Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Bufo bufo: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Sri LankaIsopoda: One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth: A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.BoliviaAmphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.MycosesWyomingEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MontanaAltitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)BiographyBooks, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)EncyclopediasSeedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.KansasCartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.MuseumsReptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.MichiganSoftware: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Ophiostomatales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that are important plant pathogens.Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Philippines

Analyses of oviductal pars recta-induced fertilizability of coelomic eggs in Xenopus laevis. (1/166)

The acquisition of fertilizability in coelomic eggs of Xenopus laevis has been shown to be correlated with the physical, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations of the egg envelope [coelomic envelope (CE)] induced during the passage of eggs through the pars recta portion of the oviduct. However, no direct evidence that the pars recta renders eggs fertilizable has yet been presented. In this study, we show that coelomic eggs are highly fertilizable when they are incubated with continuous shaking for 4 h at 15 degrees C in pars recta extract (PRE) derived from females prestimulated by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. The PRE from pituitary-stimulated Bufo japonicus was as potent as homologous PRE in rendering Xenopus eggs fertilizable. Incubation of coelomic eggs in PRE for 30 min induced a dramatic increase in the rates of sperm binding to the envelope to a level equivalent to that exhibited by the envelope from uterine eggs (VEs). The CE-to-VE ultrastructural conversion and a 43k-to-41k hydrolysis of the envelope glycoprotein component started 5 min after, and were completed by 15 min after, the start of incubation in PRE and were accompanied by an exposure of a new N-terminal sequence typical to gp41. Thus, the biochemical and ultrastructural conversions and the sperm-binding activity of the envelope induced by PREs, although being prerequisite, were not sufficient to render coelomic eggs fully accessible to fertilizing sperm.  (+info)

Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs. (2/166)

While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. In this paper, I address the following three questions. (1) How do frog tongues differ biomechanically? (2) What anatomical and physiological differences are responsible? (3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular control? Frog species use three non-exclusive mechanisms to protract their tongues during feeding: (i) mechanical pulling, in which the tongue shortens as its muscles contract during protraction; (ii) inertial elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under inertial and muscular loading; and (iii) hydrostatic elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under constraints imposed by the constant volume of a muscular hydrostat. Major differences among these functional types include (i) the amount and orientation of collagen fibres associated with the tongue muscles and the mechanical properties that this connective tissue confers to the tongue as a whole; and (ii) the transfer of intertia from the opening jaws to the tongue, which probably involves a catch mechanism that increases the acceleration achieved during mouth opening. The mechanisms of tongue protraction differ in the types of neural mechanisms that are used to control tongue movements, particularly in the relative importance of feed-forward versus feedback control, in requirements for precise interjoint coordination, in the size and number of motor units, and in the afferent pathways that are involved in coordinating tongue and jaw movements. Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is finely tuned to the biomechanical constraints and opportunities provided by differences in morphological design among species.  (+info)

Genetic variation as a test of natural selection. (3/166)

Allozymic variation encoded by 26 loci was analyzed electrophoretically in 507 specimens representing 12 populations of green toads, Bufo viridis, in Israel and the Vis Adriatic Island. Genetic variation in Bufo viridis is higher than in any vertebrate yet studied. Mean heterozygosity per locus per individual (H) is 0.133 (range, 0.105 to 0.159). H is higher in central populations as compared with isolates, and varies among four major protein classes, being highest in transferases and hydrolases and lowest in oxidoreductases and nonenzymatic proteins. Differential gene frequencies among polymorphisms was tested as an indicator of natural selection. Significant heterogeneity between loci in their apparent inbreeding coefficients Fe=S-2p/P(1-p) was found for all alleles and for each of the four major classes of proteins tested, which may be taken as evidence of selection. Both uniform and diversifying selection are suggested by the low and high Fe values, respectively. The general pattern of high heterozygosity in Bufo viridis is best explained as an adaptive strategy in heterogeneous environments.  (+info)

Differences in the skin peptides of the male and female Australian tree frog Litoria splendida. The discovery of the aquatic male sex pheromone splendipherin, together with phe8 caerulein and a new antibiotic peptide caerin 1.10. (4/166)

The skin secretions of female and male Litoria splendida have been monitored monthly over a three-year period using HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry. Two minor peptides are present only in the skin secretion of the male. The first of these is the female-attracting aquatic male sex pheromone that we have named splendipherin, a 25 amino acid peptide (GLVSSIGKALGGLLADVVKSKGQPA-OH). This pheromone constitutes about 1% of the total skin peptides during the breeding season (January to March), dropping to about 0.1% during the period June to November. Splendipherin attracts the female in water at a concentration of 10-11-10-9 M, and is species specific. The second peptide is a wide-spectrum antibiotic of the caerin 1 group, a 25 residue peptide (GLLSVLGSVAKHVLPHVVPVIAEKL-NH2) named caerin 1.10. The neuropeptides of L. splendida are also seasonally variable, the change identical for both the female and male. During the period October to March, the sole neuropeptide present in skin secretions is caerulein [pEQDY(SO3)TGWMDF-NH2]; this is active on smooth muscle and is also an analgaesic. During the southern winter (June to September), more than half of the caerulein is hydrolysed to [pEQDYTGWMDF-NH2], a peptide that shows no smooth muscle activity. In place of caerulein, a new peptide, Phe8 caerulein [pEQDY(SO3)TGWFDF-NH2], becomes a major component of the skin secretion. Perhaps this seasonal change is involved in thermoregulation, that is, with the initiation and maintenance of the inactive (hibernation) phase of the animal.  (+info)

Isolation, structural characterization, and bioactivity of a novel neuromedin U analog from the defensive skin secretion of the Australasian tree frog, Litoria caerulea. (5/166)

We report the isolation of a novel bioactive peptide, neuromedin U-23 (NmU-23), from the defensive skin secretion of the Australasian tree frog, Litoria caerulea. The primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy and site-directed antiserum immunoreactivity as SDEEVQVPGGVISNGYFLFRPRN-amide (M(r) 2580.6). A synthetic replicate of frog NmU-23 displaced monoradioiodinated rat NmU-23 from uterine membranes in a dose-dependent fashion indistinguishable from nonisotopically labeled rat NmU-23. In a rat uterine smooth muscle strip preparation, synthetic frog NmU-23 produced dose-dependent contractions identical to porcine NmU-25. However, in a preparation of human urinary bladder muscle strip, the synthetic frog peptide was more potent than porcine NmU-25 in eliciting contraction and produced desensitization of the preparation to the latter peptide. This report demonstrates that the defensive skin secretion of a frog contains a novel peptide exhibiting a high degree of primary structural similarity to the endogenous vertebrate peptide, NmU, and that this frog skin analog displays biological activity in mammalian tissues.  (+info)

Actin-like filaments amd membrane rearrangement in oxyntic cells. (6/166)

The secretory pole of vertebrate oxyntic cells possesses two distinct membrane systems: the apical plasma membrane which presents numerous infoldings, microvilli and processes, and a complex tubulovesicular system located in close proximity to the plasma membrane. These two membrane systems are generally believed to be interconvertible in relation to the functional state of the cell. To determine the role that filaments may play in the interconversion process, the secretory pole of rat and toad oxyntic cells was examined by electron microscopy under conditions designed to demonstrate filamentous structures, i.e., slight cellular swelling and incubation with heavy meromyosin. Filaments 50-80 A in diameter are present in close association with the plasma membrane to which they are connected by regularly spaced bridges. Heavy meroxyosin-treated material reveals "decorated" filaments in topographically corresponding locations. No filaments are seen in association with membranes of the tubulovesicular system. These findings suggest that association with actin-like filaments is a step in the translocation of membranes from the tubulovesicular system to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis in a direct developing frog. (7/166)

The direct developing anuran, Eleutherodactylus coqui, lacks a tadpole, hatching as a tiny frog. We investigated the role of the metamorphic trigger, thyroid hormone (TH), in this unusual ontogeny. Expression patterns of the thyroid hormone receptors, TRalpha and TRbeta, were similar to those of indirect developers. TRbeta mRNA levels increased dramatically around the time of thyroid maturation, when remodeling events reminiscent of metamorphosis occur. Treatment with the goitrogen methimazole inhibited this remodeling, which was reinitiated on cotreatment with TH. Despite their radically altered ontogeny, direct developers still undergo a TH-dependent metamorphosis, which occurs before hatching. We propose a new model for the evolution of anuran direct development.  (+info)

Maculatin 1.1, an anti-microbial peptide from the Australian tree frog, Litoria genimaculata solution structure and biological activity. (8/166)

The dorsal glands of Australian tree frogs from the Litoria species contain a diversity of antibiotic peptides that forms part of the defence system of the animal. Here, the antibiotic activity and structure of maculatin 1.1, a 21 amino acid peptide from Litoria genimaculata, are compared. The activity data on maculatin 1.1 and a series of its analogues imply that the mechanism of action of maculatin 1.1 involves binding to, and subsequent lysis of, the bacterial cell membrane. The structure of maculatin 1.1 was determined using NMR spectroscopy in a trifluoroethanol/water mixture and when incorporated into dodecylphosphocholine micelles. Under both conditions, the peptide adopts a very similar conformation, i.e. a helical structure with a central kink in the vicinity of Pro15. The kink allows the peptide to adopt a well-defined amphipathic conformation along its entire length. The similar structures determined under both solvent conditions imply that structures of membrane-interacting peptides in trifluoroethanol/water mixtures are representative of those adopted in a membrane environment, e.g. when incorporated into micelles. The synthetic Ala15 analogue of maculatin 1.1 has markedly reduced activity and its NMR-derived structure is a well-defined helix, which lacks the central kink and flexibility of the parent molecule. It is concluded that the kink is important for full biological activity of the peptide, probably because it allows maximum amphipathicity of the peptide to facilitate interaction with the membrane. The structure of maculatin 1.1 is compared with a related peptide, caerin 1.1 [Wong, H., Bowie, J.H. and Carver, J.A. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 247, 545-557], which has an additional central proline residue and enhanced central flexibility compared with maculatin 1.1. The role of central flexibility within antibiotic peptides in their interaction with bacterial membranes is discussed.  (+info)

*Amazophrynella

... is a genus of toads in the family Bufonidae. They are found throughout the Amazon Basin. Amazophrynella was ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Bufonidae) junior homonym of Amazonella Lundblad, 1931 (Acari:Unionicolidae): proposed replacement by Amazophrynella nom. nov ...

*Ansonia (genus)

Bufonidae)" (PDF). Zoological Science. 22: 809-814. doi:10.2108/zsj.22.809. "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian ... Grismer, L Lee (2006). "A new species of Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870 (Anura: Bufonidae) from a lowland rainforest in Southern ...

*List of amphibians of Bulgaria

Bufonidae are a family of toads native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Bufonidae include the typical toads ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015. Biserkov 2007, p. 51 Arntzen, J. ... Bufonidae, Hylidae, Pelobatidae and Ranidae. The most recently classified species are the northern crested newt, identified in ...

*Nectophryne

"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...

*Rhaebo

... is a genus of true toads, family Bufonidae, from Central and South America. They are distributed from Honduras to ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Bufonidae): phylogenetic position and synonymy under the genus Rhaebo". Zootaxa. 3947 (3): 347-366. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3947.3 ...

*Dendrophryniscus

... is a genus of true toads in the family Bufonidae. They are endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...

*Melanophryniscus

... is a genus of toads in the family Bufonidae. They are found in northern half of Argentina, southern Bolivia, ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018. Frost, Darrel R. (2017). " ...

*Rhinella pombali

ISBN 978-1-907807-42-8. "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. ...

*Common toad

The toads in this genus are included in the family Bufonidae, the true toads. Various subspecies of B. bufo have been ... Frost, Darrel R. (2011-01-31). "Bufonidae". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.5. American Museum ... Tosunoğlua, Murat; Taskavak, Ertan (2001). "A serological investigation of the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) populations in ... Bufonidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (1): 71-86. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.09.008. PMID 21964513. Arnold, ...

*Nannophryne cophotis

... , or the Paramo toad, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae that is endemic to northern Peru. Its ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...

*Peltophryne

... is a genus of true toads, family Bufonidae, from the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Isla de Juventud, Hispaniola, Puerto ... Alonso, R.; Crawford, A. J.; Bermingham, E. (2012). "Molecular phylogeny of an endemic radiation of Cuban toads (Bufonidae: ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Bufonidae): resurrection of the genus Peltophryne Fitzinger". Copeia. 1981 (2): 273-285. doi:10.2307/1444216. JSTOR 1444216. S ...

*Sabahphrynus

... is a monotypic genus of amphibians in the family Bufonidae. The sole species is Sabahphrynus maculatus, also known ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Bufonidae)". Zoological Science. 24 (11): 1159-1166. doi:10.2108/zsj.24.1159. Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Sabahphrynus maculatus ...

*Vandijkophrynus

... , also known as Van Dijk's toads, are a small genus of true toads, family Bufonidae. They are native to Southern ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...

*Leptophryne

Its relationships within Bufonidae are uncertain; its closest relative might be Epidalea. Two species are recognized in this ... Leptophryne is a small genus of true toads, family Bufonidae, with only two species. The genus is found in Southeast Asia, in ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2017. GBIF - Global Biodiversity ...

*List of amphibians of Poland

Bufonidae are a family of toads native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Bufonidae include the typical toads ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved March 25, 2016. Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Bufo bufo". IUCN Red List of Threatened ... Bufonidae, Hylidae, Pelobatidae and Ranidae. All of them are protected by law. Salamandridae, or true salamanders, are a family ...

*Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Bufonidae)". Journal of Bioscience. 25 (3): 267-273. doi:10.1007/BF02703935. PMID 11022229. R., Arnaud (2014-04-17). "Invasion ...

*Oreophrynella

"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Bufonidae) from the Guiana highlands". Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo). 45 (6): 61-67. doi:10.1590/S0031- ...

*Incilius

... is genus of toads in the true toad family, Bufonidae. They are sometimes known as the Central American toads or Middle ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... 2011). "A phylogeny and evolutionary natural history of mesoamerican toads (Anura: Bufonidae: Incilius) based on morphology, ...

*Ghatophryne

Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India". BMC Research Notes. 2: 241. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-241. "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb ...

*Nannophryne

"Bufonidae Gray, 1825". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A ... Nannophryne is a small genus of true toads, family Bufonidae, from South America. They are found in central Andean Peru south ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...

*Adenomus

"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Pethiyagoda, Rohan (1998). "A synopsis of the Sri Lankan Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura), with ... Bufonidae: Adenominae: Adenomus): species boundaries assessed using multiple criteria". Zootaxa. 3911 (2): 245-261. doi: ...

*Asmara toad

The Asmara toad ኣስመራ ጋዝዕ (Amietophrynus asmarae) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is named after the capital ... Bufonidae)". Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Supplemento. 20 (1): 211-267. doi:10.1080/03749444.1985.10736699. ...

*American toad

Review: The Amphibian Tree of Life, by Frost, D.R. et al., Amphibiatree "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian ...

*Amphibian

Members of the family Bufonidae are known as the "true toads". Frogs range in size from the 30-centimetre (12 in) Goliath frog ... Cannatella, David; Graybeal, Anna (2008). "Bufonidae, True Toads". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved December 1, 2012. "Frog ...

*Cuban small-eared toad

S. Blair Hedges (2015). "West Indies: Bufonidae". Caribherp: Amphibians and reptiles of Caribbean Islands. Retrieved 18 March ... is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae that is endemic to Cuba including Isla de Juventud. Species description of ...
Bufo houstonensis Sanders, 1953, Herpetologica, 9: 27. Holotype: UIMNH 33687, by original designation. Type locality: Fairbanks, Harris Co[unty]., Texas, USA; corrected to off Tanner Road, 1-2 mi. W of its junction with Campbell Road in northwest Houston, Harris Co., Texas, USA, by Brown, 1971, Southwest. Nat., 16: 195.. Bufo americanus houstonensis - Blair, 1957, in Blair et al. (eds.), Vert. U.S.: 250.. Bufo houstonensis - Brown, 1971, Southwest. Nat., 16: 185-199.. Anaxyrus houstonensis - Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.. Bufo (Anaxyrus) houstonensis - Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 304. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires widespread paraphyly. ...
The variability of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 was studied for the first time in three species of the diploid-polyploid complex of Bufo viridis (B. viridis, B. oblongus, and B. pewzowi). The locus
Antimicrobial peptides in skin secretions of toads are promising methods to combat a wide spectrum of bacteria. Histone H2A is a type of DNA-binding protein that acts as a precursor for several antimicrobial peptides. In toads (family Bufonidae) buforin I and buforin II are examples of antimicrobial peptides that derived from histone H2A. This study investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis and in silico prediction of antimicrobial peptides derived from histone H2A of Duttaphrynus melanostictus and Phyrinoidis asper, which were collected from Bogor Agricultural Universitys campus area. A new set of primers (Buf_fwd and Buf_rev) were designed by using PrimerBLAST, to amplify 393 nucleotides of the histone H2A gene that codes 131 amino acids. Haplotype diversity of both species are very low. Phylogenetic analysis shows the sample D. melanostictus and P. asper are separated to each other in two different clades. Several short predicted peptides from histone H2A show a potential ...
New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to res …
This page is a collection of people that are attached to a branch of the Tree of Life.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
Bufo variabilis var. amurensis Maak, 1859, Puteshestvie na Amur: 153. Types: Not stated; presumably originally in ZISP. Type locality: (translation) all along the Amur. Questionably a senior synonym of Bufo raddei, according to Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 70. Nomen nudum according to Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 275.. Bufo Raddei Strauch, 1876, in Przewalski (ed.), Mongoliia i strana Tangutov, 2(3): 53. Syntypes: ZISP (8 specimens) according to the orignal; including ZISP 921-925, MCZ 1958 (on exchange from ZISP according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 232). Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 158, designated ZISP 921 as the lectotype. Type localities: provincia Chinensi, Ordos dicta . . . . nec non in desert Alaschanico, by original designation, = Ordos and Alashan [= Tengger Desert, Nei Mongol, China]. Restricted to Alashan Desert by lectotype designation. See discussion of type locality by Kuzmin and ...
There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric rela...
Tetrapod groups with four limbs; these may also be categorized as Amniota (mammals, reptiles, dinosaurs and birds), with all living and fossil amphibians placed in various non-amniote groups -- [ ucmp ]; Amphibia and Reptilia together are sometimes referred to as herptiles --[ general herpetology links ] Amphibia amphibians spend part of their life in water, breathe through skin & gills, lay eggs in water and lack scales, cold blooded -- [ ucmp , links , Amphibian Species of the World ] Labyrinthodontia fossils Lepospondyli fossils Lissamphibia includes all living amphibians -- [ ToL , ummzADW ] Anura (=Salienta) frogs, toads -- [ ToL , ummzADW , links ] Bufonidae toads [ ummzADW ] Centrolenidae Centrolenella [ ummzADW ] Dendrobatidae poison dart frogs [ ummzADW ] Discoglossidae Alytes [ ummzADW ] Hylidae tree frogs and peepers [ ummzADW ] Hyperolidae Hyperolius [ ummzADW ] Leptodactylidae Syrrhophus, Telmatobius [ ummzADW ] Microhylidae narrowmouth toad [ ummzADW ] Myobatrachidae gastric ...
Ordo Anura Rafinesque, 1815 Anurans (6 species). Familia Pelobatidae Boulenger, 1882 Pelobatides (1 species). Genus Pelobates Wagler, 1830 (1 species). Pelobates syriacus Boettger, 1889. Familia Bufonidae Gray, 1825 Toads (1 species) Genus Pseudepidalea Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006 Toads (1 species) Pseudepidalea variabilis (Pallas, 1769). Familia Hylidae Gray, 1825 Tree frogs (2 species). Subfamilia Hylinae (2 species). Genus Hyla Laurenti, 1768 (2 species). Hyla orientalis Bedriaga, 1809 ...
Light grey or tan skin with bumps, or warts all over. One large wart behind each eye, which is often brown. Puncturing and ingesting the liquid from these large warts will not kill a human or animal, but it will make them quite sick. Unlike the marine toad in Australia, whose warts have killed many domestic dogs and cats ...
A recent publication in Biology Letters added a new family, Eleutherodacytlidae, to the list of frogs known to possess defensive, toxic alkaloids in their skin-the so-called poison frogs [1]. The alkaloids have attracted much attention since they are not synthesized by frogs de novo, but rather are obtained from dietary sources and subsequently sequestered in the frogs skin [2]. These cleptotoxins comprise several pumiliotoxins and other lipid-soluble alkaloids that are known or suspected to be present in the frogs prey, which includes ants, beetles, millipedes and, most notably, oribatid mites [2,3]. Four lineages of phylogenetically unrelated poison frogs that sequester prey alkaloids were previously recognized (Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Bufonidae and Myobatrachidae), and the abovementioned miniaturized eleutherodactylid frogs from Cuba [1] represent a fifth.. As with dendrobatids [2], oribatid mites were suspected to be the major dietary source for alkaloids in eleutherodactylid ...
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Autumn, winter, spring or summer, Yosemite is magical. Giant granite spires and waterfalls, blue skies and clear air -- its practically in Southern Californias own backyard. The Times Mark Boster spent a year photographing this most majestic of national parks, visiting favorite spots, studying the nature around him and watching the seasons unfold with their own special beauty.. More on Yosemite National Park:. Yosemite: My special place, a photographers journal. Yosemite National Park, in winters grip. Witness to rebirth in Yosemite during spring. Finding solitude in Yosemite during summer. What to bring on a trip to Yosemite. Tips for photographing Yosemite. Yosemite: How to get there and where to stay. ...
So... I am not that great at remembering to point the camera at people, but here is a link to some of the photos taken on our hike last Saturday morning so Eric and Vanessa could school the rest of us on how to find/ catch some salamanders. Considering the only salamanders I have ever seen outside of captivity were juvenile Eurycea quadridigitata (dwarf salamanders) that my herp class back in Florida spent 5 hours dip netting through sludge to find 2 individuals, I was pretty excited! We also found some Anaxyrus americanus (american toads) as well on the way back. Oh and the waterfalls were pretty sweet too! Overall the weekend was nice and relaxing and I enjoyed getting to know some of you a little better. Now back to reading about fish and writing my proposal for the NSF GRFP ...
Using both the Sagdeev and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) methods, ion thermal effects on slow mode ion acoustic solitons and double layers are investigated in a plasma with two adiabatic positive ion species. It is found that reducing the gap between the two ion thermal speeds by increasing the relative temperature of the cool ions increases the typical soliton/double layer speeds for all values of the ion-ion density ratio and reduces the range in the density ratio that supports double layers. The effect of increasing the relative cool ion temperature on the soliton/double layer amplitudes depends on the relative densities. For lower values of the ion density ratio, an increase in cool ion temperature leads to a significant decrease in soliton/double layer amplitude, so one may find that solitons of all permissible speeds lie within the range of KdV theory. ...
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
The non-monoexponential DWI decay at high b-values has been attributed to the multiplicity of water diffusion rates, which may provide the information about the water compartmentation. The common way to compute the diffusion rates is through the multi-exponential analysis. The bi-exponential model assumes two diffusion rates. Considering the multiple length scales in tissues, the distributed exponential model makes no assumption about the number of diffusion rates, and can be empirically described by the stretched exponential model (α-DWI). Those fitting models: bi-exponential and α-DWI have a few parameters, and have been shown to correlate with the pathology. However, it remains difficult to pin down the underlying biophysical mechanisms. In addition, the multi-exponential relation is phenomenological, because each diffusion rate is no longer associated with a mono-exponential decay when diffusion time is long (,30 ms in a clinical DWI). In this study, the distribution of effective ...
Atelopus zeteki, the Panamanian golden frog, is a small, brightly-colored frog. Adult dry forest males measure 35-40 mm in SVL and weigh 3-5 g; adult dry forest females measure 45-55 mm and weigh 4-7 g. Wet forest males and females are larger; adult males measure 39-48 mm in SVL and weigh 8-12 g, while adult females measure 55-63 mm and weigh 10-15 g (Poole 2006). The head is longer than broad, with a pointed, protuberant snout and rounded canthus rostralis (Savage 2002). The pupil is horizontally elliptical (Savage 1972). There is no tympanum, and the ostia pharyngea are slitlike or absent, implying the lack of other middle ear structures such as the auditory ossicle and middle ear cavity (in common with most other species of Atelopus) (Lindquist and Hetherington 1996). However, standard inner ears with well-developed auditory end organs are present (Savage 2002; Lindquist and Hetherington 1996). The body is slim with long limbs, and the upper surface is smooth with minute spicules; when ...
Atelopus cruciger is diurnal. During breeding season (the dry season), this species lives near freshwater streams, typically found on rocks within the stream, or streamside vegetation climbing up to 1.5 m above the ground (Stuart et al. 2008). Adults feed on ants and other insects (Lötters 2006). Although Atelopus cruciger lacks a tympanum and middle ear structures, this species exhibits three types of distinct calls: pulsed ("buzzes"), pure-toned ("whistles"), rising in frequency, and short ("chirps" or "twitters"), descending in frequency. A short, quiet, partially pulsed call, descending in frequency, is the characteristic vocalization for male frogs in the vicinity of other "non-interacting" individuals, males placed in a collecting bag with other males, and males in amplexus. An amplexing male will increase his call rate when another male approaches or touches him. In addition to the three distinct call types, one male was observed to give a series of variable calls before a series of ...
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Though there is a wealth of gorgeous trails in the area, The Four-Mile Trail is certainly one that is worth a look on your next hiking trip in Yosemite. Known for its beautiful scenery, this trail may be one of the best ways to see the entirety of what Yosemite Valley has to offer. You start on the valley floor, nearby the Swinging Bridge, and then walk to Glacier Point, one of the most prime sightseeing spots in Yosemite. But, the thing that makes this walk so great is the multitude of landmarks you see on this long and enjoyable hike. As you walk, youll get to see basically everything that makes this area so fantastic, such as Cathedral Rocks, El Capitan, Sentinel Rock, Half Dome, Clouds Rest, North Dome, and the Royal Arches. From gorgeous waterfalls, to the amazing Glacier Point, everything that Yosemite has to offer will be on full display as you make this awesome trek.. Distance. Make sure you bring plenty of water and at least one meal for this trek, as the length of the trail truly ...
Thermal studies on CuCr2O4 spinel indicated the phase present above 870 K to be cubic CuCr2O4. However, when the substance was quenched from 1023 K, 1173 K, 1273 K and 1473 K, only the tetragonal...
Several people in a hiking group at Yosemite that included three who were swept away and presumed dead had climbed over a barricade and were in the water about 25 feet from the edge of a waterfall, standing, playing and taking photographs, witnesses told Yosemite rangers.. One of the victims then slipped and fell, the second victim tried to rescue that person, and the third victim tried to save the other two, said Yosemite National Park spokesman Scott Gediman.. The victims were not related, but were friends. About a dozen people were in the hiking group and had spent an hour at the top of Vernal Falls until tragedy struck.. The presumed dead were identified Wednesday as Hormiz David, 22, of Modesto; Ninos Yacoub, 27, of Turlock; and Ramina Badal, 21, of Modesto.. Vernal Falls is marked with warning signs and barricaded off with a metal-bar guardrail that "takes some effort" to climb over, Gediman said.. ...
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by T. Kawauchi. Introduction. Toad is a generic name of four kind of frogs. The four kinds are "Asiatic toad", "Japanese toad", " Japanese stream toad ", and "Marine toad. " The marine toad is a foreign toad. A toad is any of a number of species of amphibians in the order Anura characterized by dry, leathery skin (usually brownish-colored), short legs, and wart-like parotoid glands. Description & Taxonomy. The scientific name of Japanese toads is Bufo japonicas Temminck & Schlegel, 1838. Size is about 7-15cm. The color is usually a reddish brown. There are four aliases. The alias is"Hiki","Gamagaeru","Gama","Ibogaeru" and "Senjo". Limbs are comparatively short, and the enlarged body moves slowly. The Japanese toads web doesnt develop so much. Other frogs can jump more though than Japanese toad is a little. The mucus of white poisonous like milk is secreted from a lot of Ivo who puts out a strong venom from a big parotoid that exists in back of the head, and exists in the skin, especially the ...
stamina definition: Stamina is resistance to fatigue, hardship or illness. (noun) An example of stamina is when you can run a long marathon without tiring....
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One of the greatest things about growing up in California has been my physical proximity to Yosemite National Park. I first visited Yosemite, a UNESCO Wor
Heat Therapy is the application of heat to specific body areas for therapeutic purposes, including pain relief and muscle relaxation. It can take the form of a hot cloth, heating pad, hot water or heat wrap. The thermal effect of the heat can not only provide pain relief but also healing benefits for many types of muscular pain and spasms.. Studies show that a heat wrap can be used to alleviate muscle pain and muscle strain, such as that caused by strenuous exercise. It can, for example, be used as preventative therapy by people who suffer back pain, helping relieve post-exercise pain intensity. A heat wrap, when worn for several hours, increases its thermal effects on muscle, exceeding the benefit of a conventional heating pad.. Heat therapy works by a number of mechanisms:. ...
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The final water fall on our list, Wapama Falls-while not nearly as spectacular as the ones Yosemite is famous for-is nonetheless a worthy destination, which you would be remiss to miss out on. These falls offer the unique opportunity for hikers to walk underneath them, as a bridge spans the stream directly beneath the cascading waters. Though you will most certainly get wet, it is still a fun, tourist type attraction that sets these falls apart from most of the others on this list. It also has some incredible scenery surrounding it, and is an impressive sight in its own right, as it is actually among the larger falls in the area at a whopping 1,400 feet.. When to Visit. Like all waterfalls, its best to visit during the spring when the snow melts and the water flows at its peak. This is when the falls are at their most impressive, and is also when youll have the best photo opportunities.. Difficulty. Though 5.5 miles, its not too difficult to traverse this hiking trail. There is not a lot of ...
You might recall that in the latest version of Mavericks code there were pointers towards the graphics cards being supported that gave credence to a lower-specced iMac with an integrated CPU/GPU. With no hardware announced at WWDC for any line, that pointer is still out there, waiting to be used.. Now its time for another pointer, this time in OSX Yosemite. The developer preview builds all support iMac resolutions that point to 4K monitors at a resolution that falls under the retina description. Various levels of screen size are being supported, reports Macbidouille, with the higher resolutions covering resolutions of 4096 x 2304, 5760 x 3240, and 6400 x 3600. The version numbers of these devices in the code point to the 15.1 iMac series - the current iMacs are versioned at 14.1.. Its pretty much a given that there will be a new iPhone and iPad in the Fall as part of Apples regular product refresh. Even though the MacBook Air has picked up a recent update, this was little more than a ...
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Yosemite, CA - There are two more cases of the deadly Hantavirus pulmonarysyndrome (HPS). The National Park Service Office of Public Health learned over the
At least two people are dead as a result of a deadly mouse-borne virus spotted at Yosemite National Park in California and feared to have spread across the world.
Eight cases of hantavirus, a rare and potentially deadly disease spread by rodents, have been diagnosed in Californias Yosemite National Park.
Smoke from the Rim Fire is visible near the Hetch Hetchy reservoir on August 22, 2013 in Yosemite National Park, California. (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images ...
Now with all of the viewpoints left behind, I set my sights for Yosemite Valley. In 2009, The National Park Service conducted a Summer survey with the following results: 93% of respondents listed viewing scenery as their primary activity, which is out of a total of around 4 million yearly visitors. Most of the visitations…
Photographed by Danny Burk, the Yosemite Valley (Burk) wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
Pictures of the Chilnualna Falls Trail, Yosemite National Park, California: Chilnualna Creek, above the falls - view southwest towards the Merced River valley
Stamina is the green echelon above the amber action-point indicator.It recharges fairly rapidly over time, and is used for sliding (clerics), teleportation (wizards), and so on. It is important for a wizard to teleport quickly out of the heat of battle, or for a cleric to slide out of a power blow, or for the guardian fighter to parry an attack. Strength gives a boost to stamina recharge rate. ...
Stamina is important for everyone. Stamina isnt required only by athletes, or those who are too involved in physical exertion. It is a daily r
There was one thing different about the toad pools this spring that may have contributed to the toad visitations. Both pools were surrounded by a mass of Spring Peepers creating a loud chorus. Im wondering if the Peeper song alerted the toads to the fact that a suitable breeding pool was available. The newly hatched Peeper tadpoles shown above are just two of dozens hanging in the algae around the edge of the pools. This toad pool venture may just turn out to be a success ...
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Biker Babe Toad - Green We were so excited to get this amazing new Biker Babe Toad - Green on the site, we havent even had the chance to write a whimsical description!We have loved these toads for the past few years and ...
I was pretty good for about a third of the way down, then my legs began their transmogrification to quivering rubber--the couple of times I stopped to take a photo, they were shaking so badly that I couldnt hold the camera even close to still--and then they just started hurting. Not the knees so much (although they werent happy), but more the thighs and calves because it was so steep and slippery that I operated in a knees-bent mode most of the way down, no normal striding at all. By the last mile or two, I had to stop every few minutes to rest as my legs were on the verge of collapsing under me ...
The campground is in that postprandial mellowness of a good meal eaten in the outdoors. Some have settled into staring at the campfire. Others finish washing the dinner dishes. All the food and scented items are stored safely in the steel bear-proof containers ...
Each one of us needs stamina and energy to engage in our day-to-day tasks. Irrespective of whether an individual works in a factory or whether she is a homemaker or an office goer, stamina and energy are highly important. Stamina is nothing, but the energy required to get through the day-to-day activities without experiencing any sort of exhaustion and fatigue.… More →. ...
... : The membrane of buccal cavity and pharynx of toad is very thin and there are innumerable capillaries. When air
... : Pulmonary respiration is breathing through the lungs, as human do. Lungs are the main respiratory organs of toad. The
It is very hard to give objective weights to threat vs survival stats, or stamina vs damage reduction vs combat table coverage. But, as you note, with the exception of trinkets and gems, often we dont need to make such tradeoffs as stamina and armor tends to be uniform for a given item level. The consensus here seems to be, generally, to go with the highest item level tanking gear you can get, where possible choosing items with survival secondary stats and prefering mastery over dodge/parry. The argument is that threat is not an issue at the moment and mastery is best for both damage reduction and combat table coverage ...
Infection and Bites If your suvivors stamina reaches zero and theyre forced to take stamina damage again, they are unable to defend themselves from a bite. Th
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On Dec. 19, 1913, the Hetch Hetchy Valley disappeared. With the stroke of a pen, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Congressional bill that authorized the construction of the O'Shaughnessy Dam. Ten years later, the Hetch Hetchy - 7 miles long and up to 1 mile wide, Yosemite's northern twin - started...
Running a Imac with latest version of Yosemite. The past week; Ive been getting annoying pop ups from what appears to be an ad service that highlights...
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Shapeshift into Bear Form, increasing armor by 200% and Stamina by 55%, granting protection from Polymorph effects, and increasing threat generation ...
Acanthaceae (58) Accipitridae (10) Acraeidae (1) Aegithinidae (3) Aeshnidae (1) Agamidae Lizards (14) Aganainae (1) Airsac Catfishes (1) Alaudidae (3) Alcedinidae (5) Alismataceae (2) Aloaceae (1) Amaranthaceae (11) Amaryllidaceae (4) Amphibians (18) Anabantidae (1) Anacardiaceae (4) Anatidae (7) Anhingas (1) Anhingidae (1) Aniso (1) Anisoptera (30) Annonaceae (9) Apiaceae (5) Aplocheilidae (1) Apocynaceae (28) Apodidae (2) Aponogetonaceae (4) Araceae (15) Araliaceae (2) Arctiinae (4) Arctiini (2) Ardeidae (13) Arecaceae (13) Aristolochiaceae (3) Artamidae (1) Asclepiadaceae (6) Asian Pond Turtles (1) Asparagaceae (5) Asteraceae (50) Attacini (1) Avicenniaceae (2) Avifauna (223) Babblers (4) Balitoridae (2) Balsaminaceae (12) Barbets (4) Basellaceae (1) Bataguridae (1) Bats (5) Bee-eaters (3) Begoniaceae (4) Bignoniaceae (6) Birds (226) Bluets (10) Bombacaceae (1) Bombycoidea (3) Boraginaceae (8) Bovidae (1) Bromeliaceae (2) Bucerotidae (1) Buffaloes (1) Bufonidae (2) Bulbuls (6) Buntings (1) ...
To our knowledge, this study provides the first electrophysiological data on the collecting duct system of an anuran amphibian. We examined the characteristics of K+ transport by the collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo. Qualitatively, there seemed to be no difference between K+ transport in cells from collecting tubules and from collecting ducts. Our data indicate that luminal K+ channels would provide a pathway for secretion of K+ from the cell into the lumen.. The collecting duct system of amphibians is a heterocellular epithelium composed of principal and intercalated cells (Møbjerg et al., 1998). In this context it should be noted that the Vbl of collecting duct cells fell into two groups, one being more hyperpolarized than the other. We do not know if this distribution (Fig. 2A) reflects two populations of cells in different functional states, or cells with different transport characteristics, e.g. principal and intercalated cells. In the present study it was not possible to ...
Weather data Yosemite national park and forecast weather Yosemite national park updated weather warnings Yosemite national park. Keep up to date with the 45 days weather forecast Yosemite national park and the 16 days weather forecast Yosemite national park
Journal of Nanomaterials is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that aims to bring science and applications together on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications of materials containing true nanosize dimensions or nanostructures that enable novel/enhanced properties or functions. It is directed at both academic researchers and practicing engineers. Journal of Nanomaterials will highlight the continued growth and new challenges in nanomaterials science, engineering, and nanotechnology, both for application development and for basic research. All papers should emphasize original results relating to experimental, theoretical, computational, and/or applications of nanomaterials ranging from hard (inorganic) materials, through soft (polymeric and biological) materials, to hybrid materials or nanocomposites.
The discovery of a huge toad set this young naturalist on a path to investigate these amphibians and their life cycle. See what he learned about the Eastern American toad.
I went to go see if the amphibians would react to the warmth and rain last night. Was hoping to see Spotted Salamanders, toads and frogs too. Started out at Waveny Park in New Canaan at 9:30pm. On the east entrance to the park along the curvy road, I pulled over my truck, turned it off and shut the lights off, and went along walking with my flashlight. Right off the bat....Lots of Spring Peepers, a few Wood Frogs, a couple American Toads hoping across the road to a near vernal pool to mate. Quite a few already crushed by vehicles, including one Spotted Salamander-bummer! Next spot I tried was Mountain Pond area in Danbury. Lots of non direct traveling to hear and see what was along the roads. I drove with windows down, radio off, air off, flashlight in my lap, and digital maps on my iPhone. Would stop when able to get closer looks at the little guys as I travelled. Saw many peepers, toads, and Wood Frogs along the way. Took pictures and scooped them across the road to where they wanted to go ...
When photographer, filmmaker and travel-enthusiast Shawn Reeder became fascinated with timelapse cinematography, he immediately knew that he wanted to create a piece on Californias Yosemite National Park and Sierra Nevada Mountains. After winning a trip to Yosemite at 18 and discovering that the landscape offered "a lifetimes worth of exploration," he made the region he considers among the most beautiful places on Earth his new-found home. Now, through a series of breathtaking photographs captured over nearly two years paired with tranquil background music, Reeder is sharing "all the subtleties of light, mood, texture, and feeling" of this treasured and spellbinding terrain in "Yosemite Range of Light.". ...
Okay so Im thinking about living in and around Yosemite this summer as much as I can however I have yet to do any trad climbing. I have done some sport and know my way around the gear pretty well but I am dying to learn some trad. Does anybody have any advice on how to sort of go about doing that at Yosemite? Also, I would be alone so I would need to meet people, hopefully ones who could teach me. Or should I take a class? What do I do? I JUST WANT TO CLIMB and Yosemite seems like such a classic place to be. ...
The Australian tree frog has a few other names like Whites tree frog, or simply the green tree frog, but its this last name we like best - the dumpy tree frog, because it is, well, dumpy. The frog was actually originally known by yet another name, the "blue frog" because a mistake in dead-specimen preservation led to the original specimens appearing to have blue skin. ...
Schatz, H. (2010). Ameronothrus schneideri (Oudemans, 1905). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=508293 on 2017-12- ...
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YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK, Calif. (AP) - In the bird world, they make endangered condors seem almost commonplace.. The unique Great Gray Owls of Yosemite, left to evolve after glacial ice separated them from their plentiful Canadian brethren 30 millennia ago, are both a mystery and concern to the scientists charged with protecting them.. With fewer than 200 in existence in this small pocket of the Sierra Nevada, the slightest disturbances by humans can drive the extremely shy birds from their nests, disrupting sporadic mating cycles that ebb and flow annually depending upon food availability.. So this summer, researchers found a way to abandon their traditional heavy-handed trapping, banding and the blasting of owl calls in favor of the kind of discrete, sophisticated technology used by spies and forensic scientists.. They hope to lessen human influence on this subspecies of owls prized for the potential insights their survival offers into habitat-specific evolution.. "Even if it takes only 15 ...
Darwins nightmare: Toxic toad evolves to secure supremacy - Yahoo! News PARIS (AFP) - Hes fat, ugly and poisonous -- and hes mutating. Hes the cane toad (Bufo marinus), a species which was introduced into the Australian state of Queensland 70 years ago to tackle insect pests in canefields and has since become an ecological…
Cinobufacini has the effects of anticancer, improving the liver function, elevation of immunity and little side effects, and is important and significant for the patients with hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatomas.. Compared with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) , the clinical effect of cinobufacini is non-inferior/ equivalent.Compared with TACE, cinobufacini is superior in security . ...
The Mediterranean tree frog or stripeless tree frog is a species of frog found in Europe. It resembles the European tree frog, but is larger, has longer hind legs, and the flank stripe only reaches to the front
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Ohios 15 species of frogs and toads at a glance on TrekOhio | An article entitled, Ohios Frog and Toad Species, states that there are 15 species in our…
Chapter 1: Stress. 1.1 Introduction 1. 1.2 Normal Stress Under Axial Loading 2. 1.3 Direct Shear Stress 7. 1.4 Bearing Stress 12. 1.5 Stresses on Inclined Sections 22. 1.6 Equality of Shear Stresses on Perpendicular Planes 24. Chapter 2: Strain. 2.1 Displacement, Deformation, and the Concept of Strain 31. 2.2 Normal Strain 32. 2.3 Shear Strain 39. 2.4 Thermal Strain 43. Chapter 3: Mechanical Properties of Materials. 3.1 The Tension Test 47. 3.2 The Stress-Strain Diagram 50. 3.3 Hookes Law 58. 3.4 Poissons Ratio 58. Chapter 4: Design Concepts. 4.1 Introduction 69. 4.2 Types of Loads 70. 4.3 Safety 71. 4.4 Allowable Stress Design 72. 4.5 Load and Resistance Factor Design 83. Chapter 5: Axial Deformation. 5.1 Introduction 89. 5.2 Saint-Venants Principle 90. 5.3 Deformations in Axially Loaded Bars 92. 5.4 Deformations in a System of Axially Loaded Bars 101. 5.5 Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members 109. 5.6 Thermal Effects on Axial Deformation 128. 5.7 Stress Concentrations 140. Chapter ...
According to reports from several outlets, Apple is set to finally bring its iMac desktop line into the future with the introduction of a Retina display with a 5K resolution. for the 27-inch model. The company is said to be in the late testing stage for the iMac with Retina display, which would put it on track to launch in the next couple of months. The smart money says that itll launch alongside OS X Yosemite, with other updates that include faster processors, improved Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, and Thunderbolt 2 ports. We expect that the Retina display would be a…
The last person killed in a rockfall at Yosemite was Peter Terbush, a 21-year-old college student from Colorado who was killed when rocks fell from Glacier Point on June 13, 1999.. Standing on the ground, the rock climber was anchoring a climbing partners rope when 525 tons of boulders fell from 1,300 feet above. Terbush did not run away. Instead, he held the rope tightly, saving the life of his friend, Kerry Pyle, who was 60 feet above. Hailed as a hero afterward, Terbush was killed when a chunk of rock hit him in the head.. His family sued the National Park Service for negligence afterward for $10 million, saying that the park should have posted warning signs and may have increased the risk of danger because water from a leaking storage tank at Glacier Point could have affected the rocks stability. A judge dismissed the lawsuit in 2005.. In 2003, a rockfall near Curry Village damaged several cabins and injured four people. About 100 cabins closed afterward. Some were relocated.. There have ...
Hantavirus has killed three campers at Yosemite this season, and thousands may have been exposed to the virus. Dr. Sanjay Gupta reports on the symptoms and explains how its spread.
Hantavirus has killed three campers at Yosemite this season, and thousands may have been exposed to the virus. Dr. Sanjay Gupta reports on the symptoms and explains how its spread.
LOS ANGELES -- State public health officials are conducting an environmental evaluation in the Stanislaus National Forest, Yosemite National Park and surrounding areas after a child contracted the plague during a July visit.
Polonium radiohalos found in biotite flakes of granites in Yosemite National Park place severe time constraints on the formation and cooling of the granite plutons.
Yay...Yosemite!It's the 3 day explosion of valley hikes as this is probably the LAST time we will stay in the valley. Sara and I both have reservations at the housekeeping cabins. Sara has room fo
Join a NPS ranger on this easy 1.5 hour walk through Yosemites history. Every Tuesday at 2pm, meet the ranger in front of the Valley Visitor Center, near
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Football is a sport where the players need to have the tremendous stamina to stay on the playground. Stamina does not refer to having a toned and shaped body. Stamina comes to those people who exercise regularly, eat healthily and stay active. It is important o have all the world-class football equipment with you to better your game, but stamina cannot be replaced. An article on www.bloggingtheboys.com stated that players who stop concentrating on building their stamina often face body fatigue due to the game. Tiredness is obvious, but feeling weak and fatigue all the time indicates that you are not taking appropriate care of your body.. You must have heard a lot about carbohydrates and how people talk about low carb and high carb diets. Now its time to implement it for the stamina a player needs on the football ground. Experts on various health blogs write about different types of diets like Atkins and Paloe. Let us drive out some standard features from them, to sum up, how you can stay ...
Five AMPs from three different frog and toad species were tested for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant strains. Initial results showed that all the peptides acted as antibacterial agents. A peptide called esculentin 1b produced an antibacterial response within 2 to 20 minutes of exposure ...
garlic has been shown over many years to have some mild benefit for cholesterol, some mild benefit for blood pressure and maybe even a little bit of an anti-inflammatory benefit…So I thought if we put all three of these together, we might see some over benefit on the arteries of the heart" -Dr. ...
Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain: 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, bufotenin, bufothionine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The term bufotoxin can also be used specifically to describe the conjugate of a bufagin with suberylargine. The toxic substances found in toads can be divided by chemical structure in two groups: bufadienolides which are cardiac glycosides (e.g. bufotalin, bufogenin) tryptamine related substances (e.g. bufotenin) Toads known to secrete bufotoxin are:[citation needed] Bufo alvarius Bufo americanus Bufo arenarum Bufo asper Bufo blombergi Bufo boreas Bufo bufo Bufo bufo gargarizans Bufo Gutturalis Bufo formosus Bufo fowleri Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus) Bufo melanostictus Bufo peltocephalus Bufo quercicus ...
Dr. Hensel is an Assistant Professor at the University of Manitoba in the Department of Psychiatry. She joined the faculty in April 2017, from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto. She obtained her medical degree in 2008 and completed residency training in Psychiatry in 2013, both at the University of Toronto. During residency, she completed the Clinician Scientist Program and a Masters degree in Health Services Research from the Institute for Health Policy, Management and Evaluation at the University of Toronto. After residency, she completed a 1-year research fellowship in Adult Psychiatry and Health Systems. Before coming to Manitoba, she worked for 3 years in outpatient general psychiatry, and was the mental health lead for the Womens College Hospital Institute for Health Systems Solutions and Virtual Care. Dr. Hensel has research interests in health services, virtual care, and occupational mental health. Her experience includes work with administrative data, program ...
6 mixed berry. 6 black cherry. Vit D added. 1.5 milkfat. Grade A. With Bifidus Regularis. Helps regulate your digestive system. No. 1 probiotic yogurt brand (Based on IRI Proactive Health Data Total US Dollar sales over the last 52 weeks.). 2 cups free (Based on a comparison of the average non-promotional price over the last 13 weeks.) vs. price of 3 four packs. A smooth, blended, delicious, lowfat yogurt. Consume daily for two weeks as part of a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle. Contains a natural probiotic culture - Bifidus Regularis - (Bifidobacterium lactis DN 173-010) only in Activia. For more details, see inside package, visit us at www.activia.com. Live & Active Cultures (Meets National Yogurt Association criteria for live and active culture yogurt). GF: Certified gluten-free. A product of The Danone Group. Contains the active cultures, L. Bulgaricus, S. Thermophilus and Bifidobacterium Lactis DN 173-010 (Bifidus Regularis). Overwrap made from 100% recycled content. 35% post consumer ...
Population genetics of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) show that isolates are highly related and globally homogenous, data that are consistent with the recent epidemic spread of a previously endemic organism. Highly related isolates are predicted to be functionally similar due to low levels of heritable genetic diversity. To test this hypothesis, we took a global panel of Bd isolates and measured (i) the genetic relatedness among isolates, (ii) proteomic profiles of isolates, (iii) the susceptibility of isolates to the antifungal drug caspofungin, (iv) the variation among isolates in growth and phenotypic characteristics, and (v) the virulence of isolates against the European common toad Bufo bufo. Our results show (i) genotypic differentiation among isolates, (ii) proteomic differentiation among isolates, (iii) no significant differences in susceptibility to caspofungin, (iv) differentiation in growth and phenotypic/morphological characters, and (v) differential ...
fowlers syndrome - MedHelps fowlers syndrome Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for fowlers syndrome. Find fowlers syndrome information, treatments for fowlers syndrome and fowlers syndrome symptoms.
The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining) amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains). We provide evidence that the observed ...
Death adders are at great risk following the invasion of cane toads: overall, approximately half of the snakes that ingested toads during our studies died as a result. This vulnerability was evident even in the laboratory, where we used toads with reduced toxin content. In our radiotelemetry studies, many of the telemetered snakes died after attempting to eat toads. Our data on behavioural responses identify a major contributor to that vulnerability. The foraging tactics of death adders place them at heightened risk of poisoning by invasive cane toads.. The specialized modes of prey attraction and prey handling exhibited by death adders presumably have worked well for millions of years. Although luring did not attract native frogs in our study, it works well with scincid lizards (Hagman et al. 2008). However, those traits reduce rather than enhance fitness of death adders when toxic cane toads arrive. First, the visual stimulus provided by toxic cane toads elicits luring by the snakes, far more ...
Bifidobacterium animalis is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium which can be found in the large intestines of most mammals, including humans. Bifidobacterium animalis and Bifidobacterium lactis were previously described as two distinct species. Presently, both are considered B. animalis with the subspecies Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. Both old names B. animalis and B. lactis are still used on product labels, as this species is frequently used as a probiotic. In most cases, which subspecies is used in the product is not clear. Several companies have attempted to trademark particular strains, and as a marketing technique, have invented scientific-sounding names for the strains. Danone (Dannon) markets the subspecies strain DN 173 010 as Bifidus Digestivum (UK), Bifidus Regularis (US and Mexico), Bifidobacterium Lactis or B.L. Regularis (Canada), DanRegularis (Brazil), Bifidus Actiregularis (Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, ...

Wyoming toad - WikipediaWyoming toad - Wikipedia

Bufonidae. Genus:. Anaxyrus. Species:. A. baxteri. Binomial name. Anaxyrus baxteri. (Porter, 1968). ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wyoming_Toad

BufonidaeBufonidae

... True Toads. David Cannatella and Anna Graybeal Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Page: Tree of Life Bufonidae. True Toads. Authored by David Cannatella and Anna Graybeal. The TEXT of this page is licensed ... Putative synapomorphies of Bufonidae are the presence of Bidders organ (Duellman and Trueb, 1986); a unique pattern of ... A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Laurentophryne+parkeri

BufonidaeBufonidae

... True Toads. David Cannatella and Anna Graybeal Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Page: Tree of Life Bufonidae. True Toads. Authored by David Cannatella and Anna Graybeal. The TEXT of this page is licensed ... Putative synapomorphies of Bufonidae are the presence of Bidders organ (Duellman and Trueb, 1986); a unique pattern of ... A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Mertensophryne+micranotis

BufonidaeBufonidae

Today, the Sonoran Desert Toad just barely makes it into the extreme southwestern tip of New Mexicos bootheel on the east, where the Yaqui River drainage enters New Mexico, but inhabits most of the southern half of Arizona. The only fossil New Mexican record for the area is relatively close to the eastern limits, at U-Bar Cave. A large permanent spring is within several miles of the cave today and Pleistocene Playas Lake occurred to the northwest, both likely presenting suitable habitat.. Fig. 1. Incilius alvarius. Photograph courtesy of Jeff Servoss and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.. This is a very large toad, as can be seen in Fig. 2, where a partial tibiofibula is compared to the same element tentatively identified as that of Anaxyrus woodhousii.. ...
more infohttps://www.utep.edu/LEB/pleistNM/taxa/Incilius.htm

Category:Bufonidae - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Bufonidae - Wikimedia Commons

"Bufonidae" 분류에 속하는 미디어. 다음은 이 분류에 속하는 파일 6개 가운데 6개입니다. ... 원본 주소 "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Bufonidae&oldid=258636489" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Bufonidae?uselang=ko

AnAge Browser: BufonidaeAnAge Browser: Bufonidae

GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
more infohttp://genomics.senescence.info/species/browser.php?type=4&name=Bufonidae

Systematics of the Bufo coccifer Complex (Anura: Bufonidae) of MesoamericaSystematics of the Bufo coccifer Complex (Anura: Bufonidae) of Mesoamerica

Mendelson, J. R. (2005). Systematics of the Bufo coccifer complex (Anura: Bufonidae) of Mesoamerica / by Joseph R. Mendelson ...
more infohttps://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/25417

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae...Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae...

The Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizansbelongs to Bufonidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and ... Bufo gargarizans Bufonidae Complete mitochondrial genome Protein-coding genes This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... The Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans belongs to Bufonidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and ... Dong B, Yang B (2016) The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo stejnegeri (Anura: Bufonidae). Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12686-017-0792-3

Una nueva especie de sapo del género Osornophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) de las estribaciones amazónicas de los Andes de EcuadorUna nueva especie de sapo del género Osornophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) de las estribaciones amazónicas de los Andes de Ecuador

Palavras-chave : Ecuadorian Andes; Osornophryne; Bufonidae; Ecuador; New species. · resumo em Espanhol · texto em Espanhol · ... Bufonidae) de las estribaciones amazónicas de los Andes de Ecuador. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) [online]. 2010, vol.50, n.17 ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0031-10492010001700001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Multilocus Species Tree Analyses Resolve the Radiation of the Widespread Bufo Bufo Species Group (Anura, Bufonidae) - PubMedMultilocus Species Tree Analyses Resolve the Radiation of the Widespread Bufo Bufo Species Group (Anura, Bufonidae) - PubMed

Multilocus Species Tree Analyses Resolve the Radiation of the Widespread Bufo Bufo Species Group (Anura, Bufonidae) E Recuero 1 ... Multilocus Species Tree Analyses Resolve the Radiation of the Widespread Bufo Bufo Species Group (Anura, Bufonidae) E Recuero ... In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21964513/

A NEW TOAD GENUS OF  BUFONIDAE──Torrentophryne FROM TRANSHIMALAYA MOUNTAIN OF YUNNAN OF CHINA WITH ITS BIOLOGY--《ZOOLOGICAL...A NEW TOAD GENUS OF BUFONIDAE──Torrentophryne FROM TRANSHIMALAYA MOUNTAIN OF YUNNAN OF CHINA WITH ITS BIOLOGY--《ZOOLOGICAL...

... which obviously confirmed thatthose tadpoles belong to Bufonidae (Datong Yang, 1991).Among them, the tadpoles from Taiping, ... we collected some adults of Bufonidae in forest stream of Pianma,Lushui in western Yunnan as Bufo burmanus(Yang Datong et al., ... in 1973,we collected some adults of Bufonidae in forest stream of Pianma,Lushui in western Yunnan as Bufo burmanus(Yang Datong ... A NEW TOAD GENUS OF BUFONIDAE──Torrentophryne FROM TRANSHIMALAYA MOUNTAIN OF YUNNAN OF CHINA WITH ITS BIOLOGY. ...
more infohttp://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-DWXY604.000.htm

Species boundaries, biogeography and evolutionarily significant units in dwarf toads: Duttaphrynus scaber and D. atukoralei ...Species boundaries, biogeography and evolutionarily significant units in dwarf toads: Duttaphrynus scaber and D. atukoralei ...

Bufonidae: Adenominae). Authors: Beneeta Jayawardena, University of Peradeniya, LK About Beneeta. Department of Molecular ... Bufonidae: Adenominae). Ceylon Journal of Science, 46(5), 79-87. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cjs.v46i5.7455 ... Bufonidae: Adenominae). Ceylon Journal of Science, 46(5), 79-87. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cjs.v46i5.7455 ... Bufonidae: Adenominae). Ceylon Journal of Science. 46(5), pp.79-87. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cjs.v46i5.7455 ...
more infohttps://cjs.sljol.info/articles/abstract/10.4038/cjs.v46i5.7455/

Species New to Science: [Herpetology • 2017] Rediscovery of the Nearly Extinct Longnose Harlequin Frog Atelopus longirostris ...Species New to Science: [Herpetology • 2017] Rediscovery of the Nearly Extinct Longnose Harlequin Frog Atelopus longirostris ...

Bufonidae (53) Bulbophyllum (9) Bulgaria (1) Burmanniaceae (3) Bushmeat (1) Butterflyfish - Chaetodontidae (2) BUU (3) Caatinga ... ป้ายกำกับ: 2017, Anura - Frog, Bufonidae, Conservation, CR • Critically Endangered, Ecuador, Herpetology - Frog; Reptile Snake ... Rediscovery of the Nearly Extinct Longnose Harlequin Frog Atelopus longirostris (Bufonidae) in Junín, Imbabura, Ecuador. ... Herpetology • 2017] Rediscovery of the Nearly Extinct Longnose Harlequin Frog Atelopus longirostris (Bufonidae) in Junín, ...
more infohttp://novataxa.blogspot.ca/2017/06/atelopus-longirostris-rediscovery.html

Fish/Amphibian IndexFish/Amphibian Index

Family Bufonidae-True Toads. Anaxyrus boreas-Western Toad. Anaxyrus cognatus-Great Plains Toad ...
more infohttps://www.utep.edu/leb/pleistNM/Fishamphibindex.htm

Bufo Garsault, 1764 | Amphibian Species of the WorldBufo Garsault, 1764 | Amphibian Species of the World

... see comment under Bufonidae. The status of Torrentophryne is controversial. Liu, Lathrop, Fu, Yang, and Murphy, 2000, Mol. ...
more infohttp://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/Amphibia/Anura/Bufonidae/Bufo

IDAAD - AbstractIDAAD - Abstract

First record of chytridiomycosis in Bolivia (Rhinella quechua; Anura: Bufonidae).. Authors:. Barrionuevo, S.; Aguayo, R.; ...
more infohttps://www.cefas.co.uk/international-database-on-aquatic-animal-diseases/abstract/?id=1196

Atelopus cruciger (Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856) | Amphibian Species of the WorldAtelopus cruciger (Lichtenstein and Martens, 1856) | Amphibian Species of the World

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Atelopus > Species: Atelopus cruciger Phrynidium crucigerum ...
more infohttp://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/Amphibia/Anura/Bufonidae/Atelopus/Atelopus-cruciger

Western toad - WikipediaWestern toad - Wikipedia

Western toads are active from January to October, depending on latitude and elevation, and hibernate over the winter.[12] Boreal toads in one Colorado population used natural chambers near a small stream bed. The high water table, constantly flowing stream, and deep winter snow served to maintain the air temperature within the hibernaculum at a point slightly above freezing. Emergence from hibernation followed a few days of warm temperatures that freed the entrance and increased temperatures within the chamber to about 39.2 °F (4.0 °C).[10][13] At low elevations western toads are active at night; at high elevations and in the northern parts of their range they are diurnal.[12] Body temperature of western toads is closely correlated with the substrate temperature. Basking and conduction from the substrate are primary means of increasing body temperature and cooling is achieved by evaporative cooling and conduction of heat to a cooler medium. Diurnal and nocturnal activity are often related to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_toad

Bufo marinus - Wikimedia CommonsBufo marinus - Wikimedia Commons

Bufonidae • Genus: Bufo • Species: Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bufo_marinus

EUR-Lex - 31992L0043 - EN - EUR-LexEUR-Lex - 31992L0043 - EN - EUR-Lex

Tarybos Direktyva 92/43/EEB. 1992 m. gegužės 21 d.. dėl natūralių buveinių ir laukinės faunos bei floros apsaugos. EUROPOS BENDRIJŲ TARYBA,. atsižvelgdama į Europos ekonominės bendrijos steigimo sutartį, ypač į jos 130s straipsnį,. atsižvelgdama į Komisijos pasiūlymą [1],. atsižvelgdama į Europos Parlamento nuomonę [2],. atsižvelgdama į Ekonomikos ir socialinių reikalų komiteto nuomonę [3],. kadangi aplinkos kokybės išsaugojimas, apsauga ir gerinimas, įskaitant natūralių buveinių ir laukinės faunos bei floros apsaugą, yra svarbiausias Bendrijos bendras tikslas, kaip nurodyta Sutarties 130r straipsnyje;. kadangi Europos bendrijos aplinkosaugos politikos ir veiksmų programa (1987-1992) [4] numato gamtos ir gamtinių išteklių apsaugos priemones;. kadangi šios direktyvos tikslas - skatinti biologinės įvairovės palaikymą, atsižvelgiant į ekonominius, socialinius, kultūrinius ir regioninius reikalavimus, todėl ši direktyva prisideda prie bendro ...
more infohttps://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/LT/TXT/?uri=CELEX:31992L0043

Amphibians - Devils Tower National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)Amphibians - Devils Tower National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)

TOADS - (BUFONIDAE):. *Great plains toad (Bufo cognatus) U. *Woodhouses toad (Bufo woodhousei woodhousei) C ...
more infohttps://www.nps.gov/deto/learn/nature/amphibians.htm
  • Ford and Cannatella (1993) defined Bufonidae as the node-based name for the most recent common ancestor of living bufonids ( Bufo , Frostius , etc., as listed in Frost ), and all its descendants. (tolweb.org)
  • The Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans belongs to Bufonidae. (springer.com)
  • in 1973,we collected some adults of Bufonidae in forest stream of Pianma,Lushui in western Yunnan as Bufo burmanus(Yang Datong et al. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Colubridae Herpetofauna as prey Predator Family Specie Specie Bufonidae Rhinella marina Leptodactylus pentadactylus Hyalinobatrachium -- anreognttatnmc -- Centrolenidae Hyalinobatrachium Sesarma roberti fleiscbmanni Prionostemma frontale Paroecanthus tibialis Agelaia pallipes Hyalinobatrachium Polybia sp. (thefreedictionary.com)