the projection X × V → X makes the product X × V into a " ...
Service bundling[edit]. For residential users, IPTV is often provided in conjunction with video on demand and may be bundled ... Commercial bundling of IPTV, VoIP and Internet access is sometimes referred to in marketing as triple play service. When these ...
Remak bundles[edit]. C fiber axons are grouped together into what is known as Remak bundles.[3] These occur when a non- ... The condition of Remak bundles varies with age.[4] The number of C fiber axons in each Remak bundle varies with location.[3] ... Remak bundles in the distal peripheral nerve are clustered with other Remak bundles.[3] The Remak Schwann cells have been shown ... Multiple neurons contribute axons to the Remak bundle with an average ratio of about 2 axons contributed per bundle.[3] The ...
There are several types of bundles: pure bundles where the goods can only be purchased as package or mixed bundles where the ... Price bundling (also known as product bundling) occurs where two or more products or services are priced as a package with a ... These include price skimming, price discrimination and yield management, price points, psychological pricing, bundle pricing, ... The prices of the bundle is typically less than when the two items are purchased separately.[24] ...
Using bundles in health care[edit]. Using bundles in health care simplifies the complex processes of the care of patients with ... A bundle is a selected set of elements of care distilled from evidence-based practice guidelines that, when implemented as a ... The 24-hour SSC Management Bundle includes: *Low-dose steroids administered for septic shock in accordance with a standardized ... Each hospital's sepsis protocol may be customized, but it must meet the standards created by the bundle. ...
Bundled and/or integrated software[edit]. *Microsoft Chat 2.0 is a simple text chatting program included in the Windows NT-line ... It was bundled with Internet Explorer 4, but was also available for free, and could be downloaded from online repositories.[17] ... At the same event, Apple announced the release of Mac OS 8.1, which would be bundled with IE4. ...
Commodity bundles, price indices and inflation[edit]. A commodity bundle is a sample of goods, which is used to represent the ... equals 100 times the value of the commodity bundle at time t. {\displaystyle t}. , divided by the value of the commodity bundle ... The nominal value of the commodity bundle at a point of time is the total market value of the commodity bundle, depending on ... The bundle of goods used to measure the Consumer Price Index (CPI) is applicable to consumers. So for wage earners as consumers ...
Bundled citation: {{harvnb}}. or {{sfnm}}. [ویرایش]. نوشتار(های) وابسته: Wikipedia:Citing sources § Bundling citations ... is inappropriate for bundled citations; use {{harvnb}}. or {{sfnm}}. . More exotic Harvard citations {{harvid}}. or {{harvs}}. ...
The GT Mobile brand offers alternative pricing structures and packages focusing more on national bundles from the Lycamobile ... "National & International Prepaid SIM , Bundle , SIM only Deals". www.lycamobile.ru. Retrieved 2 August 2019. "Welcome To ...
Bundle from Middle Dutch bondel or perhaps a merger of this word and Old English byndele (binding) [37]. Bung from Middle Dutch ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Buy BioShock from the Humble Store". Humble Bundle. Retrieved 2016-11-01. "Mass Effect ...
Bundles of the games with the Poké Ball Plus controller were announced, as well as Nintendo Switch console bundles, including ... On 21 September 2018, Amazon began offering pre-orders for the Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee! Switch bundle. Reception ... Wallaca, Jamie (13 June 2018). "Let's Go Pikachu and Eevee bundles including Poké Ball Plus emerge". Eurogamer. Archived from ... "Nintendo Switch 'Pokemon Let's Go' Pikachu and Eevee Bundles Finally Hit Amazon". WWG. Retrieved 25 September 2018. "Pokemon: ...
The CAUTI Bundle is similar to the bundles for prevention and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia, sepsis, and central ... "Safeek UTI Bundle" (PDF). American College of Physician Executives. Retrieved 2010-04-01. Safeek, Yisrael. "UTI Bundle". ... Safeek published a simple, easy-to-remember urinary tract infections open source bundle (CAUTI Bundle) in Physician Executive, ... The CAUTI Bundle was later reprinted by Healthcare Financial Management Journal upon request as a tool to decrease unnecessary ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Interviews » Paul Sinton Hewitt - parkrun". Run Bundle. April 2017. Retrieved 14 May ...
2014 December 25 , Alpha Kimori sold 31,657 copies in the Humble Weekly Bundle: RPG Edition Book 1 Bundle. "Jrpg". Marchello, ... "Groupees Be Mine 13 Bundle". Groupees. June 17, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014. "Humble Bundle Includes Alpha Kimori Episode One ... 2014 June 17 , Alpha Kimori sold over 29,000 copies in the Groupees Be Mine 13 Game and Charity Bundle sponsored by Machinima. ... "Groupees Bundle Be Mine 13 Includes Alpha Kimori Great Doubt". OpRainfall. June 12, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014. " ...
Bundle (online). Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ... As recounted in interview to Geoff Wolinetz of Bundle.com, Popova first worked when she was about 8 years old, making the ...
"Ratings: Rocky Mountain Women's Film Festival". Bundle Ratings. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved May ...
"Baby Bundle". NSW Health. Ministry of Health (New South Wales). Retrieved 1 July 2019. "Baby bundle". health.vic. Department of ... The bundle contains picture books, mats, a first aid kit, a sleeping bag, thermometers, and consumable child-care products such ... In Australia, the state of New South Wales began a program providing a baby bundle to the parents of every baby born from 1 ... Similarly, the state of Victoria began a baby bundle program starting from July 2019, for all first-time parents and carers. In ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Humble Indie Bundle 11". Humble Bundle. Archived from the original on February 19, ... Mac and Linux support were promised after the release of Humble Indie Bundle 11 in February 2014, but have yet to be released. ...
"The Yogscast Jingle Jam 2018". Humble Bundle. Retrieved 2 January 2018. "Yogscast Jingle Jam 2019". Humble Bundle. Archived ... It featured a longer list of twelve charities, with limited numbers of game bundles being assigned to each charity. The ... In 2020, the Jingle Jam 2020 switched its fundraising platform to Tiltify after 7 years on Humble Bundle, while continuing to ... Senior, Tom (29 June 2011). "Yogbox bundles Minecraft's best mods into one download". PC Gamer. Archived from the original on 5 ...
... "bundle; (fig.) term of endearment for infants, 'little mite'; (in some dial.) short and/or plump woman"; knytt, dialectical ...
Bundle, Humble (Sep 25, 2013). "Star Command Android Debut on Humble Bundle". Humble Bundle. Retrieved Sep 25, 2013. Buchanan, ... The Android version has been released, debuting in the Humble Mobile Bundle 2 on September 25, 2013, with PC and Macintosh ...
"Humble Bundle: Sci-fi Classics". Humble Bundle. Archived from the original on February 18, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. ... Brick Tower Press offered e-book versions of its titles, including Deuces Down and Death Draws Five, via Humble Bundle in ...
Humble Bundle. 4 August 2017. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2018 - via YouTube. Clayton, ...
On 28 July 2015, two editions were made available to purchase on both through Humble Bundle and the Mac App Store, with a Steam ... "Games , The Humble Store". Humble Bundle. Retrieved 15 February 2021. "Australia's First Video Game Bar". Mana Bar. Archived ... are published across Steam and Humble Bundle. Outside of writing, Croshaw was one of the four founders of the Mana Bar, an ...
"Humble Bundle Includes Alpha Kimori Episode One". Humble Bundle. 25 December 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2015. "Big Fish Games". Big ... 2014 December 25 , Alpha Kimori sold 31,657 copies in the Humble Weekly Bundle: RPG Edition Book 1 Bundle. 2011 , Alpha Kimori ... "Groupees Bundle Be Mine 13 Includes Alpha Kimori Great Doubt". OpRainfall. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014. "Groupees Be ... 2014 June 17 , Alpha Kimori sold over 29,000 copies in the Groupees Be Mine 13 Game and Charity Bundle sponsored by Machinima. ...
Each Bundle will include 3-5 fiction books. These bundles are intended for for kids in grades 1 - 5. ... Please select up to 3 bundles you would like. Patrons will receive one bundle at a time. * ... How many grade schoolers are in your household? Book Bundles will contain a craft for each child. * ... Please use this form to request Grade School Book Bundles from the Livonia Bennett Civic Center Library. ...
Title: GraFi Bundle Genre: Casual, Indie. Developer: Blender Games. Publisher: Blender Games. Franchise: GraFi. Languages: ...
About this bundle. Amanita Bundle contains all of Amanita Designs adventure games, game soundtracks and digital art books. ... Title: Amanita Bundle Genre: Adventure, Indie, Casual. Developer: Amanita Design. Publisher: Amanita Design. Languages: English ...
In a bicollateral bundle, the phloem is both outside and inside the xylem, as in Solanaceae (the potato family) and ... Other articles where Bicollateral bundle is discussed: angiosperm: Stems: ... In a bicollateral bundle, the phloem is both outside and inside the xylem, as in Solanaceae (the potato family) and ...
... known as the bundle of His) running along the muscular partition between the left and right chambers of the heart. He found ... Other articles where Bundle of His is discussed: Wilhelm His: …muscle fibres ( ... to the atrioventricular node and bundle of His (known as the atrioventricular junctional tissue), through the bundle branches ... muscle fibres (known as the bundle of His) running along the muscular partition between the left and right chambers of the ...
Bundle::Apache::ASP::EUser(Contributed Perl DocumBundle::Apache::ASP::Extra(3) NAME Bundle::Apache::ASP::Extra - Install ... DESCRIPTION This bundle contains extra modules used by Apache::ASP. AUTHOR Joshua Chamas perl v5.24.1 2011-08-15 Bundle::Apache ... May also use XML::Sablotron and XML::LibXSLT for this, which are not part of this bundle. ... Bundle::Apache::ASP - Base for Apache::ASP installation CGI - Required for file upload, make test, and command line ./cgi/asp ...
隨選遊戲版本支援英文、法文、義大利文、西班牙文。 Bundle includes Prototype® and Prototype®2 with DLC! PROTOTYPE: Discover what lies beyond the edge of ... 隨選遊戲版本支援英文、法文、義大利文、西班牙文。 Bundle includes Prototype® and Prototype®2 with DLC! PROTOTYPE: Discover what lies beyond the edge of ... http://marketplace.xbox.com/zh-hk/Product/Prototype-Bio-Bundle
Bundle includes Prototype® and Prototype®2 with DLC! PROTOTYPE: Discover what lies beyond the edge of evolution. Play as Alex ... Bundle includes Prototype® and Prototype®2 with DLC! PROTOTYPE: Discover what lies beyond the edge of evolution. Play as Alex ... http://marketplace.xbox.com/en-GB/Product/Prototype-Bio-Bundle/66acd000-77fe-1000-9115-d8024156092d?cid=SLink Click to create ...
The vascular bundle consists of xylem, which conducts water and dissolved mineral ... vascular bundle vascular bundle. vascular bundle, in botany, a strand of conducting tissue extending lengthwise through the ... The structure of vascular bundles varies among the different plant groups. See wood . The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ... The vascular bundle consists of xylem, which conducts water and dissolved mineral substances from the soil to the leaves, and ...
... video editing has never been easier with Adobe Elements Bundle 2021. Learn more today! ... Black Friday is on! Save 40% on the Elements bundle. Ends 12/1.** US$89.99. ...
FeaturesBranding / Identity Mock-uphttp://graphicriver.net/item/branding-identity-mockup/3277323 - Photorealistic presentations - Editable Layers (shadows, lights, ect.) - Very hight resolution / 300 dpi - Edit your file by smart objects - Easy t…
... use the Bundle destination to group destinations together so that you can create several types of output in a single step. ... Bundle destination in Motion. You can group sets of destinations together in a bundle to create several types of output in a ... When you share a project or clip using the bundle, a file for each destination in the bundle is output automatically. To learn ... how to create a bundle, see Create and modify share destinations in Motion. ...
His bundle electrography is a test that measures electrical activity in a part of the heart that carries the signals that ... His bundle electrogram; HBE; His bundle recording; Electrogram - His bundle; Arrhythmia - His; Heart block - His ... The bundle of His is a group of fibers that carry electrical impulses through the center of the heart. If these signals are ... His bundle electrography is a test that measures electrical activity in a part of the heart that carries the signals that ...
This survey bundle consists of four different types of surveys. Each of them is meant for an employee during a specific stage ... This questionnaire bundle consists of four different types of forms. Each of them is meant for an employee during a specific ... HR Questionnaire Bundle. Introduction. Gather important information from your employees at different stages during their ...
Note, you need to own the base game Dragon Age™: Inquisition, sold separately, in order to use this bundle. ... This bundle includes all the story content: Jaws of Hakkon, The Descent, and Trespasser. Youll also get the two add-ons: ... Adds more miraculous entertainment to DA:I and at a more than fair price for all content if you buy the DLC Bundle. DA:I is the ... This bundle includes all the story content: Jaws of Hakkon, The Descent, and Trespasser. Youll also get the two add-ons: ...
Inspired by Rais gang, this bundle will get you a new character outfit, a new buggy paint job, and three new blueprints - a ... Inspired by Rais gang, this bundle will get you a new character outfit, a new buggy paint job, and three new blueprints - a ... Become the leader of the pack with this bundle inspired by Rais gang. Enjoy a new character outfit, a new buggy paint job ( ...
Download Chord Organ + KinderKlavier Bundle and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots and learn more about Chord Organ + KinderKlavier Bundle. ... This app bundle is only available on the App Store for iOS devices. ...
Official Rules:. 1.NO PURCHASE IS NECESSARY TO ENTER OR WIN. To enter the giveaway, post a comment on the relevant Facebook post sharing your childs favorite summer activity using #KlutzSweepstakes. Enter through Facebook. One (1) winner will be chosen on August 9, 2018. All entries must be submitted by August 8, 2018 to be eligible for the sweepstakes. Any and all entries may be cut, edited, reformatted, rearranged, and combines with other materials and/or otherwise modified in Sponsors sole and absolute discretion. By entering, each entrant warrants and represents the following with respect to his/her comment: (a) entrant is the sole and exclusive owner of the comment, (b) the comment is entrants own creation and original work, (c) the comment will not infringe any rights of any third parties, (d) any third parties mentioned in the comment have given entrant appropriate consent to be included and used as permitted herein, and (d) the entrant is the parent or legal guardian of any child(ren) ...
The present invention relates to an apparatus for collating a plurality of separate groups or bundles of similar flats ... Therefore, an apparatus was considered that would automatically receive many bundles of mail documents, each bundle composed of ... catalogs and the like which are delivered to Postal sorting facilities in bundles, each piece within the bundle organized in ... Flats bundle collator. US20040200761 *. Apr 11, 2003. Oct 14, 2004. Hanson Bruce H.. Delivery point sequencer and method of use ...
This two-planner bundle is sure to keep you thriving at home and building your empire at the office. (priced individually at $ ... Blogger & Entrepreneur Planner Bundle , Monthly Goals , Delegation Tracking , Social Media Planning , Undated, 6x9 ... This two-planner bundle is sure to keep you thriving at home and building your empire at the office. (priced individually at $ ... Blogger & Entrepreneur Planner Bundle , Monthly Goals , Delegation Tracking , Social Media Planning , Undated, 6x9 ...
Heres more about the book club bundle: " 6 signed hardcovers for your book club, bookstore,. cafe, startup, co-working space… ... In the rewards section, the project includes a "book club bundle" reward for backers who contribute $170 to the project-what do ... plus your name in the back and the digital bundle. Shipping included. (International add $10) Estimated Delivery: Jan 2013." ...
Humble Bundle Inc. is continuing its charity work with a third Humble Bundle, which launched today. Gamers can not only name ... This years Humble Bundle is collecting for charity.. Available until August 9, the Humble Bundle includes And Yet It Moves, ... Humble Indie Bundle 3 now live. Gamers can name their price for five independent titles, including And Yet It Moves, ... Linux users are the most generous, giving an average of $10.36 for the bundle, followed by Mac users at $5.51, and Windows ...
Star Trek Online is pleased to announce the impending addition of a bundle of brand new Tier 6 Cruisers/Battlecruisers, coming ... Star Trek Online is pleased to announce the impending addition of a bundle of brand new Tier 6 Cruisers/Battlecruisers, coming ... or they can be found packaged together in the T6 Advanced Light Cruiser bundle. ...
One of the launchpad improvements recently was to give js and css bundles better names. We should update the debugger bundle ... Comment on attachment 8825576 [details] [diff] [review] bundle-names.patch Review of attachment 8825576 [details] [diff] [ ... Created attachment 8825576 [details] [diff] [review] bundle-names.patch. CC: ttromey. Attachment #8825576 - Flags: review?( ... Created attachment 8825867 [details] [diff] [review] bundle-names2.patch. Attachment #8825576 - Attachment is obsolete: true ...
Oomph bundles: Oomph bundles include a mobile SIM and a broadband speed boost. Mobile SIMs available with a range of packages, ... Downgrading a service in your bundle may result in loss of bundle discount and/or boosted speeds. If you upgrade any part of ... Downgrading a service in your bundle may result in loss of bundle discount. If you upgrade any aspect of the service, standard ... Downgrading a service in your bundle may result in loss of bundle discount. If you upgrade any aspect of the service, standard ...
... discussing bundle of econ dilemmas facing economists at forthcoming summit confs, notes higher interest rates could accelerate ... This was the bundle of dilemnas on the eve of the presummit meetings:. Many of the things that would eventually lessen ... A Bundle of Economic Dilemmas. By EDWIN L. DALE JR.. SEPT. 5, 1974. ... For the Government, the situation presents what has been called "a bundle of dilemMas," with every proposed as km or Solution ...
Bundle or Bundling may refer to: Bundling (packaging), the process of using straps to bundle up items Product bundling, a ... Bundled payment, a method for reimbursing health care providers Bundle (mathematics), a generalization of a fiber bundle ... or The Bundles (album), their only album Bundle theory (philosophy) Sacred bundle a wrapped collection of sacred items, held by ... Optical fiber bundle, a cable consisting of a collection of fiber optics Bundle of rights (property law) Bundling (antitrust ...
If you want to understand them better, or make a career in network maintenance, this bundle is a great start point. ... The start of a new career? Get 88% off the Network Engineers Learning Bundle. by TNW Deals - in Offers ... The bundle takes 88 percent off the standard price of the courses - order it now to get started. ... If you want to understand them better, or make a career in network maintenance, this robust course bundle is a great starting ...
Sign up for The Disney Bundle. Click "Sign Up Now" to create your Hulu account and sign up for The Disney Bundle with Hulu + ... The Disney Bundle includes an ESPN+ subscription, billed monthly (regular, non-bundle price is $5.99/month). You get access to ... The Disney Bundle includes the full Disney+ experience, billed monthly (regular, non-bundle price is $6.99/month). You get ... Hulu, Disney+, and ESPN+Disney bundle with Hulu (No Ads)Disney bundle with Hulu + Live TV ...
Toddler Summer Reading Book Bundle Sweepstakes. Read the rules and enter to win the Toddler Summer Reading Book Bundle ... To obtain a winners list, send a self-addressed stamped envelope before August 1, 2018 to: Toddler Book Bundle Giveaway, Trade ...
  • The results from these reviews were presented to the OASI Care Bundle project team of clinical experts for consideration in the final care bundle. (rcog.org.uk)
  • The final interventions selected for inclusion within the pilot OASI Care Bundle were based on the expert consensus of obstetricians and midwives in the OASI Care Bundle project team. (rcog.org.uk)
  • The OASI Care Bundle Project received funding from the Health Foundation Scaling Up Programme to implement this intervention in 16 maternity units across England, Scotland and Wales. (rcog.org.uk)
  • In practice, the bundles in Orbit don't change and even have the same qualifier (we use the CVS tag) after they become stable. (eclipse.org)
  • Translating Health Care-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention Research Into Practice via the Bladder Bundle. (medline.com)
  • The evaluation of the programme will include an evaluation of the impact of the OASI care bundle on clinical practice and clinical outcomes. (rcog.org.uk)
  • Overall customer satisfaction with homeowners insurance companies is the highest in the 12 years J.D. Power and Associates has measured it, driven in part by the practice of bundling auto and homeowners insurance policies. (insurancejournal.com)
  • When electrical conduction through the atrioventricular node or bundle of His is interrupted, the condition is called heart block. (britannica.com)
  • to the atrioventricular node and bundle of His (known as the atrioventricular junctional tissue), through the bundle branches and Purkinje fibres (known as the ventricular conduction system), and into the ventricular muscle cells that ultimately generate cardiac output. (britannica.com)
  • The left bundle is a part of the heart's electrical conduction system and block in the bundle branch can occur for a number of reasons. (medhelp.org)
  • Intraventricular block due to interruption of conduction in one of the two main branches of the bundle of His and manifested in the electrocardiogram by marked prolongation of the QRS complex. (dictionary.com)
  • Knowledge of the anatomy and electrophysiology of cardiac conduction system from the atrioventricular (AV) junction to the Purkinje fibers is essential to understanding the pathophysiology of right bundle branch block. (medscape.com)
  • Conduction down the left bundle branch proceeds normally, and the interventricular septum and left ventricle rapidly depolarize in the normal fashion. (medscape.com)
  • In terms of symptoms, you should not be symptomatic unless you were to also develop a left bundle branch block, in which case you would get pretty sick in a hurry. (medhelp.org)
  • Hurry and take advantage the Keto Kick-Off Bundle now for the low price of only $199! (pitchengine.com)
  • Adobe is now bundling Photoshop Elements 10 and Premiere Elements 10, the most-recent versions of its photo-editing and video-editing software, for users of both Windows and Mac OS X. (campustechnology.com)
  • The Photoshop Elements 10 & Adobe Premiere Elements 10 bundle brings together all the functionality people need to easily create, perfect, and share both photo and video memories,' said Winston Hendrickson, vice president of Digital Imaging Products, Adobe. (campustechnology.com)
  • This bundle includes all the story content: Jaws of Hakkon, The Descent, and Trespasser. (microsoft.com)
  • The Dragon Age: Inquisition DLC Bundle contains all 3 Expansion packs as well as the 2 Content packs for Dragon Age: Inquisition, the winner of over 130 Game of the Year Awards. (microsoft.com)
  • Adds more miraculous entertainment to DA:I and at a more than fair price for all content if you buy the DLC Bundle. (microsoft.com)
  • Determines if the bundle content has been tampered with at runtime. (eclipse.org)
  • Have questions regarding the Reno Aces 2021 Valentine's Bundle? (milb.com)
  • That's why we're offering The Complete QuickBooks Desktop 2021 Certification Bundle , discounted by over 90 percent, to help get you up to speed fast. (computerworld.com)
  • The Complete QuickBooks Desktop 2021 Certification Bundle features ten beginner-friendly courses that introduce students to the software and accounting basics. (computerworld.com)
  • Get The Complete QuickBooks Desktop 2021 Certification Bundle today for just $34.99 with this special offer. (computerworld.com)
  • Branch, an insurtech startup focused on bundling digital home and auto insurance, is eying national expansion through 2021 after nailing down $24 million in new financing. (insurancejournal.com)
  • Thankfully, the left bundle on the other hand is significantly (2-3x) thicker, and also significantly more resilient and more difficult to damage. (medhelp.org)
  • I am a 48 year old woman who just had an ECG done that showed Left Bundle Branch Block. (medhelp.org)
  • Hi, I'm not a Doctor, but It's my understanding that someone with a left bundle branch block can look forward to a normal life span. (medhelp.org)
  • I also have a left bundle branch block, it was detected in 1990. (medhelp.org)
  • Another theory describes a single ring of tissue located between the bulbus cordis and the primitive ventricle, which gives rise to the AV node, His bundle, right bundle branch, and left bundle branch. (medscape.com)
  • The distal or branching segment bifurcates at the crest of the muscular septum into the right and left bundle branches (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • What is bundle branch block? (webmd.com)
  • Hi, im a 19 y\o male, and about 3 years ago I was told I had a incomplete right bundle branch block. (medhelp.org)
  • I recently read some problems that are associated with a bundle branch block, and im pretty worried. (medhelp.org)
  • An EKG was done and detected 'right bundle branch block' but without any symptoms, so I was cleared. (medhelp.org)
  • Right bundle branch block (RBBB) occurs when transmission of the electrical impulse is delayed or not conducted along the right bundle branch. (medscape.com)
  • These electrocardiographs demonstrate a normal sinus rhythm and a sinus rhythm with a right bundle branch block. (medscape.com)
  • Right bundle branch block occurs when the electrical impulse from the bundle of His does not conduct along the right bundle branch. (medscape.com)
  • Depolarization of the right ventricle occurs later and is comparatively slow, accounting for the electrocardiographic (ECG) findings in right bundle branch block (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • This image depicts the electrophysiologic events of right bundle branch block. (medscape.com)
  • Pathophysiology of right bundle branch block is described. (medscape.com)
  • Exercise-induced right bundle branch block has been rarely noted and appears to be benign. (medscape.com)
  • With this topology, the tangent bundle to a manifold is the prototypical example of a vector bundle (which is a fiber bundle whose fibers are vector spaces). (wikipedia.org)
  • 隨選遊戲版本支援英文、法文、義大利文、西班牙文。 Bundle includes Prototype® and Prototype®2 (xbox.com)
  • Bundle includes Prototype® and Prototype®2 with DLC! (xbox.com)
  • In the rewards section, the project includes a "book club bundle" reward for backers who contribute $170 to the project-what do you think? (adweek.com)
  • The Network Engineer's Learning Bundle ( $59 ) includes seven tracks which teach you how to manage networks and create your own custom solutions. (thenextweb.com)
  • This awesome crochet pattern bundle includes TWO main PDF files plus the bonus PDF on adding sleeves to the vest - Save $2 when you buy them together! (etsy.com)
  • The bundle includes a swivel pole mount for the Panoptix transducer, 12Ah battery with charger, power cable grommet and foam float - all in a convenient, glove-friendly portable bag. (garmin.com)
  • The Bundle includes a premium heart rate monitor, speed and cadence sensors, plus standard and extended out-front mounts. (bicyclesportshop.com)
  • A system for therapeutically stimulating a His bundle includes an implantable pulse generator and a multi-polar medical electrical lead. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The body extends intravascularly from the generator to a location proximate the His bundle and includes a proximal end, a distal end, and a longitudinal lumen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To keep up with committed triathletes, this bundle includes Garmin's powerful HRM-Tri and HRM-Swim straps to provide nuanced swimming, cycling and running data. (mec.ca)
  • vascular bundle, in botany, a strand of conducting tissue extending lengthwise through the stems and roots of higher plants, including the ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. (factmonster.com)
  • The vascular bundle consists of xylem, which conducts water and dissolved mineral substances from the soil to the leaves, and phloem, which conducts dissolved foods, especially sugars, from the leaves to the storage tissues of the stem and root. (factmonster.com)
  • The structure of vascular bundles varies among the different plant groups. (factmonster.com)
  • 4. Botany A vascular bundle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Avalere said most providers agreeing to the bundled payment initiative are assuming risk for Medicare patients with orthopedic, pulmonary or vascular conditions. (forbes.com)
  • Humble Bundle Inc. is continuing its charity work with a third Humble Bundle , which launched today . (gamespot.com)
  • This year's Humble Bundle is collecting for charity. (gamespot.com)
  • As of press time, the Humble Bundle has collected more than $115,000 from nearly 28,000 total purchases. (gamespot.com)
  • Hopefully this is happier indie price-experimentation news than the below… What began as really little more than pay what you want for one game - that being Frozen Synapse - has been slowly expanding to be some games, as appears to be Humble Bundle trends. (rockpapershotgun.com)
  • Bundled payment approaches create incentives for providers to eliminate unnecessary services and reduce costs. (rand.org)
  • system, reimbursement is directly related to the volume of services provided and there is little incentive to reduce unnecessary care, the use of bundled payment mechanisms promotes a more efficient use of services. (rand.org)
  • Since Orbit bundles are generally supposed to be stable some of this work is unnecessary since the bundles aren't supposed to change. (eclipse.org)
  • https://hg.mozilla.org/integration/mozilla-inbound/rev/d700dc85c04c Update bundle names. (mozilla.org)
  • Since you've never had an ekg before its worth mentioning that a significant portion of right bundle branch blocks are actually something you can be born with. (medhelp.org)
  • The right bundle branch, a direct continuation of the penetrating bundle of His, originates distal to the attachment of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve with the membranous septum and surfaces on the right ventricular septum just below the papillary muscle of the conus. (medscape.com)
  • Print-Friendly versions of the two main patterns are also available, but because of the file limit on Etsy's listings they are not included in the bundle uploads. (etsy.com)
  • One of the main roles of the tangent bundle is to provide a domain and range for the derivative of a smooth function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bundle of His is a group of fibers that carry electrical impulses through the center of the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The OASI Care Bundle is a Quality Improvement Project that is being implemented nationally in 16 sites across England, Scotland and Wales. (rcog.org.uk)
  • Anatomy of the penetrating portion of the atrioventricular (AV) bundle is shown. (medscape.com)
  • Some products like to have their own map files which means when there is a new Orbit build, the team must update each individual entry for the bundles which they consume from Orbit. (eclipse.org)
  • Marketers love to bundle products and for good reason. (insurancejournal.com)
  • Note, you need to own the base game Dragon Age™: Inquisition, sold separately, in order to use this bundle. (microsoft.com)
  • Game and memory card bundle will be sold separately. (playstationlifestyle.net)
  • A publisher that sells a college textbook and any supplemental material accompanying such college textbook as a single bundle shall also make available the college textbook and each supplemental material as separate and unbundled items, each separately priced. (techdirt.com)
  • The tangent bundle comes equipped with a natural topology (described in a section below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The tangent bundle comes equipped with a natural topology (not the disjoint union topology) and smooth structure so as to make it into a manifold in its own right. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adherence to a bundle requires a "Yes" to all of these criteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Dressing up your bundle of joy arriving in summer requires a lot of planning. (articlealley.com)
  • With looping and growth of the cardiac septi, the rings are brought together and develop into the sinus node, the AV node, and the penetrating bundle. (medscape.com)
  • This questionnaire bundle consists of four different types of forms. (novell.com)
  • The bundle takes 88 percent off the standard price of the courses - order it now to get started. (thenextweb.com)
  • In a bicollateral bundle, the phloem is both outside and inside the xylem, as in Solanaceae (the potato family) and Cucurbitaceae (the cucumber family). (britannica.com)
  • muscle fibres (known as the bundle of His) running along the muscular partition between the left and right chambers of the heart. (britannica.com)
  • of conductive fibres called the bundle of His, which induces the contraction of the ventricles. (britannica.com)
  • Delight your diners with creamy Chicken Pot Pie Bundles, perfect for a winter night. (eatright.org)
  • Dip chicken bundles in egg, then roll in crumb mixture. (allrecipes.com)
  • The AV junction can be divided into three regions as follows: transitional cell zone, AV node, and penetrating portion of the AV bundle (His bundle, common bundle). (medscape.com)
  • Inspired by some of the country's most beautiful places-Acadia, Zion and Redwood-Ursa Major's National Parks Soap Bundle features three bars that produce a rich, creamy lather. (coolhunting.com)
  • They define a care bundle as a small set of evidence-based interventions for a defined patient segment or population and care setting that, when implemented together, will result in significantly better outcomes than when implemented individually. (rcog.org.uk)
  • Note that bundles which define no constraints would still be allowed to resolve even if they had no permissions. (eclipse.org)
  • That's what's provided in The Freelance Web Developer Bundle, offering training from top-level instructors to deliver know-how in essential coding and programming techniques, as well as creating iPhone apps, game development and more. (thenextweb.com)
  • Abstract This document describes the end-to-end protocol, block formats, and abstract service description for the exchange of messages (bundles) in Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN). (rfc-editor.org)
  • Just as manifolds are locally modeled on Euclidean space, tangent bundles are locally modeled on U × R n {\displaystyle U\times \mathbb {R} ^{n}} , where U {\displaystyle U} is an open subset of Euclidean space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The OASI Care Bundle was developed by the RCM and the RCOG through a systematic review of intrapartum interventions, the results from which were presented to a panel of clinical experts for consideration in the final list of care bundle interventions. (rcog.org.uk)
  • Review title of SmesShadeslayer Superb DLC Bundle - Unique item. (microsoft.com)
  • This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bundle. (wikipedia.org)
  • To celebrate the release of Peter Rabbit: A Fluffy Easter Tale , we're giving one lucky person the chance to win a copy of the book, as well as a bundle of other Peter Rabbit Easter books, plus some amazing items from Tonies and Rainbow Designs Ltd . Two runners-up will also receive some fabulous prizes. (penguin.co.uk)
  • Read the rules and enter to win the Toddler Summer Reading Book Bundle Sweepstakes! (scholastic.com)
  • Savings will depend on the design of the payment system and the particular services that are bundled. (rand.org)
  • New data from research firm Avalere Health indicates about 9% of U.S. acute care hospitals and 7% of skilled nursing facilities are voluntarily assuming financial risk by participating in the latest phase of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative . (forbes.com)
  • This means these providers have agreed -- long before it's mandated -- to take on financial risk that they can provide the necessary quality medical care for one bundled fee, grouping all of the services involved in an episode. (forbes.com)
  • In all, 1,755 medical care providers across the U.S., including hospitals, skilled nurse facilities and home health providers, are agreeing to participate in the bundled payment initiative voluntary assuming financial risk, according to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (forbes.com)
  • When you share a project or clip using the bundle, a file for each destination in the bundle is output automatically. (apple.com)
  • To learn how to create a bundle, see Create and modify share destinations in Motion . (apple.com)
  • His bundle electrography is a test that measures electrical activity in a part of the heart that carries the signals that control the time between heartbeats (contractions). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The time it takes for the electrical signals to travel through the bundle of His is normal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To see the collection of prior postings to the list, visit the Bundled-domain-names Archives or Bundled-domain-names MHonArc Archives . (ietf.org)
  • The US Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) originally developed care bundles to describe a collection of interventions needed to effectively and safely care for patients. (rcog.org.uk)
  • contribs ) (New page: == Overview == Some usecases have a requirement to enable and disable bundles based on a notion of a trusted bundle. (eclipse.org)