The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
Family of slender threadlike aquatic plants, in the order CHARALES, phylum STREPTOPHYTA, that are closely related to LAND PLANTS.
A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain benzophenones.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.

Analyses of oviductal pars recta-induced fertilizability of coelomic eggs in Xenopus laevis. (1/166)

The acquisition of fertilizability in coelomic eggs of Xenopus laevis has been shown to be correlated with the physical, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations of the egg envelope [coelomic envelope (CE)] induced during the passage of eggs through the pars recta portion of the oviduct. However, no direct evidence that the pars recta renders eggs fertilizable has yet been presented. In this study, we show that coelomic eggs are highly fertilizable when they are incubated with continuous shaking for 4 h at 15 degrees C in pars recta extract (PRE) derived from females prestimulated by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. The PRE from pituitary-stimulated Bufo japonicus was as potent as homologous PRE in rendering Xenopus eggs fertilizable. Incubation of coelomic eggs in PRE for 30 min induced a dramatic increase in the rates of sperm binding to the envelope to a level equivalent to that exhibited by the envelope from uterine eggs (VEs). The CE-to-VE ultrastructural conversion and a 43k-to-41k hydrolysis of the envelope glycoprotein component started 5 min after, and were completed by 15 min after, the start of incubation in PRE and were accompanied by an exposure of a new N-terminal sequence typical to gp41. Thus, the biochemical and ultrastructural conversions and the sperm-binding activity of the envelope induced by PREs, although being prerequisite, were not sufficient to render coelomic eggs fully accessible to fertilizing sperm.  (+info)

Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs. (2/166)

While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. In this paper, I address the following three questions. (1) How do frog tongues differ biomechanically? (2) What anatomical and physiological differences are responsible? (3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular control? Frog species use three non-exclusive mechanisms to protract their tongues during feeding: (i) mechanical pulling, in which the tongue shortens as its muscles contract during protraction; (ii) inertial elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under inertial and muscular loading; and (iii) hydrostatic elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under constraints imposed by the constant volume of a muscular hydrostat. Major differences among these functional types include (i) the amount and orientation of collagen fibres associated with the tongue muscles and the mechanical properties that this connective tissue confers to the tongue as a whole; and (ii) the transfer of intertia from the opening jaws to the tongue, which probably involves a catch mechanism that increases the acceleration achieved during mouth opening. The mechanisms of tongue protraction differ in the types of neural mechanisms that are used to control tongue movements, particularly in the relative importance of feed-forward versus feedback control, in requirements for precise interjoint coordination, in the size and number of motor units, and in the afferent pathways that are involved in coordinating tongue and jaw movements. Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is finely tuned to the biomechanical constraints and opportunities provided by differences in morphological design among species.  (+info)

Genetic variation as a test of natural selection. (3/166)

Allozymic variation encoded by 26 loci was analyzed electrophoretically in 507 specimens representing 12 populations of green toads, Bufo viridis, in Israel and the Vis Adriatic Island. Genetic variation in Bufo viridis is higher than in any vertebrate yet studied. Mean heterozygosity per locus per individual (H) is 0.133 (range, 0.105 to 0.159). H is higher in central populations as compared with isolates, and varies among four major protein classes, being highest in transferases and hydrolases and lowest in oxidoreductases and nonenzymatic proteins. Differential gene frequencies among polymorphisms was tested as an indicator of natural selection. Significant heterogeneity between loci in their apparent inbreeding coefficients Fe=S-2p/P(1-p) was found for all alleles and for each of the four major classes of proteins tested, which may be taken as evidence of selection. Both uniform and diversifying selection are suggested by the low and high Fe values, respectively. The general pattern of high heterozygosity in Bufo viridis is best explained as an adaptive strategy in heterogeneous environments.  (+info)

Differences in the skin peptides of the male and female Australian tree frog Litoria splendida. The discovery of the aquatic male sex pheromone splendipherin, together with phe8 caerulein and a new antibiotic peptide caerin 1.10. (4/166)

The skin secretions of female and male Litoria splendida have been monitored monthly over a three-year period using HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry. Two minor peptides are present only in the skin secretion of the male. The first of these is the female-attracting aquatic male sex pheromone that we have named splendipherin, a 25 amino acid peptide (GLVSSIGKALGGLLADVVKSKGQPA-OH). This pheromone constitutes about 1% of the total skin peptides during the breeding season (January to March), dropping to about 0.1% during the period June to November. Splendipherin attracts the female in water at a concentration of 10-11-10-9 M, and is species specific. The second peptide is a wide-spectrum antibiotic of the caerin 1 group, a 25 residue peptide (GLLSVLGSVAKHVLPHVVPVIAEKL-NH2) named caerin 1.10. The neuropeptides of L. splendida are also seasonally variable, the change identical for both the female and male. During the period October to March, the sole neuropeptide present in skin secretions is caerulein [pEQDY(SO3)TGWMDF-NH2]; this is active on smooth muscle and is also an analgaesic. During the southern winter (June to September), more than half of the caerulein is hydrolysed to [pEQDYTGWMDF-NH2], a peptide that shows no smooth muscle activity. In place of caerulein, a new peptide, Phe8 caerulein [pEQDY(SO3)TGWFDF-NH2], becomes a major component of the skin secretion. Perhaps this seasonal change is involved in thermoregulation, that is, with the initiation and maintenance of the inactive (hibernation) phase of the animal.  (+info)

Isolation, structural characterization, and bioactivity of a novel neuromedin U analog from the defensive skin secretion of the Australasian tree frog, Litoria caerulea. (5/166)

We report the isolation of a novel bioactive peptide, neuromedin U-23 (NmU-23), from the defensive skin secretion of the Australasian tree frog, Litoria caerulea. The primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy and site-directed antiserum immunoreactivity as SDEEVQVPGGVISNGYFLFRPRN-amide (M(r) 2580.6). A synthetic replicate of frog NmU-23 displaced monoradioiodinated rat NmU-23 from uterine membranes in a dose-dependent fashion indistinguishable from nonisotopically labeled rat NmU-23. In a rat uterine smooth muscle strip preparation, synthetic frog NmU-23 produced dose-dependent contractions identical to porcine NmU-25. However, in a preparation of human urinary bladder muscle strip, the synthetic frog peptide was more potent than porcine NmU-25 in eliciting contraction and produced desensitization of the preparation to the latter peptide. This report demonstrates that the defensive skin secretion of a frog contains a novel peptide exhibiting a high degree of primary structural similarity to the endogenous vertebrate peptide, NmU, and that this frog skin analog displays biological activity in mammalian tissues.  (+info)

Actin-like filaments amd membrane rearrangement in oxyntic cells. (6/166)

The secretory pole of vertebrate oxyntic cells possesses two distinct membrane systems: the apical plasma membrane which presents numerous infoldings, microvilli and processes, and a complex tubulovesicular system located in close proximity to the plasma membrane. These two membrane systems are generally believed to be interconvertible in relation to the functional state of the cell. To determine the role that filaments may play in the interconversion process, the secretory pole of rat and toad oxyntic cells was examined by electron microscopy under conditions designed to demonstrate filamentous structures, i.e., slight cellular swelling and incubation with heavy meromyosin. Filaments 50-80 A in diameter are present in close association with the plasma membrane to which they are connected by regularly spaced bridges. Heavy meroxyosin-treated material reveals "decorated" filaments in topographically corresponding locations. No filaments are seen in association with membranes of the tubulovesicular system. These findings suggest that association with actin-like filaments is a step in the translocation of membranes from the tubulovesicular system to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis in a direct developing frog. (7/166)

The direct developing anuran, Eleutherodactylus coqui, lacks a tadpole, hatching as a tiny frog. We investigated the role of the metamorphic trigger, thyroid hormone (TH), in this unusual ontogeny. Expression patterns of the thyroid hormone receptors, TRalpha and TRbeta, were similar to those of indirect developers. TRbeta mRNA levels increased dramatically around the time of thyroid maturation, when remodeling events reminiscent of metamorphosis occur. Treatment with the goitrogen methimazole inhibited this remodeling, which was reinitiated on cotreatment with TH. Despite their radically altered ontogeny, direct developers still undergo a TH-dependent metamorphosis, which occurs before hatching. We propose a new model for the evolution of anuran direct development.  (+info)

Maculatin 1.1, an anti-microbial peptide from the Australian tree frog, Litoria genimaculata solution structure and biological activity. (8/166)

The dorsal glands of Australian tree frogs from the Litoria species contain a diversity of antibiotic peptides that forms part of the defence system of the animal. Here, the antibiotic activity and structure of maculatin 1.1, a 21 amino acid peptide from Litoria genimaculata, are compared. The activity data on maculatin 1.1 and a series of its analogues imply that the mechanism of action of maculatin 1.1 involves binding to, and subsequent lysis of, the bacterial cell membrane. The structure of maculatin 1.1 was determined using NMR spectroscopy in a trifluoroethanol/water mixture and when incorporated into dodecylphosphocholine micelles. Under both conditions, the peptide adopts a very similar conformation, i.e. a helical structure with a central kink in the vicinity of Pro15. The kink allows the peptide to adopt a well-defined amphipathic conformation along its entire length. The similar structures determined under both solvent conditions imply that structures of membrane-interacting peptides in trifluoroethanol/water mixtures are representative of those adopted in a membrane environment, e.g. when incorporated into micelles. The synthetic Ala15 analogue of maculatin 1.1 has markedly reduced activity and its NMR-derived structure is a well-defined helix, which lacks the central kink and flexibility of the parent molecule. It is concluded that the kink is important for full biological activity of the peptide, probably because it allows maximum amphipathicity of the peptide to facilitate interaction with the membrane. The structure of maculatin 1.1 is compared with a related peptide, caerin 1.1 [Wong, H., Bowie, J.H. and Carver, J.A. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 247, 545-557], which has an additional central proline residue and enhanced central flexibility compared with maculatin 1.1. The role of central flexibility within antibiotic peptides in their interaction with bacterial membranes is discussed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A new species of the rhinella margaritifera species group (Anura, bufonidae) from the Montane forest of the selva central, Peru. AU - Moravec, Jiří. AU - Lehr, Edgar. AU - Cusi, Juan Carlos. AU - Córdova, Jesús H.. AU - Gvoždík, Václav. PY - 2014/1/27. Y1 - 2014/1/27. N2 - We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). Te new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confrmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5-65.5 mm, n = 5), moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In ...
African pygmy toads of the genus Poyntonophrynus are some of the least known species of African toads. The genus comprises ten recognized species endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, five of which are restricted to southwestern Africa. Recent field research in Angola provided new material for three species of Poyntonophrynus, including a morphologically distinctive population from the Serra da Neve Inselberg. Based on a combination of external morphology, high-resolution computed tomography scanning, and molecular phylogenetic analysis, the Serra da Neve population is described as new species that is nested within the genus. The most striking character that differentiates the newly described species from its congeners is the lack of a tympanic middle ear, a condition common in the family Bufonidae, but so far not known for Poyntonophrynus. The description of this new species from southwestern Angola reinforces the biogeographic importance of the region and further suggests that southwestern Africa is the
Define genus Bufo. genus Bufo synonyms, genus Bufo pronunciation, genus Bufo translation, English dictionary definition of genus Bufo. Noun 1. genus Bufo - type genus of the Bufonidae; common toads of New and Old Worlds amphibian genus - any genus of amphibians Bufonidae, family Bufonidae -...
Bufo houstonensis Sanders, 1953, Herpetologica, 9: 27. Holotype: UIMNH 33687, by original designation. Type locality: Fairbanks, Harris Co[unty]., Texas, USA; corrected to off Tanner Road, 1-2 mi. W of its junction with Campbell Road in northwest Houston, Harris Co., Texas, USA, by Brown, 1971, Southwest. Nat., 16: 195.. Bufo americanus houstonensis - Blair, 1957, in Blair et al. (eds.), Vert. U.S.: 250.. Bufo houstonensis - Brown, 1971, Southwest. Nat., 16: 185-199.. Anaxyrus houstonensis - Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.. Bufo (Anaxyrus) houstonensis - Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 304. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires widespread paraphyly. ...
The variability of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 was studied for the first time in three species of the diploid-polyploid complex of Bufo viridis (B. viridis, B. oblongus, and B. pewzowi). The locus
Antimicrobial peptides in skin secretions of toads are promising methods to combat a wide spectrum of bacteria. Histone H2A is a type of DNA-binding protein that acts as a precursor for several antimicrobial peptides. In toads (family Bufonidae) buforin I and buforin II are examples of antimicrobial peptides that derived from histone H2A. This study investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis and in silico prediction of antimicrobial peptides derived from histone H2A of Duttaphrynus melanostictus and Phyrinoidis asper, which were collected from Bogor Agricultural Universitys campus area. A new set of primers (Buf_fwd and Buf_rev) were designed by using PrimerBLAST, to amplify 393 nucleotides of the histone H2A gene that codes 131 amino acids. Haplotype diversity of both species are very low. Phylogenetic analysis shows the sample D. melanostictus and P. asper are separated to each other in two different clades. Several short predicted peptides from histone H2A show a potential ...
New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to res …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavioral fever drives epigenetic modulation of the immune response in fish. AU - Boltana, Sebastian. AU - Aguilar, Andrea. AU - Sanhueza, Nataly. AU - Donoso, Andrea. AU - MERCADO VIANCO, LUIS ALBERTO. AU - Imarai, Monica. AU - Mackenzie, Simon. PY - 2018/6/4. Y1 - 2018/6/4. N2 - Ectotherms choose the best thermal conditions to mount a successful immune response, a phenomenon known as behavioral fever. The cumulative evidence suggests that behavioral fever impacts positively upon lymphocyte proliferation, inflammatory cytokine expression, and other immune functions. In this study, we have explored how thermal choice during infection impacts upon underpinning molecular processes and how temperature increase is coupled to the immune response. Our results show that behavioral fever results in a widespread, plastic imprint on gene regulation, and lymphocyte proliferation. We further explored the possible contribution of histone modification and identified global associations ...
4; SD = 4.4). 4. Discussion. The results of this study indicated seasonal differences in the diet of Physalaemus cf. cicada. These differences can be related not only to the prey availability, but also to the changes in the composition of the community of active anurans. In both seasons, P. cf. cicada presented a diet based mainly on Isoptera and Formicidae. In the rainy season, the number of termites found in gastrointestinal tracts was smaller than in the dry season, probably due to their lower availability in the environment, and due to the presence of B. granulosus in the same season, since this species also consumed the same kind of food in large amounts. Furthermore, we found a significative positive correlation between the individual size of P. cf. cicada and maximum volume of consumed prey only in the rainy season.. Formicidae presented the largest abundance in the environment, but the frequency of occurrence and the numeric frequency were proportionally small when compared to their ...
This page is a collection of people that are attached to a branch of the Tree of Life.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
Other articles where American toad is discussed: toad: True toads, of which the American toad (Bufo americanus) and the European toad (B. bufo) are representative, are stout-bodied with short legs that limit them to the characteristic walking or hopping gait. Their size ranges from about 2 to 25 cm (1 to 10 inches). The thick, dry, often warty…
Bufo variabilis var. amurensis Maak, 1859, Puteshestvie na Amur: 153. Types: Not stated; presumably originally in ZISP. Type locality: (translation) all along the Amur. Questionably a senior synonym of Bufo raddei, according to Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 70. Nomen nudum according to Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 275.. Bufo Raddei Strauch, 1876, in Przewalski (ed.), Mongoliia i strana Tangutov, 2(3): 53. Syntypes: ZISP (8 specimens) according to the orignal; including ZISP 921-925, MCZ 1958 (on exchange from ZISP according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 232). Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 158, designated ZISP 921 as the lectotype. Type localities: provincia Chinensi, Ordos dicta . . . . nec non in desert Alaschanico, by original designation, = Ordos and Alashan [= Tengger Desert, Nei Mongol, China]. Restricted to Alashan Desert by lectotype designation. See discussion of type locality by Kuzmin and ...
There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric rela...
Were slowly learning to breed members of this amphibian family decimated by the chytrid fungal disease, said Roberto Ibañez, Panamanian staff scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) and in-country director of the Panama Amphibian Conservation and Rescue (PARC) project. Thats buying us time to understand what kind of chemicals they produce, but its likely that animals in their natural habitats produce an even wider range of compounds.. 15 of 47 frog and toad species used in traditional medicine belong to the family Bufonidae. For millennia, secretions from their skin and from glands near their ears called parotid glands, as well as from their bones and muscle tissues have been used as remedies for infections, bites, cancer, heart disorders, hemorrhages, allergies, inflammation, pain and even AIDS.. Toxins of two common Asian toad species, Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanostictus, produce the anticancer remedies known as Chan Su and Senso in China and Japan, ...
Based on material collected from Rhinella cf. margaritifera (Laurenti) and Rhi. marina (Linnaeus) (Anura: Bufonidae) during a parasite survey of the herpetofauna of French Guiana, updated descriptions of Rhabdias androgyna ...
Tetrapod groups with four limbs; these may also be categorized as Amniota (mammals, reptiles, dinosaurs and birds), with all living and fossil amphibians placed in various non-amniote groups -- [ ucmp ]; Amphibia and Reptilia together are sometimes referred to as herptiles --[ general herpetology links ] Amphibia amphibians spend part of their life in water, breathe through skin & gills, lay eggs in water and lack scales, cold blooded -- [ ucmp , links , Amphibian Species of the World ] Labyrinthodontia fossils Lepospondyli fossils Lissamphibia includes all living amphibians -- [ ToL , ummzADW ] Anura (=Salienta) frogs, toads -- [ ToL , ummzADW , links ] Bufonidae toads [ ummzADW ] Centrolenidae Centrolenella [ ummzADW ] Dendrobatidae poison dart frogs [ ummzADW ] Discoglossidae Alytes [ ummzADW ] Hylidae tree frogs and peepers [ ummzADW ] Hyperolidae Hyperolius [ ummzADW ] Leptodactylidae Syrrhophus, Telmatobius [ ummzADW ] Microhylidae narrowmouth toad [ ummzADW ] Myobatrachidae gastric ...
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Ordo Anura Rafinesque, 1815 Anurans (6 species). Familia Pelobatidae Boulenger, 1882 Pelobatides (1 species). Genus Pelobates Wagler, 1830 (1 species). Pelobates syriacus Boettger, 1889. Familia Bufonidae Gray, 1825 Toads (1 species) Genus Pseudepidalea Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006 Toads (1 species) Pseudepidalea variabilis (Pallas, 1769). Familia Hylidae Gray, 1825 Tree frogs (2 species). Subfamilia Hylinae (2 species). Genus Hyla Laurenti, 1768 (2 species). Hyla orientalis Bedriaga, 1809 ...
Light grey or tan skin with bumps, or warts all over. One large wart behind each eye, which is often brown. Puncturing and ingesting the liquid from these large warts will not kill a human or animal, but it will make them quite sick. Unlike the marine toad in Australia, whose warts have killed many domestic dogs and cats ...
Office Address: Natural Science Building 132 Education:. Ph.D., Zoology (Mathematics minor), Duke University, 1994. M.S., Zoology, University of Georgia, 1981. B.A., Biology, Hamilton College, 1976. Courses Taught:. BIOL 432/532: Population Ecology. BIOL 477/577: Herpetology. BIOL 493/693: Seminar Series. Publications:. Alexander, L. G., S. P. Lailvaux, J. H. K. Pechmann, and P. J. DeVries. 2012. Effects of salinity on early life stages of the Gulf Coast toad, Incilius nebulifer (Anura: Bufonidae). Copeia 2012:106-114. Todd, B. D., D. E. Scott, J. H. K. Pechmann, and J. W. Gibbons. 2011. Climate change correlates with rapid delays and advancements in reproductive timing in an amphibian community. Proceedings of the Royal Society B- Biological Sciences 278: 2191-2197. Salice, C. J., C. L. Rowe, J. H. K. Pechmann, and W. A. Hopkins. 2011. Multiple stressors and complex life cycles: insights from a population-level assessment of breeding site contamination and terrestrial habitat loss in an ...
A recent publication in Biology Letters added a new family, Eleutherodacytlidae, to the list of frogs known to possess defensive, toxic alkaloids in their skin-the so-called poison frogs [1]. The alkaloids have attracted much attention since they are not synthesized by frogs de novo, but rather are obtained from dietary sources and subsequently sequestered in the frogs skin [2]. These cleptotoxins comprise several pumiliotoxins and other lipid-soluble alkaloids that are known or suspected to be present in the frogs prey, which includes ants, beetles, millipedes and, most notably, oribatid mites [2,3]. Four lineages of phylogenetically unrelated poison frogs that sequester prey alkaloids were previously recognized (Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Bufonidae and Myobatrachidae), and the abovementioned miniaturized eleutherodactylid frogs from Cuba [1] represent a fifth.. As with dendrobatids [2], oribatid mites were suspected to be the major dietary source for alkaloids in eleutherodactylid ...
Removed from the synonymy of Rhinella crucifer by Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 265, who provided an account (as Bufo henseli). Maneyro and Kwet, 2008, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A, Neue Ser., 1: 95-121, briefly summarized the taxonomic, conservation, and geographic status, as well as a summary of what is know of natural history. Oliveira, Weber, and Napoli, 2014, Herpetol. J., 24: 229-236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus. Bruschi, Sousa, Soares, Carvalho, Busin, Ficanha, Lima, Andrade, and Recco-Pimentel, 2019, Genet. Mol. Biol., 42: 445-451, reported on karyotype. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella crucifer group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: ...
Vol 3: Proteomic profile of Ortleppascaris sp.: A helminth parasite of Rhinella marina in the Amazonian region.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Promotion of muscle regeneration in the toad (Bufo viridis) gastrocnemius muscle by low-energy laser irradiation., Low-Dose D-Penicillamine Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis., Histomorphological and Angiogenic Analyzes of Skin Epithelium After Low Laser Irradiation in Hairless Mice., The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur., Reconstitution of the external granular layer of the cerebellar cortex in infant rats after low-level X-irradiation., Preservation of seminiferous epithelium and fertility in male rats on vitamin E-low rations supplemented by ╬▒-tocopherol., The fine structure of the mouse adrenal cortex and the ultrastructural changes in the zona glomerulosa with low and high sodium diets., Low molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitors of human articular cartilage. Isolation Characterization and Biosynthesis, Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 mediates leukocyte infiltration and articular cartilage destruction in rat zymosan
Autumn, winter, spring or summer, Yosemite is magical. Giant granite spires and waterfalls, blue skies and clear air -- its practically in Southern Californias own backyard. The Times Mark Boster spent a year photographing this most majestic of national parks, visiting favorite spots, studying the nature around him and watching the seasons unfold with their own special beauty.. More on Yosemite National Park:. Yosemite: My special place, a photographers journal. Yosemite National Park, in winters grip. Witness to rebirth in Yosemite during spring. Finding solitude in Yosemite during summer. What to bring on a trip to Yosemite. Tips for photographing Yosemite. Yosemite: How to get there and where to stay. ...
So... I am not that great at remembering to point the camera at people, but here is a link to some of the photos taken on our hike last Saturday morning so Eric and Vanessa could school the rest of us on how to find/ catch some salamanders. Considering the only salamanders I have ever seen outside of captivity were juvenile Eurycea quadridigitata (dwarf salamanders) that my herp class back in Florida spent 5 hours dip netting through sludge to find 2 individuals, I was pretty excited! We also found some Anaxyrus americanus (american toads) as well on the way back. Oh and the waterfalls were pretty sweet too! Overall the weekend was nice and relaxing and I enjoyed getting to know some of you a little better. Now back to reading about fish and writing my proposal for the NSF GRFP ...
True toads are widespread and are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides, the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.[1]. True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad Rhinella marina, are more toxic than others. Some psychoactive toads, such as the Colorado River toad Incilius alvarius,[2] have been used recreationally for the effects of their bufotoxin. Male toads possess a Bidders organ. Under the right conditions, the organ ...
Using both the Sagdeev and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) methods, ion thermal effects on slow mode ion acoustic solitons and double layers are investigated in a plasma with two adiabatic positive ion species. It is found that reducing the gap between the two ion thermal speeds by increasing the relative temperature of the cool ions increases the typical soliton/double layer speeds for all values of the ion-ion density ratio and reduces the range in the density ratio that supports double layers. The effect of increasing the relative cool ion temperature on the soliton/double layer amplitudes depends on the relative densities. For lower values of the ion density ratio, an increase in cool ion temperature leads to a significant decrease in soliton/double layer amplitude, so one may find that solitons of all permissible speeds lie within the range of KdV theory. ...
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category ...
The non-monoexponential DWI decay at high b-values has been attributed to the multiplicity of water diffusion rates, which may provide the information about the water compartmentation. The common way to compute the diffusion rates is through the multi-exponential analysis. The bi-exponential model assumes two diffusion rates. Considering the multiple length scales in tissues, the distributed exponential model makes no assumption about the number of diffusion rates, and can be empirically described by the stretched exponential model (α-DWI). Those fitting models: bi-exponential and α-DWI have a few parameters, and have been shown to correlate with the pathology. However, it remains difficult to pin down the underlying biophysical mechanisms. In addition, the multi-exponential relation is phenomenological, because each diffusion rate is no longer associated with a mono-exponential decay when diffusion time is long (,30 ms in a clinical DWI). In this study, the distribution of effective ...
Atelopus zeteki, the Panamanian golden frog, is a small, brightly-colored frog. Adult dry forest males measure 35-40 mm in SVL and weigh 3-5 g; adult dry forest females measure 45-55 mm and weigh 4-7 g. Wet forest males and females are larger; adult males measure 39-48 mm in SVL and weigh 8-12 g, while adult females measure 55-63 mm and weigh 10-15 g (Poole 2006). The head is longer than broad, with a pointed, protuberant snout and rounded canthus rostralis (Savage 2002). The pupil is horizontally elliptical (Savage 1972). There is no tympanum, and the ostia pharyngea are slitlike or absent, implying the lack of other middle ear structures such as the auditory ossicle and middle ear cavity (in common with most other species of Atelopus) (Lindquist and Hetherington 1996). However, standard inner ears with well-developed auditory end organs are present (Savage 2002; Lindquist and Hetherington 1996). The body is slim with long limbs, and the upper surface is smooth with minute spicules; when ...
Atelopus onorei is a moderately sized Harlequin frog with male snout-vent lengths ranging from 35.2 mm - 41.3 mm and larger females with a snout-vent length ranges of 41.9 mm - 47.0 mm. Individuals of this species generally have a head that is approximately as long as it is wide, with male head widths ranging from 10.2 - 12.6 mm (an average of 11.6 ± 0.8 mm). The range for head lengths in males is 10.9 - 13.3 mm, the average being 12.2 ± 0.08 mm. Females are again larger with a range in head length being 12.6 - 13.6 mm (an average of 13.1 ± 0.4 mm) and head width ranging from 11.9 - 13.5 mm (an average of 12.4 ± 0.6 mm). The snout tapers to a point and protrudes a little past the lower jaw. A distinct characteristic of this species is that it lacks a tympanum membrane and annulus. Atelopus onorei generally have a smooth texture along their dorsal, chest, belly, and underside of their flanks. The skin on the throat, lateral to their cloaca, and along the flanks is typically rugose. This frog ...
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO ...
The sounds that male frogs and toads make when calling for mates or vocalizing their territory is another form of identification. In North Carolina, males from several species of frogs and toads begin calling for mates in late winter. These early callers commonly include the Spring Peeper (Frog) and the American Toad. Both of these species can be seasonally heard on the NIEHS campus. The Peeper is usually the first of the frogs and toads to begin calling. Each species has a distinct call that is performed in a chorus with the goal to be heard above the other choir members. The chorus is actually a series of solos with all participants taking turns and singing as loud as possible. As the weather warms through spring, other frog and toad species have their turn at calling.. (Bill Steinmetz is the Environmental Compliance Officer at NIEHS in the Health and Safety Branch.). ...
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Though there is a wealth of gorgeous trails in the area, The Four-Mile Trail is certainly one that is worth a look on your next hiking trip in Yosemite. Known for its beautiful scenery, this trail may be one of the best ways to see the entirety of what Yosemite Valley has to offer. You start on the valley floor, nearby the Swinging Bridge, and then walk to Glacier Point, one of the most prime sightseeing spots in Yosemite. But, the thing that makes this walk so great is the multitude of landmarks you see on this long and enjoyable hike. As you walk, youll get to see basically everything that makes this area so fantastic, such as Cathedral Rocks, El Capitan, Sentinel Rock, Half Dome, Clouds Rest, North Dome, and the Royal Arches. From gorgeous waterfalls, to the amazing Glacier Point, everything that Yosemite has to offer will be on full display as you make this awesome trek.. Distance. Make sure you bring plenty of water and at least one meal for this trek, as the length of the trail truly ...
Acanthaceae (58) Accipitridae (10) Acraeidae (1) Aegithinidae (3) Aeshnidae (1) Agamidae Lizards (14) Aganainae (1) Airsac Catfishes (1) Alaudidae (3) Alcedinidae (5) Alismataceae (2) Aloaceae (1) Amaranthaceae (11) Amaryllidaceae (4) Amphibians (18) Anabantidae (1) Anacardiaceae (4) Anatidae (7) Anhingas (1) Anhingidae (1) Aniso (1) Anisoptera (30) Annonaceae (9) Apiaceae (5) Aplocheilidae (1) Apocynaceae (28) Apodidae (2) Aponogetonaceae (4) Araceae (15) Araliaceae (2) Arctiinae (4) Arctiini (2) Ardeidae (13) Arecaceae (13) Aristolochiaceae (3) Artamidae (1) Asclepiadaceae (6) Asian Pond Turtles (1) Asparagaceae (5) Asteraceae (50) Attacini (1) Avicenniaceae (2) Avifauna (223) Babblers (4) Balitoridae (2) Balsaminaceae (12) Barbets (4) Basellaceae (1) Bataguridae (1) Bats (5) Bee-eaters (3) Begoniaceae (4) Bignoniaceae (6) Birds (226) Bluets (10) Bombacaceae (1) Bombycoidea (3) Boraginaceae (8) Bovidae (1) Bromeliaceae (2) Bucerotidae (1) Buffaloes (1) Bufonidae (2) Bulbuls (6) Buntings (1) ...
To our knowledge, this study provides the first electrophysiological data on the collecting duct system of an anuran amphibian. We examined the characteristics of K+ transport by the collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo. Qualitatively, there seemed to be no difference between K+ transport in cells from collecting tubules and from collecting ducts. Our data indicate that luminal K+ channels would provide a pathway for secretion of K+ from the cell into the lumen.. The collecting duct system of amphibians is a heterocellular epithelium composed of principal and intercalated cells (Møbjerg et al., 1998). In this context it should be noted that the Vbl of collecting duct cells fell into two groups, one being more hyperpolarized than the other. We do not know if this distribution (Fig. 2A) reflects two populations of cells in different functional states, or cells with different transport characteristics, e.g. principal and intercalated cells. In the present study it was not possible to ...
Does desiccation risk drive the distribution of juvenile cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia? - Volume 25 Issue 2 - Travis Child, Benjamin L. Phillips, Richard Shine
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The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell...
Journal of Nanomaterials is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that aims to bring science and applications together on nanoscale and nanostructured materials with emphasis on synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications of materials containing true nanosize dimensions or nanostructures that enable novel/enhanced properties or functions. It is directed at both academic researchers and practicing engineers. Journal of Nanomaterials will highlight the continued growth and new challenges in nanomaterials science, engineering, and nanotechnology, both for application development and for basic research. All papers should emphasize original results relating to experimental, theoretical, computational, and/or applications of nanomaterials ranging from hard (inorganic) materials, through soft (polymeric and biological) materials, to hybrid materials or nanocomposites.
Abstract Field evidence indicates that the thermal regime in wellbore considerably affects the wellbore stability in directional and horizontal wells. However, the temperature effects have not been investigated thoroughly in existing literature, and
The viability and motility of spermatozoa harvested from the epididymides of turtles were estimated to elucidate properties that might enable them to be stored over long periods of time. Spermatozoa from the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, were analysed and compared with spermatozoa from two other turtles, Trachemys scripta and Sternotherus odoratus using the Cellsoft analysis system for videotap
The discovery of a huge toad set this young naturalist on a path to investigate these amphibians and their life cycle. See what he learned about the Eastern American toad.
I went to go see if the amphibians would react to the warmth and rain last night. Was hoping to see Spotted Salamanders, toads and frogs too. Started out at Waveny Park in New Canaan at 9:30pm. On the east entrance to the park along the curvy road, I pulled over my truck, turned it off and shut the lights off, and went along walking with my flashlight. Right off the bat....Lots of Spring Peepers, a few Wood Frogs, a couple American Toads hoping across the road to a near vernal pool to mate. Quite a few already crushed by vehicles, including one Spotted Salamander-bummer! Next spot I tried was Mountain Pond area in Danbury. Lots of non direct traveling to hear and see what was along the roads. I drove with windows down, radio off, air off, flashlight in my lap, and digital maps on my iPhone. Would stop when able to get closer looks at the little guys as I travelled. Saw many peepers, toads, and Wood Frogs along the way. Took pictures and scooped them across the road to where they wanted to go ...
When photographer, filmmaker and travel-enthusiast Shawn Reeder became fascinated with timelapse cinematography, he immediately knew that he wanted to create a piece on Californias Yosemite National Park and Sierra Nevada Mountains. After winning a trip to Yosemite at 18 and discovering that the landscape offered a lifetimes worth of exploration, he made the region he considers among the most beautiful places on Earth his new-found home. Now, through a series of breathtaking photographs captured over nearly two years paired with tranquil background music, Reeder is sharing all the subtleties of light, mood, texture, and feeling of this treasured and spellbinding terrain in Yosemite Range of Light.. ...
Okay so Im thinking about living in and around Yosemite this summer as much as I can however I have yet to do any trad climbing. I have done some sport and know my way around the gear pretty well but I am dying to learn some trad. Does anybody have any advice on how to sort of go about doing that at Yosemite? Also, I would be alone so I would need to meet people, hopefully ones who could teach me. Or should I take a class? What do I do? I JUST WANT TO CLIMB and Yosemite seems like such a classic place to be. ...
the physiological processes and body condition of amphibians and other taxa. In the first experiment, southern leopard frog and American toad tadpoles were reared separately in cattle tank mesocosms (1325-L volume) that had been dosed once at 0, 5, 18, 60, or 200 ...
The Australian tree frog has a few other names like Whites tree frog, or simply the green tree frog, but its this last name we like best - the dumpy tree frog, because it is, well, dumpy. The frog was actually originally known by yet another name, the blue frog because a mistake in dead-specimen preservation led to the original specimens appearing to have blue skin. ...
Schatz, H. (2010). Ameronothrus schneideri (Oudemans, 1905). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=508293 on 2017-12- ...
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YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK, Calif. (AP) - In the bird world, they make endangered condors seem almost commonplace.. The unique Great Gray Owls of Yosemite, left to evolve after glacial ice separated them from their plentiful Canadian brethren 30 millennia ago, are both a mystery and concern to the scientists charged with protecting them.. With fewer than 200 in existence in this small pocket of the Sierra Nevada, the slightest disturbances by humans can drive the extremely shy birds from their nests, disrupting sporadic mating cycles that ebb and flow annually depending upon food availability.. So this summer, researchers found a way to abandon their traditional heavy-handed trapping, banding and the blasting of owl calls in favor of the kind of discrete, sophisticated technology used by spies and forensic scientists.. They hope to lessen human influence on this subspecies of owls prized for the potential insights their survival offers into habitat-specific evolution.. Even if it takes only 15 ...
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Darwins nightmare: Toxic toad evolves to secure supremacy - Yahoo! News PARIS (AFP) - Hes fat, ugly and poisonous -- and hes mutating. Hes the cane toad (Bufo marinus), a species which was introduced into the Australian state of Queensland 70 years ago to tackle insect pests in canefields and has since become an ecological…
Cinobufacini has the effects of anticancer, improving the liver function, elevation of immunity and little side effects, and is important and significant for the patients with hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatomas.. Compared with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) , the clinical effect of cinobufacini is non-inferior/ equivalent.Compared with TACE, cinobufacini is superior in security . ...
Individuals that return to natal ponds to breed will probably encounter siblings as potential mates. Although incest is possible, Bufo americanus siblings not often mate. These toads doubtless recognize and actively avoid shut kin as mates. Advertisement vocalizations by males seem to function cues by which females recognize their kin. The word vertebrate derives from […]
The Mediterranean tree frog or stripeless tree frog is a species of frog found in Europe. It resembles the European tree frog, but is larger, has longer hind legs, and the flank stripe only reaches to the front
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Ohios 15 species of frogs and toads at a glance on TrekOhio | An article entitled, Ohios Frog and Toad Species, states that there are 15 species in our…
Chapter 1: Stress. 1.1 Introduction 1. 1.2 Normal Stress Under Axial Loading 2. 1.3 Direct Shear Stress 7. 1.4 Bearing Stress 12. 1.5 Stresses on Inclined Sections 22. 1.6 Equality of Shear Stresses on Perpendicular Planes 24. Chapter 2: Strain. 2.1 Displacement, Deformation, and the Concept of Strain 31. 2.2 Normal Strain 32. 2.3 Shear Strain 39. 2.4 Thermal Strain 43. Chapter 3: Mechanical Properties of Materials. 3.1 The Tension Test 47. 3.2 The Stress-Strain Diagram 50. 3.3 Hookes Law 58. 3.4 Poissons Ratio 58. Chapter 4: Design Concepts. 4.1 Introduction 69. 4.2 Types of Loads 70. 4.3 Safety 71. 4.4 Allowable Stress Design 72. 4.5 Load and Resistance Factor Design 83. Chapter 5: Axial Deformation. 5.1 Introduction 89. 5.2 Saint-Venants Principle 90. 5.3 Deformations in Axially Loaded Bars 92. 5.4 Deformations in a System of Axially Loaded Bars 101. 5.5 Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members 109. 5.6 Thermal Effects on Axial Deformation 128. 5.7 Stress Concentrations 140. Chapter ...
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According to reports from several outlets, Apple is set to finally bring its iMac desktop line into the future with the introduction of a Retina display with a 5K resolution. for the 27-inch model. The company is said to be in the late testing stage for the iMac with Retina display, which would put it on track to launch in the next couple of months. The smart money says that itll launch alongside OS X Yosemite, with other updates that include faster processors, improved Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, and Thunderbolt 2 ports. We expect that the Retina display would be a…
The last person killed in a rockfall at Yosemite was Peter Terbush, a 21-year-old college student from Colorado who was killed when rocks fell from Glacier Point on June 13, 1999.. Standing on the ground, the rock climber was anchoring a climbing partners rope when 525 tons of boulders fell from 1,300 feet above. Terbush did not run away. Instead, he held the rope tightly, saving the life of his friend, Kerry Pyle, who was 60 feet above. Hailed as a hero afterward, Terbush was killed when a chunk of rock hit him in the head.. His family sued the National Park Service for negligence afterward for $10 million, saying that the park should have posted warning signs and may have increased the risk of danger because water from a leaking storage tank at Glacier Point could have affected the rocks stability. A judge dismissed the lawsuit in 2005.. In 2003, a rockfall near Curry Village damaged several cabins and injured four people. About 100 cabins closed afterward. Some were relocated.. There have ...
Hantavirus has killed three campers at Yosemite this season, and thousands may have been exposed to the virus. Dr. Sanjay Gupta reports on the symptoms and explains how its spread.
Hantavirus has killed three campers at Yosemite this season, and thousands may have been exposed to the virus. Dr. Sanjay Gupta reports on the symptoms and explains how its spread.
LOS ANGELES -- State public health officials are conducting an environmental evaluation in the Stanislaus National Forest, Yosemite National Park and surrounding areas after a child contracted the plague during a July visit.
Polonium radiohalos found in biotite flakes of granites in Yosemite National Park place severe time constraints on the formation and cooling of the granite plutons.
Yay...Yosemite!It's the 3 day explosion of valley hikes as this is probably the LAST time we will stay in the valley. Sara and I both have reservations at the housekeeping cabins. Sara has room fo
Join a NPS ranger on this easy 1.5 hour walk through Yosemites history. Every Tuesday at 2pm, meet the ranger in front of the Valley Visitor Center, near
ericncindy24, flickr National Parks Week must be really popular this year. Scalpers are now selling camping reservations at Yosemite National Park at hugely inflated
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There are many species of tree frogs, and most require similar care. Find out what supplies, housing and foods you need to keep your new amphibian happy & healthy with our tree frog car sheet!
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Bufonidae is a family of toads, often called the "true toads". Although a widely varied family, Bufonidae includes the ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on September 24, 2020. Retrieved ...
"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018. Grismer, L. Lee (2007). "A new ... species of Ingerophrynus (Anura: Bufonidae) from a lowland rain forest in southern peninsular Malaysia". Journal of Herpetology ...
"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2018. Wells (2007). The Ecology and ... Bufonidae), and reassessment of its taxonomic status" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2355: 56-68. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2355.1.3. Vitt, Laurie ...
... is a genus of true toads (family Bufonidae). They are found in eastern and southern Democratic Republic of Congo ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael & ... "Interspecific patterns for egg and clutch sizes of African Bufonidae (Amphibia: Anura)". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 253 (4): 309- ...
... is a small genus of true toads, family Bufonidae. They are found in Mainland Southeast Asia and the Greater Sundas. ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Bufonidae), and the description of a new genus from Southeast Asia" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 11 (1): e0145903. doi:10.1371/journal.pone ...
"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...
... , also known as Wolterstorff toads, is a genus of "true toads" (family Bufonidae) native to Nigeria and Cameroon ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...
... is a genus of small true toads, family Bufonidae. It is endemic to the Ayacucho and Junín Regions of Peru. The ... Graybeal, Anna & Cannatella, David C. (1995). "A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael & ...
ISBN 978-1-907807-42-8. "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. ...
The toads in this genus are included in the family Bufonidae, the true toads. Various subspecies of B. bufo have been ... Frost, Darrel R. (2011-01-31). "Bufonidae". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.5. American Museum ... Tosunoğlua, Murat; Taskavak, Ertan (2001). "A serological investigation of the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) populations in ... Bufonidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62 (1): 71-86. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.09.008. hdl:10261/143470. PMID ...
... , also known as Van Dijk's toads, are a small genus of true toads, family Bufonidae. They are native to Southern ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...
Bufonidae)". Journal of Biosciences. 25 (3): 267-273. doi:10.1007/BF02703935. PMID 11022229. S2CID 4014610. R., Arnaud (2014-04 ...
"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Bufonidae) from the Guiana highlands". Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo). 45 (6): 61-67. doi:10.1590/S0031- ...
... is genus of toads in the true toad family, Bufonidae. They are sometimes known as the Central American toads or Middle ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... 2011). "A phylogeny and evolutionary natural history of mesoamerican toads (Anura: Bufonidae: Incilius) based on morphology, ... Bufonidae: Incilius) based on morphology, life history, and molecular data". Zootaxa. 3138: 1-34. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3138.1.1 ...
... is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. The specific name fuliginata is Latin for "sooty", in ... Poynton, John C. & Broadley, Donald G. (1988). "Amphibia Zambesiaca 4. Bufonidae". Annals of the Natal Museum. 29 (2): 447-490 ...
"Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ... Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India". BMC Research Notes. 2: 241. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-241. PMC 2797014. PMID ...
"Bufonidae Gray, 1825". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A ... Nannophryne is a small genus of true toads, family Bufonidae, from South America. They are found in central Andean Peru south ... "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: ...
Oldest Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura) from the Old World: a bufonid from the Paleocene of France. Journal of Vertebrate ... Bufonidae indet. Neobatrachia indet. List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in France Thanetian formations Tuffeau de St ...
Grismer, L Lee (2006). "A new species of Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870 (Anura: Bufonidae) from a lowland rainforest in Southern ... Description "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, ... Bufonidae)" (PDF). Zoological Science. 22 (7): 809-814. doi:10.2108/zsj.22.809. hdl:2433/65038. PMID 16082171. S2CID 37362242. ...
... , also known as the Asmara toad (ኣስመራ ጋዝዕ), is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is named after ... Bufonidae)". Monitore Zoologico Italiano. Supplemento. 20 (1): 211-267. doi:10.1080/03749444.1985.10736699.. ...
Review: The Amphibian Tree of Life, by Frost, D.R. et al., Amphibiatree "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian ...
Members of the family Bufonidae are known as the "true toads". Frogs range in size from the 30-centimetre (12 in) Goliath frog ... Cannatella, David; Graybeal, Anna (2008). "Bufonidae, True Toads". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved December 1, 2012. "Frog ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) S. Blair Hedges (2015). "West Indies: Bufonidae". Caribherp: Amphibians and reptiles of ... is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae that is endemic to Cuba including Isla de Juventud. Species description of ...
From a classification perspective, all members of the order Anura are frogs, but only members of the family Bufonidae are ... Walking and running Frogs in the families Bufonidae, Rhinophrynidae, and Microhylidae have short back legs and tend to walk ... and Bufonidae (621 spp.) are the richest in species. The Anura include all modern frogs and any fossil species that fit within ... is in the toad family Bufonidae and has a smooth skin. The origin of the order name Anura-and its original spelling Anoures-is ...
Señaris, J.C., C. DoNascimiento & O. Villarreal (2005). A new species of the genus Oreophrynella (Anura; Bufonidae) from the ...
... is a species of toads in the family Bufonidae. It is only known from Wei-Assipu-tepui, a tepui on ... Bufonidae) from the Guiana highlands". Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo). 45 (6): 61-67. doi:10.1590/S0031- ...
... is a genus of toads in the family Bufonidae. They are found throughout the Amazon Basin. Amazophrynella was ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web ... Bufonidae) from east of the Guiana Shield in Amazonia, Brazil". PeerJ. 8: e9887. doi:10.7717/peerj.9887. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC ... Bufonidae) junior homonym of Amazonella Lundblad, 1931 (Acari:Unionicolidae): proposed replacement by Amazophrynella nom. nov ...
... is a genus of "true toads", family Bufonidae, native to Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula. Originally, all ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2019. Retrieved 17 March ...
... is a small genus of true toads, family Bufonidae. The genus is endemic to Northeast India, with one species known from ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2018. Retrieved 8 March ... Bufonidae) and some allied oriental bufonid genera". Herpetologica. 72 (2): 137-147. doi:10.1655/herpetologica-d-15-00053. ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web ...
... True Toads. David Cannatella and Anna Graybeal Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Page: Tree of Life Bufonidae. True Toads. Authored by David Cannatella and Anna Graybeal. The TEXT of this page is licensed ... Putative synapomorphies of Bufonidae are the presence of Bidders organ (Duellman and Trueb, 1986); a unique pattern of ... A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of ...
"Bufonidae" 분류에 속하는 미디어. 다음은 이 분류에 속하는 파일 6개 가운데 6개입니다. ... 원본 주소 "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Bufonidae&oldid=258636489" ...
Today, the Sonoran Desert Toad just barely makes it into the extreme southwestern tip of New Mexicos bootheel on the east, where the Yaqui River drainage enters New Mexico, but inhabits most of the southern half of Arizona. The only fossil New Mexican record for the area is relatively close to the eastern limits, at U-Bar Cave. A large permanent spring is within several miles of the cave today and Pleistocene Playas Lake occurred to the northwest, both likely presenting suitable habitat.. Fig. 1. Incilius alvarius. Photograph courtesy of Jeff Servoss and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.. This is a very large toad, as can be seen in Fig. 2, where a partial tibiofibula is compared to the same element tentatively identified as that of Anaxyrus woodhousii.. ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
The Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizansbelongs to Bufonidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and ... Bufo gargarizans Bufonidae Complete mitochondrial genome Protein-coding genes This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... The Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans belongs to Bufonidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and ... Dong B, Yang B (2016) The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo stejnegeri (Anura: Bufonidae). Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp ...
Dieta de Physalaemus cf. cicada (Leptodactylidae) e Bufo granulosus (Bufonidae) em uma floresta semidecídua ... In a male, part of a spawn was found, apparently from Bufonidae. Sand grains were present in six of the analysed individuals ( ... Some authors propose that species of Bufonidae presented similar diets, using specially ants, beetles, and other prey (Parmelee ... of the Bufonidae, Microhylidae and Dendrobatidae families and characterized by the preference of some arthropods, often ...
Mendelson, J. R. (2005). Systematics of the Bufo coccifer complex (Anura: Bufonidae) of Mesoamerica / by Joseph R. Mendelson ...
BRUSCHI, Daniel Pacheco et al. Comparative cytogenetics of nine populations of the Rhinella genus (Anura, Bufonidae) with a ...
... which obviously confirmed thatthose tadpoles belong to Bufonidae (Datong Yang, 1991).Among them, the tadpoles from Taiping, ... we collected some adults of Bufonidae in forest stream of Pianma,Lushui in western Yunnan as Bufo burmanus(Yang Datong et al., ... in 1973,we collected some adults of Bufonidae in forest stream of Pianma,Lushui in western Yunnan as Bufo burmanus(Yang Datong ... A NEW TOAD GENUS OF BUFONIDAE──Torrentophryne FROM TRANSHIMALAYA MOUNTAIN OF YUNNAN OF CHINA WITH ITS BIOLOGY. ...
Multilocus Species Tree Analyses Resolve the Radiation of the Widespread Bufo Bufo Species Group (Anura, Bufonidae) E Recuero 1 ... Multilocus Species Tree Analyses Resolve the Radiation of the Widespread Bufo Bufo Species Group (Anura, Bufonidae) E Recuero ... In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ...
We describe a new species of the bufonid toad genus Rhinella from transition montane forest of the buffer zones of the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and the Pui Pui Protected Forest (eastern slopes of Andes, Selva Central, Peru). The new species belongs to the Rhinella margaritifera species group (confirmed by mtDNA data) and differs from all its members by the absence of tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus. It is characterized by medium size (SVL 57.5-65.5 mm, n = 5), moderately developed cranial crests, absence of neural crest of vertebrae, absence of bone protrusion at angle of jaw, presence of lateral rows of enlarged tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. In addition, based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses of selected Rhinella species we propose the monophylum containing R. chavin, R. festae, R. macrorhina, R. manu, R. nesiotes, R. rostrata, and R. yanachaga as a new species group under the name Rhinella festae species group.
Bufonidae-, Phuket, Thailand, Asia ♥ Photographic Prints, Jigsaw Puzzles, Framed Photos, Poster Prints, Cards, Other Photo ... Amphibia Amphibian Animal Animal Wildlife Animals In The Wild Anura Asian Batrachian Bufonidae Color Image Focus On Foreground ... Photographic Print of Toad -Bufonidae-, Phuket, Thailand, Asia. Suggested , Amphibia , Amphibian , Anura , Batrachian , ... Photographic Print of Toad -Bufonidae-, Phuket, Thailand, Asia. © This content is subject to copyright. ...
... a condition common in the family Bufonidae, but so far not known for Poyntonophrynus. The description of this new species from ... African pygmy toads of the genus Poyntonophrynus Frost et al., 2006, are a group of true toads (family Bufonidae) that are ... Grandison AGC (1978) The occurrence of Nectophrynoides (Anura: Bufonidae) in Ethiopia. A new concept of the genus with a ... Graybeal A, Cannatella DC (1995) A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the ...
Family Bufonidae-True Toads. Anaxyrus boreas-Western Toad. Anaxyrus cognatus-Great Plains Toad ...
Bufonidae) from Malang, East Java: Description, Microhabitat, and Possible Threats ... Distribution Record of Leptophryne borbonica (Tschudi, 1838) (Anura: Bufonidae) from Malang, East Java: Description, ... Bufonidae) and the description of a new species from Java, Indonesia, Zootaxa, 4450(4), 427-44. ...
Bufonidae. Genus:. Anaxyrus. Species:. A. baxteri. Binomial name. Anaxyrus baxteri. (Porter, 1968). ...
Bufonidae. Colorado River toad (Bufo alvarius)[23][12][20] Fungal Sources Family. Fungi ...
First record of chytridiomycosis in Bolivia (Rhinella quechua; Anura: Bufonidae).. Authors:. Barrionuevo, S.; Aguayo, R.; ...
TOADS - (BUFONIDAE):. *Great plains toad (Bufo cognatus) U. *Woodhouses toad (Bufo woodhousei woodhousei) C ...
... Thermal parameters ... changes in males of Rhinella arenarum (Anura:Bufonidae) related to reproductive periods ...
Padomes Direktīva 92/43/EEK. (1992. gada 21. maijs). par dabisko dzīvotņu, savvaļas faunas un floras aizsardzību. EIROPAS KOPIENU PADOME,. ņemot vērā Eiropas Ekonomikas kopienas dibināšanas līgumu un jo īpaši tā 130.s pantu,. ņemot vērā Komisijas priekšlikumu [1],. ņemot vērā Eiropas Parlamenta atzinumu [2],. ņemot vērā Ekonomikas un sociālo lietu komitejas atzinumu [3],. tā kā vides kvalitātes saglabāšana, aizsardzība un uzlabošana, kas iekļauj dabisko dzīvotņu un savvaļas faunas un floras aizsardzību, ir vispārīgs Kopienas pamatmērķis, kā norādīts Līguma 130.r pantā;. tā kā Eiropas Kopienas vides politikā un rīcības programmā (1987. līdz 1992. gads) [4] paredzēti pasākumi attiecībā uz dabas un tās resursu aizsardzību;. tā kā šīs direktīvas galvenais mērķis ir veicināt bioloģiskās daudzveidības saglabāšanu, ņemot vērā ekonomiskās, sociālās, kultūras un reģionālās prasības, šī direktīva palīdz sasniegt ...
Bufonidae • Genus: Pseudepidalea • Species: Pseudepidalea latastii ...
Tarybos Direktyva 92/43/EEB. 1992 m. gegužės 21 d.. dėl natūralių buveinių ir laukinės faunos bei floros apsaugos. EUROPOS BENDRIJŲ TARYBA,. atsižvelgdama į Europos ekonominės bendrijos steigimo sutartį, ypač į jos 130s straipsnį,. atsižvelgdama į Komisijos pasiūlymą [1],. atsižvelgdama į Europos Parlamento nuomonę [2],. atsižvelgdama į Ekonomikos ir socialinių reikalų komiteto nuomonę [3],. kadangi aplinkos kokybės išsaugojimas, apsauga ir gerinimas, įskaitant natūralių buveinių ir laukinės faunos bei floros apsaugą, yra svarbiausias Bendrijos bendras tikslas, kaip nurodyta Sutarties 130r straipsnyje;. kadangi Europos bendrijos aplinkosaugos politikos ir veiksmų programa (1987-1992) [4] numato gamtos ir gamtinių išteklių apsaugos priemones;. kadangi šios direktyvos tikslas - skatinti biologinės įvairovės palaikymą, atsižvelgiant į ekonominius, socialinius, kultūrinius ir regioninius reikalavimus, todėl ši direktyva prisideda prie bendro ...
Biochemical and Biological Profile of Parotoid Secretion of the Amazonian Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae). 0 ...
toad / tōd/ • n. 1. a tailless amphibian (Bufonidae and other families, order Anura) with a short stout body and short legs, ... Sometimes the term toad is restricted to the so-called true toads, members of the family Bufonidae. These are characterized by ... Length: 2-25cm (1-10in). Order Anura; family Bufonidae. See also tadpole. ...
2010) A new species of toad (Bufonidae: Incilius) from central Panama. Zootaxa 2396:61-68. ... Taxonomic families of amphibians are indicated by brown circles: A, Aromobatidae; B, Bufonidae; C, Caecilidae (a caecilian); Ce ...
Bufonidae (amphibian). Anura: Annotated classification: Family Bufonidae (true toads) Paleocene (65.5 million-55.8 million ... Anura: Annotated classification: Family Bufonidae (true toads) Paleocene (65.5 million-55.8 million years ago) to present; 5 to ...
Das, I. (2008) Two new species of Pelophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) from Gunung Murud, Sarawak (northwestern Borneo). The Raffles ... Two new species of Pelophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) from Gunung Murud, Sarawak (northwestern Borneo). ...
Cytogenetics and sperm ultrastructure of Atelopus spumarius (Anura, Bufonidae) from the Brazilian Amazon. ...
  • Dong B, Yang B (2016) The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo stejnegeri (Anura: Bufonidae). (springer.com)
  • In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ranging from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to Siberia, based on sequences from two mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA regions (3490 base pairs). (nih.gov)
  • Anura: Bufonidae). (cefas.co.uk)
  • Two new species of Pelophryne (Anura: Bufonidae) from Gunung Murud, Sarawak (northwestern Borneo). (unimas.my)
  • Llamadas de anuncio y liberación de Bufo florentinoi (Anura: Bufonidae): un endémico de la Ciénaga de Zapata, Cuba. (iucnredlist.org)
  • Especie nueva de sapo del género Bufo (Anura Bufonidae) de la Península de Zapata, Cuba. (iucnredlist.org)
  • Food habits of Rhinella proboscidea (Anura: Bufonidae) in terra frme forests of central Amazonia. (usp.br)
  • Rediscovery of the Liberian Nimba toad, Nimbaphrynoides liberiensis (Xavier, 1978) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae), and reassessment of its taxonomic status" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Advertisement calls of Cuban toads of the genus Bufo (Anura, Bufonidae). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Descripción de las larvas de Bufo taladai (Anura: Bufonidae). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • A true toad is any member of the family Bufonidae , in the order Anura (frogs and toads). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anfibioen barruko Bufonidae familian sailkatuta dago, Anura ordenan. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2012). An extraordinary new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae) from southeastern Brazil. (amnh.org)
  • Reproductive activity and advertisement calls of the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus ( Amphibia , Anura, Bufonidae) from Bach Ma National Park, Vietnam. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Morphological and genetic differentiation of Bufo toads: Two cryptic species in Western Europe (Anura, Bufonidae). (howard.edu)
  • Ford and Cannatella (1993) defined Bufonidae as the node-based name for the most recent common ancestor of living bufonids ( Bufo , Frostius , etc., as listed in Frost [1985]), and all its descendants. (tolweb.org)
  • The Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans belongs to Bufonidae. (springer.com)
  • in 1973,we collected some adults of Bufonidae in forest stream of Pianma,Lushui in western Yunnan as Bufo burmanus(Yang Datong et al. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Bufo és un gènere d' amfibis de la família Bufonidae que conté al voltant de 150 espècies . (wikipedia.org)
  • Perekonda Bufo kuuluvad kärnkonnad loetakse sugukonda Bufonidae , kärnkonlased [4] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver Histopathology in the Cane Toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), Induced by Ortleppascaris sp. (allenpress.com)
  • Rhinella atacamensis y R. arunco son dos especies hermanas que en conjunto habitan entre los 25 y 38° S a lo largo de Chile. (conicyt.cl)
  • Sometimes the term toad is restricted to the so-called true toads, members of the family Bufonidae. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As you'll know if you've read the previous articles in the toads series, it seems that most basal divergences within crown-Bufonidae happened in South America. (scienceblogs.com)
  • These toads belong to the family Bufonidae. (teachersnetwork.org)
  • Atelopus patazensis is a species of toads in the family Bufonidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a widely varied family, Bufonidae includes the stereotypical toad: dry warty skin and shortened forelimbs and hindlimbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two species are members of the true toad family Bufonidae. (massaudubon.org)
  • A member of the true toad family Bufonidae, this common species is brown with large warts and has a white belly with black dots. (massaudubon.org)
  • The distribution of living members of the family Bufonidae is indicated in red. (tolweb.org)
  • The most striking character that differentiates the newly described species from its congeners is the lack of a tympanic middle ear, a condition common in the family Bufonidae , but so far not known for Poyntonophrynus . (pensoft.net)
  • The family Bufonidae contains about 500 species among 38 genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • una especie en Peligro Crítico, la misma que fue vista por última vez en 1989, cuando se produjeron declives catastróficos de Atelopus. (blogspot.ca)
  • 2006), but other characters exist that seem to be synapomorphies of Bufonidae as a whole. (scienceblogs.com)
  • tuvo lugar en una nueva localidad, Junín, 1250-1480 msnm, Provincia de Imbabura, Ecuador, entre el 28-31 de marzo de 2016. (blogspot.ca)
  • 1995. A new taxon of Bufonidae from Peru, with descriptions of two new species and a review of the phylogenetic status of supraspecific bufonid taxa. (tolweb.org)
  • Barring the close relationship of any of these taxa to Bufonidae, the absence of teeth is tentatively considered a synapomorphy of Bufonidae. (tolweb.org)